WorldWideScience

Sample records for mechanical based primary

  1. Conceptual design and related R and D on ITER mechanical based primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Katsusuke; Inoue, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mitsunori; Iguchi, Masashi; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Inohara, Takashi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi

    2008-12-01

    The primary vacuum pumping system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) exhausts a helium (He) ash resulting from the DT-burn with excess DT fueling gas, as well as performing a variety of functions such as pump-down, leak testing and wall conditioning. A mechanical based vacuum pumping system has some merits of a continuous pumping, a much lower tritium inventory, a lower operational cost and easy maintenance, comparing with a cryopump system, although demerits of an indispensable magnetic shield and insufficient performance for hydrogen (H 2 ) pumping is are well recognized. To overcome the demerits, we newly fabricated and tested a helical grooved pump (HGP) unit suitable for H 2 pumping at the ITER divertor pressure of 0.1-10 Pa. Through this R and D, we successfully established many design and manufacturing databases of large HGP units for the lightweight gas pumping. Based on the databases, we conceptually designed the ITER vacuum pumping system mainly comprising the HGP with an optimal pump unit layout and a magnetic shield. We also designed conceptually the reduced cost (RC)-ITER pumping system, where a compound molecular pump combining turbine bladed rotors and helical grooved ones was mainly used. The ITER mechanical based primary pumping system proposed has eventually been a back-up solution, whereas a cryopump based one was formally selected to the ITER for construction. The mechanical pumps are increasingly used in many areas with well sophisticated performance, so we believe that fusion reactors of subsequent prototype ones will select the mechanical based pumping system due to primarily a high operational reliability and a cost melt. (author)

  2. Ketone-Based Metabolic Therapy: Is Increased NAD+ a Primary Mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Elamin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet’s (KD anticonvulsant effects have been well-documented for nearly a century, including in randomized controlled trials. Some patients become seizure-free and some remain so after diet cessation. Many recent studies have explored its expanded therapeutic potential in diverse neurological disorders, yet no mechanism(s of action have been established. The diet’s high fat, low carbohydrate composition reduces glucose utilization and promotes the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a more efficient energy source than glucose and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Cellular energy production depends on the metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, a marker for mitochondrial and cellular health. Furthermore, NAD activates downstream signaling pathways (such as the sirtuin enzymes associated with major benefits such as longevity and reduced inflammation; thus, increasing NAD is a coveted therapeutic endpoint. Based on differential NAD+ utilization during glucose- vs. ketone body-based acetyl-CoA generation for entry into the tricarboxylic cycle, we propose that a KD will increase the NAD+/NADH ratio. When rats were fed ad libitum KD, significant increases in hippocampal NAD+/NADH ratio and blood ketone bodies were detected already at 2 days and remained elevated at 3 weeks, indicating an early and persistent metabolic shift. Based on diverse published literature and these initial data we suggest that increased NAD during ketolytic metabolism may be a primary mechanism behind the beneficial effects of this metabolic therapy in a variety of brain disorders and in promoting health and longevity.

  3. Comparative overview of primary sedimentation-based mechanical stage in some Romanian wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, C.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, wastewater (WW) treatment facilities are considered significant exposure pathways for solid particles, and also significant concerns of any quality conscious manufacturer. Most solid particles have some forms of organic coating either used as active material or to suspend and/or stabilize different present solid materials, having increase in toxicity that must be reduced, or sometimes even totally eliminated, especially if effluent is either discharged directly to surface water, or distributed through industrial water supplies. Representatives providing innovative technologies, comprehensive supports and expertise in wastewater and sludge treatment field are known, each one using modern treatment technology and facilities. Mechanical treatment is indispensable in primary treatment steps of both municipal and industrial WW applications, its main goal being separation of floating, settling and suspended materials (especially into a primary sedimentation-based treatment step). The aim of this work is to present comparatively the performance in solids removal of conventional mechanical WW treatment stages, especially those based on primary sedimentation, or sedimentation-like operations applied for Romanian urban WW treatment plants (serving two towns with ca 18,000 inhabitants), industrial WW treatment plants (deserving industries of vegetal food processing and organic chemicals’ manufacturing) and additional information on valorisation of separated solid material and improvement possibilities.

  4. Oscillatory fluid flow influences primary cilia and microtubule mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinha, Lina C; Hoey, David A; Fernandes, Paulo R; Rodrigues, Hélder C; Jacobs, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues, such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Research progress on neural mechanisms of primary insomnia by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more researches focused on the neural mechanism of primary insomnia (PI, especially with the development and application of MRI, and researches of brain structure and function related with primary insomnia were more and more in-depth. According to the hyperarousal hypothesis, there are abnormal structure, function and metabolism under certain brain regions of the cortex and subcortex of primary insomnia patients, including amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, insular lobe, frontal lobe and parietal lobe. This paper reviewed the research progress of neural mechanisms of primary insomnia by using MRI. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2018.03.003

  6. Team-based primary care: The medical assistant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Bethany; Chien, Alyna T; Peters, Antoinette S; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Brooks, Joanna Veazey; Singer, Sara J

    Team-based care has the potential to improve primary care quality and efficiency. In this model, medical assistants (MAs) take a more central role in patient care and population health management. MAs' traditionally low status may give them a unique view on changing organizational dynamics and teamwork. However, little empirical work exists on how team-based organizational designs affect the experiences of low-status health care workers like MAs. The aim of this study was to describe how team-based primary care affects the experiences of MAs. A secondary aim was to explore variation in these experiences. In late 2014, the authors interviewed 30 MAs from nine primary care practices transitioning to team-based care. Interviews addressed job responsibilities, teamwork, implementation, job satisfaction, and learning. Data were analyzed using a thematic networks approach. Interviews also included closed-ended questions about workload and job satisfaction. Most MAs reported both a higher workload (73%) and a greater job satisfaction (86%) under team-based primary care. Interview data surfaced four mechanisms for these results, which suggested more fulfilling work and greater respect for the MA role: (a) relationships with colleagues, (b) involvement with patients, (c) sense of control, and (d) sense of efficacy. Facilitators and barriers to these positive changes also emerged. Team-based care can provide low-status health care workers with more fulfilling work and strengthen relationships across status lines. The extent of this positive impact may depend on supporting factors at the organization, team, and individual worker levels. To maximize the benefits of team-based care, primary care leaders should recognize the larger role that MAs play under this model and support them as increasingly valuable team members. Contingent on organizational conditions, practices may find MAs who are willing to manage the increased workload that often accompanies team-based care.

  7. Genetic mechanisms leading to primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Dos Santos; Dantas, Anelisa Gollo; Ueta, Renata; Perez, Ana Beatriz; Haidar, Mauro; Canonaco, Rosane; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-05-01

    To map the X-chromosome and autosome breakpoints in women with balanced X-autosome translocations and primary amenorrhea, searching candidate genomic loci for female infertility. Retrospective and case-control study. University-based research laboratory. Three women with balanced X-autosome translocation and primary amenorrhea. Conventional cytogenetic methods, genomic array, array painting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Karyotype, copy number variation, breakpoint mapping, and gene expression levels. All patients presented with breakpoints in the Xq13q21 region. In two patients, the X-chromosome breakpoint disrupted coding sequences (KIAA2022 and ZDHHC15 genes). Although both gene disruptions caused absence of transcription in peripheral blood, there is no evidence that supports the involvement of these genes with ovarian function. The ZDHHC15 gene belongs to a conserved syntenic region that encompasses the FGF16 gene, which plays a role in female germ line development. The break in the FGF16 syntenic block may have disrupted the interaction between the FGF16 promoter and its cis-regulatory element. In the third patient, although both breakpoints are intergenic, a gene that plays a role in the DAX1 pathway (FHL2 gene) flanks distally the autosome breakpoint. The FHL2 gene may be subject to position effect due to the attachment of an autosome segment in Xq21 region. The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect. The fine mapping of the rearrangement breakpoints may be a tool for identifying genetic pathogenic mechanisms for primary amenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Revealing the Molecular Structure and the Transport Mechanism at the Base of Primary Cilia Using Superresolution STED Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tung-Lin

    the width of the basal body, distant from the potential Y-links region of the TZ. Moreover, IFT88 was intriguingly distributed in two distinct patterns, forming three puncta or a Y shape at the ciliary base found in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), human fibroblasts (HFF), mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We hypothesize that the two distribution states of IFT88 correspond to the open and closed gating states of the TZ, where IFT particles aggregate to form three puncta when the gate is closed, and move to form the branches of the Y-shape pattern when the gate is open. Two reservoirs of IFT particles, correlating with phases of ciliary growth, were localized relative to the internal structure of the TZ. These subdiffraction images reveal unprecedented architectural details of the TZ, providing a basic structural framework for future functional studies. To visualize the dynamic movement of IFT particles within primary cilia, we further conducted superresolution live-cell imaging of IFT88 fused to EYFP in IMCD cells. Our findings, in particular, show IFT88 particles pass through the TZ at a reduced speed by approximately 50%, implying the gating mechanism is involved at this region to slow down IFT trafficking. Finally, we report the distinct transport pathways of IFT88 and Smo (Smoothened), an essential player to hedgehog signaling, to support our hypothesis that two proteins are transported in different mechanisms at the ciliary base, based on dual-color superresolution imaging.

  9. Primary physical mechanism of different magnetic fields action on roots of some plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sheykina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the magnetic field action on biological object is proved now by many experiments it cannot be explained. The counterarguments are the small value of magnetic induction, that is effective for static magnetic field and the small value of ions free path length for ion cyclotron resonance presence.   Objectives of the article were to generalize all the results that had been obtained before in static, alternative and combined magnetic fields and to explain all results by one and the same primary physical mechanism. Materials and methods that were used to obtain experimental results were based on the using of well reproducible magnetic conditions. For this purpose 3 lays µ-metal shield and superconductive shield with warm volume were used. The artificial magnetic field was created in the shield. The objects of the investigation were roots of cress, maize and pea. Their gravitropic reaction was studied. Results and discussion: All experimental results were compared with the theories and calculations maid before and following from the three mechanisms proposed below.  It was shown that there were three physical primary mechanisms that could lead to effect of low frequency alternative and combined magnetic fields and permanent magnetic field on gravitropic reaction in plants. All of them depended on the relative location of roots, gravity and components of permanent and alternative magnetic fields between themselves. The first mechanism is based on the classic model of the rotation of ions in the plane that is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction or precession of magnetic moments round the direction of magnetic field vector. The second mechanism is connected with the piezoelectric properties of starch grain (porous piezoelectricity. This property of starch may create the change in the moving of starch grains in alternative and combined magnetic fields, and even in static one. The third mechanism is caused by the phase

  10. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  11. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-01-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years

  12. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Networks with Precise Doping of Primary Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Doreen; Ding, Yichuan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Appel, Eric A

    2017-12-06

    Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry. The addition of these monomers that respond mechanically as primary defects is used both to understand their impact on the resulting mechanical properties of the materials and as a method to engineer the mechanical properties. Indeed, these materials exhibit identical bulk and surface chemistry, yet vastly different mechanical properties. Further, we have adapted the real elastic network theory (RENT) to the case of primary defects in the absence of loops, thus providing new insights into the mechanism for material strength and failure in polymer networks arising from primary network defects, and to accurately predict the elastic modulus of the polymer system. The versatility of the approach we describe and the fundamental knowledge gained from this study can lead to new advancements in the development of novel materials with precisely defined and predictable chemical, physical, and mechanical properties.

  13. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic primary alcohols by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic primary alcohols by quinolinium bromochromate. SONU SARASWAT, VINITA SHARMA and K K BANERJI*. Department of Chemistry, JNV University, Jodhpur 342 005, India e-mail: banerjikk@rediffmail.com. MS received 4 December 2001; revised 2 November 2002.

  15. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Rodney W.; Valentine, Holly L.; Valentine, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H 2 S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H 2 S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H 2 S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H 2 S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  16. A Novel Axial Foldable Mechanism for a Segmented Primary Mirror of Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dignesh Thesiya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will have larger telescopes in order to look deeper into space while improvising on spatial resolution. The primary mirrors for these telescopes will be so large that using a monolithic mirror will be nearly impossible because of the difficulties associated with its fabrication, transportation, and installation on a launch vehicle. The feasibility of launching these huge mirrors is limited because of their small launch fairing diameter. The aerodynamic shape of the fairing requires a small diameter, but the height of the launch vehicle, which is available for designers to utilize, is larger than the fairing diameter. This paper presents the development of an axial deployment mechanism based on the screw jack principle. The mechanism was designed and developed, and a prototype was constructed in order to demonstrate a lab model.

  17. Development of new design mechanical seal tester for Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Naoki; Koshiba, Koremutsu

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical seal for a Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump) is an important part of a BWR plant. This study describes a new mechanical seal tester developed to certify mechanical seal performance before installation in a PLR Pump on site. (author)

  18. Role of hydrogen in the intergranular cracking mechanism by stress corrosion in primary medium of nickel based alloys 600 and 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J.; Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement of alloys 600 and 690 in order to better understand the eventual role of hydrogen in the stress corrosion mechanism which affects these alloys when they are exposed in PWR primary medium. (O.M.)

  19. Primary Structure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi2 Alloy Continuous Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2. Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.

  20. Measuring mechanisms for quality assurance in primary care systems in transition: test of a new instrument in Slovenia and Uzbekistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Pellny, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This WHO study, carried out by the authors, aimed to develop and field test an instrument to assess the availability of structures and mechanisms for managing quality in primary care in countries in transition. Methods: The instrument is based on a literature study, consensus meetings with

  1. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 3: Primary Circuit. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 3, Primary Circuit, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test the primary ignition circuit. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 212-213. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total tune-up service,…

  2. Origami-based tunable truss structures for non-volatile mechanical memory operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Tachi, Tomohiro; Lee, Mia; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-10-17

    Origami has recently received significant interest from the scientific community as a method for designing building blocks to construct metamaterials. However, the primary focus has been placed on their kinematic applications by leveraging the compactness and auxeticity of planar origami platforms. Here, we present volumetric origami cells-specifically triangulated cylindrical origami (TCO)-with tunable stability and stiffness, and demonstrate their feasibility as non-volatile mechanical memory storage devices. We show that a pair of TCO cells can develop a double-well potential to store bit information. What makes this origami-based approach more appealing is the realization of two-bit mechanical memory, in which two pairs of TCO cells are interconnected and one pair acts as a control for the other pair. By assembling TCO-based truss structures, we experimentally verify the tunable nature of the TCO units and demonstrate the operation of purely mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage prototypes.Origami is a popular method to design building blocks for mechanical metamaterials. Here, the authors assemble a volumetric origami-based structure, predict its axial and rotational movements during folding, and demonstrate the operation of mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, C.; Chaumun, E.; Crepin, J.; De Curieres, I.; Duhamel, C.; Heripre, E.; Herms, E.; Laghoutaris, P.; Molins, R.; Sennour, M.; Vaillant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel base alloys and associated weld metals in primary water is one of the major concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWR). Since the 90's, highly cold-worked stainless steels (non-sensitized) were also found to be susceptible to SCC in PWR primary water ([1], [2], [3]). In the context of the life extension of pressurized water reactors, laboratory studies are performed in order to evaluate the SCC behaviour of components made of nickel base alloys and of stainless steels. Some examples of these laboratory studies performed at CEA will be given in the talk. This presentation deals with both initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks. The aims of these studies is, on one hand, to obtain more data regarding initiation time or crack growth rate and, one the other hand, to improve our knowledge of the SCC mechanisms. The aim of these approaches is to model SCC and to predict components life duration. Crack growth rate (CGR) tests on Alloy 82 with and without post weld heat treatment are performed in PWR primary water (Figure 1). The heat treatment seems to be highly beneficial by decreasing the CGR. This result could be explained by the effect of thermal treatment on the grain boundary nano-scopic precipitation in Alloy 82 [4]. The susceptibility to SCC of cold worked austenitic stainless steels is also studied. It is shown that for a given cold-working procedure, SCC susceptibility increases with increasing cold-work ([2], [5]). Despite the fact that the SCC behaviour of Alloy 600 has been widely studied for many years, recent laboratory experiments and analysis ([6], [7], [8]) showed that oxygen diffusion is not a rate-limiting step in the SCC mechanism and that chromium diffusion in the bulk close the crack tip could be a key parameter. (authors)

  4. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...... to predict if a given compound will be a substrate for CYPs, in order to avoid toxic metabolites, and hence to understand the mechanism that is utilized by CYPs. Two possible mechanisms, for the N-hydroxylation of primary and secondary amines mediated by CYPs, are studied by density functional theory (DFT...

  5. Modeling of primary water stress corrosion cracking at control rod drive mechanism nozzles of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    One of the main failure mechanisms that cause risks to pressurized water reactors is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) occurring in alloys. It can occurs, besides another places, at the control reactor displacement mechanism nozzles. It is caused by the joint effect of tensile stress, temperature, susceptible metallurgical microstructure and environmental conditions of the primary water. These cracks can cause accidents that reduce nuclear safety by blocking the rod's displacement and may cause leakage of primary water, reducing the reactor's life. In this work it is proposed a study of the existing models and a modeling proposal to primary water stress corrosion cracking in these nozzles in a nickel based Alloy 600. It is been superposed electrochemical and fracture mechanics models, and validated using experimental and literature data. The experimental data were obtained at CDTN-Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center, in a recent installed slow strain rate testing equipment. In the literature it is found a diagram that indicates a thermodynamic condition for the occurrence of some PWSCC sub modes in Alloy 600: it was used potential x pH diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams), for Alloy 600 in high temperature primary water (300 deg C till 350 deg C). Over it, were located the PWSCC sub modes, using experimental data. It was added a third parameter called 'stress corrosion strength fraction'. However, it is possible to superpose to this diagram, other parameters expressing PWSCC initiation or growth kinetics from other models. Here is the proposition of the original contribution of this work: from an original experimental condition of potential versus pH, it was superposed, an empiric-comparative, a semi-empiric-probabilistic, an initiation time, and a strain rate damage models, to quantify respectively the PWSCC susceptibility, the failure time, and in the two lasts, the initiation time of stress corrosion cracking. It was modeling from our

  6. Development of web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.M.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J. [SAFE Research Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea); Choi, S.N.; Jang, K.S.; Hong, S.Y. [Korea Electronic Power Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant is proposed. The proposed system, which is named as WEBIES (web-based integrity evaluation system), has been developed in the form of 3-tier system architecture. The system consists of three servers; application program server, user interface program server and data warehouse server. The application program server includes the defect acceptance analysis module and the fracture mechanics analysis module which are programmed on the basis of ASME sec. XI, appendix A. The data warehouse server provides data for the integrity evaluation including material properties, geometry information, inspection data and stress data. The user interface program server provides information to all co- workers in the field of integrity evaluation. The developed system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  7. Development of web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Choi, S.N.; Jang, K.S.; Hong, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant is proposed. The proposed system, which is named as WEBIES (web-based integrity evaluation system), has been developed in the form of 3-tier system architecture. The system consists of three servers; application program server, user interface program server and data warehouse server. The application program server includes the defect acceptance analysis module and the fracture mechanics analysis module which are programmed on the basis of ASME sec. XI, appendix A. The data warehouse server provides data for the integrity evaluation including material properties, geometry information, inspection data and stress data. The user interface program server provides information to all co- workers in the field of integrity evaluation. The developed system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  8. Study on the primary mechanism of uranium biosorption by rhodotorula glutinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Zhang Li'na; Fan Fangli; Lin Maosheng; Ding Huajie; Qin Zhi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the primary mechanism of uranium biosorption by Rhodotorula glutinis was studied using SEM and FTIR. Obvious changes were observed in the biomass SEM picture before and after uranium adsorption, and the peak of UO 2 at wave number of 904 cm -1 was detected by FTIR, indicated that uranium was really absorbed to Rhodotorula glutinis. (authors)

  9. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  10. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Radaydeh, Redha M.; Yang, Hong-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  11. Development of a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyong Won; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Sung Nam; Jang, Ki Sang; Hong, Sung Yull

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including regular in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage the integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in nuclear power plant is proposed. This system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant

  12. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  13. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) service scale-up on mechanisms of accountability in Zambian primary health centres: a case-based health systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Stephanie M; Black, Jim; Morrow, Martha; Chipukuma, Julien M; Van Damme, Wim

    2015-02-18

    Questions about the impact of large donor-funded HIV interventions on low- and middle-income countries' health systems have been the subject of a number of expert commentaries, but comparatively few empirical research studies. Aimed at addressing a particular evidence gap vis-à-vis the influence of HIV service scale-up on micro-level health systems, this article examines the impact of HIV scale-up on mechanisms of accountability in Zambian primary health facilities. Guided by the Mechanisms of Effect framework and Brinkerhoff's work on accountability, we conducted an in-depth multi-case study to examine how HIV services influenced mechanisms of administrative and social accountability in four Zambian primary health centres. Sites were selected for established (over 3 yrs) antiretroviral therapy (ART) services and urban, peri-urban and rural characteristics. Case data included provider interviews (60); patient interviews (180); direct observation of facility operations (2 wks/centre) and key informant interviews (14). Resource-intensive investment in HIV services contributed to some early gains in administrative answerability within the four ART departments, helping to establish the material capabilities necessary to deliver and monitor service delivery. Simultaneous investment in external supervision and professional development helped to promote transparency around individual and team performance and also strengthened positive work norms in the ART departments. In the wider health centres, however, mechanisms of administrative accountability remained weak, hindered by poor data collection and under capacitated leadership. Substantive gains in social accountability were also elusive as HIV scale-up did little to address deeply rooted information and power asymmetries in the wider facilities. Short terms gains in primary-level service accountability may arise from investment in health system hardware. However, sustained improvements in service quality and

  14. Primary and persistent negative symptoms: Concepts, assessments and neurobiological bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Armida; Merlotti, Eleonora; Üçok, Alp; Aleman, André; Galderisi, Silvana

    2017-08-01

    Primary and persistent negative symptoms (PPNS) represent an unmet need in the care of people with schizophrenia. They have an unfavourable impact on real-life functioning and do not respond to available treatments. Underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms of PPNS are still unknown. The presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms characterizes deficit schizophrenia (DS), proposed as a separate disease entity with respect to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). More recently, to reduce the heterogeneity of negative symptoms by using criteria easily applicable in the context of clinical trials, the concept of persistent negative symptoms (PNS) was developed. Both PNS and DS constructs include enduring negative symptoms (at least 6months for PNS and 12months for DS) that do not respond to available treatments. PNS exclude secondary negative symptoms based on a cross-sectional evaluation of severity thresholds on commonly used rating scales for positive symptoms, depression and extrapyramidal side effects; the DS diagnosis, instead, excludes all potential sources of secondary negative symptoms based on a clinical longitudinal assessment. In this paper we review the evolution of concepts and assessment modalities relevant to PPNS, data on prevalence of DS and PNS, as well as studies on clinical, neuropsychological, brain imaging electrophysiological and psychosocial functioning aspects of DS and PNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L.

    2007-11-01

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale (∼ 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr 2 O 3 nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr 2 O 3 nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary media and to tackle some

  16. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Yang, Xu; Guan, Yingjie; Chen, Qian

    2016-02-04

    Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation) of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II), hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X), and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  17. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Deren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88 siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II, hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X, and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  18. [Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo

    2014-06-01

    With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields.

  19. Development of a skeletal multi-component fuel reaction mechanism based on decoupling methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Chua, Kian Jon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compact multi-component skeletal reaction mechanism was developed. • Combined bio-diesel and PRF mechanism was proposed. • The mechanism consists of 68 species and 183 reactions. • Well validated against ignition delay times, flame speed and engine results. - Abstract: A new coupled bio-diesel surrogate and primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation skeletal mechanism has been developed. The bio-diesel surrogate sub-mechanism consists of oxidation sub-mechanisms of Methyl decanoate (MD), Methyl 9-decenoate (MD9D) and n-Heptane fuel components. The MD and MD9D are chosen to represent the saturated and unsaturated methyl esters respectively in bio-diesel fuels. Then, a reduced iso-Octane oxidation sub-mechanism is added to the bio-diesel surrogate sub-mechanism. Then, all the sub-mechanisms are integrated to a reduced C_2–C_3 mechanism, detailed H_2/CO/C_1 mechanism and reduced NO_x mechanism based on decoupling methodology. The final mechanism consisted of 68 species and 183 reactions. The mechanism was well validated with shock-tube ignition delay times, laminar flame speed and 3D engine simulations.

  20. Primary atmospheric oxidation mechanism for toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaretu, Cristian O; Lichtman, Eben I; Hadler, Amelia B; Elrod, Matthew J

    2009-01-08

    The products of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of toluene were investigated using the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique at temperatures ranging from 228 to 298 K. A major dienedial-producing pathway was detected for the first time for toluene oxidation, and glyoxal and methylglyoxal were found to be minor primary oxidation products. The results suggest that secondary oxidation processes involving dienedial and epoxide primary products are likely responsible for previous observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal products from toluene oxidation. Because the dienedial-producing pathway is a null cycle for tropospheric ozone production and glyoxal and methylglyoxal are important secondary organic aerosol precursors, these new findings have important implications for the modeling of toluene oxidation in the atmosphere.

  1. Inquiry-Based Learning in Teacher Education: A Primary Humanities Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou; Harvie, Kate; Wallace, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning features strongly in the new Australian Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum and increasingly in primary school practice. Yet, there is little research into, and few exemplars of, inquiry approaches in the primary humanities context. In this article, we outline and explain the implementation of a place-based simulation…

  2. Structural analysis and incipient failure detection of primary circuit components based on correlation-analysis and finite-element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olma, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented to compute vibrational power spectral densities (VPSD's) of primary circuit components based on a finite-element representation of the primary circuit. First this method has been applied to the sodium cooled reactor KNK, Karlsruhe. Now a further application is being developed for a BWR-nuclear power plant. The experimentally determined VPSD's can be considered as the output of a multiple input-output system. They have to be explained as the frequency response of a multidimensional mechanical system, which is excited by stochastic and deterministic mechanical driving forces. The stochastic mechanical forces are generated by the dynamic pressure fluctuations of the fluid. The deterministic mechanical forces are caused by the pressure fluctuations, which are induced by the main coolant pumps or by standing waves. The excitation matrix can be obtained from measured pressure fluctuations. The vibration transfer function matrix can be computed from the mass matrix, damping matrix and stiffness matrix of a theoretical finite-element model or mass-spring model. Based on this theory the computer code 'STAMPO' has been established. This program has been applied to the KNK reactor. The excitation matrix was created from measured jet-noise pressure fluctuations. The mass-, stiffness- and damping matrix has been extracted from a SAP-IV-model of the primary system. Sequentially for each frequency point the complete VPSD matrix has been computed. The diagonal elements of this matrix represent the vibrational auto-power spectral densities, the off-diagonal elements represent the vibrational cross-power spectral densities. The calculations give good agreement with measured VPSD's. The comparison shows that the measured jet-noise pressure fluctuations act nearly uncorrelated on the structure, whereas the output VPSD's are well correlated

  3. Effects and mechanisms of Shaofu-Zhuyu decoction and its major bioactive component for Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Kavin Yue; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Li; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-06-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms. Explore a valuable insight into the effects and mechanisms of SFZYD on Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats. We established CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats according the clinical symptoms. A targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform was used to evaluate the metabolic profiling changes and the intervention effects by SFZYD. The PBMC cell was adopted to explore the mechanisms by analyzing the signaling pathway evaluated by expression of inflammatory cytokines, c-jun and c-fos and corresponding phosphorylation levels. Estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, endothelin, β-endorphin and PGF2α were restored back to the normal level after the treatment of SFZYD. Total twenty-five metabolites (10 in plasma and 15 in urine), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified. These identified biomarkers underpinning the metabolic pathway including pentose and glucuronate interconversions, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are disturbed in model rats. Among these metabolites, twenty one potential biomarkers were regulated after SFZYD treated. The compound of paeoniflorin, a major bioactive compound in SFZYD, was proved to regulate the MAPK signaling pathway by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, INFγ, c-jun and c-fos in PHA stimulated-PBMC. These findings

  4. Mechanical Properties of Post Irradiation Primary Cooling Piping of Bandung Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Renaningsih S; Sri Nitiswati; Ari Triyadi

    2003-01-01

    Testing on primary coolant piping of research reactor Bandung have been done. Primary coolant piping were made from Al 6061-T6. The goal of this activity is to investigate the mechanical properties changes caused by aging process after 33 years in irradiated. Type of testing i.e visual examination, thickness measurement, tensile and hardness test were done. The test data shown that there was a deposit at the inside surface of pipe, thickness decreased about 0.2 mm, tensile strength is 293 MPa, yield strength is 262 MPa, while the hardness is about 83 HRE (mean value). The test data than compared with ASTM standard. As the conclusion tensile and yield strength of pipe still fulfill the ASTM requirements, except the hardness is unsignificantly less/decreased. (author)

  5. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  6. Analyzing the Interprofessional Working of a Home-Based Primary Care Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Carrier, Tracy; Neysmith, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Increasingly, interprofessional teams are responsible for providing integrated health care services. Effective teams, however, are not the result of chance but require careful planning and ongoing attention to team processes. Based on a case study involving interviews, participant observation, and a survey, we identified key attributes for effective interprofessional working (IPW) within a home-based primary care (HBPC) setting. Recognizing the importance of a theoretical model that reflects the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness research, we employed the integrated team effectiveness model to analyze our findings. The results indicated that a shared vision, common goals, respect, and trust among team members – as well as processes for ongoing communication, effective leadership, and mechanisms for conflict resolution – are vital in the development of a high-functioning IPW team. The ambiguity and uncertainty surrounding the context of service provision (clients' homes), as well the negotiation of external relationships in the HBPC field, require further investigation.

  7. Collaborative, Trust-Based Security Mechanisms for a National Utility Intranet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coates, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    .... The research evaluates layering encryption, authentication, traffic filtering, content checks, and event correlation mechanisms over time-critical primary and backup control/protection signaling...

  8. Investigation of serum biomarkers in primary gout patients using iTRAQ-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ying; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Shun; Huang, Haiyan; Zou, Rouxin; Li, Xiaoke; Chu, Zanbo; Huang, Xianqian; Peng, Yong; Gan, Minzhi; Geng, Baoqing; Zhu, Mengya; Ying, Yinyan; Huang, Zuoan

    2018-03-21

    Primary gout is a major disease that affects human health; however, its pathogenesis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers to explore the underlying mechanisms of primary gout. We used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to screen differentially expressed proteins between gout patients and controls. We also identified proteins potentially involved in gout pathogenesis by analysing biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and protein-protein interactions. We further verified some samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS v. 20.0 and ROC (receiver operating characterstic) curve analyses were carried out using Medcalc software. Two-sided p-values gout than in controls (p=0.023). iTRAQ technology was useful in the selection of differentially expressed proteins from proteomes, and provides a strong theoretical basis for the study of biomarkers and mechanisms in primary gout. In addition, TBB4A protein may be associated with primary gout.

  9. Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…

  10. Calculation for Primary Combustion Characteristics of Boron-Based Fuel-Rich Propellant Based on BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wan'e, Wu; Zuoming, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A practical scheme for selecting characterization parameters of boron-based fuel-rich propellant formulation was put forward; a calculation model for primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant based on backpropagation neural network was established, validated, and then was used to predict primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant. The results show that the calculation error of burning rate is less than ± 7 . 3 %; in the formulation rang...

  11. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  12. Mechanical and corrosion properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 related to primary side SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, J.A.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The two-fold objective of the program is to provide the mechanical property data required for the development of a strain rate damage model for environmentally assisted cracking of Inconel 600 and to evaluate critical damage model parameters in primary water environments by conducting a series of stress corrosion tests. The test program includes mechanical property tests at 20 0 C, 316 0 C and strain rate tests to determine critical strain rate SCC parameters in primary water environments. Data are presented from slow strain rate tensile tests, stress relaxation tests and creep tests. A short discussion of the Gerber-Garud Strain Rate Damage Model is included to provide the background rationale for the test program. Utilitarian aspects of the Strain Rate Damage Model and the test program data are presented. Analysis of accelerated stress corrosion testing at high temperatures, and the contribution of thermally activated inelastic deformation to apparent activation energies for stress corrosion cracking is emphasized

  13. A Spectrum Allocation Mechanism Based on HJ-DQPSO for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio network model consisting of secondary users and primary users, in order to solve the difficult multi-objective spectrum allocation issue about maximizing network efficiency and users’ fairness to access network, this paper proposes a new discrete multi-objective combinatorial optimization mechanism—HJ-DQPSO based on Hooke Jeeves (HJ and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO algorithm. The mechanism adopts HJ algorithm to local search to prevent falling into the local optimum, and proposes a discrete QPSO algorithm to match the discrete spectrum assignment model. The mechanism has the advantages of approximating optimal solution, rapid convergence, less parameters, avoiding falling into local optimum. Compared with existing spectrum assignment algorithms, the simulation results show that according to different optimization objectives, the HJ-DQPSO optimization mechanism for multi-objective optimization can better approximate optimal solution and converge fast. We can obtain a reasonable spectrum allocation scheme in the case of satisfying multiple optimization objectives.

  14. Optimization-based scatter estimation using primary modulation for computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Jingchen; Zhao, Jun, E-mail: junzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Song, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Scatter reduces the image quality in computed tomography (CT), but scatter correction remains a challenge. A previously proposed primary modulation method simultaneously obtains the primary and scatter in a single scan. However, separating the scatter and primary in primary modulation is challenging because it is an underdetermined problem. In this study, an optimization-based scatter estimation (OSE) algorithm is proposed to estimate and correct scatter. Methods: In the concept of primary modulation, the primary is modulated, but the scatter remains smooth by inserting a modulator between the x-ray source and the object. In the proposed algorithm, an objective function is designed for separating the scatter and primary. Prior knowledge is incorporated in the optimization-based framework to improve the accuracy of the estimation: (1) the primary is always positive; (2) the primary is locally smooth and the scatter is smooth; (3) the location of penumbra can be determined; and (4) the scatter-contaminated data provide knowledge about which part is smooth. Results: The simulation study shows that the edge-preserving weighting in OSE improves the estimation accuracy near the object boundary. Simulation study also demonstrates that OSE outperforms the two existing primary modulation algorithms for most regions of interest in terms of the CT number accuracy and noise. The proposed method was tested on a clinical cone beam CT, demonstrating that OSE corrects the scatter even when the modulator is not accurately registered. Conclusions: The proposed OSE algorithm improves the robustness and accuracy in scatter estimation and correction. This method is promising for scatter correction of various kinds of x-ray imaging modalities, such as x-ray radiography, cone beam CT, and the fourth-generation CT.

  15. High mechanical advantage design of six-bar Stephenson mechanism for servo mechanical presses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposed a two-phase design scheme of Stephenson six-bar working mechanisms for servo mechanical presses with high mechanical advantage. In the qualitative design phase, first, a Stephenson six-bar mechanism with a slide was derived from Stephenson six-bar kinematic chains. Second, based on the instant center analysis method, the relationship between mechanical advantage and some special instant centers was founded, and accordingly a primary mechanism configuration with high mechanical advantage was designed qualitatively. Then, a parameterized prototype model was established, and the influences of design parameters toward slide kinematical characteristics were analyzed. In the quantitative design phase, a multi-objective optimization model, aiming at high mechanical advantage and dwelling characteristics, was built, and a case design was done to find optimal dimensions. Finally, simulations based on the software ADAMS were conducted to compare the transmission characteristics of the optimized working mechanism with that of slide-crank mechanism and symmetrical toggle mechanism, and an experimental press was made to validate the design scheme. The simulation and experiment results show that, compared with general working mechanisms, the Stephenson six-bar working mechanism has higher mechanical advantage and better dwelling characteristics, reducing capacities and costs of servo motors effectively.

  16. A Participatory Model of the Paradox of Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Laura; Rose, Johnie; Hovmand, Peter S.; Cherng, Sarah T.; Riolo, Rick L.; Kraus, Alison; Biswas, Anindita; Burgess, Kelly; Aungst, Heide; Stange, Kurt C.; Brown, Kalanthe; Brooks-Terry, Margaret; Dec, Ellen; Jackson, Brigid; Gilliam, Jules; Kikano, George E.; Reichsman, Ann; Schaadt, Debbie; Hilfer, Jamie; Ticknor, Christine; Tyler, Carl V.; Van der Meulen, Anna; Ways, Heather; Weinberger, Richard F.; Williams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The paradox of primary care is the observation that primary care is associated with apparently low levels of evidence-based care for individual diseases, but systems based on primary care have healthier populations, use fewer resources, and have less health inequality. The purpose of this article is to explore, from a complex systems perspective, mechanisms that might account for the effects of primary care beyond disease-specific care. METHODS In an 8-session, participatory group model-building process, patient, caregiver, and primary care clinician community stakeholders worked with academic investigators to develop and refine an agent-based computer simulation model to test hypotheses about mechanisms by which features of primary care could affect health and health equity. RESULTS In the resulting model, patients are at risk for acute illness, acute life-changing illness, chronic illness, and mental illness. Patients have changeable health behaviors and care-seeking tendencies that relate to their living in advantaged or disadvantaged neighborhoods. There are 2 types of care available to patients: primary and specialty. Primary care in the model is less effective than specialty care in treating single diseases, but it has the ability to treat multiple diseases at once. Primary care also can provide disease prevention visits, help patients improve their health behaviors, refer to specialty care, and develop relationships with patients that cause them to lower their threshold for seeking care. In a model run with primary care features turned off, primary care patients have poorer health. In a model run with all primary care features turned on, their conjoint effect leads to better population health for patients who seek primary care, with the primary care effect being particularly pronounced for patients who are disadvantaged and patients with multiple chronic conditions. Primary care leads to more total health care visits that are due to more disease

  17. Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: application to thermal creep in Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report focuses on the development of a physics-based thermal creep model aiming to predict the behavior of Zr alloy under reactor accident condition. The current models used for this kind of simulations are mostly empirical in nature, based generally on fits to the experimental steady-state creep rates under different temperature and stress conditions, which has the following limitations. First, reactor accident conditions, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times and involve only the primary, not the steady-state creep behavior stage. Moreover, the empirical models cannot cover the conditions from normal operation to accident environments. For example, Kombaiah and Murty [1,2] recently reported a transition between the low (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes in Zr alloys depending on the applied stress. Capturing such a behavior requires an accurate description of the mechanisms involved in the process. Therefore, a mechanism-based model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more appropriate and reliable for this kind of simulation.

  18. [Implementation of evidence based medicine in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnerberger, Andreas; Grafinger, Michaela; Melchardt, Thomas; Sönnichsen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The particular situation of primary care - i.e. decentralized setting, comprehensive medical care, and limited access to continuous medical education - makes it difficult to implement evidence-based medicine into daily practice. Therefore, the Institute of General Practice of the Paracelsus University (PMU) in Salzburg and Actavis GmbH Austria developed "REM" (Rechercheservice evidenzbasierte Medizin). This is a web-based enquiry service offered mainly to GPs who can submit questions arising in daily practice which are answered by the service according to current best evidence. In 8.5 months 176 physicians registered to participate. A total of 31 submitted at least one question. In total, REM processed 134 questions. The number of physicians registered and the frequency of enquiries show that REM can facilitate the implementation of evidence-based medicine in primary care. Nonetheless, only a small proportion of the physicians registered actually made use of the service. Improvements are necessary to promote interest in this new way of continuous medical education.

  19. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional team-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Parchman, Michael L; Fuda, Kathleen Kerwin; Schaefer, Judith; Levin, Jessica; Hunt, Meaghan; Ricciardi, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional team-based care is increasingly regarded as an important feature of delivery systems redesigned to provide more efficient and higher quality care, including primary care. Measurement of the functioning of such teams might enable improvement of team effectiveness and could facilitate research on team-based primary care. Our aims were to develop a conceptual framework of high-functioning primary care teams to identify and review instruments that measure the constructs identified in the framework, and to create a searchable, web-based atlas of such instruments (available at: http://primarycaremeasures.ahrq.gov/team-based-care/ ). Our conceptual framework was developed from existing frameworks, the teamwork literature, and expert input. The framework is based on an Input-Mediator-Output model and includes 12 constructs to which we mapped both instruments as a whole, and individual instrument items. Instruments were also reviewed for relevance to measuring team-based care, and characterized. Instruments were identified from peer-reviewed and grey literature, measure databases, and expert input. From nearly 200 instruments initially identified, we found 48 to be relevant to measuring team-based primary care. The majority of instruments were surveys (n = 44), and the remainder (n = 4) were observational checklists. Most instruments had been developed/tested in healthcare settings (n = 30) and addressed multiple constructs, most commonly communication (n = 42), heedful interrelating (n = 42), respectful interactions (n = 40), and shared explicit goals (n = 37). The majority of instruments had some reliability testing (n = 39) and over half included validity testing (n = 29). Currently available instruments offer promise to researchers and practitioners to assess teams' performance, but additional work is needed to adapt these instruments for primary care settings.

  20. Estimation of second primary cancers risk based on the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chufeng; Sun Guangyao; Liu Hui; Zheng Huaqing; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of second primary cancers risk after radiotherapy has become increasingly important for comparative treatment planning. A new method based on the treatment planning system to estimate the risk of second primary cancers was introduced in this paper. Using the Advanced/Accurate Radiotherapy Treatment System(ARTS), a treatment planning system developed by the FDS team,the risk of second primary cancer was estimated over two treatment plans for a patient with pancreatic cancer. Based on the second primary cancer risk, the two plans were compared. It was found that,kidney and gall-bladder had higher risk to develop second primary cancer. A better plan was chosen by the analysis of second primary cancer risk. The results showed that this risk estimation method we developed could be used to evaluate treatment plans. (authors)

  1. Hydrogen absorption mechanisms and hydrogen interactions - defects: implications to stress corrosion of nickel based alloys in pressurized water reactors primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambon, F.

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1960's, a special form of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been identified for Alloy 600 exposed to pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary water: intergranular cracks develop during the alloy exposure, leading, progressively, to the complete ruin of the structure, and to its replacement. The main goal of this study is therefore to evaluate in which proportions the hydrogen absorbed by the alloy during its exposure to the primary medium can be responsible for SCC crack initiation and propagation. This study is aimed at better understanding of the hydrogen absorption mechanism when a metallic surface is exposed to a passivating PWR primary medium. A second objective is to characterize the interactions of the absorbed hydrogen with the structural defects of the alloy (dislocations, vacancies...) and evaluate to what extent these interactions can have an embrittling effect in relation with SCC phenomenon. Alloy 600-like single-crystals were exposed to a simulated PWR medium where the hydrogen atoms of water or of the pressuring hydrogen gas were isotopically substituted with deuterium, used as a tracer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth-profiling of deuterium was performed to characterize the deuterium absorption and localization in the passivated alloy. The results show that the hydrogen absorption during the exposure of the alloy to primary water is associated with the water molecules dissociation during the oxide film build-up. In an other series of experiments, structural defects were created in recrystallized samples, and finely characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, before or after the introduction of cathodic hydrogen. These analyses exhibited a strong hydrogen/defects interaction, evidenced by their structural reorganization under hydrogenation (coalescence, migrations). However, thermal desorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that these interactions are transitory, and dependent on

  2. A realist evaluation of social prescribing: an exploration into the context and mechanisms underpinning a pathway linking primary care with the voluntary sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Marcello; Frostick, Caroline; Hutt, Patrick; Sohanpal, Ratna; Carnes, Dawn

    2018-05-01

    This article adopts a realist approach to evaluate a social prescribing pilot in the areas of Hackney and City in London (United Kingdom). It unpacks the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the development of this pilot for the benefits of GPs, commissioners and practitioners, and reflects on the realist approach to evaluation as a tool for the evaluation of health interventions. Primary care faces considerable challenges including the increase in long-term conditions, GP consultation rates, and widening health inequalities. With its emphasis on linking primary care to non-clinical community services via a social prescribing coordinator (SPC), some models of social prescribing could contribute to reduce the burden on primary care, tackle health inequalities and encourage people to make greater use of non-clinical forms of support. This realist analysis was based on qualitative interviews with users, commissioners, a GP survey, focus groups and learning events to explore stakeholders' experience. To enable a detailed analysis, we adapted the realist approach by subdividing the social prescribing pathway into stages, each with contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes. SPCs were pivotal to the effective functioning of the social prescribing service and responsible for the activation and initial beneficial impact on users. Although social prescribing shows significant potential for the benefit of patients and primary care, several challenges need to be considered and overcome, including 'buy in' from some GPs, branding, and funding for the third sector in a context where social care cuts are severely affecting the delivery of health care. With its emphasis on context and mechanisms, the realist evaluation approach is useful in understanding how to identify and improve health interventions, and analyse in greater detail the contribution of different stakeholders. As the SPC is central to social prescribing, more needs to be done to understand their role

  3. Mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced cell death in primary human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most prevalent cause of drug-induced liver injury in western countries. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of injury after APAP overdose in various animal models; however, the importance of these mechanisms for humans remains unclear. Here we investigated APAP hepatotoxicity using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from either donor livers or liver resections. PHH were exposed to 5 mM, 10 mM or 20 mM APAP over a period of 48 h and multiple parameters were assessed. APAP dose-dependently induced significant hepatocyte necrosis starting from 24 h, which correlated with the clinical onset of human liver injury after APAP overdose. Interestingly, cellular glutathione was depleted rapidly during the first 3 h. APAP also resulted in early formation of APAP-protein adducts (measured in whole cell lysate and in mitochondria) and mitochondrial dysfunction, indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential after 12 h. Furthermore, APAP time-dependently triggered c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol and translocation of phospho-JNK to the mitochondria. Both co-treatment and post-treatment (3 h) with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK activation and significantly attenuated cell death at 24 h and 48 h after APAP. The clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine offered almost complete protection even if administered 6 h after APAP and a partial protection when given at 15 h. Conclusion: These data highlight important mechanistic events in APAP toxicity in PHH and indicate a critical role of JNK in the progression of injury after APAP in humans. The JNK pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the clinic. - Highlights: • APAP reproducibly causes cell death in freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes. • APAP induces adduct formation, JNK activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in PHH. • Mitochondrial adducts and JNK translocation are delayed in PHH compared to

  4. Organizational factors and depression management in community-based primary care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilbourne Amy M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based quality improvement models for depression have not been fully implemented in routine primary care settings. To date, few studies have examined the organizational factors associated with depression management in real-world primary care practice. To successfully implement quality improvement models for depression, there must be a better understanding of the relevant organizational structure and processes of the primary care setting. The objective of this study is to describe these organizational features of routine primary care practice, and the organization of depression care, using survey questions derived from an evidence-based framework. Methods We used this framework to implement a survey of 27 practices comprised of 49 unique offices within a large primary care practice network in western Pennsylvania. Survey questions addressed practice structure (e.g., human resources, leadership, information technology (IT infrastructure, and external incentives and process features (e.g., staff performance, degree of integrated depression care, and IT performance. Results The results of our survey demonstrated substantial variation across the practice network of organizational factors pertinent to implementation of evidence-based depression management. Notably, quality improvement capability and IT infrastructure were widespread, but specific application to depression care differed between practices, as did coordination and communication tasks surrounding depression treatment. Conclusions The primary care practices in the network that we surveyed are at differing stages in their organization and implementation of evidence-based depression management. Practical surveys such as this may serve to better direct implementation of these quality improvement strategies for depression by improving understanding of the organizational barriers and facilitators that exist within both practices and practice networks. In addition

  5. Extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Shaoming; Li Deqian; Ni Jiazan

    1987-01-01

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N 1923 (RNH 2 ) has been investigated by means of slope, isomolar continuous variation and saturation methods. The effect of temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) is observed. The extraction equilibrium constant and thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) are obtained. The IR and NMR of extracted compound are measured

  6. Temporalis Myofascial Flap for Primary Cranial Base Reconstruction after Tumor Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Eldaly, Ahmed; Magdy, Emad A.; Nour, Yasser A.; Gaafar, Alaa H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the temporalis myofascial flap in primary cranial base reconstruction following surgical tumor ablation and to explain technical issues, potential complications, and donor site consequences along with their management. Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Participants: Forty-one consecutive patients receiving primary temporalis myofascial flap reconstructions following cranial base tumor resections in a 4-year period. Main Out...

  7. Calculation for Primary Combustion Characteristics of Boron-Based Fuel-Rich Propellant Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wan'e

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical scheme for selecting characterization parameters of boron-based fuel-rich propellant formulation was put forward; a calculation model for primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant based on backpropagation neural network was established, validated, and then was used to predict primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant. The results show that the calculation error of burning rate is less than ±7.3%; in the formulation range (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene 28%–32%, ammonium perchlorate 30%–35%, magnalium alloy 4%–8%, catocene 0%–5%, and boron 30%, the variation of the calculation data is consistent with the experimental results.

  8. Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of persons with cancer pain: A prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mechanism-based classification (MBC was established with current evidence and physical therapy (PT management methods for both cancer and for noncancer pain. Aims: This study aims to describe the efficacy of MBC-based PT in persons with primary complaints of cancer pain. Settings and Design: A prospective case series of patients who attended the physiotherapy department of a multispecialty university-affiliated teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A total of 24 adults (18 female, 6 male aged 47.5 ± 10.6 years, with primary diagnosis of heterogeneous group of cancer, chief complaints of chronic disabling pain were included in the study on their consent for participation The patients were evaluated and classified on the basis of five predominant mechanisms for pain. Physical therapy interventions were recommended based on mechanisms identified and home program was prescribed with a patient log to ensure compliance. Treatments were given in five consecutive weekly sessions for five weeks each of 30 min duration. Statistical Analysis Used: Pre-post comparisons for pain severity (PS and pain interference (PI subscales of Brief pain inventory-Cancer pain (BPI-CP and, European organization for research and treatment in cancer-quality of life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30 were done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS for Windows version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL. Results: There were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 reduction in pain severity, pain interference and total BPI-CP scores, and the EORTC-QLQ-C30. Conclusion: MBC-PT was effective for improving BPI-CP and EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores in people with cancer pain.

  9. Understanding the mechanism of base development of HSQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Chao, Weilun; Griedel, Brian; Liang, Xiaogan; Lewis, Mark; Hilken, Dawn; Olynick, Deirdre

    2009-06-16

    We study the dissolution mechanism of HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane) in base solutions with the addition of chloride salts to elucidate the development mechanism. Reaction mechanisms are proposed based on the dissolution mechanism of quartz. Development kinetics points to two dose-dependent development mechanisms. Considering ion sizes, both hydrated and non-hydrated, and ion exchange, we propose that a combination of a surface dominated reaction at higher doses and a matrix dominated reaction at lower doses accounts for the high development contrast with a NaOH base/NaCl salt mixture. The interplay between the hydrated and non-hydrated ion size leads to higher contrast developers, such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with NaCl.

  10. What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing. Free Primary Education in Lesotho .... resulted in high levels of poverty amongst women, particularly in rural areas. Women ...... Lesotho demographics profile 2010. Available at ...

  11. Performance analysis of multi-primary color display based on OLEDs/PLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Deng, Fei; Xu, Shan; Gao, Shufang

    2017-09-01

    A multi-primary color display, such as the six-primary color format, is a solution in expanding the color gamut of a full-color flat panel display. The performance of a multi-primary color display based on organic/polymer light-emitting diodes was analyzed in this study using the fitting curves of the characteristics of devices (i.e., current density, voltage, luminance). A white emitter was introduced into a six-primary color format to form a seven-primary color format that contributes to energy saving, and the ratio of power efficiency of a seven-primary color display to that of a six-primary color display would increase from 1.027 to 1.061 by using emitting diodes with different electroluminescent efficiencies. Different color matching schemes of the seven-primary color format display were compared in a uniform color space, and the scheme of the color reproduction did not significantly affect the display performance. Although seven- and six-primary color format displays benefit a full-color display with higher quality, they are less efficient than three-primary (i.e., red (R), green (G), and blue (B), RGB) and four-primary (i.e., RGB+white, RGBW) color format displays. For the seven-primary color formats considered in this study, the advantages of white-primary-added display with efficiently developed light-emitting devices were more evident than the format without a white primary.

  12. Conducting a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Bikker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is formulated before the data collection. The data generation process targets key informants and situations so that relevant results on the pre-defined topic can be obtained within a relatively short time-span. As part of a theory based evaluation of alternative forms of consultation (such as video, phone and email in primary care we used the focused ethnographic method in a multisite study in general practice across the UK. To date there is a gap in the literature on using focused ethnography in healthcare research. The aim of the paper is to build on the various methodological approaches in health services research by presenting the challenges and benefits we encountered whilst conducing a focused ethnography in British primary care. Our considerations are clustered under three headings: constructing a shared understanding, dividing the tasks within the team, and the functioning of the focused ethnographers within the broader multi-disciplinary team. As a result of using this approach we experienced several advantages, like the ability to collect focused data in several settings simultaneously within in a short time-span. Also, the sharing of experiences and interpretations between the researchers contributed to a more holistic understanding of the research topic. However, mechanisms need to be in place to facilitate and synthesise the observations, guide the analysis, and to ensure that all researchers feel engaged. Reflection, trust and flexibility among the team members were crucial to successfully adopt a team focused ethnographic approach. When used for policy focussed applied healthcare research a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography can uncover practices and understandings that would not be apparent through surveys or

  13. Conducting a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, A P; Atherton, H; Brant, H; Porqueddu, T; Campbell, J L; Gibson, A; McKinstry, B; Salisbury, C; Ziebland, S

    2017-09-12

    Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is formulated before the data collection. The data generation process targets key informants and situations so that relevant results on the pre-defined topic can be obtained within a relatively short time-span. As part of a theory based evaluation of alternative forms of consultation (such as video, phone and email) in primary care we used the focused ethnographic method in a multisite study in general practice across the UK. To date there is a gap in the literature on using focused ethnography in healthcare research.The aim of the paper is to build on the various methodological approaches in health services research by presenting the challenges and benefits we encountered whilst conducing a focused ethnography in British primary care. Our considerations are clustered under three headings: constructing a shared understanding, dividing the tasks within the team, and the functioning of the focused ethnographers within the broader multi-disciplinary team.As a result of using this approach we experienced several advantages, like the ability to collect focused data in several settings simultaneously within in a short time-span. Also, the sharing of experiences and interpretations between the researchers contributed to a more holistic understanding of the research topic. However, mechanisms need to be in place to facilitate and synthesise the observations, guide the analysis, and to ensure that all researchers feel engaged. Reflection, trust and flexibility among the team members were crucial to successfully adopt a team focused ethnographic approach. When used for policy focussed applied healthcare research a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography can uncover practices and understandings that would not be apparent through surveys or interviews alone. If conducted with

  14. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms; Corrosion generalisee des alliages a base nickel en milieu aqueux a haute temperature: apport a la comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L

    2007-11-15

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale ({approx} 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary

  15. Primary heat transport pump mechanical seal replacement strategy for Pickering B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacinsi, V.

    1995-01-01

    Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is a CANDU PHWR eight unit station located on Lake Ontario. The station is divided into Pickering A (Units 1 to 4) and Pickering B (Units 5 to 8). Pickering B is the focus of this paper. Each unit is rated at 540 MWe. The Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system, which is used to cool the fuel, is divided into four quadrants. Each quadrant has four vertical Byron Jackson PHT main circulation pumps. Three pumps in each quadrant are required for normal operation, leaving one pump in each quadrant as a spare. Each Pickering PHT pump has a Byron Jackson Type SU two stage mechanical seal. The typical pressure breakdown across the seal is 8.7-4.5-1.0 MPa. Certain features of seal operation and the PHT system which influence seal replacement are discussed below. (author)

  16. Twelve evidence-based principles for implementing self-management support in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Malcolm; Von Korff, Michael; Schaefer, Judith; Davis, Connie; Ludman, Evette; Greene, Sarah M; Parkerton, Melissa; Wagner, Edward H

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to improve self-management support and health outcomes for people with chronic conditions in primary care settings are provided on the basis of expert opinion supported by evidence for practices and processes. Practices and processes that could improve self-management support in primary care were identified through a nominal group process. In a targeted search strategy, reviews and meta-analyses were then identifed using terms from a wide range of chronic conditions and behavioral risk factors in combination with Self-Care, Self-Management, and Primary Care. On the basis of these reviews, evidence-based principles for self-management support were developed. The evidence is organized within the framework of the Chronic Care Model. Evidence-based principles in 12 areas were associated with improved patient self-management and/or health outcomes: (1) brief targeted assessment, (2) evidence-based information to guide shared decision-making, (3) use of a nonjudgmental approach, (4) collaborative priority and goal setting, (5) collaborative problem solving, (6) self-management support by diverse providers, (7) self-management interventions delivered by diverse formats, (8) patient self-efficacy, (9) active followup, (10) guideline-based case management for selected patients, (11) linkages to evidence-based community programs, and (12) multifaceted interventions. A framework is provided for implementing these principles in three phases of the primary care visit: enhanced previsit assessment, a focused clinical encounter, and expanded postvisit options. There is a growing evidence base for how self-management support for chronic conditions can be integrated into routine health care.

  17. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, L.; Dahlstrom, K.; Breiting, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population......-based study of PMCS. Materials and methods Data on PMCS was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry, which has recorded incident cases of cancer on a nationwide basis since 1943. We extracted all patients diagnosed 1978-2003 with PMCS. Results Fifteen cases of PMCS have been registered during the study...... or PMCS related deaths were reported. Conclusion PMCS is a rare, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes and is associated with low mortality. The age-standardized incidence rate, based on data from a population-based cancer registry of high quality and validity, is less than 0.1 per million. However...

  18. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010-2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). After controlling for patients' age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization.

  19. Primary and Secondary Variants of Psychopathy in a Volunteer Sample Are Associated With Different Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; McCrory, Eamon; Puetz, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R; Viding, Essi

    2018-04-12

    Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates. Primary (n = 50), secondary (n = 100), and comparison (n = 82) groups were drawn from a large volunteer sample (N = 1444) using a quartile-split approach across psychopathic trait (affective-interpersonal) and anxiety measures. Participants performed a widely utilized emotional face processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The primary group showed reduced amygdala and insula activity in response to fear. The secondary group did not differ from the comparison group in these regions. Instead, the secondary group showed reduced activity compared with the comparison group in other areas, including the superior temporal sulcus/inferior parietal lobe, thalamus, pallidum, and substantia nigra. Both psychopathy groups also showed reduced activity in response to fear in the anterior cingulate cortex. During anger processing, the secondary group exhibited reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex compared with the primary group. Distinct neural correlates of fear processing characterize individuals with primary and secondary psychopathy. The reduced neural response to fear that characterizes individuals with the primary variant of psychopathic traits is not observed in individuals with the secondary presentation. The neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning secondary psychopathy warrant further systematic investigation. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. [Mechanical properties of polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold with double channels based on three-dimensional printing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Li, Changhai; Jin, Zhongmin; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    To improve the poor mechanical strength of porous ceramic scaffold, an integrated method based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique is developed to incorporate the controlled double-channel porous structure into the polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/beta-TCP) reinforced composite scaffolds (double-channel composite scaffold) to improve their tissue regeneration capability and the mechanical properties. The designed double-channel structure inside the ceramic scaffold consisted of both primary and secondary micropipes, which parallel but un-connected. The set of primary channels was used for cell ingrowth, while the set of secondary channels was used for the PLA perfusion. Integration technology of 3-D printing technique and gel-casting was firstly used to fabricate the double-channel ceramic scaffolds. PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were obtained by the polymer gravity perfusion process to pour PLA solution into the double-channel ceramic scaffolds through the secondary channel set. Microscope, porosity, and mechanical experiments for the standard samples were used to evaluate the composite properties. The ceramic scaffold with only the primary channel (single-channel scaffold) was also prepared as a control. Morphology observation results showed that there was no PLA inside the primary channels of the double-channel composite scaffolds but a dense interface layer between PLA and beta-TCP obviously formed on the inner wall of the secondary channels by the PLA penetration during the perfusion process. Finite element simulation found that the compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold was less than that of the single-channel scaffold; however, mechanical tests found that the maximum compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold [(21.25 +/- 1.15) MPa] was higher than that of the single-channel scaffold[ (9.76 +/- 0.64) MPa]. The double-channel composite scaffolds fabricated by 3-D printing technique have

  1. Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: lessons from lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Ohtani, K.; Armonda, R.; Tomita, H.; Sakuma, A.; Mugikura, S.; Takayama, K.; Kushimoto, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-11-01

    , research, and the importance of engineering validation (visualization/pressure measurement/numerical simulation); and, based upon our findings of SW-induced injury, discuss the potential underlying mechanisms of primary bTBI.

  2. Ontology aided modeling of organic reaction mechanisms with flexible and fragment based XML markup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Aghila, Gnanasekaran

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism models for primary organic reactions encoding the structural fragments undergoing substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangements are developed. In the proposed models, each and every structural component of mechanistic pathways is represented with flexible and fragment based markup technique in XML syntax. A significant feature of the system is the encoding of the electron movements along with the other components like charges, partial charges, half bonded species, lone pair electrons, free radicals, reaction arrows, etc. needed for a complete representation of reaction mechanism. The rendering of reaction schemes described with the proposed methodology is achieved with a concise XML extension language interoperating with the structure markup. The reaction scheme is visualized as 2D graphics in a browser by converting them into SVG documents enabling the desired layouts normally perceived by the chemists conventionally. An automatic representation of the complex patterns of the reaction mechanism is achieved by reusing the knowledge in chemical ontologies and developing artificial intelligence components in terms of axioms.

  3. On aging factors, aging mechanisms and their combinations in the primary circuit of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, T.; Brumovsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    Ageing is the dominating problem of elder nuclear power plant (NPP) components but still can not be neglected even for the newest ones. Ageing may express itself in different ways: irradiated steel parts may become embrittled, chromium alloy steels may decompose, fatigue life may become exhausted so that cracks may be formed and finally, corrosion attack may result in stress corrosion cracking. However, even synthetics and rubber parts may become inelastic, swell, shrink or crack, electric contacts may be oxydised, or isolations may lose their high electric resistance. Therefore, experts in the different components and their materials have collected and published not only plenty of observations, but also a number of more or less systematic approaches. A general picture, however, still seems to be lacking, due to the fact that ageing factors and mechanisms are not defined and used properly, i.e. - ageing factors act because of the service conditions of the components, as well as the characteristics of the materials which provoke ageing mechanisms - ageing mechanisms cause the changing of properties of the materials involved - combinations of single ageing mechanisms, which can be double, triple or multiple, change and accelerate the ageing process - the consequence of ageing mechanisms is the altering of the properties of the material depending on the lifetime. In this paper we shall try to show a systematic approach to a potential ageing analysis concerning the main metallic components of primary circuits of NPP's - connection between ageing factors, ageing mechanisms and their consequences/effects on component behaviour

  4. Influence of radiation-induced grafting process on mechanical properties of ETFE-based membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Youcef, H.; Alkan Guersel, S.; Buisson, A.; Gubler, L.; Wokaun, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The mechanical stability is, in addition to thermal and chemical stability, a primary requirement of polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. In this study, the impact of grafting parameters and preparation steps on stress-strain properties of ETFE-based proton conducting membranes, prepared by radiation-induced grafting and subsequent sulphonation, was studied. No significant change in the mechanical properties of the ETFE base film was observed below an irradiation dose of 50 kGy. It was shown that the elongation at break decreases with increasing both the crosslinker concentration and graft level (GL). However, the tensile strength was positively affected by the crosslinker concentration. Yield strength and modulus of elasticity are almost unaffected by the introduction of crosslinker. Interestingly, yield strength and modulus of elasticity increase gradually with GL without noticeable change of the inherent crystallinity of grafted films. The most brittle membranes are obtained via the combination of high GL and crosslinker concentration. The optimised ETFE-based membrane (GL of {proportional_to}25%, 5% DVB v/v), shows mechanical properties superior to those of Nafion registered 112 membrane. The obtained results were correlated qualitatively to the other ex situ properties, including crystallinity, thermal properties and water uptake of the grafted membranes. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  6. Earthquake Early Warning Management based on Client-Server using Primary Wave data from Vibrating Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumal, F. E.; Nope, K. B. N.; Peli, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning is a warning mechanism before an actual incident occurs, can be implemented on natural events such as tsunamis or earthquakes. Earthquakes are classified in tectonic and volcanic types depend on the source and nature. The tremor in the form of energy propagates in all directions as Primary and Secondary waves. Primary wave as initial earthquake vibrations propagates longitudinally, while the secondary wave propagates like as a sinusoidal wave after Primary, destructive and as a real earthquake. To process the primary vibration data captured by the earthquake sensor, a network management required client computer to receives primary data from sensors, authenticate and forward to a server computer to set up an early warning system. With the water propagation concept, a method of early warning system has been determined in which some sensors are located on the same line, sending initial vibrations as primary data on the same scale and the server recommended to the alarm sound as an early warning.

  7. Secondary access based on sensing and primary ARQ feedback in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of primary/secondary spectrum sharing, we propose a randomized secondary access strategy with access probabilities that are a function of both the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback and the spectrum sensing outcome. The primary terminal operates in a time slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The primary receiver can send a positive acknowledgment (ACK) when the received packet is decoded correctly. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as erroneous reception or inactivity. We call this the explicit ACK scheme. The primary receiver may also send a negative acknowledgment (NACK) when the packet is received in error. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as an ACK or no-transmission. This is called the explicit NACK scheme. Under both schemes, when the primary feedback is interpreted as a NACK, the secondary user assumes that there will be retransmission in the next slot and accesses the channel with a certain probability. When the primary feedback is interpreted as an ACK, the secondary user accesses the channel with either one of two probabilities based on the sensing outcome. Under these settings, we find the three optimal access probabilities via maximizing the secondary throughput given a constraint on the primary throughput. We compare the performance of the explicit ACK and explicit NACK schemes and contrast them with schemes based on either sensing or primary ARQ feedback only. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Effectiveness of primary school-based oral health education in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2002-01-01

    A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had

  9. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  10. Reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi Min; Yang, Zhou; Wen, Bang Chun; He, Xiang Dong; Liu, Qiaoling

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based sensitivity method for mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters. Techniques from the perturbation method, the Edgeworth series, the reliability-based design theory, and the sensitivity analysis approach were employed directly to calculate the reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components on the condition that the first four moments of the original random variables are known. The reliability-based sensitivity information of the mechanical components can be accurately and quickly obtained using a practical computer program. The effects of the design parameters on the reliability of mechanical components were studied. The method presented in this paper provides the theoretic basis for the reliability-based design of mechanical components

  11. National Structural Survey of Veterans Affairs Home-Based Primary Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Jurgis; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Olsan, Tobie; Cai, Xeuya; Dang, Stuti; Intrator, Orna; Li, Jiejin; Gao, Shan; Kinosian, Bruce; Edes, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    To describe the current structural and practice characteristics of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) program. We designed a national survey and surveyed HBPC program directors on-line using REDCap. We received 236 surveys from 394 identified HBPC sites (60% response rate). HBPC site characteristics were quantified using closed-ended formats. HBPC program directors were most often registered nurses, and HBPC programs primarily served veterans with complex chronic illnesses that were at high risk of hospitalization and nursing home care. Primary care was delivered using interdisciplinary teams, with nurses, social workers, and registered dietitians as team members in more than 90% of the sites. Most often, nurse practitioners were the principal primary care providers (PCPs), typically working with nurse case managers. Nearly 60% of the sites reported dual PCPs involving VA and community-based physicians. Nearly all sites provided access to a core set of comprehensive services and programs (e.g., case management, supportive home health care). At the same time, there were variations according to site (e.g., size, location (urban, rural), use of non-VA hospitals, primary care models used). HBPC sites reflected the rationale and mission of HBPC by focusing on complex chronic illness of home-based veterans and providing comprehensive primary care using interdisciplinary teams. Our next series of studies will examine how HBPC site structural characteristics and care models are related to the processes and outcomes of care to determine whether there are best practice standards that define an optimal HBPC structure and care model or whether multiple approaches to HBPC better serve the needs of veterans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Is Team-Based Primary Care Associated with Less Access Problems and Self-Reported Unmet Need in Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Austin; Asada, Yukiko; Burge, Frederick

    2017-10-01

    As in many jurisdictions, the delivery of primary care in Canada is being transformed from solo practice to team-based care. In Canada, team-based primary care involves general practitioners working with nurses or other health care providers, and it is expected to improve equity in access to care. This study examined whether team-based care is associated with fewer access problems and less unmet need and whether socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need are smaller in team-based care than in non-team-based care. Data came from the 2008 Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care (sample size: 10,858). We measured primary care type as team-based or non-team-based and socioeconomic status by income and education. We created four access problem variables and four unmet need variables (overall and three specific components). For each, we ran separate logistic regression models to examine their associations with primary care type. We examined socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need stratified by primary care type. Primary care type had no statistically significant, independent associations with access problems or unmet need. Among those with non-team-based care, a statistically significant education gradient for overall access problems existed, whereas among those with team-based care, no statistically significant socioeconomic gradients existed.

  13. Fuel assemblies mechanical behaviour improvements based on design changes and loading patterns computational analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, J.; Aullo, M.; Gutierrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years, incomplete RCCA insertion events (IRI) have been taking place at some nuclear plants. Large guide thimble distortion caused by high compressive loads together with the irradiation induced material creep and growth, is considered as the primary cause of those events. This disturbing phenomenon is worsened when some fuel assemblies are deformed to the extent that they push the neighbouring fuel assemblies and the distortion is transmitted along the core. In order to better understand this mechanism, ENUSA has developed a methodology based on finite element core simulation to enable assessments on the propensity of a given core loading pattern to propagate the distortion along the core. At the same time, the core loading pattern could be decided interacting with nuclear design to obtain the optimum response under both, nuclear and mechanical point of views, with the objective of progressively attenuating the core distortion. (author)

  14. The mechanism for the primary biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Vsevolod M; Stepanov, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    The primary biological response of living organisms to the passage of fast charged particles is traditionally believed to be dominated by the chemical reactions of the radical products from the radiolysis of cellular water (OH, H, e aq - , O 2 - , H 2 O 2 ) and by the bioradicals that they produce (and which can also result from the direct electronic activation of biomolecules). This understanding has provided insight into how ionizing radiations affect biological systems and, most importantly, what radioprotection and radiosensibilizing effects are produced by chemical compounds introduced into an organism. However, a number of key radiobiological facts remain unexplained by the current theory, stimulating a search for other biologically active factors that may be triggered by radiation. This review examines a fact that is usually ignored in discussing the biological impact of ionizing radiation: the local increase in acidity in the water solution along the track of a charged particle. The acidity in the track is very different from its value for cellular water in a living organism. Biological processes are well-known to be highly sensitive to changes in the environmental acidity. It seems that the biological impact of ionizing radiations is dominated not by the water radiolysis products (mostly radicals) listed above but particles of a different nature, hydroxonium ions H 3 O + , where the term hydroxonium refer to protonated water molecules. This modification of the mechanism of primary radiobiological effects is in good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the extremal dependence of the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of radiations on their ionizing energy losses is accounted for in quantitative terms, as is the increase in the RBE in the relativistic energy range. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. The use of clinical practice guidelines in primary care: professional mindlines and control mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Gené-Badia

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Compliance with CPG recommendations would be improved if these documents were brief, non-compulsory, not cost-containment oriented, more based on nursing care models, sensitive to the specific needs of primary care patients, and integrated into the computer workstation.

  16. Mechanical Design of Downhole Tractor Based on Two-Way Self-locking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Wu, Guoheng; Liu, Yiying

    2018-03-01

    Based on the technology of horizontal well tractor, a kind of downhole tractor was developed which can realize Two-Way self-locking function. Aiming at the needs of horizontal well logging to realize the target of small size, high traction and high reliability, the tractor selects unique heart-shaped CAM as the locking mechanism. The motion principle of telescopic downhole tractor, the design of mechanical structure and locking principle of the locking mechanism are all analyzed. The mathematical expressions of traction are obtained by mechanical analysis of parallel support rod in the locking mechanism. The force analysis and contour design of the heart-shaped CAM are performed, which can lay the foundation for the development of tractor prototype.

  17. The use of clinical practice guidelines in primary care: professional mindlines and control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gené-Badia, Joan; Gallo, Pedro; Caïs, Jordi; Sánchez, Emília; Carrion, Carme; Arroyo, Liliana; Aymerich, Marta

    2016-01-01

    To identify the relevant barriers and enablers perceived by primary care professionals in implementing the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Two focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians and nurses in Catalonia (Spain) between October and December 2012. Thirty-nine health professionals were selected based on their knowledge and daily use of CPG. Finally, eight general practitioners and eight nurses were included in the discussion groups. Participants were asked to share their views and beliefs on the accessibility of CPG, their knowledge and use of these documents, the content and format of CPG, dissemination strategy, training, professional-patient relationship, and the use of CPG by the management structure. We recorded and transcribed the content verbatim and analysed the data using qualitative analysis techniques. Physicians believed that, overall, CPG were of little practical use and frequently referred to them as a largely bureaucratic management control instrument that threatened their professional autonomy. In contrast, nurses believed that CPG were rather helpful tools in their day-to-day practice, although they would like them to be more sensitive to the current role of nurses. Both groups believed that CPG did not provide a response to most of the decisions they faced in the primary care setting. Compliance with CPG recommendations would be improved if these documents were brief, non-compulsory, not cost-containment oriented, more based on nursing care models, sensitive to the specific needs of primary care patients, and integrated into the computer workstation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [PRIMARY HEADACHE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Amal Khourieh; Kerem, Nogah C; Srugo, Isaac; Genizi, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Primary headaches are one of the most common disorders of childhood, with migraine and tension type headaches (TTHs) being the most frequent ones. In spite of their prevalence, there is paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause headaches and regarding the unique aspects of headaches in children and adolescents. To review the literature and summarize the knowledge regarding clinical features, diagnosis and management of primary headache in children and adolescents, mainly migraine and TTH. Most of our current knowledge regarding primary headaches in children and adolescents is driven from extrapolations from studies that were conducted with adult patients. Therefore, it needs to be validated for the different age groups. Migraines may be diagnosed effectively based on the 2nd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II), however, TTH is diagnosed mainly by the absence of features found in other headache types. Treatment strategies for primary headaches vary according to patient's age, family structure, culture and beliefs, headache diagnosis, and based on the disability the headache imposes on the patient's daily living. It was shown that a multidisciplinary approach, that includes continuing counseling, education, and reassurance, in combination with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, is an effective strategy for children and adolescents suffering from primary headaches. Further studies are needed to enrich our knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause headaches in children and adolescents and to develop efficient strategies to alleviate their burden.

  19. An active cooperation-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fu; Guo, Ying; Peng, Jun; Hu, Jiankun

    2015-01-28

    A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  20. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  1. Inquiry-based science teasching competence of pre-service primary teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, improving primary science education has received considerable attention. In particular, researchers and policymakers advocate the use of inquiry-based science teaching and learning, believing that pupils learn best through direct personal experience and by incorporating new

  2. Science-Based Thematic Cultural Art Learning in Primary School (2013 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warih Handayaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discussing the development result of thematic cultural art subject’s learning material based on science for primary school (2013 curriculum. This study is expected to inspire teacher to develop learning material that may explore artworks exist in our living environment (based on the context of children’s environment. This study applies steps in developmental research collaboration by Borg & Gall (1989 and Puslitjaknov (2008 to create the product. The development stages comprise observation in several primary schools in Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo that has implemented 2013 curriculum that is followed up by stages of development. Furthermore, prototype of cultural and art thematic learning material development results are verified by learning material experts, material expert, primary school teacher, and revised afterwards. The result of this research development is a set of teacher and student books. Science-based cultural art here means cultural art learning as the main medium to introduce local culture products (music, drawing, dance, and drama by integrating mathematics, sciences, Bahasa Indonesia, and local language subjects. Cultural art products in the form of dance, music, drawing, dramas will help children to understand a simple mathematical concept, such as: two-dimensional figure, geometry, comparing or estimating longer-shorter, smaller-bigger, or more-less.

  3. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary

  4. Data-based decision making for instructional improvement in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Gerrit; Schildkamp, Kim; Pieters, Julius Marie; Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Data-based decision making can help teachers improve their instruction. Research shows that instruction has a strong impact on students' learning outcomes. This study investigates whether Dutch primary school teachers use data to improve their instruction. Four aspects of instruction were

  5. Metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling alloy 718 stress corrosion cracking resistance in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleume, J.

    2007-11-01

    Improving the performance and reliability of the fuel assemblies of the pressurized water reactors requires having a perfect knowledge of the operating margins of both the components and the materials. The choice of alloy 718 as reference material for this study is justified by the industrial will to identify the first order parameters controlling the excellent resistance of this alloy to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). For this purpose, a specific slow strain rate (SSR) crack initiation test using tensile specimen with a V-shaped hump in the middle of the gauge length was developed and modeled. The selectivity of such SSR tests in simulated PWR primary water at 350 C was clearly established by characterizing the SCC resistance of nine alloy 718 thin strip heats. Regardless of their origin and in spite of a similar thermo-mechanical history, they did not exhibit the same susceptibility to SCC crack initiation. All the characterized alloy 718 heats develop oxide scale of similar nature for various exposure times to PWR primary medium in the temperature range [320 C - 360 C]. δ phase precipitation has no impact on alloy 718 SCC initiation behavior when exposed to PWR primary water, contrary to interstitial contents and the triggering of plastic instabilities (PLC phenomenon). (author)

  6. Primary Health Care Software-A Computer Based Data Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuli K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Realising the duplication and time consumption in the usual manual system of data collection necessitated experimentation with computer based management system for primary health care in the primary health centers. The details of the population as available in the existing manual system were used for computerizing the data. Software was designed for data entry and analysis. It was written in Dbase III plus language. It was so designed that a person with no knowledge about computer could use it, A cost analysis was done and the computer system was found more cost effective than the usual manual system.

  7. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  8. In situ observation of ultrasonic cavitation-induced fragmentation of the primary crystals formed in Al alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry; Mi, Jiawei; Connolley, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al 3 Ti, Si and Al 3 V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time. Based on the recorded image sequences, the fragmentation mechanisms of primary crystals were studied. It was found that there are three major mechanisms by which the primary crystals were fragmented by cavitation bubbles. The first one was a slow process via fatigue-type failure. A cyclic pressure exerted by stationary pulsating bubbles caused the propagation of a crack pre-existing in the primary crystal to a critical length which led to fragmentation. The second mechanism was a sudden process due to the collapse of bubbles in a passing cavitation cloud. The pressure produced upon the collapse of the cloud promoted rapid monotonic crack growth and fast fracture in the primary crystals. The third observed mechanism was normal bending fracture as a result of the high pressure arising from the collapse of a bubble cloud and the crack formation at the branch connection points of dendritic primary crystals. The fragmentation of dendrite branches due to the interaction between two freely moving dendritic primary crystals was also observed. A simplified fracture analysis of the observed phenomena was performed. The specific fragmentation mechanism for the primary crystals depended on their morphology and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is it just religious practice? Exploring patients' reasons for choosing a faith-based primary health clinic over their local public sector primary health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James D; Bresick, Graham

    2017-06-29

    Person-centred, re-engineered primary health care (PHC) is a national and global priority. Faith-based health care is a significant provider of PHC in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is limited published data on the reasons for patient choice of faith-based health care, particularly in South Africa. The primary objective was to determine and explore the reasons for patient choice of a faith-based primary care clinic over their local public sector primary care clinic, and secondarily to determine to what extent these reasons were influenced by demography. The study was conducted at Jubilee Health Centre (JHC), a faith-based primary care clinic attached to Jubilee Community Church in Cape Town, South Africa. Focus groups, using the nominal group technique, were conducted with JHC patients and used to generate ranked reasons for attending the clinic. These were collated into the top 15 reasons and incorporated into a quantitative questionnaire which was administered to adult patients attending JHC. A total of 164 patients were surveyed (a response rate of 92.4%) of which 68.3% were female and 57.9% from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of patients surveyed, 98.2% chose to attend JHC because 'the staff treat me with respect', 96.3% because 'the staff are friendly' and 96.3% because 'the staff take time to listen to me'. The reason 'it is a Christian clinic' was chosen by 70.1% of patients. 'The staff speak my home language' was given as a reason by 61.1% of DRC patients and 37.1% of South African patients. 'The clinic is close to me' was chosen by 66.6% of Muslims and 40.8% of Christians. Patients chose to attend JHC (a faith-based primary care clinic) because of the quality of care received. They emphasised the staff-patient relationship and patient-centredness rather than the clinic's religious practices (prayer with patients). These findings may be important in informing efforts to improve public sector primary care.

  10. Part of the hydrogen in the intergranular crack by stress corrosion in primary circuit for the 600 and 690 nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J.; Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is, in a first part, to characterize the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of the 600 and 690 based alloys in order to better understand the hydrogen role in the stress corrosion mechanism which appears in theses alloys in the primary circuit of the PWR type reactors. The authors studies how the hydrogen embrittlement is resulting from an interaction between the hydrogen and the plastic deformation. (A.L.B.)

  11. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsima BM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Billy M Tsima,1 Vincent Setlhare,1 Oathokwa Nkomazana2 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An integrated symptom-based guideline was developed so as to translate the Botswana national guidelines to those applicable in primary care. The Botswana Primary Care Guideline (BPCG integrates the care of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases, by frontline primary health care workers.Methods: The Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, together with guideline developers from the Knowledge Translation Unit (University of Cape Town collaborated with the Ministry of Health to develop the guideline. Stakeholder groups were set up to review specific content of the guideline to ensure compliance with Botswana government policy and the essential drug list.Results: Participants included clinicians, academics, patient advocacy groups, and policymakers from different disciplines, both private and public. Drug-related issues were identified as necessary for implementing recommendations of the guideline. There was consensus by working groups for updating the essential drug list for primary care and expansion of prescribing rights of trained nurse prescribers in primary care within their scope of practice. An integrated guideline incorporating common symptoms of diseases seen in the Botswana primary care setting was developed.Conclusion: The development of the BPCG took a broad consultative approach with buy in from relevant stakeholders. It is anticipated that implementation of the BPCG will translate into better

  12. Testosterone has a long-term effect on primary sex ratio of first eggs in pigeons-in search of a mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, V. C.; Dijkstra, C.; Schaafsma, S. M.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence that birds, in which females are the heterogametic sex, are able to manipulate primary offspring sex ratio, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Steroid hormones. which govern female reproduction and are also accumulated by the developing follicle could potentially

  13. The knowledge and practices of primary care givers regarding home-based care of HIV/AIDS children in Blantyre (Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EW Zimba

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the major factors that promotes adherence to treatment regimens. With the current trends worldwide of home and community-based services for the management of HIV/AIDS patients, knowledge of care givers about the home care of these patients will determine the success of the programs. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the knowledge and practices of primary care givers of HIV/AIDS children in the provision of home care services. In this study an attempt was made to describe the factors which are associated with knowledge. Thirty-six primary care givers were randomly selected from three major home based care centres in Blantyre City, Malawi. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed manually and by computer, using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The findings revealed a gap in knowledge since in many instances taking a child to the hospital for the management of minor ailments was the action of choice, thus perpetuating the problem of overburdening hospital resources. Lack of prior preparation for home based care was found to be the major factor contributing to the lack of knowledge. Recommendations proposed include the need to put into place mechanisms that will ensure that all the primary care givers are adequately prepared in good time for home care service. Ensuring regular home visits was also thought to be helpful for efficient and effective supervision and reinforcement of information given to fill the gaps in knowledge wherever necessary.

  14. A medical assistant-based program to promote healthy behaviors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Robert L; Mody-Bailey, Priti; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Gott, Sherrie; Araujo, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Most primary care patients have at least 1 major behavioral risk: smoking, risky drinking, low physical activity, or unhealthy diet. We studied the effectiveness of a medical assistant-based program to identify and refer patients with risk behaviors to appropriate interventions. We undertook a randomized control trial in a practice-based research network. The trial included 864 adult patients from 6 primary care practices. Medical assistants screened patients for 4 risk behaviors and applied behavior-specific algorithms to link patients with interventions. Primary outcomes were improved risk behaviors on standardized assessments. Secondary outcomes included participation in a behavioral intervention and the program's effect on the medical assistants' workflow and job satisfaction. Follow-up data were available for 55% of participants at a mean of 12 months. The medical assistant referral arm referred a greater proportion of patients than did usual care (67.4 vs 21.8%; P effects on program adoption. Engaging more primary care team members to address risk behaviors improved referral rates. More extensive medical assistant training, changes in practice culture, and sustained behavioral interventions will be necessary to improve risk behavior outcomes.

  15. Promotion of a primary healthcare philosophy in a community-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promotion of a primary healthcare philosophy in a community-based nursing education programme from the students' perspective. ... Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Review Committee. Participation was voluntary, informed consent was obtained, and other ethical principles were ...

  16. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  17. Mechanics and model-based control of advanced engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.

  18. The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Primary Care: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier

    2015-11-01

    Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 59; P .05). Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  19. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  20. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Townsend, Julie S.; Puckett, Mary C.; Rim, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions...

  1. Preparation and mechanical property of polymer-based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P; Chen, G; Zheng, X F

    2010-01-01

    The porous polymer-based biomaterial has been synthesized from PLGA, dioxane and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by low-temperature deposition process. The deformation behaviours and fracture mechanism of polymer-based biomaterials were investigated using the compression test and the finite element (FE) simulation. The results show that the stress-strain curve of compression process includes linear elastic stage I, platform stage II and densification stage III, and the fracture mechanism can be considered as brittle fracture.

  2. Quantitative assessment of intergranular damage due to PWR primary water exposure in structural Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît; Deleume, Julien; Cloué, Jean-Marc; Andrieu, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► IG damage occurred on Ni-base alloys during exposure at high temperature water. ► Two characterization methods yield a tomographic analysis of this IG damage. ► Connected or isolated intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations are quantified. ► Such quantitative description provides information on IGSCC susceptibility. - Abstract: Two nickel-based alloys, alloy 718 and alloy 600, known to have different resistances to IGSCC, were exposed to a simulated PWR primary water environment at 360 °C for 1000 h. The intergranular oxidation damage was analyzed in detail using an original approach involving two characterization methods (Incremental Mechanical Polishing/Microcopy procedure and SIMS imaging) which yielded a tomographic analysis of the damage. Intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations occurred either as connected or isolated penetrations deep under the external oxide/substrate interface as far as 10 μm for alloy 600 and only 4 μm for alloy 718. Therefore, assessing this damage precisely is essential to interpret IGSCC susceptibility.

  3. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Prevalence of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome in a US Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Gabriel; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L; Cornec, Divi

    2017-10-01

    To report the point prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in the first US population-based study. Cases of all potential primary SS patients living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, on January 1, 2015, were retrieved using Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, and ascertained by manual medical records review. Primary SS cases were defined according to physician diagnosis. The use of diagnostic tests was assessed and the performance of classification criteria was evaluated. The number of prevalent cases in 2015 was also projected based on 1976-2005 incidence data from the same source population. A total of 106 patients with primary SS were included in the study: 86% were female, with a mean ± SD age of 64.6 ± 15.2 years, and a mean ± SD disease duration of 10.5 ± 8.4 years. A majority were anti-SSA positive (75%) and/or anti-SSB positive (58%), but only 22% met American-European Consensus Group or American College of Rheumatology criteria, because the other tests required for disease classification (ocular dryness objective assessment, salivary gland functional or morphologic tests, or salivary gland biopsy) were rarely performed in clinical practice. According to the physician diagnosis, the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of primary SS was 10.3 per 10,000 inhabitants, but according to classification criteria, this prevalence was only 2.2 per 10,000. The analysis based on previous incidence data projected a similar 2015 prevalence rate of 11.0 per 10,000. The prevalence of primary SS in this geographically well-defined population was estimated to be between 2 and 10 per 10,000 inhabitants. Physicians rarely used tests included in the classification criteria to diagnose the disease in this community setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-07-05

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

  6. CSP-based chemical kinetics mechanisms simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion: An application to hybrid rocket propulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Ciottoli, Pietro P.

    2017-08-14

    A set of simplified chemical kinetics mechanisms for hybrid rocket applications using gaseous oxygen (GOX) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is proposed. The starting point is a 561-species, 2538-reactions, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for hydrocarbon combustion. This mechanism is used for predictions of the oxidation of butadiene, the primary HTPB pyrolysis product. A Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) based simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion is proposed. The simplification algorithm is fed with the steady-solutions of classical flamelet equations, these being representative of the non-premixed nature of the combustion processes characterizing a hybrid rocket combustion chamber. The adopted flamelet steady-state solutions are obtained employing pure butadiene and gaseous oxygen as fuel and oxidizer boundary conditions, respectively, for a range of imposed values of strain rate and background pressure. Three simplified chemical mechanisms, each comprising less than 20 species, are obtained for three different pressure values, 3, 17, and 36 bar, selected in accordance with an experimental test campaign of lab-scale hybrid rocket static firings. Finally, a comprehensive strategy is shown to provide simplified mechanisms capable of reproducing the main flame features in the whole pressure range considered.

  7. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler's movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler's shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler's head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown whether external force to the glenoid is different in each mechanism

  8. On the microstructural origin of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, M.; Reppich, B.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys is strongly correlated to the different hardening species present in the material. In fine-grained single-phase material the classical assumption of a homogeneous dislocation distribution enables the prediction of the transition from normal via sigmoidal to inverse primary creep with decreasing applied stress σ. In coarse-grained material the back stress σ b of hard subgrain boundaries evolving during plastic deformation must be additionally taken into account. Second-phase particles influence creep in a 2-fold manner via reducing the effective stress σ eff , namely directly by the stress σ p * for particle overcoming, and indirectly by increasing the dislocation density ρ. The proposed approach accounts for the observed pronounced normal primary creep in particle-strengthened superalloys. (orig.)

  9. Stress corrosion mechanisms of alloy-600 polycrystals and monocrystals in primary water: effect of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foct, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600 primary water stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, this work is mainly focussed on the two following points. The first one is to understand the influence of hydrogen on SCC of industrial Alloy 600 and the second one is to study the crack initiation and propagation on polycrystals and single crystals. A cathodic potential applied during slow strain rate tests does not affect crack initiation but increases the slow crack growth rate by a factor 2 to 5. Cathodic polarisation, cold work and 25 cm 3 STP/kg hydrogen content increase the slow CGR so that the K ISCC (and therefore fast CGR) is reached. The influence of hydrogenated primary water has been studied for the first time on Alloy 600 single crystals. Cracks cannot initiate on tensile specimens but they can propagate on pre-cracked specimens. Transgranular cracks present a precise crystallographic aspect which is similar to that of 316 alloy in MgCl 2 solutions. Moreover, the following results improve the description of the cracking conditions. Firstly, the higher the hydrogen partial pressure, the lower the Alloy 600 passivation current transients. Since this result is not correlated with the effect of hydrogen on SCC, cracking is not caused by a direct effect of dissolved hydrogen on dissolution. Secondly, hydrogen embrittlement of Alloy 600 disappears at temperatures above 200 deg.C. Thirdly, grain boundary sliding (GBS) does not directly act on SCC but shows the mechanical weakness of grain boundaries. Regarding the proposed models for Alloy 600 SCC, it is possible to draw the following conclusions. Internal oxidation or absorbed hydrogen effects are the most probable mechanisms for initiation. Dissolution, internal oxidation and global hydrogen embrittlement models cannot explain crack propagation. On the other hand, the Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity Model gives a good description of the SCC propagation. (author)

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of the selective oxidation of primary aliphatic alcohols under phase transfer catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijudas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the oxidation of primary aliphatic alcohols has been carried out using phase transferred monochromate in benzene. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB are used as phase transfer catalysts (PT catalyst. The reaction shows first order dependence on both [alcohol] and [monochromate ion]. The oxidation leads to the formation of corresponding aldehyde and no traces of carboxylic acid has been detected. The reaction mixture failed to induce the polymerization of added acrylonitrile which rules out the presence radical intermediates in the reaction. Various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  11. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  12. Physico-mechanical properties determination using microscale homotopic measurements: Application to sound and caries-affected primary tooth dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, Orestes; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette; Bohaty, Brenda; Katz, J. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Microscale elastic moduli, composition and density have rarely been determined at the same location for biological materials. In this paper, we have performed homotopic measurements to determine the physico-mechanical properties of a second primary molar specimen exhibiting sound and caries-affected regions. A microscale acoustic impedance map of a section through this sample was acquired using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Scanning electron microscopy was then used to obtain mineral mass fraction of the same section using backscattered images. Careful calibration of each method was performed to reduce system effects and obtain accurate data. Resorption, demineralization and hypermineralization mechanisms were considered in order to derive relationships between measured mineral mass fraction and material mass density. As a result, microscale mass density was determined at the same lateral resolution and location as the SAM data. The mass density and the acoustic impedance were combined to find the microscale elastic modulus and study the relationship between microscale composition and mechanical properties. PMID:19059013

  13. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  14. Project-Based Laboratory Experiences in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe project-based laboratories in Mechanical Engineering designed to provide semester-long team experiences which mimic the real life industrial processes of design, development, testing and optimization. The labs are focused on courses at the sophomore level and thus require special attention to constraints of student backgrounds and experience. This paper describes laboratory projects in Dynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

  15. Primary Teachers' Reflections on Inquiry- and Context-Based Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Mc Ewen, Birgitta

    2017-04-01

    Inquiry- and context-based teaching strategies have been proven to stimulate and motivate students' interests in learning science. In this study, 12 teachers reflected on these strategies after using them in primary schools. The teachers participated in a continuous professional development (CPD) programme. During the programme, they were also introduced to a teaching model from a European project, where inquiry- and context-based education (IC-BaSE) strategies were fused. The research question related to teachers' reflections on these teaching strategies, and whether they found the model to be useful in primary schools after testing it with their students. Data collection was performed during the CPD programme and consisted of audio-recorded group discussions, individual portfolios and field notes collected by researchers. Results showed that compared with using only one instructional strategy, teachers found the new teaching model to be a useful complement. However, their discussions also showed that they did not reflect on choices of strategies or purposes and aims relating to students' understanding, or the content to be taught. Before the CPD programme, teachers discussed the use of inquiry mainly from the aspect that students enjoy practical work. After the programme, they identified additional reasons for using inquiry and discussed the importance of knowing why inquiry is performed. However, to develop teachers' knowledge of instructional strategies as well as purposes for using certain strategies, there is need for further investigations among primary school teachers.

  16. Increased EEG sigma and beta power during NREM sleep in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The hyperarousal model of primary insomnia suggests that a deficit of attenuating arousal during sleep might cause the experience of non-restorative sleep. In the current study, we examined EEG spectral power values for standard frequency bands as indices of cortical arousal and sleep protecting mechanisms during sleep in 25 patients with primary insomnia and 29 good sleeper controls. Patients with primary insomnia demonstrated significantly elevated spectral power values in the EEG beta and sigma frequency band during NREM stage 2 sleep. No differences were observed in other frequency bands or during REM sleep. Based on prior studies suggesting that EEG beta activity represents a marker of cortical arousal and EEG sleep spindle (sigma) activity is an index of sleep protective mechanisms, our findings may provide further evidence for the concept that a simultaneous activation of wake-promoting and sleep-protecting neural activity patterns contributes to the experience of non-restorative sleep in primary insomnia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Model to Couple Flow, Thermal and Reactive Chemical Transport, and Geo-mechanics in Variably Saturated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, G. T.; Tsai, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a THMC (thermal-hydrology-mechanics-chemistry) process model in variably saturated media. The governing equations for variably saturated flow and reactive chemical transport are obtained based on the mass conservation principle of species transport supplemented with Darcy's law, constraint of species concentration, equation of states, and constitutive law of K-S-P (Conductivity-Degree of Saturation-Capillary Pressure). The thermal transport equation is obtained based on the conservation of energy. The geo-mechanic displacement is obtained based on the assumption of equilibrium. Conventionally, these equations have been implicitly coupled via the calculations of secondary variables based on primary variables. The mechanisms of coupling have not been obvious. In this paper, governing equations are explicitly coupled for all primary variables. The coupling is accomplished via the storage coefficients, transporting velocities, and conduction-dispersion-diffusion coefficient tensor; one set each for every primary variable. With this new system of equations, the coupling mechanisms become clear. Physical interpretations of every term in the coupled equations will be discussed. Examples will be employed to demonstrate the intuition and superiority of these explicit coupling approaches. Keywords: Variably Saturated Flow, Thermal Transport, Geo-mechanics, Reactive Transport.

  18. Inquiry-based science education: towards a pedagogical framework for primary school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uum, Martina S. J.; Verhoeff, Roald P.; Peeters, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been promoted as an inspiring way of learning science by engaging pupils in designing and conducting their own scientific investigations. For primary school teachers, the open nature of IBSE poses challenges as they often lack experience in supporting their pupils during the different phases of an open IBSE project, such as formulating a research question and designing and conducting an investigation. The current study aims to meet these challenges by presenting a pedagogical framework in which four domains of scientific knowledge are addressed in seven phases of inquiry. The framework is based on video analyses of pedagogical interventions by primary school teachers participating in open IBSE projects. Our results show that teachers can guide their pupils successfully through the process of open inquiry by explicitly addressing the conceptual, epistemic, social and/or procedural domain of scientific knowledge in the subsequent phases of inquiry. The paper concludes by suggesting further research to validate our framework and to develop a pedagogy for primary school teachers to guide their pupils through the different phases of open inquiry.

  19. Emulsion-Based RIR-MAPLE Deposition of Conjugated Polymers: Primary Solvent Effect and Its Implications on Organic Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao; Li, Nan K; McCormick, Ryan D; Lichtenberg, Eli; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D

    2016-08-03

    Emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been demonstrated as an alternative technique to deposit conjugated polymer films for photovoltaic applications; yet, a fundamental understanding of how the emulsion target characteristics translate into film properties and solar cell performance is unclear. Such understanding is crucial to enable the rational improvement of organic solar cell (OSC) efficiency and to realize the expected advantages of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE for OSC fabrication. In this paper, the effect of the primary solvent used in the emulsion target is studied, both experimentally and theoretically, and it is found to determine the conjugated polymer cluster size in the emulsion as well as surface roughness and internal morphology of resulting polymer films. By using a primary solvent with low solubility-in-water and low vapor pressure, the surface roughness of deposited P3HT and PCPDTBT polymer films was reduced to 10 nm, and the efficiency of P3HT:PC61BM OSCs was increased to 3.2% (∼100 times higher compared to the first MAPLE OSC demonstration [ Caricato , A. P. ; Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012 , 100 , 073306 ]). This work unveils the mechanism of polymer film formation using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE and provides insight and direction to determine the best ways to take advantage of the emulsion target approach to control film properties for different applications.

  20. Quantum control mechanism analysis through field based Hamiltonian encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be increasingly successful. The control fields can be complex, and the mechanisms by which they operate have often remained obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) has been proposed as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics. In this context mechanism is defined in terms of the dominant quantum pathways leading to the final state of the controlled system. HE operates by encoding a special modulation into the Hamiltonian and decoding its signature in the dynamics to determine the dominant pathway amplitudes. Earlier work encoded the modulation directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This present work introduces the alternative scheme of field based HE, where the modulation is encoded into the control field and not directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This distinct form of modulation yields a new perspective on mechanism and is computationally faster than the earlier approach. Field based encoding is also an important step towards a laboratory based algorithm for HE as it is the only form of encoding that may be experimentally executed. HE is also extended to cover systems with noise and uncertainty and finally, a hierarchical algorithm is introduced to reveal mechanism in a stepwise fashion of ever increasing detail as desired. This new hierarchical algorithm is an improvement over earlier approaches to HE where the entire mechanism was determined in one stroke. The improvement comes from the use of less complex modulation schemes, which leads to fewer evaluations of Schroedinger's equation. A number of simulations are presented on simple systems to illustrate the new field based encoding technique for mechanism assessment

  1. Exploring weight loss services in primary care and staff views on using a web-based programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Lisa J; Williams, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Brant, Catherine; Little, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Yardley, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Demand is increasing for primary care to deliver effective weight management services to patients, but research suggests that staff feel inadequately resourced for such a role. Supporting service delivery with a free and effective web-based weight management programme could maximise primary care resource and provide cost-effective support for patients. However, integration of e-health into primary care may face challenges. To explore primary care staff experiences of delivering weight management services and their perceptions of a web-based weight management programme to aid service delivery. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians, nurses and healthcare assistants (n = 36) involved in delivering weight loss services. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants thought that primary care should be involved in delivering weight management, especially when weight was aggravating health problems. However, they felt under-resourced to deliver these services and unsure as to the effectiveness of their input, as routine services were not evaluated. Beliefs that current services were ineffective resulted in staff reluctance to allocate more resources. Participants were hopeful that supplementing practice with a web-based weight management programme would enhance patient services and promote service evaluation. Although primary care staff felt they should deliver weight loss services, low levels of faith in the efficacy of current treatments resulted in provision of under-resourced and 'ad hoc' services. Integration of a web-based weight loss programme that promotes service evaluation and provides a cost-effective option for supporting patients may encourage practices to invest more in weight management services.

  2. Exploring weight loss services in primary care and staff views on using a web-based programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Ware

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Demand is increasing for primary care to deliver effective weight management services to patients, but research suggests that staff feel inadequately resourced for such a role. Supporting service delivery with a free and effective web-based weight management programme could maximise primary care resource and provide cost-effective support for patients. However, integration of ehealth into primary care may face challenges.Objectives To explore primary care staff experiences of delivering weight management services and their perceptions of a web-based weight management programme to aid service delivery.Methods Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians, nurses and healthcare assistants (n = 36 involved in delivering weight loss services. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.Results Participants thought that primary care should be involved in delivering weight management, especially when weight was aggravating health problems. However, they felt under-resourced to deliver these services and unsure as to the effectiveness of their input, as routine services were not evaluated. Beliefs that current services were ineffective resulted in staff reluctance to allocate more resources. Participants were hopeful that supplementing practice with a web-based weight management programme would enhance patient services and promote service evaluation.Conclusions Although primary care staff felt they should deliver weight loss services, low levels of faith in the efficacy of current treatments resulted in provision of under-resourced and ‘ad hoc’ services. Integration of a web-based weight loss programme that promotes service evaluation and provides a cost-effective option for supporting patients may encourage practices to invest more in weight management services.

  3. Mechanism-based drug exposure classification in pharmacoepidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdel, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism-based classification of drug exposure in pharmacoepidemiological studies In pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance, the relation between drug exposure and clinical outcomes is crucial. Exposure classification in pharmacoepidemiological studies is traditionally based on

  4. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  5. Oncogene Mimicry as a Mechanism of Primary Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Sos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of potent RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway inhibitors, only a fraction of BRAF-mutant patients benefit from treatment with these drugs. Using a combined chemogenomics and chemoproteomics approach, we identify drug-induced RAS-RAF-MEK complex formation in a subset of BRAF-mutant cancer cells characterized by primary resistance to vemurafenib. In these cells, autocrine interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion may contribute to the primary resistance phenotype via induction of JAK/STAT3 and MAPK signaling. In a subset of cell lines, combined IL-6/MAPK inhibition is able to overcome primary resistance to BRAF-targeted therapy. Overall, we show that the signaling plasticity exerted by primary resistant BRAF-mutant cells is achieved by their ability to mimic signaling features of oncogenic RAS, a strategy that we term “oncogene mimicry.” This model may guide future strategies for overcoming primary resistance observed in these tumors.

  6. An improved anti-leech mechanism based on session identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbiao; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Han; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology and extensive requirement of network resource sharing, plenty of resource hotlinking phenomenons appear on the internet. The hotlinking problem not only harms the interests of legal websites but also leads to a great affection to fair internet environment. The anti-leech technique based on session identifier is highly secure, but the transmission of session identifier in plaintext form causes some security flaws. In this paper, a proxy hotlinking technique based on session identifier is introduced firstly to illustrate these security flaws; next, this paper proposes an improved anti-leech mechanism based on session identifier, the mechanism takes the random factor as the core and detects hotlinking request using a map table that contains random factor, user's information and time stamp; at last the paper analyzes the security of mechanism in theory. The result reveals that the improved mechanism has the merits of simple realization, high security and great flexibility.

  7. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  9. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Ab Kasim; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah; Shukri Mohd

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  10. Temporalis myofascial flap for primary cranial base reconstruction after tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaly, Ahmed; Magdy, Emad A; Nour, Yasser A; Gaafar, Alaa H

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the use of the temporalis myofascial flap in primary cranial base reconstruction following surgical tumor ablation and to explain technical issues, potential complications, and donor site consequences along with their management. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Forty-one consecutive patients receiving primary temporalis myofascial flap reconstructions following cranial base tumor resections in a 4-year period. Flap survival, postoperative complications, and donor site morbidity. Patients included 37 males and 4 females ranging in age from 10 to 65 years. Two patients received preoperative and 18 postoperative radiation therapy. Patient follow-up ranged from 4 to 39 months. The whole temporalis muscle was used in 26 patients (63.4%) and only part of a coronally split muscle was used in 15 patients (36.6%). Nine patients had primary donor site reconstruction using a Medpor((R)) (Porex Surgical, Inc., Newnan, GA) temporal fossa implant; these had excellent aesthetic results. There were no cases of complete flap loss. Partial flap dehiscence was seen in six patients (14.6%); only two required surgical débridement. None of the patients developed cerebrospinal leaks or meningitis. One patient was left with complete paralysis of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Three patients (all had received postoperative irradiation) developed permanent trismus. The temporalis myofascial flap was found to be an excellent reconstructive alternative for a wide variety of skull base defects following tumor ablation. It is a very reliable, versatile flap that is usually available in the operative field with relatively low donor site aesthetic and functional morbidity.

  11. The Cost-Effectiveness of Dual Mobility Implants for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Computer-Based Cost-Utility Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-03

    Dislocation remains a clinically important problem following primary total hip arthroplasty, and it is a common reason for revision total hip arthroplasty. Dual mobility (DM) implants decrease the risk of dislocation but can be more expensive than conventional implants and have idiosyncratic failure mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of DM implants compared with conventional bearings for primary total hip arthroplasty. Markov model analysis was conducted from the societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs, expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars, were derived from the literature, the National Inpatient Sample, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The model was populated with health state utilities and state transition probabilities derived from previously published literature. The analysis was performed for a patient's lifetime, and costs and effectiveness were discounted at 3% annually. The principal outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explore relevant uncertainty. In the base case, DM total hip arthroplasty showed absolute dominance over conventional total hip arthroplasty, with lower accrued costs ($39,008 versus $40,031 U.S. dollars) and higher accrued utility (13.18 versus 13.13 QALYs) indicating cost-savings. DM total hip arthroplasty ceased being cost-saving when its implant costs exceeded those of conventional total hip arthroplasty by $1,023, and the cost-effectiveness threshold for DM implants was $5,287 greater than that for conventional implants. DM was not cost-effective when the annualized incremental probability of revision from any unforeseen failure mechanism or mechanisms exceeded 0.29%. The probability of intraprosthetic dislocation exerted the most influence on model results. This model

  12. The development of an RME-based geometrycourse for Indonesian Primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzan, A.; Plomp, T.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.; Plomp, T.; Nieveen, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and implement a valid, practical, and effective RME-based geometry course for Indonesian primary schools using design research approach. The research activities were divided into three stages namely front-end analysis, prototyping stage, and assessment stage that

  13. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 3 of 3: symptoms and signs of nociceptive pain in patients with low back (± leg) pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smart, Keith M

    2012-08-01

    As a mechanisms-based classification of pain \\'nociceptive pain\\' (NP) refers to pain attributable to the activation of the peripheral receptive terminals of primary afferent neurones in response to noxious chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. The symptoms and signs associated with clinical classifications of NP have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to identify symptoms and signs associated with a clinical classification of NP in patients with low back (± leg) pain. Using a cross-sectional, between-subjects design; four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (± leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol after which their pain was assigned a mechanisms-based classification based on experienced clinical judgement. Clinicians then completed a clinical criteria checklist indicating the presence\\/absence of various symptoms and signs. A regression analysis identified a cluster of seven clinical criteria predictive of NP, including: \\'Pain localised to the area of injury\\/dysfunction\\

  14. Feedback control of primary circulation pump of PIUS-Type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Anoda, Yoshinari; Murata, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka; Tasaka, Kanji.

    1991-05-01

    In operating the PIUS-Type reactor, it is required to keep stationary density interfaces between the primary loop hot water and the poison tank cold, borated water by maintaining pressure balance between the primary-loop and the poison-tank. The authors have developed a primary circulation pump speed control system and tested it in small-scale experiments. This control system regulates the pump speed based on measurements of the density lock differential pressure which is proportional to the elevation of the interface in the density lock. This pump speed control facilitated the normal plant operation which included core power changes. However, the elevation of the density interface indicated oscillatory behavior when the pump speed was regulated as a linear function of the density lock differential pressure. The mechanism responsible for such oscillatory behavior was found to be manometric oscillations that could be eliminated by adding a damping term to compensate for the mechanical delay of the primary pump speed. The passive shutdown function of the reactor was retained by setting an upper limit to the pump speed. This was confirmed in a loss-of-feedwater abnormal transient test. (author)

  15. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  16. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  17. Evidence-based medicine in primary care: qualitative study of family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas Guilherme

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were: a to examine physician attitudes to and experience of the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM in primary care; b to investigate the influence of patient preferences on clinical decision-making; and c to explore the role of intuition in family practice. Method Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews of 15 family physicians purposively selected from respondents to a national survey on EBM mailed to a random sample of Canadian family physicians. Results Participants mainly welcomed the promotion of EBM in the primary care setting. A significant number of barriers and limitations to the implementation of EBM were identified. EBM is perceived by some physicians as a devaluation of the 'art of medicine' and a threat to their professional/clinical autonomy. Issues regarding the trustworthiness and credibility of evidence were of great concern, especially with respect to the influence of the pharmaceutical industry. Attempts to become more evidence-based often result in the experience of conflicts. Patient factors exert a powerful influence on clinical decision-making and can serve as trumps to research evidence. A widespread belief that intuition plays a vital role in primary care reinforced views that research evidence must be considered alongside other factors such as patient preferences and the clinical judgement and experience of the physician. Discussion Primary care physicians are increasingly keen to consider research evidence in clinical decision-making, but there are significant concerns about the current model of EBM. Our findings support the proposed revisions to EBM wherein greater emphasis is placed on clinical expertise and patient preferences, both of which remain powerful influences on physician behaviour.

  18. Evidence-based medicine in primary care: qualitative study of family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C Shawn; Dantas, Guilherme Coelho; Upshur, Ross E G

    2003-05-09

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine physician attitudes to and experience of the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in primary care; b) to investigate the influence of patient preferences on clinical decision-making; and c) to explore the role of intuition in family practice. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews of 15 family physicians purposively selected from respondents to a national survey on EBM mailed to a random sample of Canadian family physicians. Participants mainly welcomed the promotion of EBM in the primary care setting. A significant number of barriers and limitations to the implementation of EBM were identified. EBM is perceived by some physicians as a devaluation of the 'art of medicine' and a threat to their professional/clinical autonomy. Issues regarding the trustworthiness and credibility of evidence were of great concern, especially with respect to the influence of the pharmaceutical industry. Attempts to become more evidence-based often result in the experience of conflicts. Patient factors exert a powerful influence on clinical decision-making and can serve as trumps to research evidence. A widespread belief that intuition plays a vital role in primary care reinforced views that research evidence must be considered alongside other factors such as patient preferences and the clinical judgement and experience of the physician. Primary care physicians are increasingly keen to consider research evidence in clinical decision-making, but there are significant concerns about the current model of EBM. Our findings support the proposed revisions to EBM wherein greater emphasis is placed on clinical expertise and patient preferences, both of which remain powerful influences on physician behaviour.

  19. The Mechanism Of Auriculotherapy: A Case Report Based On The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mechanism Of Auriculotherapy: A Case Report Based On The Fractal Structure Of Meridian System. ... The corresponding acupuncture mechanism of therapeutics has been attributed to the magneto-electric inductive effects of the meridian system via chaotic wave of nerve innervations and blood flow. Hence, based on ...

  20. SU-8 Based Piezoresistive Mechanical Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vestergaard, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first SU-8 based piezoresistive mechanical sensor. Conventionally, silicon has been used as a piezoresistive material due to its high gauge factor and thereby high sensitivity to strain changes in a sensor. By using the fact that SU-8 is much softer than silicon and that a gold...

  1. Comparison of gene expression profile in embryonic mesencephalon and neuronal primary cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Greco

    Full Text Available In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS an important contingent of dopaminergic neurons are localized in the substantia nigra and in the ventral tegmental area of the ventral midbrain. They constitute an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous group of cells involved in a variety of regulatory mechanisms, from locomotion to emotional/motivational behavior. Midbrain dopaminergic neuron (mDA primary cultures represent a useful tool to study molecular mechanisms involved in their development and maintenance. Considerable information has been gathered on the mDA neurons development and maturation in vivo, as well as on the molecular features of mDA primary cultures. Here we investigated in detail the gene expression differences between the tissue of origin and ventral midbrain primary cultures enriched in mDA neurons, using microarray technique. We integrated the results based on different re-annotations of the microarray probes. By using knowledge-based gene network techniques and promoter sequence analysis, we also uncovered mechanisms that might regulate the expression of CNS genes involved in the definition of the identity of specific cell types in the ventral midbrain. We integrate bioinformatics and functional genomics, together with developmental neurobiology. Moreover, we propose guidelines for the computational analysis of microarray gene expression data. Our findings help to clarify some molecular aspects of the development and differentiation of DA neurons within the midbrain.

  2. Time providing care outside visits in a home-based primary care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, Elizabeth J; Ornstein, Katherine A; Farber, Jeffrey; DeCherrie, Linda V

    2014-06-01

    To assess how much time physicians in a large home-based primary care (HBPC) program spend providing care outside of home visits. Unreimbursed time and patient and provider-related factors that may contribute to that time were considered. Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors (MSVD) providers filled out research forms for every interaction involving care provision outside of home visits. Data collected included length of interaction, mode, nature, and with whom the interaction was for 3 weeks. MSVD, an academic home-visit program in Manhattan, New York. All primary care physicians (PCPs) in MSVD (n = 14) agreed to participate. Time data were analyzed using a comprehensive estimate and conservative estimates to quantify unbillable time. Data on 1,151 interactions for 537 patients were collected. An average 8.2 h/wk was spent providing nonhome visit care for a full-time provider. Using the most conservative estimates, 3.6 h/wk was estimated to be unreimbursed per full-time provider. No significant differences in interaction times were found between patients with and without dementia, new and established patients, and primary-panel and covered patients. Home-based primary care providers spend substantial time providing care outside home visits, much of which goes unrecognized in the current reimbursement system. These findings may help guide practice development and creation of new payment systems for HBPC and similar models of care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Optimization evaluation of cutting technology based on mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between the mechanical manufacturing process and the carbon emission is studied on the basis of the process of the mechanical manufacturing process. The formula of carbon emission calculation suitable for mechanical manufacturing process is derived. Based on this, a green evaluation method for cold machining process of mechanical parts is proposed. The application verification and data analysis of the proposed evaluation method are carried out by an example. The results show that there is a great relationship between the mechanical manufacturing process data and carbon emissions.

  4. The impact of team-based primary care on health care services utilization and costs: Quebec's family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Erin; Ammi, Mehdi; Diop, Mamadou; Fiset-Laniel, Julie; Tousignant, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the effects on health care costs and utilization of team-based primary care delivery: Quebec's Family Medicine Groups (FMGs). FMGs include extended hours, patient enrolment and multidisciplinary teams, but they maintain the same remuneration scheme (fee-for-service) as outside FMGs. In contrast to previous studies, we examine the impacts of organizational changes in primary care settings in the absence of changes to provider payment and outside integrated care systems. We built a panel of administrative data of the population of elderly and chronically ill patients, characterizing all individuals as FMG enrollees or not. Participation in FMGs is voluntary and we address potential selection bias by matching on GP propensity scores, using inverse probability of treatment weights at the patient level, and then estimating difference-in-differences models. We also use appropriate modelling strategies to account for the distributions of health care cost and utilization data. We find that FMGs significantly decrease patients' health care services utilization and costs in outpatient settings relative to patients not in FMGs. The number of primary care visits decreased by 11% per patient per year among FMG enrolees and specialist visits declined by 6%. The declines in costs were of roughly equal magnitude. We found no evidence of an effect on hospitalizations, their associated costs, or the costs of ED visits. These results provide support for the idea that primary care organizational reforms can have impacts on the health care system in the absence of changes to physician payment mechanisms. The extent to which the decline in GP visits represents substitution with other primary care providers warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical properties and osteocompatibility of novel biodegradable alanine based polyphosphazenes: Side group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Nair, Lakshmi S; El-Amin, Saadiq; Nguyen, My-Tien; Singh, Anurima; Krogman, Nick; Greish, Yaser E; Allcock, Harry R; Brown, Paul W; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-06-01

    The versatility of polymers for tissue regeneration lies in the feasibility to modulate the physical and biological properties by varying the side groups grafted to the polymers. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes are high-molecular-weight polymers with alternating nitrogen and phosphorus atoms in the backbone. This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate the effect of side group structure on the compressive strength of novel biodegradable polyphosphazene based polymers as potential materials for tissue regeneration. The alanine polyphosphazene based polymers, poly(bis(ethyl alanato) phosphazene) (PNEA), poly((50% ethyl alanato) (50% methyl phenoxy) phosphazene) (PNEA(50)mPh(50)), poly((50% ethyl alanato) (50% phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene) (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)) were investigated to demonstrate their mechanical properties and osteocompatibility. Results of mechanical testing studies demonstrated that the nature and the ratio of the pendent groups attached to the polymer backbone play a significant role in determining the mechanical properties of the resulting polymer. The compressive strength of PNEA(50)PhPh(50) was significantly higher than poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (85:15 PLAGA) (p<0.05). Additional studies evaluated the cellular response and gene expression of primary rat osteoblast cells on PNEA, PNEA(50)mPh(50) and PNEA(50)PhPh(50) films as candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. Results of the in vitro osteocompatibility evaluation demonstrated that cells adhere, proliferate, and maintain their phenotype when seeded directly on the surface of PNEA, PNEA(50)mPh(50), and PNEA(50)PhPh(50). Moreover, cells on the surface of the polymers expressed type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein, which are characteristic genes for osteoblast maturation, differentiation, and mineralization. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm

  7. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm.

  8. Linking project-based mechanisms with domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bygrave, S.; Bosi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are a number of possible links between emission trading and project-based mechanisms, the focus of this paper is on linking domestic GHG emission trading schemes with: (1) domestic; and, (2) international (JI and CDM) GHG reduction project activities. The objective is to examine some of the challenges in linking DETs and project-based mechanisms, as well as some possible solutions to address these challenges. The link between JI / CDM and intergovernmental international emissions trading (i.e. Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol) is defined by the Kyoto Protocol, and therefore is not covered in this paper. The paper is written in the context of: (a) countries adhering to the Kyoto Protocol and elaborating their strategies to meet their GHG emission commitments, including through the use of the emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. For example, the European Union (EU) will be commencing a GHG Emissions Trading Scheme in January 2005, and recently, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament agreed on a text for an EU Linking Directive allowing the use of JI and CDM emission units in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); and (b) all countries (and/or regions within countries) with GHG emission obligations that may choose to use domestic emissions trading and project-based mechanisms to meet their GHG commitments. The paper includes the following elements: (1) an overview of the different flexibility mechanisms (i.e. GHG emissions trading and PBMs), including a brief description and comparisons between the mechanisms (Section 3); (2) an exploration of the issues that emerge when project-based mechanisms link with domestic emissions trading schemes, as well as possible solutions to address some of the challenges raised (Section 4); (3) a case study examining the EU-ETS and the EU Linking Directive on project-based mechanisms, in particular on how the EU is addressing in a practical context relevant linking issues (Section 5); (4) a

  9. Examining LGBTQ-Based Literature Intended for Primary and Intermediate Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, John H., III

    2018-01-01

    This content analysis research examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals and issues are represented in elementary-level trade books. The data pool included every LGBTQ-based trade book with intended audiences of primary (grades K-2) and intermediate (grades 3-5) elementary students. Trade books…

  10. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  11. Stiffening mechanisms in amorphous polyamide bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter W. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Macheca, Afonso D. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, P.O. Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Benhamida, Aida; Kaci, Mustapha [Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères Avancés (LMPA), Université de Bejaia 06000 (Algeria)

    2016-05-18

    Dimer fatty acid polyamide nanocomposites based on flake- or needle-shaped nanoparticles were prepared via melt compounding. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of both individually dispersed particles and particle agglomerates in the polymer matrix. Dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that three stiffening mechanisms were operating. The reinforcing effect of the high stiffness inorganic filler particles is the primary contributor. Together with the chain confinement effect, that expresses itself in an apparent increase in the glass transition temperature, this provided an adequate rationalization of the stiffness variation below Tg. However, an additional stiffening effect is indicated at temperatures above Tg. The mechanism may involve dynamic network formation based on fluctuating hydrogen bonding interactions between the polymer chains and the filler particles.

  12. Digital Story-Based Problem Solving Applications: Preservice Primary Teachers' Experiences and Future Integration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Çigdem; Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    This case study investigates how preservice primary school teachers describe their experiences with digital story-based problem solving applications and their plans for the future integration of this technology into their teaching. Totally 113 preservice primary school teachers participated in the study. Data collection tools included a…

  13. Perceived benefits of adopting Standard – Based pricing mechanism for mechanical and electrical services installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Amuda Yusuf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important measure of project success and clients will expect a reliable forecast at the early stage of construction projects to inform their business decision. This study was undertaken to investigate the current practices in managing cost of mechanical and electrical (M&E services in buildings. The perceptions of practitioners on the benefits of adopting Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism for M&E services as used for building fabrics and finishes was ascertained. The methodology adopted for the study was semi – structure interview and questionnaire survey.  Inferential statistics technique was used to analyse the data collected. The results revealed that, M&E services tender documents are often based on lump sum contract. Practitioners are of the opinion that the adoption of Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism (SBPM could enhance the quality of M&E services price forecast; ensure active post contract cost monitoring and control; encourage collaborative working relationship; enhance efficient whole life cycle cost management; improve risk management and facilitate efficient tendering process. The study suggested the development of local Standard Method of Measurement for M&E services and proposed strategies to facilitate the adoption of SBPM as basis for forecasting contract price of mechanical and electrical services in buildings.

  14. Mechanics model for actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  15. A Container-based Trusted Multi-level Security Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level security mechanism has been widely applied in the military, government, defense and other domains in which information is required to be divided by security-level. Through this type of security mechanism, users at different security levels are provided with information at corresponding security levels. Traditional multi-level security mechanism which depends on the safety of operating system finally proved to be not practical. We propose a container-based trusted multi-level security mechanism in this paper to improve the applicability of the multi-level mechanism. It guarantees multi-level security of the system through a set of multi-level security policy rules and trusted techniques. The technical feasibility and application scenarios are also discussed. The ease of realization, strong practical significance and low cost of our method will largely expand the application of multi-level security mechanism in real life.

  16. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  17. Web-based screening for diabetic retinopathy in a primary care population: The EyeCheck Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Suttorp-Schulten, M.S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ATA category 2 Web-based screening for diabetic retinopathy in a primary care population in the Netherlands. A total of 1,676 patients in a primary care setting, with diabetes, without known diabetic retinopathy, and without previous

  18. Estimating demand for primary care-based treatment for substance and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Epstein, Andrew J; Fiellin, David A; Fraenkel, Liana; Busch, Susan H

    2016-08-01

    While there is broad recognition of the high societal costs of substance use disorders (SUD), treatment rates are low. We examined whether, in the United States, participants with substance or alcohol use disorder would report a greater willingness to enter SUD treatment located in a primary care setting (primary care) or more commonly found specialty care setting in the United States (usual care). Randomized survey-embedded experiment. US web-based research panel in which participants were randomized to read one-paragraph vignettes describing treatment in usual care (specialty drug or alcohol treatment center), primary care or collaborative care within a primary care setting. A total of 42 451 panelists aged 18+ were screened for substance or alcohol use disorder using validated diagnostic criteria. Participants included 344 with a substance use disorder and 634 with an alcohol use disorder not in treatment with no prior treatment history. Willingness to enter treatment across vignettes by condition. Among participants with a substance use disorder, 24.6% of those randomized to usual care reported being willing to enter drug treatment compared with 37.2% for primary care [12.6 percentage point difference; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8, 24.4) and 34.0% for collaborative care (9.4 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -2.0, 20.8). Among participants with an alcohol use disorder, 17.6% of those randomized to usual care reported being willing to enter alcohol treatment compared with 20.3% for primary care (2.6 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -4.9, 10.1) and 20.8% for collaborative care (3.1 percentage point difference; 95% CI = -4.3, 10.6). The most common reason for not being willing to enter drug (63%) and alcohol (78%) treatment was the belief that treatment was not needed. In the United States, people diagnosed with substance or alcohol use disorders appear to be more willing to enter treatment in a primary care setting than in a specialty drug

  19. Research on Cavitation Regions of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal Based on Dynamic Mesh Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the cavitation area of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal, three-dimensional microgap inner flow field of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal was simulated with multiphase flow cavitation model and dynamic mesh technique based on hydrodynamic lubrication theory. Furthermore, the simulated result was compared with the experimental data. The results show that the simulated result with the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model was much closer to the experimental data. The area of cavitation inception mainly occurred at the concave side of the spiral groove and surrounding region without spiral grooves, which was nearly covered by the inner diameter to roots of grooves; in addition, the region near the surface of the stationary ring was primary cavitation location. The area of cavitation has little relationship with the medium pressure; however, it became larger following increasing rotating speed in the range of researched operating conditions. Moreover the boundary of cavitated area was transformed from smooth to rough, which occurred in similar film thickness. When cavitation number was decreasing, which was conducive to improving the lubrication performance of sealed auxiliary, it made the sealing stability decline.

  20. Ultrasound-based testing of tendon mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seynnes, O R; Bojsen-Møller, J.; Albracht, K

    2015-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the use of ultrasound-based methods has become a standard approach to measure tendon mechanical properties in vivo. Yet the multitude of methodological approaches adopted by various research groups probably contribute to the large variability of reported values. The technique......, or signal synchronization; and 2) in physiological considerations related to the viscoelastic behavior or length measurements of tendons. Hence, the purpose of the present review is to assess and discuss the physiological and technical aspects connected to in vivo testing of tendon mechanical properties...

  1. An Agent-Based Model for Addressing the Impact of a Disaster on Access to Primary Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Hasan; Kumar, Supriya; Galloway, David; Krauland, Mary; Sood, Rishi; Bocour, Angelica; Hershey, Tina Batra; van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy in the Rockaways, Queens, forced residents to evacuate and primary care providers to close or curtail operations. A large deficit in primary care access was apparent in the immediate aftermath of the storm. Our objective was to build a computational model to aid responders in planning to situate primary care services in a disaster-affected area. Using an agent-based modeling platform, HAZEL, we simulated the Rockaways population, its evacuation behavior, and primary care providers' availability in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Data sources for this model included post-storm and community health surveys from New York City, a survey of the Rockaways primary care providers, and research literature. The model then tested geospatially specific interventions to address storm-related access deficits. The model revealed that areas of high primary care access deficit were concentrated in the eastern part of the Rockaways. Placing mobile health clinics in the most populous census tracts reduced the access deficit significantly, whereas increasing providers' capacity by 50% reduced the deficit to a lesser degree. An agent-based model may be a useful tool to have in place so that policy makers can conduct scenario-based analyses to plan interventions optimally in the event of a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:386-393).

  2. Development of Population-Based Resilience Measures in the Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Stewart, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the population-based study in the paper is to report on progress in formulating instruments to measure children's resilience and associated protective factors in family, primary school and community contexts. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper a total of 2,794 students, 1,558 parents/caregivers, and 465 staff were…

  3. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  4. Visible-Light-Promoted Metal-Free Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Amines to Acids and Lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaokai; Yang, Bo; Hu, Xingen; Xu, Qing; Lu, Zhan

    2016-12-05

    A unique metal-free aerobic oxidation of primary amines via visible light photocatalytic double carbon-carbon bonds cleavage and multi carbon-hydrogen bonds oxidation was observed. Aerobic oxidation of primary amines could be controlled to afford acids by using dioxane with 18 W CFL, and lactones by using DMF with 8 W green LEDs, respectively. A plausible mechanism was proposed based on control experiments. This observation showed direct evidences for the fragmentation in the aerobic oxidation of aliphatic primary amines. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of aluminium content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of zinc-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.K.; Patwardhan, A.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Attention has been focussed on the influence of Al content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of Zn-based alloys. Aspects studied include microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and elongation as well as sliding wear response of the alloys. Microstructural features of the alloys showed the presence of primary α, eutectic/eutectoid α + η (depending on whether the alloy was hypereutectic/hypereutectoid with regard to the concentration of Al) along with the meta stable ε phase. The study suggests that it is possible to design and develop Zn-based alloys with a wide range of concentration of Al. The alloys in turn attain different combinations of physical, mechanical and wear properties which could suit a variety of engineering applications. Increasing the Al content in the alloy system proves beneficial within limits. In other words, there exists an optimum quantity of Al which could reap its advantage to the maximum extent. This of course varies with reference to a specific property of the alloy(s). The changing response of the alloys has been explained in terms of their microstructural features and the effects produced as a result of the test conditions maintained while characterizing the specimens. (orig.)

  6. Projector primary-based optimization for superimposed projection mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Yong Yi; Lee, Kwan H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, many researchers have focused on fully overlapping projections for three-dimensional (3-D) projection mapping systems but reproducing a high-quality appearance using this technology still remains a challenge. On top of existing color compensation-based methods, much effort is still required to faithfully reproduce an appearance that is free from artifacts, colorimetric inconsistencies, and inappropriate illuminance over the 3-D projection surface. According to our observation, this is due to the fact that overlapping projections are treated as an additive-linear mixture of color. However, this is not the case according to our elaborated observations. We propose a method that enables us to use high-quality appearance data that are measured from original objects and regenerate the same appearance by projecting optimized images using multiple projectors, ensuring that the projection-rendered results look visually close to the real object. We prepare our target appearances by photographing original objects. Then, using calibrated projector-camera pairs, we compensate for missing geometric correspondences to make our method robust against noise. The heart of our method is a target appearance-driven adaptive sampling of the projection surface followed by a representation of overlapping projections in terms of the projector-primary response. This gives off projector-primary weights to facilitate blending and the system is applied with constraints. These samples are used to populate a light transport-based system. Then, the system is solved minimizing the error to get the projection images in a noise-free manner by utilizing intersample overlaps. We ensure that we make the best utilization of available hardware resources to recreate projection mapped appearances that look as close to the original object as possible. Our experimental results show compelling results in terms of visual similarity and colorimetric error.

  7. Shape memory-based actuators and release mechanisms therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Snyder, Daniel W. (Inventor); Schoenwald, David K. (Inventor); Lam, Nhin S. (Inventor); Watson, Daniel S. (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu B. (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    SM-based actuators (110) and release mechanisms (100) therefrom and systems (500) including one or more release mechanisms (100). The actuators (110) comprise a SM member (118) and a deformable member (140) mechanically coupled to the SM member (118) which deforms upon a shape change of the SM member triggered by a phase transition of the SM member. A retaining element (160) is mechanically coupled to the deformable member (140), wherein the retaining element (160) moves upon the shape change. Release mechanism (100) include an actuator, a rotatable mechanism (120) including at least one restraining feature (178) for restraining rotational movement of the retaining element (160) before the shape change, and at least one spring (315) that provides at least one locked spring-loaded position when the retaining element is in the restraining feature and at least one released position that is reached when the retaining element is in a position beyond the restraining feature (178). The rotatable mechanism (120) includes at least one load-bearing protrusion (310). A hitch (400) is for mechanically coupling to the load, wherein the hitch is supported on the load bearing protrusion (310) when the rotatable mechanism is in the locked spring-loaded position.

  8. Forcefields based molecular modeling on the mechanical and physical properties of emeraldine base polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanical (MM) analysis are carried out to provide reliable and accurate model for emeraldine base polyaniline. This study validate the forcefields and model with the physical and mechanical properties of the polyaniline. The temperature effects on non-bond

  9. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2012-06-05

    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An Overview of Diabetes Management in Schizophrenia Patients: Office Based Strategies for Primary Care Practitioners and Endocrinologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is common and seen in one in five patients with schizophrenia. It is more prevalent than in the general population and contributes to the increased morbidity and shortened lifespan seen in this population. However, screening and treatment for diabetes and other metabolic conditions remain poor for these patients. Multiple factors including genetic risk, neurobiologic mechanisms, psychotropic medications, and environmental factors contribute to the increased prevalence of diabetes. Primary care physicians should be aware of adverse effects of psychotropic medications that can cause or exacerbate diabetes and its complications. Management of diabetes requires physicians to tailor treatment recommendations to address special needs of this population. In addition to behavioral interventions, medications such as metformin have shown promise in attenuating weight loss and preventing hyperglycemia in those patients being treated with antipsychotic medications. Targeted diabetes prevention and treatment is critical in patients with schizophrenia and evidence-based interventions should be considered early in the course of treatment. This paper reviews the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of diabetes in schizophrenia and outlines office based interventions for physicians treating this vulnerable population. PMID:25878665

  11. An Overview of Diabetes Management in Schizophrenia Patients: Office Based Strategies for Primary Care Practitioners and Endocrinologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniyizhai Annamalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is common and seen in one in five patients with schizophrenia. It is more prevalent than in the general population and contributes to the increased morbidity and shortened lifespan seen in this population. However, screening and treatment for diabetes and other metabolic conditions remain poor for these patients. Multiple factors including genetic risk, neurobiologic mechanisms, psychotropic medications, and environmental factors contribute to the increased prevalence of diabetes. Primary care physicians should be aware of adverse effects of psychotropic medications that can cause or exacerbate diabetes and its complications. Management of diabetes requires physicians to tailor treatment recommendations to address special needs of this population. In addition to behavioral interventions, medications such as metformin have shown promise in attenuating weight loss and preventing hyperglycemia in those patients being treated with antipsychotic medications. Targeted diabetes prevention and treatment is critical in patients with schizophrenia and evidence-based interventions should be considered early in the course of treatment. This paper reviews the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of diabetes in schizophrenia and outlines office based interventions for physicians treating this vulnerable population.

  12. [Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

    2015-01-01

    The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Proper Antibiotic Use in a Home-Based Primary Care Population Treated for Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Megan E; Ford, James; Conway, Erin L; Ott, Michael C; Sellick, John A; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the trends associated with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in a home-based primary care population of Veterans Health System patients from 2006 to 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Veterans Healthcare System. Home-based primary care patients treated for UTI from 2006 to 2015. None. Appropriate therapy was determined based on the McGeer criteria. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors leading to appropriate UTI treatment. Of 366 available patients, 68 (18.6%) were tested for a UTI. Appropriate therapy occurred in 26% of patients. Allergy to any antibiotic increased the odds of appropriate treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-23.2). Flank pain and increased urinary frequency also increased the likelihood of being treated appropriately (OR = 25.9, 95% CI 2.9-584.0 and OR = 4.49, 95% CI 0.99-21.2, respectively). Antibiotics were overused for treating UTIs in the homebound population. Patients with flank pain, increased urinary frequency, and antibiotic allergy were more likely to receive appropriate treatment. Pharmacists, therefore, have a viable opportunity to increase appropriate antibiotic prescribing in the home-based primary care population.

  14. Medical Assistant-based care management for high risk patients in small primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients with type 2......, and monitoring delivered by medical assistants with usual care. Measurements: All-cause hospitalizations at 12 months (primary outcome) and quality of life scores (Short Form 12 Health Questionnaire [SF-12] and the Euroqol instrument [EQ-5D]). Results: Included patients had, on average, four co-occurring chronic...

  15. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs. Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  16. Mechanisms of base substitution mutagenesis in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacolla, Albino; Cooper, David N; Vasquez, Karen M

    2014-03-05

    Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs). Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  17. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  18. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  19. Housing maintenance of primary cooling pump I of Kartini reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agung Nugroho; Wahyu Imam W

    2013-01-01

    Housing maintenance of Primary Cooling Pump have been done with purpose to enhance capability of fluid block and stopping leakage. The procedures of modification are follow: Replace mechanical seal type Nock 560 – 1 ½'' by mechanical seal type Nock 560 - 38, modification gland plate/housing with to lathe the diameter of gland plate/housing from diameter of 54 mm to 60 mm, in size setting-up mechanical seal, alignment and then function test. The result of the modification are: mechanical seal has been installed, housing has been modified, and the leakage of primary cooling water has been repaired and operated properly. Conclusion of the maintenance are the primary cooling water pump is working well, because the primary cooling water is not leakage any more. (author)

  20. Marginal Micro-leakage of Self-etch and All-in One Adhesives to Primary Teeth, with Mechanical or Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzari A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Chemo-mechanical caries removal is an effective alternative to the traditional rotary drilling method. One of the factors that can influence micro-leakage is the method of caries removal. Objectives: To compare the micro-leakage of resin composite in primary dentition using self-etch and all-in one adhesives following conventional and chemo-mechanical caries removal. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human primary anterior teeth with class III carious lesions were collected. The selected teeth were divided randomly into two groups each consisting of 30 teeth. In group1 carious lesions were removed using Carisolv multi mix gel. In group 2, caries was removed using round steel burs in a slow–speed hand piece. Then, the specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (A and B of 15 and treated by either Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB or Scotch bond. All prepared cavities were filled with a resin composite (Estellite. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then thermocycled in 5ºC and 55ºC water with a dwell time of 20 seconds for 1500 cycles. The specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours, removed, washed and sectioned mesiodistally. The sectioned splits were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the micro-leakage scores. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test in SPSS version 21. Results: There were no significant differences between micro-leakage scores among the four groups (p = 0.127. Score 0 of micro-leakage was detected for 60% of the specimens in group 1-A (Carisolv + CSEB, 73% of the group 2-A (hand piece + CSEB, 80% of the group 1-B (Carisolv + Scotch bond, and 93% of the group 2-B in which caries was removed using hand piece and bonded with Scotch bond . Conclusions: Although caries removal using hand piece bur along with using Scotch bond adhesive performed less micro-leakage, it would seems that the use of Carisolv

  1. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical and Photo-Chemical Degradation Mechanisms that determine the Reliability and Operational Lifetimes for CPV Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauskardt, Reinhold H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-04-30

    This project sought to identify and characterize the coupled intrinsic photo-chemo-mechanical degradation mechanisms that determine the reliability and operational lifetimes for CPV technologies. Over a three year period, we have completed a highly successful program which has developed quantitative metrologies and detailed physics-based degradation models, providing new insight into the fundamental reliability physics necessary for improving materials, creating accelerated testing protocols, and producing more accurate lifetime predictions. The tasks for the program were separated into two focus areas shown in the figure below. Focus Area 1, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Warren Cai with a primary collaboration with David Miller of NREL, studied the degradation mechanisms present in encapsulant materials. Focus Area 2, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Ryan Brock with a primary collaboration with James Ermer and Peter Hebert of Spectrolab, studied stress development and degradation within internal CPV device interfaces. Each focus area was productive, leading to several publications, including findings on the degradation of silicone encapsulant under terrestrial UV, a model for photodegradation of silicone encapsulant adhesion, quantification and process tuning of antireflective layers on CPV, and discovery of a thermal cycling degradation mechanism present in metal gridline structures.

  2. A Precision-Positioning Method for a High-Acceleration Low-Load Mechanism Based on Optimal Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Inertial Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed and precision positioning are fundamental requirements for high-acceleration low-load mechanisms in integrated circuit (IC packaging equipment. In this paper, we derive the transient nonlinear dynamicresponse equations of high-acceleration mechanisms, which reveal that stiffness, frequency, damping, and driving frequency are the primary factors. Therefore, we propose a new structural optimization and velocity-planning method for the precision positioning of a high-acceleration mechanism based on optimal spatial and temporal distribution of inertial energy. For structural optimization, we first reviewed the commonly flexible multibody dynamic optimization using equivalent static loads method (ESLM, and then we selected the modified ESLM for optimal spatial distribution of inertial energy; hence, not only the stiffness but also the inertia and frequency of the real modal shapes are considered. For velocity planning, we developed a new velocity-planning method based on nonlinear dynamic-response optimization with varying motion conditions. Our method was verified on a high-acceleration die bonder. The amplitude of residual vibration could be decreased by more than 20% via structural optimization and the positioning time could be reduced by more than 40% via asymmetric variable velocity planning. This method provides an effective theoretical support for the precision positioning of high-acceleration low-load mechanisms.

  3. Mechanism of Strain Rate Effect Based on Dislocation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Qin; Shi-Sheng, Hu; Li-Ming, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on dislocation theory, we investigate the mechanism of strain rate effect. Strain rate effect and dislocation motion are bridged by Orowan's relationship, and the stress dependence of dislocation velocity is considered as the dynamics relationship of dislocation motion. The mechanism of strain rate effect is then investigated qualitatively by using these two relationships although the kinematics relationship of dislocation motion is absent due to complicated styles of dislocation motion. The process of strain rate effect is interpreted and some details of strain rate effect are adequately discussed. The present analyses agree with the existing experimental results. Based on the analyses, we propose that strain rate criteria rather than stress criteria should be satisfied when a metal is fully yielded at a given strain rate. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  4. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  5. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  6. Prevalence of chronic pancreatitis: Results of a primary care physician-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Pasquali, Piera; Aceti, Alessandro; Balducci, Paolo; Bianchi, Patrizia; Buono, Francesco; Camerucci, Stefano; Cantarini, Rosanna; Centofanti, Sergio; Colantonio, Patrizia; Cremaschi, Riccarda; Crescenzi, Sergio; Di Mauro, Caterina; Di Renzi, Davide; Filabozzi, Andrea; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Giancaspro, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Paola; Lanna, Giuseppe; Medori, Claudio; Merletti, Emilio; Nunnari, Enzo; Paris, Francesca; Pavone, Marco; Piacenti, Angela; Rossi, Almerindo; Scamuffa, Maria Cristina; Spinelli, Giovanni; Taborchi, Marco; Valente, Biagio; Villanova, Antonella; Chiriatti, Alberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2017-05-01

    Data on chronic pancreatitis prevalence are scanty and usually limited to hospital-based studies. Investigating chronic pancreatitis prevalence in primary care. Participating primary care physicians reported the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis among their registered patients, environmental factors and disease characteristics. The data were centrally reviewed and chronic pancreatitis cases defined according to M-ANNHEIM criteria for diagnosis and severity and TIGAR-O classification for etiology. Twenty-three primary care physicians participated in the study. According to their judgment, 51 of 36.401 patients had chronic pancreatitis. After reviewing each patient data, 11 turned out to have definite, 5 probable, 19 borderline and 16 uncertain disease. Prevalence was 30.2/100.000 for definite cases and 44.0/100.000 for definite plus probable cases. Of the 16 patients with definite/probable diagnosis, 8 were male, with mean age of 55.6 (±16.7). Four patients had alcoholic etiology, 5 post-acute/recurrent pancreatitis, 6 were deemed to be idiopathic. Four had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 10 were receiving pancreatic enzymes, and six had pain. Most patients had initial stage and non-severe disease. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in primary care. Results suggest that the prevalence in this context is higher than in hospital-based studies, with specific features, possibly representing an earlier disease stage. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  8. Erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Al-Turki

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  9. Towards a mechanism-based approach to pain diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a huge leap forward in our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of pain, both in normal states where it helps protect from injury, and in pathological states where pain evolves from a symptom reflecting tissue injury to become the disease itself. However, despite these scientific advances, chronic pain remains extremely challenging to manage clinically. While the number of potential treatment targets has grown substantially and a strong case has been made for a mechanism-based and individualized approach to pain therapy, arguably clinicians are not much more advanced now than 20 years ago, in their capacity to either diagnose or effectively treat their patients. The gulf between pain research and pain management is as wide as ever. We are still currently unable to apply an evidence-based approach to chronic pain management that reflects mechanistic understanding, and instead, clinical practice remains an empirical and often unsatisfactory journey for patients, whose individual response to treatment cannot be predicted. Here we take a common and difficult to treat pain condition, chronic low back pain, and use its presentation in clinical practice as a framework to highlight what is known about pathophysiological pain mechanisms and how we could potentially detect these to drive rational treatment choice. We discuss how present methods of assessment and management still fall well short, however, of any mechanism-based or precision-medicine approach. Nevertheless, substantial improvements in chronic pain management could be possible if a more strategic and coordinated approach were to evolve, one designed to identify the specific mechanisms driving the presenting pain phenotype. We present an analysis of such an approach, highlighting the major problems in identifying mechanisms in patients, and develop a framework for a pain diagnostic ladder that may prove useful in the future, consisting of successive identification of

  10. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  11. Mass Spectrometry-Based Adrenal and Peripheral Venous Steroid Profiling for Subtyping Primary Aldosteronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Dekkers, T.; Peitzsch, M.; Dietz, A.S.; Bidlingmaier, M.; Treitl, M.; Williams, T.A.; Bornstein, S.R.; Haase, M.; Rump, L.C.; Willenberg, H.S.; Beuschlein, F.; Deinum, J.; Lenders, J.W.; Reincke, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differentiating patients with primary aldosteronism caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) from those with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is essential for choice of therapeutic intervention, relies on adrenal venous sampling (AVS)-based measurements of aldosterone

  12. Content-Based Image Retrieval Based on Electromagnetism-Like Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers in the field of automatic content-based image retrieval have devoted a remarkable amount of research looking for methods to retrieve the best relevant images to the query image. This paper presents a novel algorithm for increasing the precision in content-based image retrieval based on electromagnetism optimization technique. The electromagnetism optimization is a nature-inspired technique that follows the collective attraction-repulsion mechanism by considering each image as an electrical charge. The algorithm is composed of two phases: fitness function measurement and electromagnetism optimization technique. It is implemented on a database with 8,000 images spread across 80 classes with 100 images in each class. Eight thousand queries are fired on the database, and the overall average precision is computed. Experimental results of the proposed approach have shown significant improvement in the retrieval performance in regard to precision.

  13. Model of Supervision Based on Primary School Teacher Professional Competency in Tematic Learning in Curriculum 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani Hartono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the Supervision Model Based on Primary Teacher Professional Competence which effective on integrated learning. This study use research and development with qualitative approach which will be carried out in the Palmerah, West Jakarta. The techniques used to collect data are interviews, questionnaires, observation and documentation. Data v alidity is tested with credibility, transferability, dependability, and comfortability. The model developed will be validated using the Delphi technique. The result of this research is the discovery of the model and device-based supervision model of professional competence of primary teachers in integrated learning. The long-term goal of this research is to improve the teachers’ competence and the supervision quality for primary teachers in integrated learning

  14. Study on the production mechanism of Co-60 in the primary loop of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouang; Xie Feng; Li Hong; Cao Jianzhu; Li Fu; Wei Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Co-60 is an activated metallic erosion product, which is very important for waste management and decommissioning work of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. Recent measurement on the samples from the primary loop of HTR-10 indicates the existence of Co-60. In current paper, the preliminary experimental results in HTR-10 will be introduced, and the production mechanism of Co-60 in the pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors will be summarized and compared with that in PWRs and Germany High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (AVR). The further experiments with decomposing the post-irradiation graphite spheres of HTR-10 are put forward, which will promote the further study to testify the production sources of Co-60 and be of great significance in the waste minimization and the decommissioning work of HTR-10. (author)

  15. The Nature of Institutional Heteronormativity in Primary Schools and Practice-Based Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renee; Atkinson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Concern for school-based homophobia is increasing, yet there is a tendency to focus on individual incidents of homophobic bullying rather than the cultural and institutional factors supporting them. We analyse ways in which institutional heteronormativity operates in primary schools and report results from our research in UK schools that…

  16. Primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with inappropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient in whom primary Sjogren's syndrome and inappropriate antiduretic hormone secretion were associated is reported. This is the first report of such an association. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed and vasculitis proposed as the underlying pathogenetic mechanism.

  17. Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: A comparative study by primary site based on population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Edward C; Alonso, Jose E; Tajudeen, Bobby A; Arshi, Armin; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; St John, Maie A

    2017-08-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the head and neck is an extremely rare neuroendocrine malignancy. In this study, we describe the incidence and determinants of survival of patients with SmCC of the head and neck between the years of 1973 and 2012 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database as differed by primary site. Retrospective, population-based cohort study. A total of 237 cases of SmCC of the head and neck were identified, which was divided into sinonasal primaries (n = 82) and all other head and neck primaries (n = 155). Clinicopathologic and epidemiologic variables were analyzed as predictors of overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) based on the Kaplan-Meier method. More than half of sinonasal primaries presented with Kadish stage C or D. On multivariate analysis, surgery was the only independent predictor of improved DSS (P = .008) for sinonasal primaries; in contrast, radiation therapy was a favorable prognosticator for OS (P = .007) and DSS (P = .043) in extrasinonasal sites. Comparison of survival between sinonasal primaries and all other sites demonstrated that sinonasal SmCC had uniformly better OS (P = .002) and DSS (P = .006). SmCC in the head and neck remains rare, and sinonasal primaries appear to have improved survival compared to other sites. Based on these results, optimal treatment for sinonasal SmCC appears to be surgical therapy, whereas radiation therapy is the preferred treatment for SmCC of other primary sites, particularly the larynx. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1785-1790, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. College radio as a mechanism for participatory learning: Exploring the scope for online radio based learning among undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaeldin Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the prospects of online college radio at Sur College of Applied Sciences, its need among students and the possible scope of its contributions to student learning, engagement and community service. It explores the method of developing a holistic mechanism to capture the possibilities of maximizing learning experience by employing college radio as an educational tool to understand the micro-dynamics and localized necessities that deem it necessary or unnecessary. Through this, it attempts to locate an appropriate mechanism, and targeted use of the college radio in contributing to the learning outcomes and educational experience of the students. The study finds considerable scope for radio based learning at Sur College of Applied Sciences across a range of uses and gratification indicators consistent with the primary objectives of the college. The study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, and the pedagogical significance of the college radio as an alternative.

  19. Transient Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Resilin-based Elastomeric Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Kiick, Kristi

    2014-04-01

    The outstanding high-frequency properties of emerging resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have motivated their development for vocal fold tissue regeneration and other applications. Recombinant RLP hydrogels show efficient gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and display excellent extensibility, but little has been reported about their transient mechanical properties. In this manuscript, we describe the transient mechanical behavior of new RLP hydrogels investigated via both sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation and uniaxial tensile testing. Oscillatory stress relaxation and creep experiments confirm that RLP-based hydrogels display significantly reduced stress relaxation and improved strain recovery compared to PEG-based control hydrogels. Uniaxial tensile testing confirms the negligible hysteresis, reversible elasticity and superior resilience (up to 98%) of hydrated RLP hydrogels, with Young’s modulus values that compare favorably with those previously reported for resilin and that mimic the tensile properties of the vocal fold ligament at low strain (engineering applications, of a range of RLP hydrogels.

  20. Task-Based Method for Designing Underactuated Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kamada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a task-based method for designing underactuated multi-joint prosthetic hands for specific grasping tasks. The designed robotic hands or prosthetic hands contain fewer independent actuators than joints. We chose a few specific grasping tasks that are frequently repeated in everyday life and analysed joint motions of the hand during the completion of each task and the level of participation of each joint. The information was used for the synthesis of dedicated underactuated mechanisms that can operate in a low dimensional task coordinate space. We propose two methods for reducing the actuators' number. The kinematic parameters of the synthesized mechanism are determined by using a numerical approach. In this study the joint angles of the synthesized hand are considered as linearly dependent on the displacements of the actuators. We introduced a special error index that allowed us to compare the original trajectory and the trajectory performed by the synthesized mechanism, and to select the kinematic parameters of the new kinematic structure as a way to reduce the error. The approach allows the design of simple gripper mechanisms with good accuracy for the preliminary defined tasks.

  1. State of personal hygiene among primary school children: A community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Rimamchika, Musa; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Nnanubumom, Andy Angela; Godiya, Andrew; Emmanuel, Pembi

    2013-01-01

    Good personal hygiene in primary school children could be effective towards preventing infectious diseases. This work examined personal cleanliness of primary school children in Banki based on the following variables: bathing, state of uniforms, hair, nails and oral hygiene. One hundred and fifty primary school children in Banki community were selected using the cluster random sampling method. Analysis of variance was used to compare means and to test for significance of data, and coefficient of correlation to investigate the relationship between cleanliness and age of subjects. There were 87 (58 %) boys and 63 (42 %) girls in a ratio of 1.4:1. Ninety six (64 %) pupils belong to low socioeconomic class. Whereas, 53 (35.3 %) were found within 11-13 years age group, the overall mean age was 9 years (Standard deviation [SD] was 2.2), 95 CI (7.0 - 11.0) years. Comparing means for the different categories of personal hygiene, there was significant difference (F= 61.47, p personal cleanliness in our participants improved with age, and a positive significant correlation was observed between age and personal cleanliness in (r = 0.971, p = 0.026). In conclusion, significant number of primary school pupils in Banki community had good personal hygiene, which was observed to be directly proportional with age. Therefore, all efforts towards quality health education on personal hygiene as a means of primary prevention of illnesses in primary school pupils should be sustained.

  2. SECURE SERVICE DISCOVERY BASED ON PROBE PACKET MECHANISM FOR MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pariselvam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In MANETs, Service discovery process is always considered to be crucial since they do not possess a centralized infrastructure for communication. Moreover, different services available through the network necessitate varying categories. Hence, a need arises for devising a secure probe based service discovery mechanism to reduce the complexity in providing the services to the network users. In this paper, we propose a Secure Service Discovery Based on Probe Packet Mechanism (SSDPPM for identifying the DoS attack in MANETs, which depicts a new approach for estimating the level of trust present in each and every routing path of a mobile ad hoc network by using probe packets. Probing based service discovery mechanisms mainly identifies a mobile node’s genuineness using a test packet called probe that travels the entire network for the sake of computing the degree of trust maintained between the mobile nodes and it’s attributed impact towards the network performance. The performance of SSDPPM is investigated through a wide range of network related parameters like packet delivery, throughput, Control overhead and total overhead using the version ns-2.26 network simulator. This mechanism SSDPPM, improves the performance of the network in an average by 23% and 19% in terms of packet delivery ratio and throughput than the existing service discovery mechanisms available in the literature.

  3. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-01-01

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made

  4. Primary migration of Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Zhong, N.; Ren, D. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2000-11-01

    It is known that the differential evolution of the multiple macerals results in 'oil generation by stage', and that 'early generation, early expulsion' is one of the preconditions for the efficient accumulation of the coal-derived oil. Based upon the study on the evolution of the physical properties, related to the hydrocarbon expulsion, of the Jurassic organic rock in Santanghu basin during the course of maturation, the mechanism of the primary migration of its coal-derived oil was discussed. The rapid loss of the inherent moisture in the organic rock was not accordant with the main generation stage of the coal-derived oil, so it was unrealistic that the oil migrated by dissolution in the expelled water. It is thought that the special forming mechanism of the continuous 'bitumen network' under the condition of over-pressure and an earlier history of primary migration may be essential to the Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A real option-based model for promoting sustainable energy projects under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyounkyu; Park, Taeil; Kim, Byungil; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides a way of assisting sustainable development in developing countries for developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite its intended benefits, the primary CDM market decreased from US$5.8 billion in 2006 to US$1.5 billion in 2010. One of the primary reasons for the reduction of market size is that developed countries as investors have a high level of risks caused by the volatility of the market price for certified emission reductions (CERs). Another issue to be resolved is that developing countries as host countries cannot claim any right to the CERs produced on their own land. This paper presents a real option-based model for both parties (developed and developing countries) to have their fair share of profits and risks by controlling the uncertainty associated with the future value of CERs. A case study illustrated that the proposed model can effectively attract investors to CDM projects leading to mitigation of climate change. - Highlights: ► This study focused on the risks associated with the uncertainty of future CER value in CDM projects. ► A real option-based model was developed for both parties in CDM to have fair share of profit and risk. ► Key variables and boundary conditions were identified for application of real option to CDM. ► The model allowed both parties to own options, which have an identical value. ► Hydropower plant projects in Indonesia were used to illustrate the implementation of the model

  6. Toward a Mechanism-Based Approach to Pain Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeh, Daniel; Mannion, Richard J; Woolf, Clifford J

    2016-09-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a huge leap forward in our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of pain, in normal states where it helps protect from injury, and also in pathological states where pain evolves from a symptom reflecting tissue injury to become the disease itself. However, despite these scientific advances, chronic pain remains extremely challenging to manage clinically. Although the number of potential treatment targets has grown substantially and a strong case has been made for a mechanism-based and individualized approach to pain therapy, arguably clinicians are not much more advanced now than 20 years ago, in their capacity to either diagnose or effectively treat their patients. The gulf between pain research and pain management is as wide as ever. We are still currently unable to apply an evidence-based approach to chronic pain management that reflects mechanistic understanding, and instead, clinical practice remains an empirical and often unsatisfactory journey for patients, whose individual response to treatment cannot be predicted. In this article we take a common and difficult to treat pain condition, chronic low back pain, and use its presentation in clinical practice as a framework to highlight what is known about pathophysiological pain mechanisms and how we could potentially detect these to drive rational treatment choice. We discuss how present methods of assessment and management still fall well short, however, of any mechanism-based or precision medicine approach. Nevertheless, substantial improvements in chronic pain management could be possible if a more strategic and coordinated approach were to evolve, one designed to identify the specific mechanisms driving the presenting pain phenotype. We present an analysis of such an approach, highlighting the major problems in identifying mechanisms in patients, and develop a framework for a pain diagnostic ladder that may prove useful in the future, consisting of successive

  7. The critical role of social workers in home-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckrey, Jennifer M; Gettenberg, Gabrielle; Ross, Helena; Kopke, Victoria; Soriano, Theresa; Ornstein, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The growing homebound population has many complex biomedical and psychosocial needs and requires a team-based approach to care (Smith, Ornstein, Soriano, Muller, & Boal, 2006). The Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors Program (MSVD), a large interdisciplinary home-based primary care program in New York City, has a vibrant social work program that is integrated into the routine care of homebound patients. We describe the assessment process used by MSVD social workers, highlight examples of successful social work care, and discuss why social workers' individualized care plans are essential for keeping patients with chronic illness living safely in the community. Despite barriers to widespread implementation, such social work involvement within similar home-based clinical programs is essential in the interdisciplinary care of our most needy patients.

  8. The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in primary care: A meta-analytic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demarzo, M.M.P.; Montero- Marin, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, E.; Mahtani, K.R.; Vellinga, A.; Vicens, C.; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Y.; Garcia-Campayo, J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people

  9. The Use of Wikis in a Science Inquiry-Based Project in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred W. F.; Lui, Vicky; Chu, Samuel K. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the use of wikis in a science inquiry-based project conducted with Primary 6 students (aged 11-12). It used an online wiki-based platform called PBworks and addressed the following research questions: (1) What are students' attitudes toward learning with wikis? (2) What are students' interactions in online group collaboration…

  10. Differentiation of Enhancing Glioma and Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma by Texture-Based Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide-Leon, P; Dufort, P; Geraldo, A F; Alshafai, L; Maralani, P J; Spears, J; Bharatha, A

    2017-06-01

    Accurate preoperative differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma is essential to avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a machine-learning algorithm by using texture analysis of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images for differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. Seventy-one adult patients with enhancing gliomas and 35 adult patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas were included. The tumors were manually contoured on contrast-enhanced T1WI, and the resulting volumes of interest were mined for textural features and subjected to a support vector machine-based machine-learning protocol. Three readers classified the tumors independently on contrast-enhanced T1WI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated for each reader and for the support vector machine classifier. A noninferiority test for diagnostic accuracy based on paired areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed with a noninferiority margin of 0.15. The mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.877 (95% CI, 0.798-0.955) for the support vector machine classifier; 0.878 (95% CI, 0.807-0.949) for reader 1; 0.899 (95% CI, 0.833-0.966) for reader 2; and 0.845 (95% CI, 0.757-0.933) for reader 3. The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the support vector machine classifier was significantly noninferior to the mean area under the curve of reader 1 ( P = .021), reader 2 ( P = .035), and reader 3 ( P = .007). Support vector machine classification based on textural features of contrast-enhanced T1WI is noninferior to expert human evaluation in the differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. On the hydro-mechanical behaviour of MX80 bentonite-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite-based materials have been considered in many countries as engineered barrier/backfilling materials in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. During the long period of waste storage, these materials will play an essential role in ensuring the integrity of the storage system that consists of the waste canisters, the engineered barrier/backfill, the retaining structures as well as the geological barrier. Thus, it is essential to well understand the hydro-mechanical behaviours of these bentonite-based materials. This review paper presents the recent advances of knowledge on MX80 bentonite-based materials, in terms of water retention properties, hydraulic behaviour and mechanical behaviour. Emphasis is put on the effect of technological voids and the role of the dry density of bentonite. The swelling anisotropy is also discussed based on the results from swelling tests with measurements of both axial and radial swelling pressures on a sand-bentonite mixture compacted at different densities. Microstructure observation was used to help the interpretation of macroscopic hydro-mechanical behaviour. Also, the evolution of soil microstructure thus the soil density over time is discussed based on the results from mock-up tests. This evolution is essential for understanding the long-term hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier/backfill.

  12. Silicon based mechanic-photonic wavelength converter for infrared photo-detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitsky, Arkady; Agdarov, Sergey; Gulitsky, Konstantin; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we present a new concept to realize a mechanic-photonic wavelength converter in silicon chip by construction of nanorods and by modulating the input illumination at temporal frequency matched to the mechanic resonance of the nanorods. The use case is to realize an infrared photo detector in silicon which is not based on absorption but rather on the mechanical interaction of the nanorods with the incoming illumination.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  14. Primary healthcare-based diabetes registry in Puducherry: Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes registries monitor the population prevalence and incidence of diabetes, monitor diabetes control program, provide information of quality of care to health service providers, and provide a sampling frame for interventional studies. This study documents the process of establishing a prospective diabetes registry in a primary health-care setting in Puducherry. Methods: This is a facility-based prospective registry conducted in six randomly selected urban health centers in Puducherry, with enrollment of all known patients with diabetes attending chronic disease clinics. Administrative approvals were obtained from Government Health Services. Manuals for training of medical officers, health-care workers, and case report forms were developed. Diabetes registry was prepared using Epi Info software. Results: In the first phase, demographic characteristics, risk factors, complications, coexisting chronic conditions, lifestyle and medical management, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Around 2177 patients with diabetes have been registered in six Primary Health Centres out of a total of 2948 participants seeking care from chronic disease clinic. Registration coverage ranges from 61% to 105% in these centers. Conclusion: This study has documented methodological details, and learning experiences gained while developing a diabetes registry at the primary health care level and the scope for upscaling to a Management Information System for Diabetes and a State-wide Registry. Improvement in patient care through needs assessment and quality assurance in service delivery is an important theme envisioned by this registry.

  15. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  16. Neural computation of visual imaging based on Kronecker product in the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What kind of neural computation is actually performed by the primary visual cortex and how is this represented mathematically at the system level? It is an important problem in the visual information processing, but has not been well answered. In this paper, according to our understanding of retinal organization and parallel multi-channel topographical mapping between retina and primary visual cortex V1, we divide an image into orthogonal and orderly array of image primitives (or patches, in which each patch will evoke activities of simple cells in V1. From viewpoint of information processing, this activated process, essentially, involves optimal detection and optimal matching of receptive fields of simple cells with features contained in image patches. For the reconstruction of the visual image in the visual cortex V1 based on the principle of minimum mean squares error, it is natural to use the inner product expression in neural computation, which then is transformed into matrix form. Results The inner product is carried out by using Kronecker product between patches and function architecture (or functional column in localized and oriented neural computing. Compared with Fourier Transform, the mathematical description of Kronecker product is simple and intuitive, so is the algorithm more suitable for neural computation of visual cortex V1. Results of computer simulation based on two-dimensional Gabor pyramid wavelets show that the theoretical analysis and the proposed model are reasonable. Conclusions Our results are: 1. The neural computation of the retinal image in cortex V1 can be expressed to Kronecker product operation and its matrix form, this algorithm is implemented by the inner operation between retinal image primitives and primary visual cortex's column. It has simple, efficient and robust features, which is, therefore, such a neural algorithm, which can be completed by biological vision. 2. It is more suitable

  17. Variance-based sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC for gross and net primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, R.; Hamm, N.A.S.; van der Tol, C.; Stein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameterization and calibration of a process-based simulator (PBS) is a major challenge when simulating gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). The large number of parameters makes the calibration computationally expensive and is complicated by the dependence of several parameters on other

  18. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Population-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Joshua K; Alonso, Jose; Kuan, Edward C; Arshi, Armin; St John, Maie A

    2017-07-01

    Objectives To analyze the epidemiology and describe the prognostic indicators of patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Study Design and Setting Retrospective cohort study based on a national database. Methods The US National Cancer Institute's SEER registry (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) was reviewed for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid from 1973 to 2012. Study variables included age, sex, race, tumor size, tumor grade, regional and distant metastases, and treatment modality. Survival measures included overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results A total of 199 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 68.1 years; 58.3% were female; and 79.4% were white. Following diagnosis, 46.3% of patients underwent surgery; 55.7%, radiation therapy; and 45.8%, surgery with radiation therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated OS and DSS of 16% and 21% at 5 years, respectively. Median survival after diagnosis was 9.1 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that predictors of OS and DSS included age ( P Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Surgical resection confers an overall survival benefit. Age, tumor grade, and tumor size are predictors of OS and DSS.

  19. Barriers to patient portal access among veterans receiving home-based primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishuris, Rebecca G; Stewart, Max; Fix, Gemmae M; Marcello, Thomas; McInnes, D Keith; Hogan, Timothy P; Boardman, Judith B; Simon, Steven R

    2015-12-01

    Electronic, or web-based, patient portals can improve patient satisfaction, engagement and health outcomes and are becoming more prevalent with the advent of meaningful use incentives. However, adoption rates are low, particularly among vulnerable patient populations, such as those patients who are home-bound with multiple comorbidities. Little is known about how these patients view patient portals or their barriers to using them. To identify barriers to and facilitators of using My HealtheVet (MHV), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patient portal, among Veterans using home-based primary care services. Qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. We conducted a content analysis informed by grounded theory. Fourteen Veterans receiving home-based primary care, surrogates of two of these Veterans, and three home-based primary care (HBPC) staff members. We identified five themes related to the use of MHV: limited knowledge; satisfaction with current HBPC care; limited computer and Internet access; desire to learn more about MHV and its potential use; and value of surrogates acting as intermediaries between Veterans and MHV. Despite their limited knowledge of MHV and computer access, home-bound Veterans are interested in accessing MHV and using it as an additional point of care. Surrogates are also potential users of MHV on behalf of these Veterans and may have different barriers to and benefits from use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microfluidic measurement of effects of ACF7/MACF1 gene on the mechanics of primary cortical neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghee; Ka, Minhan; Kim, Woo-Yang; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-03-01

    Actin filaments and microtubules play important roles in determining the mechanics of cells, and ACF7/MACF1 (Actin Crosslinking Family 7/Microtubule And Actin Crosslinking Factor 1) gene seems to be closely related to connections between actin filaments and microtubules. To identify such roles of the ACF7/MACF1 gene of primary cortical neurons, we isolated neuronal cells from the cerebral cortex of the embryonic mouse brain, which is important in memory, language and perception. We exerted viscous shear flow to normal neuronal cells and ACF7/MACF1 gene knockout neuronal cells using rectangular microfluidic channels. While changing viscous shear stress on the cells, we recorded changes in the morphology of the two cell types using video microscopy. Having analyzed the deformation of the cells, we could quantitatively correlate differences in the morphological change between the both normal and ACF7/MACF1 gene knockout neuronal cells to the applied shear force, which will contribute toward identifying cell mechanical roles of the ACF7/MACF1 gene.

  1. Lymphocytes B and primary immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela López-Herrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary antibody deficiencies represent the most frequent genetic diseases of the immune system and the first to be recognized along immunology history. The antibodies were recognized as part of the humoral immune system long ago, and after immunoglobulin discovery, the first antibody immunodeficiency were recognized and named as “agammaglobulinemia”, followed by the common variable immunodeficiency and the hyper-IgM syndrome. The following discoveries in immunology history made possible the understanding of these pathologies, for example: the discoveries of B cells, pre-B cells, the signaling pathway directed by the antigen receptor and many other cellular and molecular mechanisms. Primary antibody deficiencies have been studied for a long time and the discoveries of new syndromes have been helpful in the understanding of immunological mechanisms that take place in our organism. Then, this manuscript pretends to review the relevant findings in the history of immunology, focused on the B cells and the connection with the description of representative clinical entities of primary antibody deficiencies. The aim of this manuscript is to show to the reader that the generation of scientific knowledge has a direct application in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are affected in these diseases.

  2. A screw-based dynamic balancing approach, applied to a 5-bar mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jan Johannes; van Dijk, Johannes; Herder, Justus Laurens; Lenarcic, Jadran; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic balancing aims to reduce or eliminate the shaking base reaction forces and moments of mechanisms, in order to minimize vibration and wear. The derivation of the dynamic balance conditions requires significant algebraic effort, even for simple mechanisms. In this study, a screw-based

  3. Primary care in the United States: practice-based innovations and factors that influence adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Debora Goetz

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the use of specific innovations in primary care practices. The research seeks to examine whether a relationship exists between environmental factors and organizational characteristics and the level of innovation in primary care practices in Virginia. The study utilized multiple secondary data sets and an organizational survey of primary care practices to define the external environment and the level of innovation. Institutional theory was used to explain the connection between innovations in primary care practices and institutional forces within the environment. Resource dependency theory was used to explain motivators for change based on a dependence on scarce financial, human, and information resources. Results show a positive association between organizational size, organizational relationships, and stakeholder expectations on the level of innovation. A negative association was found between competition and the level of innovation. No relationship was found between degree of Medicare and managed care penetration and innovation, nor between knowledge of, and difficulty complying with, payer organization requirements and innovation. Primary care physician practices exist in a market-driven environment characterized by high pressure from regulatory sources, decreasing reimbursement levels, increasing rate of change in technologies, and increasing patient and community expectations. This study contributes new information on the relationship between organizational characteristics, the external environment and specific innovations in primary care practices. Information on the contributing factors to innovation in primary care is important for improving delivery of health care services and the ability of these practices to survive.

  4. Perceived benefits of adopting Standard – Based pricing mechanism for mechanical and electrical services installations

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu Amuda Yusuf; Sarajul Fikri Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cost is an important measure of project success and clients will expect a reliable forecast at the early stage of construction projects to inform their business decision. This study was undertaken to investigate the current practices in managing cost of mechanical and electrical (M&E) services in buildings. The perceptions of practitioners on the benefits of adopting Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism for M&E services as used for building fabrics and finishes was ascertained. The meth...

  5. A pilot survey of post-deployment health care needs in small community-based primary care clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugh Mary J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known regarding to what extent community-based primary care physicians are encountering post-deployment health care needs among veterans of the Afghanistan or Iraq conflicts and their family members. Methods This pilot study conducted a cross-sectional survey of 37 primary care physicians working at small urban and suburban clinics belonging to a practice-based research network in the south central region of Texas. Results Approximately 80% of the responding physicians reported caring for patients who have been deployed to the Afghanistan or Iraq war zones, or had a family member deployed. Although these physicians noted a variety of conditions related to physical trauma, mental illnesses and psychosocial disruptions such as marital, family, financial, and legal problems appeared to be even more prevalent among their previously deployed patients and were also noted among family members of deployed veterans. Conclusions Community-based primary care physicians should be aware of common post-deployment health conditions and the resources that are available to meet these needs.

  6. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of primary familial and congenital polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lily Jun-shen; Shen, Yu-Min; Bulut, Gamze B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is an autosomal-dominant proliferative disorder characterized by erythrocytosis and hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin (Epo). Several lines of evidence suggest a causal role of truncated erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) in this disease. In this review, we discuss PFCP in the context of erythrocytosis and EpoR signaling. We focus on recent studies describing mechanisms underlying Epo-dependent EpoR down-regulation. One mechanism depends on internalization mediated through the p85 regulatory subunit of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, and the other utilizes ubiquitin-based proteasomal degradation. Truncated PFCP EpoRs are not properly down-regulated upon stimulation, underscoring the importance of these mechanisms in the pathogenesis of PFCP. PMID:20096014

  7. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 3: Primary Circuit. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 3, Primary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 211. Focus of the posttests is setting the primary ignition circuit. One multiple choice posttest is provided, covering the eight performance objectives contained in the unit. (No answer key is…

  8. Provider-Related Linkages Between Primary Care Clinics and Community-Based Senior Centers Associated With Diabetes-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Wang, Chen-Pin; Finley, Erin P; Espinoza, Sara E; Parchman, Michael L; Bollinger, Mary J; Hazuda, Helen P

    2018-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that linkages between primary care practices and community-based resources can improve health in lower income and minority patients, but examples of these are rare. We conducted a prospective, mixed-methods observational study to identify indicators of primary care-community linkage associated with the frequency of visits to community-based senior centers and improvements in diabetes-related outcomes among 149 new senior center members (72% Hispanic). We used semistructured interviews at baseline and 9-month follow-up, obtaining visit frequency from member software and clinical assessments including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from colocated primary care clinics. Members' discussion of their activities with their primary care providers (PCPs) was associated with increased visits to the senior centers, as well as diabetes-related improvements. Direct feedback from the senior centers to their PCPs was desired by the majority of members and may help to reinforce use of community resources for self-management support.

  9. Molecular medicine of fragile X syndrome: based on known molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Yu; Wu, Ling-Qian; Duan, Ran-Hui

    2016-02-01

    Extensive research on fragile X mental retardation gene knockout mice and mutant Drosophila models has largely expanded our knowledge on mechanism-based treatment of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In light of these findings, several clinical trials are now underway for therapeutic translation to humans. Electronic literature searches were conducted using the PubMed database and ClinicalTrials.gov. The search terms included "fragile X syndrome", "FXS and medication", "FXS and therapeutics" and "FXS and treatment". Based on the publications identified in this search, we reviewed the neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS patients and the potential pathogenic mechanisms to monitor the progress of FXS research, from basic studies to clinical trials. The pathological mechanisms of FXS were categorized on the basis of neuroanatomy, synaptic structure, synaptic transmission and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) loss of function. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS were described to motivate extensive research into the region-specific pathologies in the brain responsible for FXS behavioural manifestations. Mechanism-directed molecular medicines were classified according to their target pathological mechanisms, and the most recent progress in clinical trials was discussed. Current mechanism-based studies and clinical trials have greatly contributed to the development of FXS pharmacological therapeutics. Research examining the extent to which these treatments provided a rescue effect or FMRP compensation for the developmental impairments in FXS patients may help to improve the efficacy of treatments.

  10. Physical models and primary design of reactor based slow positron source at CMRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanbo; Li, Rundong; Qian, Dazhi; Yang, Xin

    2018-07-01

    Slow positron facilities are widely used in material science. A high intensity slow positron source is now at the design stage based on the China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR). This paper describes the physical models and our primary design. We use different computer programs or mathematical formula to simulate different physical process, and validate them by proper experiments. Considering the feasibility, we propose a primary design, containing a cadmium shield, a honeycomb arranged W tubes assembly, electrical lenses, and a solenoid. It is planned to be vertically inserted in the Si-doping channel. And the beam intensity is expected to be 5 ×109

  11. Actuation mechanisms of carbon nanotube-based architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Sebastian; Mahrholz, Thorsten; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    State of the art smart materials such as piezo ceramics or electroactive polymers cannot feature both, mechanical stiffness and high active strain. Moreover, properties like low density, high mechanical stiffness and high strain at the same time driven by low energy play an increasingly important role for their future application. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), show this behavior. Their active behavior was observed 1999 the first time using paper-like mats made of CNT. Therefore the CNT-papers are electrical charged within an electrolyte thus forming a double- layer. The measured deflection of CNT material is based on the interaction between the charged high surface area formed by carbon nanotubes and ions provided by the electrolyte. Although CNT-papers have been extensively analyzed as well at the macro-scale as nano-scale there is still no generally accepted theory for the actuation mechanism. This paper focuses on investigations of the actuation mechanisms of CNT-papers in comparison to vertically aligned CNT-arrays. One reason of divergent results found in literature might be attributed to different types of CNT samples. While CNT-papers represent architectures of short CNTs which need to bridge each other to form the dimensions of the sample, the continuous CNTs of the array feature a length of almost 3 mm, along which the experiments are carried out. Both sample types are tested within an actuated tensile test set-up under different conditions. While the CNT-papers are tested in water-based electrolytes with comparably small redox-windows the hydrophobic CNT-arrays are tested in ionic liquids with comparatively larger redox-ranges. Furthermore an in-situ micro tensile test within an SEM is carried out to prove the optimized orientation of the MWCNTs as result of external load. It was found that the performance of CNT-papers strongly depends on the test conditions. However, the CNT-arrays are almost unaffected by the conditions showing active response at negative

  12. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 2 of 3: symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathic pain in patients with low back (± leg) pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smart, Keith M

    2012-08-01

    As a mechanisms-based classification of pain \\'peripheral neuropathic pain\\' (PNP) refers to pain arising from a primary lesion or dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms and signs associated with an assumed dominance of PNP in patients attending for physiotherapy have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to identify symptoms and signs associated with a clinical classification of PNP in patients with low back (± leg) pain. Using a cross-sectional, between-subjects design; four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (± leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol. Patients\\' pain was assigned a mechanisms-based classification based on experienced clinical judgement. Clinicians then completed a clinical criteria checklist specifying the presence or absence of various clinical criteria. A binary logistic regression analysis with Bayesian model averaging identified a cluster of two symptoms and one sign predictive of PNP, including: \\'Pain referred in a dermatomal or cutaneous distribution\\

  13. Development of a Primary Care-Based Clinic to Support Adults With a History of Childhood Cancer: The Tactic Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, Linda S; Moss, Kerry M; Kilbourn, Kristin; Risendal, Betsy; Jones, Alison F; Greffe, Brian S; Garrington, Timothy; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; Yamashita, Traci E; Kutner, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Describe the development and evolution of a primary-care-based, multidisciplinary clinic to support the ongoing care of adult survivors of childhood cancer. A consultative clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer has been developed that is located in an adult, academic internal medicine setting and is based on a long-term follow-up clinic model available at Children's Hospital Colorado. The clinic opened in July 2008. One hundred thirty-five patients have been seen as of April 2014. Referrals and clinic capacity have gradually increased over time, and a template has been developed in the electronic medical record to help facilitate completion of individualized care plan letters. A primary care-based, multidisciplinary consultative clinic for adults with a history of childhood cancer survivor is feasible and actively engages adult primary care resources to provide risk-based care for long-term pediatric cancer survivors. This model of care planning can help support adult survivors of pediatric cancer and their primary care providers in non-academic, community settings as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users' views of a horticultural and arts project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-02-01

    Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as 'coworkers') of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life's pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects.

  15. Mechanism-based Enzyme Inactivators of Phytosterol Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Nes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Current progress on the mechanism and substrate recognition by sterol methyl transferase (SMT, the role of mechanism-based inactivators, other inhibitors of SMT action to probe catalysis and phytosterol synthesis is reported. SMT is a membrane-bound enzyme which catalyzes the coupled C-methylation-deprotonation reaction of sterol acceptor molecules generating the 24-alkyl sterol side chains of fungal ergosterol and plant sitosterol. This C-methylation step can be rate-limiting in the post-lanosterol (fungal or post-cycloartenol (plant pathways. A series of sterol analogs designed to impair SMT activity irreversibly have provided deep insight into the C-methylation reaction and topography of the SMT active site and as reviewed provide leads for the development of antifungal agents.

  16. Dynamic Symmetric Key Mobile Commerce Scheme Based on Self-Verified Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the security and efficiency of mobile e-commerce, the authors summarized the advantages and disadvantages of several related schemes, especially the self-verified mobile payment scheme based on the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC and then proposed a new type of dynamic symmetric key mobile commerce scheme based on self-verified mechanism. The authors analyzed the basic algorithm based on self-verified mechanisms and detailed the complete transaction process of the proposed scheme. The authors analyzed the payment scheme based on the security and high efficiency index. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme not only meets the high efficiency of mobile electronic payment premise, but also takes the security into account. The user confirmation mechanism at the end of the proposed scheme further strengthens the security of the proposed scheme. In brief, the proposed scheme is more efficient and practical than most of the existing schemes.

  17. Market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: a review of existing schemes and an outline for a global mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.; Hein, L.G.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous decline of biodiversity over the past decades suggests that efforts to decrease biodiversity loss have been insufficient. One option to deal with this problem is the use of market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Several studies have analysed such mechanisms individually,

  18. Mechanical characterisation of agarose-based chromatography resins for biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Mauryn C; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-12-29

    Mechanical characterisation of agarose-based resins is an important factor in ensuring robust chromatographic performance in the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. Pressure-flow profiles are most commonly used to characterise these properties. There are a number of drawbacks with this method, including the potential need for several re-packs to achieve the desired packing quality, the impact of wall effects on experimental set up and the quantities of chromatography media and buffers required. To address these issues, we have developed a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) technique that characterises the mechanical properties of resins based on the viscoelasticity of a 1ml sample of slurry. This technique was conducted on seven resins with varying degrees of mechanical robustness and the results were compared to pressure-flow test results on the same resins. Results show a strong correlation between the two techniques. The most mechanically robust resin (Capto Q) had a critical velocity 3.3 times higher than the weakest (Sepharose CL-4B), whilst the DMA technique showed Capto Q to have a slurry deformation rate 8.3 times lower than Sepharose CL-4B. To ascertain whether polymer structure is indicative of mechanical strength, scanning electron microscopy images were also used to study the structural properties of each resin. Results indicate that DMA can be used as a small volume, complementary technique for the mechanical characterisation of chromatography media. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiscalar black holes with contingent primary hair: Mechanics and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, Salvatore; Wiltshire, David L.

    2004-01-01

    We generalize a class of magnetically charged black holes nonminimally coupled to two scalar fields previously found by one of us to the case of multiple scalar fields. The black holes possess a novel type of primary scalar hair, which we call a contingent primary hair: although the solutions possess degrees of freedom which are not completely determined by the other charges of the theory, the charges necessarily vanish in the absence of the magnetic monopole. Only one constraint relates the black hole mass to the magnetic charge and scalar charges of the theory. We obtain a Smarr-type thermodynamic relation, and the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the system. We further explicitly show in the two-scalar-field case that, contrary to the case of many other hairy black holes, the black hole solutions are stable to radial perturbations

  20. Influence of hydrazine primary water chemistry on corrosion of fuel cladding and primary circuit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iourmanov, V.; Pashevich, V.; Bogancs, J.; Tilky, P.; Schunk, J.; Pinter, T.

    1999-01-01

    Earlier at Paks 1-4 NPP standard ammonia chemistry was in use. The following station performance indicators were improved when hydrazine primary water chemistry was introduced: occupational radiation exposures of personnel; gamma-radiation dose rates near primary system components during refuelling and maintenance outages. The reduction of radiation exposures and radiation fields were achieved without significant expenses. Recent results of experimental studies allowed to explain the mechanism of hydrazine dosing influence on: corrosion rate of structure materials in primary coolant; behaviour of soluble and insoluble corrosion products including long-life corrosion-induced radionuclides in primary system during steady-state and transient operation modes; radiolytic generation of oxidising radiolytic products in core and its corrosion activity in primary system; radiation situation during refuelling and maintenance outages; foreign material degradation and removal (including corrosion active oxidant species) from primary system during abnormal events. Operational experience and experimental data have shown that hydrazine primary water chemistry allows to reduce corrosion wear and thereby makes it possible to extend the life-time of plant components in primary system. (author)

  1. Double-sided auction mechanism design in electricity based on maximizing social welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electricity double-sided auction mechanism should control market power and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market. Based on this goal, the paper designs a new double-sided auction mechanism. In the new mechanism, the social welfare contribution of each participant plays a pivotal role, because this contribution is the critical factor in market clearing, payment settling, and transaction matching rules. In particular, each winner of the auction can gain transfer payments according to his contribution to social welfare in the electricity market, and this gives the mechanism the ability to control the market power of some participants. At the same time, this mechanism ensures that the market organizer balances his budget. We then conduct a theoretical and empirical analysis based on the Spanish electricity market. Both of the results show that compared to the uniform-pricing mechanism, the new mechanism can reduce market power of participants and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market.

  2. Hypoxic mechanisms in primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britze, Josefine; Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2017-01-01

    and cluster headache. Methods This narrative review investigates the current level of knowledge on the relation of hypoxia in migraine and cluster headache based on epidemiological and experimental studies. Findings Epidemiological studies suggest that living in high-altitude areas increases the risk...

  3. Density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of cysteine protease inhibition by nitrile-based inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam P De Visser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease enzymes are important for human physiology and catalyze key protein degradation pathways. These enzymes react via a nucleophilic reaction mechanism that involves a cysteine residue and the proton of a proximal histidine. Particularly efficient inhibitors of these enzymes are nitrile-based, however, the details of the catalytic reaction mechanism currently are poorly understood. To gain further insight into the inhibition of these molecules, we have performed a combined density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the reaction of a nitrile-based inhibitor with the enzyme active site amino acids. We show here that small perturbations to the inhibitor structure can have dramatic effects on the catalysis and inhibition processes. Thus, we investigated a range of inhibitor templates and show that specific structural changes reduce the inhibitory efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, as the reaction takes place on a polar surface, we find strong differences between the DFT and QM/MM calculated energetics. In particular, the DFT model led to dramatic distortions from the starting structure and the convergence to a structure that would not fit the enzyme active site. In the subsequent QM/MM study we investigated the use of mechanical versus electronic embedding on the kinetics, thermodynamics and geometries along the reaction mechanism. We find minor effects on the kinetics of the reaction but large geometric and thermodynamics differences as a result of inclusion of electronic embedding corrections. The work here highlights the importance of model choice in the investigation of this biochemical reaction mechanism.

  4. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical behaviour of the nickel based alloys 617 and 230 at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomette, S.

    2009-11-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR), is one of the innovative nuclear reactor designed to be inherently safer than previous generation and to produce minimal waste. The most critical metallic component in that type of reactor is the Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX). The constraints imposed by the conception and the severe operational conditions (high temperature of 850 C to 950 C, lifetime of 20,000 h) have guided the IHX material selection toward two solid solution nickel base alloys, the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy thanks to its good high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties and the large data base developed in previous programs. However, its high cobalt content has to be considered as an issue (nuclear activation). The more recent alloy Haynes 230, in which most of the cobalt has been replaced by tungsten, present characteristics similar to the 617 alloy. The objective of this thesis is to study the high temperature mechanical behaviour of both alloys in relation with their microstructural evolutions. The as received microstructural observations have revealed primary carbides (M 6 C). Most of this precipitates are evenly distributed in the materials. Few M 23 C 6 secondary carbides are observed in both alloys in the as received state. Thermal ageing treatments at 850 C lead to an important M 23 C 6 precipitation on slip lines and at grain boundaries. The size of this carbides increases and their number decreases with increasing ageing duration. The intragranular precipitation of secondary carbides at 950 C is more limited and the intergranular evolution more important than at 850 C. The microstructural observations and the hardness evolution of both alloys show that the main microstructural evolutions occur before 1,000 h at both studied temperatures. The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230 have been studied using tensile, creep, fatigue and relaxation-fatigue tests. Particularly, the

  5. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  6. Injection Molding and Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mistretta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable/bio-based polymers is of great importance in addressing several issues related to environmental protection, public health, and new, stricter legislation. Yet some applications require improved properties (such as barrier or mechanical properties, suggesting the use of nanosized fillers in order to obtain bio-based polymer nanocomposites. In this work, bionanocomposites based on two different biodegradable polymers (coming from the Bioflex and MaterBi families and two different nanosized fillers (organo-modified clay and hydrophobic-coated precipitated calcium carbonate were prepared and compared with traditional nanocomposites with high-density polyethylene (HDPE as matrix. In particular, the injection molding processability, as well as the mechanical and rheological properties of the so-obtained bionanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the processability of the two biodegradable polymers and the related nanocomposites can be compared to that of the HDPE-based systems and that, in general, the bio-based systems can be taken into account as suitable alternatives.

  7. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2002-01-01

    -tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds....

  8. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  9. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Schepman, Sanneke M; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective.

  10. Language-Based Reasoning in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Sherriff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Language is critical in the mediation of scientific reasoning, higher-order thinking and the development of scientific literacy. This study investigated how an exemplary primary science teacher scaffolds and supports students' reasoning during a Year 4 materials unit. Lessons captured on video, teacher and student interviews and micro-ethnographic…

  11. Fission product plateout and liftoff in the MHTGR primary system: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.

    1991-04-01

    A review is presented of the technical basis for predicting radioactivity release resulting from depressurization of an MHTGR primary system. Consideration is restricted to so called dry events with no involvement of the steam system. The various types of deposition mechanisms effective for iodine, cesium, strontium, and silver are discussed in terms of their chemical characteristics and the nature of the materials in the primary system. Emphasis is given to iodine behavior, including means for estimating the quantity available for release, the types of plateout locations in the primary system, and the effect of dust on distribution and release. The behavior of fission products cesium, strontium, and silver in such accidents is presented qualitatively. A major part of the review deals with expected dust levels, types, and transport. Available information on the level and nature of dust in the HTGR primary system is reviewed. A summary is presented of dust deposition and liftoff mechanisms. It was concluded that recent approaches to dust liftoff modeling, based on turbulent burst concepts for removal from surfaces, probably offer advantages over the current shear ratio approach. This study concludes that iodine releases from dry depressurization events are likely to be extremely low, on the order of millicuries, due to a predictably low degree of chemical desorption, a low degree of dust liftoff, and a low involvement of iodine with dust. It was also concluded that deposition mechanisms controlling the distribution of fission product material in the primary system, and hence also controlling the degree of liftoff, depend strongly on the chemical nature of the individual elements. Therefore contrary to the current practice, both plateout and liftoff models should reflect those unique chemical and physical properties. 56 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs

  12. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Townsend, Julie S.; Puckett, Mary C.; Rim, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions about how often they refer patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer to gynecologic oncologists, and reasons for lack of referral. We also analyzed these physicians’ knowledge of tests to help determine whether a gynecologic oncologist is needed for a planned surgery. The survey response rate was 52.2%. A total of 84% of primary care physicians (87% of family/general practitioners, 81% of internists and obstetrician/gynecologists) said they always referred patients to gynecologic oncologists for treatment. Common reasons for not always referring were patient preference or lack of gynecologic oncologists in the practice area. A total of 23% of primary care physicians had heard of the OVA1 test, which helps to determine whether gynecologic oncologist referral is needed. Although referral rates reported here are high, it is not clear whether ovarian cancer patients are actually seeing gynecologic oncologists for care. The NCCCP is undertaking several efforts to assist with this, including education of the recommendation among women and providers and assistance with treatment summaries and patient navigation toward appropriate treatment. Expansion of these efforts to all populations may help improve adherence to recommendations and reduce ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26978124

  13. Nurse practitioner caseload in primary health care: Scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Donald, Faith; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Rayner, Jennifer; Valaitis, Ruta; Carter, Nancy; Miller, Patricia A; Landry, Véronique; Harbman, Patricia; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; McKinlay, R James; Ziegler, Erin; Boesveld, Sarah; Lamb, Alyson

    2016-10-01

    activities relevant to community-based primary health care nurse practitioners. Tools to measure all the components of these role are needed when determining panel/caseload size. Outcomes research is absent in the determination of panel/caseload size. There are few systems in place to track and measure community-based primary health care nurse practitioner activities. The development of such mechanisms is an important next step to assess community-based primary health care nurse practitioner productivity and determine patient panel/caseload size. Decisions about panel/caseload size must take into account the effects of nurse practitioner activities on outcomes of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iterative design of peptide-based hydrogels and the effect of network electrostatics on primary chondrocyte behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuvanich, Chomdao; Haines-Butterick, Lisa A; Nagy, Katelyn J; Schneider, Joel P

    2012-10-01

    Iterative peptide design was used to generate two peptide-based hydrogels to study the effect of network electrostatics on primary chondrocyte behavior. MAX8 and HLT2 peptides have formal charge states of +7 and +5 per monomer, respectively. These peptides undergo triggered folding and self-assembly to afford hydrogel networks having similar rheological behavior and local network morphologies, yet different electrostatic character. Each gel can be used to directly encapsulate and syringe-deliver cells. The influence of network electrostatics on cell viability after encapsulation and delivery, extracellular matrix deposition, gene expression, and the bulk mechanical properties of the gel-cell constructs as a function of culture time was assessed. The less electropositive HLT2 gel provides a microenvironment more conducive to chondrocyte encapsulation, delivery, and phenotype maintenance. Cell viability was higher for this gel and although a moderate number of cells dedifferentiated to a fibroblast-like phenotype, many retained their chondrocytic behavior. As a result, gel-cell constructs prepared with HLT2, cultured under static in vitro conditions, contained more GAG and type II collagen resulting in mechanically superior constructs. Chondrocytes delivered in the more electropositive MAX8 gel experienced a greater degree of cell death during encapsulation and delivery and the remaining viable cells were less prone to maintain their phenotype. As a result, MAX8 gel-cell constructs had fewer cells, of which a limited number were capable of laying down cartilage-specific ECM. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Practical Diagnosis and Management of Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease in the Primary Care Setting: An Evidence-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geldmacher, David S.; Kerwin, Diana R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review evidence-based guidance on the primary care of Alzheimer’s disease and clinical research on models of primary care for Alzheimer’s disease to present a practical summary for the primary care physician regarding the assessment and management of the disease.

  16. Drawing-Based Simulation for Primary School Science Education: An Experimental Study of the GearSketch Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Frank; van Joolingen, Wouter; Gijlers, Aaltje H.; Bollen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Touch screen computers are rapidly becoming available to millions of students. These devices make the implementation of drawing-based simulation environments like Gear Sketch possible. This study shows that primary school students who received simulation-based support in a drawing-based learning

  17. A novel conduit-based coaptation device for primary nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Cardwell, Nancy; Pollins, Alonda C; Afshari, Ashkan; Nguyen, Lyly; Dortch, Richard D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2018-06-01

    Conduit-based nerve repairs are commonly used for small nerve gaps, whereas primary repair may be performed if there is no tension on nerve endings. We hypothesize that a conduit-based nerve coaptation device will improve nerve repair outcomes by avoiding sutures at the nerve repair site and utilizing the advantages of a conduit-based repair. The left sciatic nerves of female Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and repaired using a novel conduit-based device. The conduit-based device group was compared to a control group of rats that underwent a standard end-to-end microsurgical repair of the sciatic nerve. Animals underwent behavioral assessments at weekly intervals post-operatively using the sciatic functional index (SFI) test. Animals were sacrificed at four weeks to obtain motor axon counts from immunohistochemistry. A sub-group of animals were sacrificed immediately post repair to obtain MRI images. SFI scores were superior in rats which received conduit-based repairs compared to the control group. Motor axon counts distal to the injury in the device group at four weeks were statistically superior to the control group. MRI tractography was used to demonstrate repair of two nerves using the novel conduit device. A conduit-based nerve coaptation device avoids sutures at the nerve repair site and leads to improved outcomes in a rat model. Conduit-based nerve repair devices have the potential to standardize nerve repairs while improving outcomes.

  18. Modeling the initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in nickel base alloys 182 and 82 of Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbi, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Nickel base welds are widely used to assemble components of the primary circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. International experience shows an increasing number of Stress Corrosion Cracks (SCC) in nickel base welds 182 and 82 which motivates the development of models predicting the time to SCC initiation for these materials. SCC involves several parameters such as materials, mechanics or environment interacting together. The goal of this study is to have a better understanding of the physical mechanisms occurring at grains boundaries involved in SCC. In-situ tensile test carried out on oxidized alloy 182 evidenced dispersion in the susceptibility to corrosion of grain boundaries. Moreover, the correlation between oxidation and cracking coupled with micro-mechanical simulations on synthetic polycrystalline aggregate, allowed to propose a cracking criterion of oxidized grain boundaries which is defined by both critical oxidation depth and local stress level. Due to the key role of intergranular oxidation in SCC and since significant dispersion is observed between grain boundaries, oxidation tests were performed on alloys 182 and 82 in order to model the intergranular oxidation kinetics as a function of chromium carbides precipitation, temperature and dissolved hydrogen content. The model allows statistical analyses and is embedded in a local initiation model. In this model, SCC initiation is defined by the cracking of the intergranular oxide and is followed by slow and fast crack growth until the crack depth reaches a given value. Simplifying assumptions were necessary to identify laws used in the SCC model. However, these laws will be useful to determine experimental conditions of future investigations carried out to improve the calibration used parameters. (author)

  19. Elastin Based Cell-laden Injectable Hydrogels with Tunable Gelation, Mechanical and Biodegradation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Ali; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Wei, Hua; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valtchev, Peter; Weiss, Anthony S.; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels made from extracellular matrix proteins such as elastin show great promise for various biomedical applications. Use of cytotoxic reagents, fixed gelling behavior, and lack of mechanical strength in these hydrogels are the main associated drawbacks. The aim of this study was to develop highly cytocompatible and injectable elastin-based hydrogels with alterable gelation characteristics, favorable mechanical properties and structural stability for load bearing applications. A thermoresponsive copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-polylactide-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether methacrylate, was functionalized with succinimide ester groups by incorporating N-acryloxysuccinimide monomer. These ester groups were exploited to covalently bond this polymer, denoted as PNPHO, to different proteins with primary amine groups such as α-elastin in aqueous media. The incorporation of elastin through covalent bond formation with PNPHO promotes the structural stability, mechanical properties and live cell proliferation within the structure of hydrogels. Our results demonstrated that elastin-co-PNPHO solutions were injectable through fine gauge needles and converted to hydrogels in situ at 37 °C in the absence of any crosslinking reagent. By altering PNPHO content, the gelling time of these hydrogels can be finely tuned within the range of 2 to 15 min to ensure compatibility with surgical requirements. In addition, these hydrogels exhibited compression moduli in the range of 40 to 145 kPa, which are substantially higher than those of previously developed elastin-based hydrogels. These hydrogels were highly stable in the physiological environment with the evidence of 10 wt% mass loss in 30 days of incubation in a simulated environment. This class of hydrogels is in vivo bioabsorbable due to the gradual increase of the lower critical solution temperature of the copolymer to above 37 °C due to the cleavage of polylactide from

  20. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users’ views of a horticultural and arts project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790

  1. Cultural aspects of primary healthcare in india: A case- based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Roger P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Delivering quality primary care to large populations is always challenging, and that is certainly the case in India. While the sheer magnitude of patients can create difficulties, not all challenges are about logistics. Sometimes patient health-seeking behaviour leads to delays in obtaining medical help for reasons that have more to do with culture, social practice and religious belief. When primary care is accessed via busy state-run outpatient departments there is often little time for the physician to investigate causes behind a patient's condition, and these factors can adversely affect patient outcomes. We consider the case of a woman with somatic symptoms seemingly triggered by psychological stresses associated with social norms and familial cultural expectations. These expectations conflict with her personal and professional aspirations, and although she eventually receives psychiatric help and her problems are addressed, initially, psycho-social factors underlying her condition posed a hurdle in terms of accessing appropriate medical care. While for many people culture, belief and social norms exert a stabilising, positive influence, in situations where someone's personal expectations differ significantly from accepted social norms, individual autonomy can be directly challenged, and in which case, something has to give. The result of such challenges can negatively impact on health and well-being, and for patients with immature defence mechanisms for dealing with inner conflict, such an experience can be damaging and ensuing somatic disturbances are often difficult to treat. Patients with culture-bound symptoms are not uncommon within primary care in India or in other Asian countries and communities. We argue that such cases need to be properly understood if satisfactory patient outcomes are to be achieved. While some causes are structural, having to do with how healthcare is accessed and delivered, others are about cultural

  2. Cultural aspects of primary healthcare in india: A case- based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger P; Gogne, Anupriya

    2011-06-16

    Delivering quality primary care to large populations is always challenging, and that is certainly the case in India. While the sheer magnitude of patients can create difficulties, not all challenges are about logistics. Sometimes patient health-seeking behaviour leads to delays in obtaining medical help for reasons that have more to do with culture, social practice and religious belief. When primary care is accessed via busy state-run outpatient departments there is often little time for the physician to investigate causes behind a patient's condition, and these factors can adversely affect patient outcomes. We consider the case of a woman with somatic symptoms seemingly triggered by psychological stresses associated with social norms and familial cultural expectations. These expectations conflict with her personal and professional aspirations, and although she eventually receives psychiatric help and her problems are addressed, initially, psycho-social factors underlying her condition posed a hurdle in terms of accessing appropriate medical care. While for many people culture, belief and social norms exert a stabilising, positive influence, in situations where someone's personal expectations differ significantly from accepted social norms, individual autonomy can be directly challenged, and in which case, something has to give. The result of such challenges can negatively impact on health and well-being, and for patients with immature defence mechanisms for dealing with inner conflict, such an experience can be damaging and ensuing somatic disturbances are often difficult to treat. Patients with culture-bound symptoms are not uncommon within primary care in India or in other Asian countries and communities. We argue that such cases need to be properly understood if satisfactory patient outcomes are to be achieved. While some causes are structural, having to do with how healthcare is accessed and delivered, others are about cultural values, social practices and

  3. A shared computer-based problem-oriented patient record for the primary care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnarsson, R; Nordgren, K

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. A computer-based patient record (CPR) system, Swedestar, has been developed for use in primary health care. The principal aim of the system is to support continuous quality improvement through improved information handling, improved decision-making, and improved procedures for quality assurance. The Swedestar system has evolved during a ten-year period beginning in 1984. 2. SYSTEM DESIGN. The design philosophy is based on the following key factors: a shared, problem-oriented patient record; structured data entry based on an extensive controlled vocabulary; advanced search and query functions, where the query language has the most important role; integrated decision support for drug prescribing and care protocols and guidelines; integrated procedures for quality assurance. 3. A SHARED PROBLEM-ORIENTED PATIENT RECORD. The core of the CPR system is the problem-oriented patient record. All problems of one patient, recorded by different members of the care team, are displayed on the problem list. Starting from this list, a problem follow-up can be made, one problem at a time or for several problems simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to get an integrated view, across provider categories, of those problems of one patient that belong together. This shared problem-oriented patient record provides an important basis for the primary care team work. 4. INTEGRATED DECISION SUPPORT. The decision support of the system includes a drug prescribing module and a care protocol module. The drug prescribing module is integrated with the patient records and includes an on-line check of the patient's medication list for potential interactions and data-driven reminders concerning major drug problems. Care protocols have been developed for the most common chronic diseases, such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. The patient records can be automatically checked according to the care protocols. 5. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE. The Swedestar system has been implemented in a

  4. Influence of primary α-phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at different strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Shimeng; Luo, Wenbo; Xue, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yajing

    2018-03-01

    Bimodal microstructures with primary α-phase volume fractions ranging from 14.3% to 57.1% were gained in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy through annealed in two-phase region at various temperatures below the β-transus point. Then the influence of the primary α-phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-64 were studied. The results show that, at room temperature and a strain rate of 10‑3 s‑1, the yield stress decreases but the fracture strain augments with added primary α-phase volume fraction. The equiaxed primary α-phase possesses stronger ability to coordinate plastic deformation, leading to the improvement of the ductile as well as degradation of the strength of Ti-64 with higher primary α-phase volume fraction. As the temperature goes up to 473 K, the quasi-static yield stress and ultimate strength decrease first and then increase with the incremental primary α-phase volume fraction, due to the interaction between the work hardening and the softening caused by the DRX and the growth of the primary α-phase. At room temperature and a strain rate of 3×103 s‑1, the varying pattern of strength with the primary α-phase volume fraction resembles that at a quasi-static strain rate. However, the flow stress significantly increases but the strain-hardening rate decreases compared to those at quasi-static strain rate due to the competition between the strain rate hardening and the thermal softening during dynamic compression process.

  5. Relativistic supersymmetric quantum mechanics based on Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2004-01-01

    Witten's the non-relativistic formalism of supersymmetric quantum mechanics was based on a factorization and partnership between Schroedinger equations. We show how it accommodates a transition to the partnership between relativistic Klein-Gordon equations

  6. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The validity of the diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis in a large population-based primary care database.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Ursum, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large population-based databases based on electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients in primary care are a useful data source to investigate morbidity and health care utilization. Diagnoses recorded in EMRs are doctor-defined, but their validity can be disputed. In this study we

  8. MEMS-based platforms for mechanical manipulation and characterization of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peng; Wang, Wenhui; Ru, Changhai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Xinyu

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical manipulation and characterization of single cells are important experimental techniques in biological and medical research. Because of the microscale sizes and highly fragile structures of cells, conventional cell manipulation and characterization techniques are not accurate and/or efficient enough or even cannot meet the more and more demanding needs in different types of cell-based studies. To this end, novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based technologies have been developed to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and consistency of various cell manipulation and characterization tasks, and enable new types of cell research. This article summarizes existing MEMS-based platforms developed for cell mechanical manipulation and characterization, highlights their specific design considerations making them suitable for their designated tasks, and discuss their advantages and limitations. In closing, an outlook into future trends is also provided.

  9. Total elbow arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean-David; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Morrey, Bernard F; Morrey, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a less common indication for total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Higher complication rates in younger, active patients may offset short-term improvements in pain and function. The purpose of this study was to determine pain relief, functional outcomes, complications, and survival of TEA in this population. Between 1984 and 2011, 20 consecutive TEAs were performed for primary elbow osteoarthritis. Two patients died before the 2-year follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range, 51-85 years). Outcome measures included pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, satisfaction, complications, and reoperations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range, 2-20 years). Three elbows sustained mechanical failures. Complications included intraoperative fracture (n = 2), wound irrigation and débridement (n = 1), bony ankylosis (n = 1), humeral loosening (n = 1), humeral component fracture (n = 1), and mechanical failure of a radial head component (n = 1). Fifteen elbows without mechanical failure were examined clinically. Pain improved from 3.6 to 1.5 (P  .05), with preoperative flexion contractures not improving. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores were available for 13 elbows without mechanical failure, averaging 81.5 points (range, 60-100 points); these were graded as excellent (n = 5), good (n = 2), and fair (n = 6). Subjectively, all patients without mechanical failure were satisfied. TEA represents a reliable surgical option for pain relief in patients with primary osteoarthritis. However, restoration of extension is not always obtained, indicating that more aggressive soft tissue releases or bony resection should be considered. Complications occurred in a large number of elbows, but mechanical failure was low considering the nature of this population and the length of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The development and evaluation of an online dementia resource for primary care based health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling A. Jennings

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This study provides a prototype for the development of an online dementia educational resource and demonstrates the value of a dementia-specific services and supports directory for primary care based health professionals.

  11. Survey on structural material investigations for the primary circuit of the SNR 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, E.D.; Lorenz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The material programs described so far cover major Important areas of structural material behavior in the primary system of a sodium cooled reactor. The results demonstrate that a good base is available for the design and safe operation of sodium systems. For complementation purposes some further work is needed in certain areas: creep-fatigue interaction mechanism and description of base material and weld metal behavior for design purposes, irradiation effects in the low-dose range on time-dependent material behavior, impact of heat-to-heat variation on materials properties data, establishment of a profound data base to evaluate sodium impact on mechanical properties, application of the leak-before-break concept in plant design, confirmation of laboratory test results by the operational experience of sodium cooled reactor systems. (author)

  12. E.S.R. studies of mechanisms of radiation protection effect by cysteine and cystine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Peng, L.; Tie-Cheng, T.; Nian-Yun, L.

    1981-01-01

    By means of E.S.R. the repair mechanism of radiation induced spin transfer from dTMP to cysteine in binary system dTMP-cysteine has been confirmed. Furthermore, a new marked radiation protection effect, exerted by cysteine or cystine on thymine irradiated and observed at low temperature, has been detected. Another sort of fast protection mechanism, including electron transfer and excitation transfer, has been proposed, based on recent advances of primary radiation process of pyrimidine bases and analysed by molecular orbital theory. This fast radiation protection mechanism provides the possibility to utilize electrophilic sulfhydryl protectors for realizing excellent protection effect. (author)

  13. Evidence, Engagement, and Technology: Themes of and the State of Primary Care Practice-based Network Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Practice-based research supported by practice-based research network (PBRN) infrastructure has historically provided an important method for challenging guidelines and evidence arising from secondary and tertiary care settings. This sample of current practice-based research in this issue of the JABFM provides an opportunity to ask whether practice-based research continues to address questions relevant to primary care practices and clinicians and whether a PBRN infrastructure is instrumental to maintaining the relevance and feasibility of practice-based research. Based on this issue's articles, the current state of practice-based research seems to be good, at face value addressing relevant issues for primary care practices. Less clear is the degree to which PBRN infrastructures and relationships informed the questions asked and facilitated the implementation of the studies presented. Practice-based research-related articles that routinely report about how study questions arose-from practices and their clinicians, staff and communities, or elsewhere-could help directly answer questions of relevance. In addition, reporting how practices are recruited to practice-based research studies could inform the degree to which ongoing relationships central to PBRNs facilitate the recruitment and conduct of practice-based research. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Effect of decontamination on nuclear power plant primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezina, M.; Kupca, L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of repeated decontamination on the properties of structural materials of the WWER-440 primary coolant circuit was examined. Three kinds of specimens of 08Kh18Ni10T steel were used for radioactivity-free laboratory experiments; they included material obtained from assembly additions to the V-2 nuclear power plant primary piping, and a sheet of the CSN 17247 steel. Various chemical, electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination procedures were tested. Chemical decontamination was based on the conventional AP(20/5)-CITROX(20/20) procedure and its variants; NP-CITROX type procedures with various compositions were also employed. Solutions based on oxalic acid were tested for the electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination. The results of measurements of mass losses of the surfaces, of changes in the corrosion resistance and in the mechanical properties of the materials due to repeated decontamination are summarized. (Z.S.). 12 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  15. Video-based problems in introductory mechanics physics courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Klein, Pascal; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Introductory mechanics physics courses at the transition from school to university are a challenge for students. They are faced with an abrupt and necessary increase of theoretical content and requirements on their conceptual understanding of phyiscs. In order to support this transition we replaced part of the mandatory weekly theory-based paper-and-pencil problems with video analysis problems of equal content and level of difficulty. Video-based problems (VBP) are a new problem format for teaching physics from a linked sequence of theoretical and video-based experimental tasks. Experimental tasks are related to the well-known concept of video motion analysis. This introduction of an experimental part in recitations allows the establishment of theory–experiment interplay as well as connections between physical content and context fields such as nature, technique, everyday life and applied physics by conducting model-and context-related experiments. Furthermore, laws and formulas as predominantly representative forms are extended by the use of diagrams and vectors. In this paper we give general reasons for this approach, describe the structure and added values of VBP, and show that they cover a relevant part of mechanics courses at university. Emphasis is put on theory–experiment interplay as a structural added value of VBP to promote students' construction of knowledge and conceptual understanding. (paper)

  16. Translating Mechanism-Based Strategies to Break the Obesity-Cancer Link: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura A; O'Flanagan, Ciara H; Bowers, Laura W; Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity, an established risk factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically over the past 50 years in the United States and across the globe. Relative to normoweight cancer patients, obese cancer patients often have poorer prognoses, resistance to chemotherapies, and are more likely to develop distant metastases. Recent progress on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer connection suggests that obesity exerts pleomorphic effects on pathways related to tumor development and progression and, thus, there are multiple opportunities for primary prevention and treatment of obesity-related cancers. Obesity-associated alterations, including systemic metabolism, adipose inflammation, growth factor signaling, and angiogenesis, are emerging as primary drivers of obesity-associated cancer development and progression. These obesity-associated host factors interact with the intrinsic molecular characteristics of cancer cells, facilitating several of the hallmarks of cancer. Each is considered in the context of potential preventive and therapeutic strategies to reduce the burden of obesity-related cancers. In addition, this review focuses on emerging mechanisms behind the obesity-cancer link, as well as relevant dietary interventions, including calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, low-fat diet, and ketogenic diet, that are being implemented in preclinical and clinical trials, with the ultimate goal of reducing incidence and progression of obesity-related cancers. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Lubineau, Gilles; Potluri, Prasad; Withers, Philip; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  18. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-01-08

    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  19. Mechanical and physical properties of agro-based fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lee; T.F. Shupe; C.Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    In order to better utilize agricultural fibers as an alternative resource for composite panels, several variables were investigated to improve mechanical and physical properties of agm-based fiberboard. This study focused on the effect of fiber morphology, slenderness ratios (UD), and fiber mixing combinations on panel properties. The panel construction types were also...

  20. An agent-based QoS provisioning mechanism for WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yong; Zeng, Qingji; Yue, Ling

    2004-04-01

    This paper addresses QoS provisioning mechanisms in the WDM optical networks. With the appearance of metropolitan optical network, a hierarchical metro and wide area optical network will be envisioned in the near future. This hierarchical optical transport network is often divided into optical domains by geography, administration and technology, which usually employ different QoS routing algorithms and policies. To provide end-to-end optical QoS is becoming a new challenge for the optical network design. In this paper, we first give an overview of issues on the QoS provisioning in data, control and management planes of the WDM optical network. And then three provisioning approaches are analyzed and compared. Finally, we propose an agent-based hybrid centralized/distributed QoS provisioning mechanism based on the concept of domain agent. This agent-based hybrid mechanism employs centralized approach in the domain and distributed approach between domains. It offers scalability and intra-domain optimal QoS routing. It also keeps independence and interoperability between domains.

  1. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  2. A morphing approach to couple state-based peridynamics with classical continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-01-04

    A local/nonlocal coupling technique called the morphing method is developed to couple classical continuum mechanics with state-based peridynamics. State-based peridynamics, which enables the description of cracks that appear and propagate spontaneously, is applied to the key domain of a structure, where damage and fracture are considered to have non-negligible effects. In the rest of the structure, classical continuum mechanics is used to reduce computational costs and to simultaneously satisfy solution accuracy and boundary conditions. Both models are glued by the proposed morphing method in the transition region. The morphing method creates a balance between the stiffness tensors of classical continuum mechanics and the weighted coefficients of state-based peridynamics through the equivalent energy density of both models. Linearization of state-based peridynamics is derived by Taylor approximations based on vector operations. The discrete formulation of coupled models is also described. Two-dimensional numerical examples illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. It is shown that the morphing method, originally developed for bond-based peridynamics, can be successfully extended to state-based peridynamics through the original developments presented here.

  3. A morphing approach to couple state-based peridynamics with classical continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan; Askari, Abe

    2016-01-01

    A local/nonlocal coupling technique called the morphing method is developed to couple classical continuum mechanics with state-based peridynamics. State-based peridynamics, which enables the description of cracks that appear and propagate spontaneously, is applied to the key domain of a structure, where damage and fracture are considered to have non-negligible effects. In the rest of the structure, classical continuum mechanics is used to reduce computational costs and to simultaneously satisfy solution accuracy and boundary conditions. Both models are glued by the proposed morphing method in the transition region. The morphing method creates a balance between the stiffness tensors of classical continuum mechanics and the weighted coefficients of state-based peridynamics through the equivalent energy density of both models. Linearization of state-based peridynamics is derived by Taylor approximations based on vector operations. The discrete formulation of coupled models is also described. Two-dimensional numerical examples illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. It is shown that the morphing method, originally developed for bond-based peridynamics, can be successfully extended to state-based peridynamics through the original developments presented here.

  4. Resonance-Based Sparse Signal Decomposition and its Application in Mechanical Fault Diagnosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Sun, Hongjian; Wang, Weijie

    2017-06-03

    Mechanical equipment is the heart of industry. For this reason, mechanical fault diagnosis has drawn considerable attention. In terms of the rich information hidden in fault vibration signals, the processing and analysis techniques of vibration signals have become a crucial research issue in the field of mechanical fault diagnosis. Based on the theory of sparse decomposition, Selesnick proposed a novel nonlinear signal processing method: resonance-based sparse signal decomposition (RSSD). Since being put forward, RSSD has become widely recognized, and many RSSD-based methods have been developed to guide mechanical fault diagnosis. This paper attempts to summarize and review the theoretical developments and application advances of RSSD in mechanical fault diagnosis, and to provide a more comprehensive reference for those interested in RSSD and mechanical fault diagnosis. Followed by a brief introduction of RSSD's theoretical foundation, based on different optimization directions, applications of RSSD in mechanical fault diagnosis are categorized into five aspects: original RSSD, parameter optimized RSSD, subband optimized RSSD, integrated optimized RSSD, and RSSD combined with other methods. On this basis, outstanding issues in current RSSD study are also pointed out, as well as corresponding instructional solutions. We hope this review will provide an insightful reference for researchers and readers who are interested in RSSD and mechanical fault diagnosis.

  5. Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.

    2016-02-01

    Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface

  6. Mechanism-based classification of pain for physical therapy management in palliative care: A clinical commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain relief is a major goal for palliative care in India so much that most palliative care interventions necessarily begin first with pain relief. Physical therapists play an important role in palliative care and they are regarded as highly proficient members of a multidisciplinary healthcare team towards management of chronic pain. Pain necessarily involves three different levels of classification-based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Mechanism-based treatments are most likely to succeed compared to symptomatic treatments or diagnosis-based treatments. The objective of this clinical commentary is to update the physical therapists working in palliative care, on the mechanism-based classification of pain and its interpretation, with available therapeutic evidence for providing optimal patient care using physical therapy. The paper describes the evolution of mechanism-based classification of pain, the five mechanisms (central sensitization, peripheral neuropathic, nociceptive, sympathetically maintained pain and cognitive-affective are explained with recent evidence for physical therapy treatments for each of the mechanisms.

  7. Design of mechanical coxa joints based on three-degree-of-freedom spherical parallel manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanbiao; Ji, Shiming; Wang, Zhongfei; Jin, Mingsheng; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenlin

    2013-01-01

    We addressed the issue of the design of mechanical coxa joints based on three-degree-of-freedom spherical parallel manipulators using the parameter statistics optimum method based on index atlases. The coxa joints have the advantages of high payload, high accuracy, and good technological efficiency. The first step of the design and prototyping used in this paper develops the direct and inverse displacement equations from the layout feature of the mechanical coxa joints. Then, the shapes of a constant-orientation workspace of the mechanical coxa joints are described, and the effects of the design parameters on the workspace volume are studied quantitatively. The next step deals with the graphical representation of the atlases that illustrates the relationship between performance evaluation index and design parameters based on the kinematics and torque analysis of the mechanical coxa joints. Finally, the geometric parameters of the coxa joints are obtained by the parameter statistics optimum method based on the index atlases. Considering assembly conditions, the design scheme of the mechanical coxa joints is developed, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of the mechanical coxa joints.

  8. Web-based training for primary healthcare workers in rural China: a qualitative exploration of stakeholders' perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixia Zhang

    Full Text Available Equitable access to basic public health services is a priority in China. However, primary healthcare workers' competence to deliver public health services is relatively poor because they lack professional training. Since the availability of web-based training has increased in China, the current study explored stakeholders' perceptions of a web-based training program on basic public health services to understand their thoughts, experiences, and attitudes about it.Six focus group discussions with primary healthcare workers and three with directors of township hospitals, county-level Health Bureaus, and county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were conducted in Yichang City during 2013. Semi-structured topic guides were used to facilitate qualitative data collection. Audio recordings of the sessions were transcribed verbatim and theme analysis was performed.Most of the study's participants, especially the village doctors, had insufficient knowledge of basic public health services. The existing training program for primary healthcare workers consisted of ineffective traditional face-to-face sessions and often posed accessibility problems for the trainees. Most of the study's participants had a positive attitude about web-based learning and expressed a strong desire to receive this novel training approach because of its flexibility and convenience. The perceived barriers to utilizing the web-based training method included poor computer literacy, lack of personal interaction, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of time and motivation. The facilitators of this approach included the training content applicability, the user-friendly and interactive learning format, and policy support.Web-based training on basic public health services is a promising option in rural China. The findings of the study will contribute knowledge to implementation of web-based training in similar settings.

  9. Ion transport by the amphibian primary ureter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    putative ion transport mechanisms in the primary ureter of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl). Primary ureters isolated from axolotl larvae were perfused in vitro and single cells were impaled across the basal cell membrane with glass microelectrodes. In 42 cells the membrane potential......+] steps from 3 to 20 mmol/l and a hyperpolarization of Vm upon lowering [Na+] from 102 to 2 mmol/l, indicating the presence of luminal K+ and Na+ conductances. This study provides the first functional data on the vertebrate primary ureter. The data show that the primary ureter of axolotl larvae...

  10. Study of network resource allocation based on market and game theoretic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingmei; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We work on the network resource allocation issue concerning network management system function based on market-oriented mechanism. The scheme is to model the telecommunication network resources as trading goods in which the various network components could be owned by different competitive, real-world entities. This is a multidisciplinary framework concentrating on the similarity between resource allocation in network environment and the market mechanism in economic theory. By taking an economic (market-based and game theoretic) approach in routing of communication network, we study the dynamic behavior under game-theoretic framework in allocating network resources. Based on the prior work of Gibney and Jennings, we apply concepts of utility and fitness to the market mechanism with an intention to close the gap between experiment environment and real world situation.

  11. Fracture mechanics assessment of thermal aged nuclear piping based on the Leak-Before-Break concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingya, E-mail: chenmingya@cgnpc.com.cn [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Weiwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Qian, Guian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wang, Rongshan; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Guodong; Xue, Fei; Chen, Zhilin [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of thermal aging on crack unstable tearing are studied. • The critical size of crack unstable tearing is calculated by different methods. • The critical failure models are compared. • The conservatism of J–T diagram is shown. - Abstract: The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has been accepted to design the primary piping system of the pressurized water reactor (PWR). Due to thermal aging of long term operation, the cast stainless steels (CSSs) which are used for the primary piping of PWR, suffer a significant loss of fracture toughness, and as a consequence the safety margin of the thermal aged pipe decreases. Therefore, the aged piping should be analyzed and validated by the LBB concept. In this paper, elastic–plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) assessments of the thermal aged piping are presented according to the LBB concept. The critical break size of crack unstable tearing is calculated by the EPFM method. The crack driving force diagram (J–a diagram), the stability assessment diagram (J–T diagram) and a numerical method are applied to calculate the critical crack size of crack break. The effects of thermal aging on the plastic limit load, J–T diagram, critical crack size of the EPFM and the critical failure mode are studied. The results show that the thermal aging effect decreases the maximum allowed J-integral at a certain ductile tearing modulus by more than 50% and it increases the flow stress and plastic limit load by 11.78%. The results based on the J–T diagram are about 40% conservative than those based on the direct numerical method for the high loading case. For the thermal aged piping, it is important to consider the competition failure modes between plastic collapse and unstable ductile tearing.

  12. A rheological model for elastohydrodynamic contacts based on primary laboratory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, S.; Winer, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    A shear rheological model based on primary laboratory data is proposed for concentrated contact lubrication. The model is a Maxwell model modified with a limiting shear stress. Three material properties are required: Low shear stress viscosity, limiting elastic shear modulus, and the limiting shear stress the material can withstand. All three are functions of temperature and pressure. In applying the model to EHD contacts the predicted response possesses the characteristics expected from several experiments reported in the literature and, in one specific case where direct comparison could be made, good numerical agreement is shown.

  13. Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2018-05-30

    Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

  14. Primary and secondary exercise dependence in a community-based sample of road race runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Karr, Trisha M; Zunker, Christie; Mitchell, James E; Thompson, Ron; Sherman, Roberta; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Erickson, Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine exercise dependence (EXD) in a large community-based sample of runners. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine differences in EXD symptoms between primary and secondary EXD. Our sample included 2660 runners recruited from a local road race (M age = 38.78 years, SD = 10.80; 66.39% women; 91.62% Caucasian) who completed all study measures online within 3 weeks of the race. In this study, EXD prevalence was lower than most previously reported rates (gamma = .248, p < .001) and individuals in the at-risk for EXD category participated in longer distance races, F(8,1) = 14.13, p = .01, partial eta squared = .05. Group differences were found for gender, F(1,1921) 8.08, p = .01, partial eta squared = .004, and primary or secondary group status, F(1,1921) 159.53, p = .01, partial eta squared = .077. Implications of primary and secondary EXD differences and future research are discussed.

  15. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  16. From Earth to Space--Advertising Films Created in a Computer-Based Primary School Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öman, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Today, teachers orchestrate computer-based tasks in software applications in Swedish primary schools. Meaning is made through various modes, and multimodal perspectives on literacy have the basic assumption that meaning is made through many representational and communicational resources. The case study presented in this paper has analysed pupils'…

  17. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  18. Leaching Mechanisms Program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.; Colombo, P.; Doty, R.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1984-09-01

    The primary goal of this work is to determine the leaching mechanisms of a variety of matrix materials either in use or being considered for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes by defense and commercial waste generators. Since this program is new and did not formally begin until May of FY 84, the results reported here are few and preliminary. Efforts were concentrated in the following activities: (1) The literature search for leaching data and proposed leaching models and mechanisms for low-level waste. (2) Data base development for leaching data being compiled from the literature and from the leaching experiments in this program. (3) The selection of solidification agents for the experimental part of the program. (4) Fabrication of leach samples and initiation of leach testing. 28 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  19. Time-dependent chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of hydrogel-based structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Peter; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Charged hydrogels are ionic polymer gels and belong to the class of smart materials. These gels are multiphasic materials which consist of a solid phase, a fluid phase and an ionic phase. Due to the presence of bound charges these materials are stimuli-responsive to electrical or chemical loads. The application of electrical or chemical stimuli as well as mechanical loads lead to a viscoelastic response. On the macroscopic scale, the response is governed by a local reversible release or absorption of water which, in turn, leads to a local decrease or increase of mass and a respective volume change. Furthermore, the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium of a hydrogel depends on the chemical composition of the gel and the surrounding solution bath. Due to the presence of bound charges in the hydrogel, this system can be understood as an osmotic cell where differences in the concentration of mobile ions in the gel and solution domain lead to an osmotic pressure difference. In the present work, a continuum-based numerical model is presented in order to describe the time-dependent swelling behavior of hydrogels. The numerical model is based on the Theory of Porous Media and captures the fluid-solid, fluid-ion and ion-ion interactions. As a direct consequence of the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium, the corresponding boundary conditions are defined following the equilibrium conditions. For the interaction of the hydrogel with surrounding mechanical structures, also respective jump condtions are formulated. Finaly, numerical results of the time-dependent behavior of a hydrogel-based chemo-sensor will be presented.

  20. Tensile mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloy of nanophases using molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lei; Hu, Wangyu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2016-04-15

    The mechanical properties of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al monocrystal of nanophases with varying temperatures, strain rates, and phase sizes have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results show that the primary deformation mechanisms in Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al monocrystal of nanophases were slip bands and antiphase boundaries at room temperature. The studies on the effects of temperature showed that the yield strain, yield strength, and elastic module decreased as temperature increased. However, the influences of strain rate and phase size on the mechanical properties of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al monocrystal of nanophases showed that the high strain rate led to the increase of yield stress, and the phase sizes had no significant influence on the maximum yield stress. In addition, the behavior of crack propagation in the model of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al interface was investigated under cyclic loading, and it was found that the interface of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al was resistance to the fatigue crack propagation. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Attitudes to evidence-based medicine of primary care physicians in Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, T A; Al-Ansary, L A

    2007-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was made of primary health care physicians in Asir region, Saudi Arabia in 1999 to explore their awareness of and attitude towards evidence-based medicine. The 272 respondents welcomed the principles of evidence-based medicine. Awareness and use of extracting journals, review publications and databases was low. Pharmaceutical company sponsored journals were the most commonly read. Bibliographic databases could only be accessed by 13% of respondents and the Internet by only 6%. There was only partial understanding of technical terms used in evidence-based medicine. Absence of a local library and increased patient workload were seen by most respondents as the main obstacles to practising evidence-based medicine.

  2. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Drug Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonsdale, Richard; Fort, Rachel M; Rydberg, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    )-mexiletine in CYP1A2 with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, providing a more detailed and realistic model. Multiple reaction barriers have been calculated at the QM(B3LYP-D)/MM(CHARMM27) level for the direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound mechanisms. Our calculated barriers......The mechanism of cytochrome P450(CYP)-catalyzed hydroxylation of primary amines is currently unclear and is relevant to drug metabolism; previous small model calculations have suggested two possible mechanisms: direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound. We have modeled the N-hydroxylation of (R...... indicate that the direct N-oxidation mechanism is preferred and proceeds via the doublet spin state of Compound I. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of an ordered water molecule in the active site assists in the binding of mexiletine in the active site...

  3. Effects of Storylines Embedded within the Context-Based Approach on Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Conceptions of Matter and Its States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Hülya; Ayas, Alipasa; Demircioglu, Gökhan; Özmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the context-based approach on pre-service primary school teachers' understanding of matter and its states and their attitude towards chemistry was investigated. Using a simple experimental design, the study was conducted with 35 pre-service primary school teachers who were exposed to context-based material with…

  4. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  5. Constraint-plane-based synthesis and topology variation of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Dongming; Dias, Jorge; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dai, Jian S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various topologies and mobility of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms synthesized with reconfigurable rTPS limbs. Based on the reconfigurable Hooke (rT) joint, the rTPS limb has two phases which result in parallel mechanisms having ability of mobility change. While in one phase the limb has no constraint to the platform, in the other it constrains the spherical joint center to lie on a plane which is used to demonstrate different topologies of the nrTPS metamorphic parallel mechanisms by investigating various relations (parallel or intersecting) among the n constraint planes (n = 2,3,..,6). Geometric constraint equations of the platform rotation matrix and translation vector are set up based on the point-plane constraint, which reveals mobility and redundant geometric conditions of the mechanism topologies. By altering the limbs into the non-constraint phase without constraint plane, new mechanism phases are deduced with mobility change based on each mechanism topology.

  6. Benchmarks for effective primary care-based nursing services for adults with depression: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlrath, Carole; Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; McLaughlin, Derek

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify and gain consensus on appropriate benchmarks for effective primary care-based nursing services for adults with depression. Worldwide evidence suggests that between 5% and 16% of the population have a diagnosis of depression. Most of their care and treatment takes place in primary care. In recent years, primary care nurses, including community mental health nurses, have become more involved in the identification and management of patients with depression; however, there are no appropriate benchmarks to guide, develop and support their practice. In 2006, a three-round electronic Delphi survey was completed by a United Kingdom multi-professional expert panel (n = 67). Round 1 generated 1216 statements relating to structures (such as training and protocols), processes (such as access and screening) and outcomes (such as patient satisfaction and treatments). Content analysis was used to collapse statements into 140 benchmarks. Seventy-three benchmarks achieved consensus during subsequent rounds. Of these, 45 (61%) were related to structures, 18 (25%) to processes and 10 (14%) to outcomes. Multi-professional primary care staff have similar views about the appropriate benchmarks for care of adults with depression. These benchmarks could serve as a foundation for depression improvement initiatives in primary care and ongoing research into depression management by nurses.

  7. Rural Teachers' Views: What Are Gender-Based Challenges Facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Pholoho

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from…

  8. "Shape function + memory mechanism"-based hysteresis modeling of magnetorheological fluid actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li-Jun; Chen, Peng; Cai, Fei-Long; Bai, Xian-Xu

    2018-03-01

    A hysteresis model based on "shape function + memory mechanism" is presented and its feasibility is verified through modeling the hysteresis behavior of a magnetorheological (MR) damper. A hysteresis phenomenon in resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is first presented and analyzed. In the hysteresis model, the "memory mechanism" originating from the charging and discharging processes of the RC circuit is constructed by adopting a virtual displacement variable and updating laws for the reference points. The "shape function" is achieved and generalized from analytical solutions of the simple semi-linear Duhem model. Using the approach, the memory mechanism reveals the essence of specific Duhem model and the general shape function provides a direct and clear means to fit the hysteresis loop. In the frame of the structure of a "Restructured phenomenological model", the original hysteresis operator, i.e., the Bouc-Wen operator, is replaced with the new hysteresis operator. The comparative work with the Bouc-Wen operator based model demonstrates superior performances of high computational efficiency and comparable accuracy of the new hysteresis operator-based model.

  9. Co- and multimorbidity patterns in primary care based on episodes of care: results from the German CONTENT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to technological progress and improvements in medical care and health policy the average age of patients in primary care is continuously growing. In equal measure, an increasing proportion of mostly elderly primary care patients presents with multiple coexisting medical conditions. To properly assess the current situation of co- and multimorbidity, valid scientific data based on an appropriate data structure are indispensable. CONTENT (CONTinuous morbidity registration Epidemiologic NeTwork is an ambitious project in Germany to establish a system for adequate record keeping and analysis in primary care based on episodes of care. An episode is defined as health problem from its first presentation by a patient to a doctor until the completion of the last encounter for it. The study aims to describe co- and multimorbidity as well as health care utilization based on episodes of care for the study population of the first participating general practices. Methods The analyses were based on a total of 39,699 patients in a yearly contact group (YCG out of 17 general practices in Germany for which data entry based on episodes of care using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC was performed between 1.1.2006 and 31.12.2006. In order to model the relationship between the explanatory variables (age, gender, number of chronic conditions and the response variables of interest (number of different prescriptions, number of referrals, number of encounters that were applied to measure health care utilization, we used multiple linear regression. Results In comparison to gender, patients' age had a manifestly stronger impact on the number of different prescriptions, the number of referrals and number of encounters. In comparison to age (β = 0.043, p Conclusion Documentation in primary care on the basis of episodes of care facilitates an insight to concurrently existing health problems and related medical procedures

  10. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of Primary Production in the Lower Amazon River Based on a Dissolved Oxygen Stable Isotopic Mass Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne-Maynard, William C.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Da Cunha, Alan C.; Neu, Vania; Brito, Daimio C.; Da Silva Less, Diani F.; Diniz, Joel E. M.; De Matos Valerio, Aline; Kampel, Milton; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.

    2017-02-07

    The Amazon River outgasses nearly an equivalent amount of CO2 as the rainforest sequesters on an annual basis due to microbial decomposition of terrigenous and aquatic organic matter. Most research performed in the Amazon has been focused on unraveling the mechanisms driving CO2 production since the recognition of a persistent state of CO2 supersaturation. However, although the river system is clearly net heterotrophic, the interplay between primary production and respiration is an essential aspect to understanding the overall metabolism of the ecosystem and potential transfer of energy up trophic levels. For example, an efficient ecosystem is capable of both decomposing high amounts of organic matter at lower trophic levels, driving CO2 emissions, and accumulating energy/biomass in higher trophic levels, stimulating fisheries production. Early studies found minimal evidence for primary production in the Amazon River mainstem and it has since been assumed that photosynthesis is strongly limited by low light penetration attributed to the high sediment load. Here, we test this assumption by measuring the stable isotopic composition of O218O-O2) and O2 saturation levels in the lower Amazon River from Óbidos to the river mouth and its major tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós rivers, during high and low water periods. An oxygen mass balance model was developed to estimate the input of photosynthetic oxygen in the discrete reach from Óbidos to Almeirim, midway to the river mouth. Based on the oxygen mass balance we estimate that primary production occurred at a rate of 0.39 ± 0.24 g O m3 d-1 at high water and 1.02 ± 0.55 g O m3 d-1 at low water. This translates to 41 ± 24% of the rate of O2 drawdown via respiration during high water and 67 ± 33% during low water. These primary production rates are 2-7 times higher than

  13. Implementing Internet-Based Self-Care Programs in Primary Care: Qualitative Analysis of Determinants of Practice for Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric; Burrone, Laura; Perez, Elliottnell; Martino, Steve; Rowe, Michael

    2018-05-18

    Access to evidence-based interventions for common mental health conditions is limited due to geographic distance, scheduling, stigma, and provider availability. Internet-based self-care programs may mitigate these barriers. However, little is known about internet-based self-care program implementation in US health care systems. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of practice for internet-based self-care program use in primary care by eliciting provider and administrator perspectives on internet-based self-care program implementation. The objective was explored through qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with primary care providers and administrators from the Veterans Health Administration. Participants were identified using a reputation-based snowball design. Interviews focused on identifying determinants of practice for the use of internet-based self-care programs at the point of care in Veterans Health Administration primary care. Qualitative analysis of transcripts was performed using thematic coding. A total of 20 physicians, psychologists, social workers, and nurses participated in interviews. Among this group, internet-based self-care program use was relatively low, but support for the platform was assessed as relatively high. Themes were organized into determinants active at patient and provider levels. Perceived patient-level determinants included literacy, age, internet access, patient expectations, internet-based self-care program fit with patient experiences, interest and motivation, and face-to-face human contact. Perceived provider-level determinants included familiarity with internet-based self-care programs, changes to traditional care delivery, face-to-face human contact, competing demands, and age. This exploration of perspectives on internet-based self-care program implementation among Veterans Health Administration providers and administrators revealed key determinants of practice, which can be used to develop

  14. Mechanical modeling for magnetorheological elastomer isolators based on constitutive equations and electromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Dong, Xufeng; Li, Luyu; Ou, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    As constitutive models are too complicated and existing mechanical models lack universality, these models are beyond satisfaction for magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) devices. In this article, a novel universal method is proposed to build concise mechanical models. Constitutive model and electromagnetic analysis were applied in this method to ensure universality, while a series of derivations and simplifications were carried out to obtain a concise formulation. To illustrate the proposed modeling method, a conical MRE isolator was introduced. Its basic mechanical equations were built based on equilibrium, deformation compatibility, constitutive equations and electromagnetic analysis. An iteration model and a highly efficient differential equation editor based model were then derived to solve the basic mechanical equations. The final simplified mechanical equations were obtained by re-fitting the simulations with a novel optimal algorithm. In the end, verification test of the isolator has proved the accuracy of the derived mechanical model and the modeling method.

  15. Silicon Nano fabrication by Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Mechanical Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sh.; Wang, M.; Kim, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews silicon nano fabrication processes using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, it summarizes recent results obtained in our research group regarding AFM-based silicon nano fabrication through mechanochemical local oxidation by diamond tip sliding, as well as mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical processing using an electrically conductive diamond tip. Microscopic three-dimensional manufacturing mainly relies on etching, deposition, and lithography. Therefore, a special emphasis was placed on nano mechanical processes, mechanochemical reaction by potassium hydroxide solution etching, and mechanical and electrical approaches. Several important surface characterization techniques consisting of scanning tunneling microscopy and related techniques, such as scanning probe microscopy and AFM, were also discussed.

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of electro-mechanical impedance based SHM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, M; Martowicz, A; Uhl, T

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis performed for FE simulations for electro-mechanical impedance based SHM system. The measurement of electro-mechanical impedance allows to follow changes of mechanical properties of monitored construction. Therefore it can be effectively applied to conclude about presence of damage. Coupled FE simulations have been carried out for simultaneous consideration of both structural dynamics and piezoelectric properties of a simple beam with bonded transducer. Several indexes have been used to assess the damage growth. In the paper the results obtained with both deterministic and stochastic simulations are shown and discussed. First, the relationship between size of introduced damage and its indexes has been studied. Second, ranges of variation of selected model properties have been assumed to find relationships between them and damage indexes. The most influential parameters have been found. Finally, the overall propagation of considered uncertainty has been assessed and related histograms plotted to discuss effectiveness and robustness of tested damage indexes based on the measurement of electro-mechanical impedance.

  17. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  18. HYPERTRANSLATION OF THE HEAD BACKWARDS - PART OF THE MECHANISM OF CERVICAL WHIPLASH INJURY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, L

    Based upon a review of the literature, a theory is developed that in whiplash injury the primary mechanism of the trauma is not hyperretroflexion but hypertranslation of the head backwards. Thus a hyperanteflexion (not hyperretroflexion) of the upper cervical spine, probably especially of the

  19. Development of Numerical Analysis Techniques Based on Damage Mechanics and Fracture Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon Suk; Lee, Dock Jin; Choi, Shin Beom; Kim, Sun Hye; Cho, Doo Ho; Lee, Hyun Boo

    2010-04-01

    The scatter of measured fracture toughness data and transferability problems among different crack configurations as well as geometry and loading conditions are major obstacles for application of fracture mechanics. To address these issues, recently, concerns on the local approach employing reliable micro-mechanical damage models are being increased again in connection with a progress of computational technology. In the present research, as part of development of fracture mechanical evaluation model for material degradation of reactor pressure boundary, several investigations on fracture behaviors were carried out. Especially, a numerical scheme to determine key parameters consisting both cleavage and ductile fracture estimate models was changed efficiently by incorporating a genetic algorithm. Also, with regard to the well-known master curve, newly reported methods such as bimodal master curve, randomly inhomogeneous master curve and single point estimation were reviewed to deal with homogeneous and inhomogeneous material characteristics. A series of preliminary finite element analyses was conducted to examine the element size effect on micro-mechanical models. Then, a new thickness correction equation was derived from parametric three-dimensional numerical simulations, which was founded on the current test standard, ASTM E1921, but could lead to get more realistic fracture toughness values. As a result, promising modified master curves as well as fracture toughness diagrams to convert data between pre-cracked V-notched and compact tension specimens were generated. Moreover, a user-subroutine in relation to GTN(Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) model was made by adopting Hill's 48 yield potential theory. By applying GTN model combined with the subroutine to small punch specimens, the effect of inhomogeneous properties on fracture behaviors of miniature specimens was confirmed. Therefore, it is anticipated that the aforementioned enhanced research results can be utilized

  20. Quality prediction modeling for sintered ores based on mechanism models of sintering and extreme learning machine based error compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiebin, Wu; Yunlian, Liu; Xinjun, Li; Yi, Yu; Bin, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the difficulty in quality prediction of sintered ores, a hybrid prediction model is established based on mechanism models of sintering and time-weighted error compensation on the basis of the extreme learning machine (ELM). At first, mechanism models of drum index, total iron, and alkalinity are constructed according to the chemical reaction mechanism and conservation of matter in the sintering process. As the process is simplified in the mechanism models, these models are not able to describe high nonlinearity. Therefore, errors are inevitable. For this reason, the time-weighted ELM based error compensation model is established. Simulation results verify that the hybrid model has a high accuracy and can meet the requirement for industrial applications.

  1. Building a Sustainable Primary Care Workforce: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Mark; Poplau, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The article by Puffer et al in this month's JABFM confirms a high burnout rate (25%) among family physicians renewing their credentials, with a higher rate among young and female doctors. Recent reports confirm high burnout rates among general internists. Thus, mechanisms to monitor and improve worklife in primary care are urgently needed. We describe the Mini Z (for "zero burnout program") measure, designed for these purposes, and suggest interventions that might improve satisfaction and sustainability in primary care, including longer visits, clinician control of work schedules, scribe support for electronic medical record work, team-based care, and an explicit emphasis on work-home balance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  2. [Governance of primary health-care-based health-care organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework was developed for explaining the conditions for the effectiveness of different strategies promoting integrated primary health-care (PHC) service-based systems in Latin-America. Different modes of governance (clan, incentives and hierarchy) were characterised from a political economics viewpoint for representing alternative forms of regulation promoting innovation in health-service-providing organisations. The necessary conditions for guaranteeing the modes of governance's effectiveness are presented, as are their implications in terms of posts in play. The institutional construction of an integrated health system is interpreted as being a product of a social process in which different modes of governance are combined, operating with different ways of resolving normative aspects for regulating service provision (with the hierarchical mode), resource distribution (with the incentives mode) and on the social values legitimising such process (with the clan mode).

  3. Influence knowledge and behavior of TB medical personnels’ concordance principle based communications skill at primary healthcare, Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, A. S.; Soeroso, N. N.; Alona, I.; Yunanda, Y.; Siregar, I.

    2018-03-01

    Concordance behavior of TB management is a form of collaboration among doctors, personnel, and patients in treating TB. Approvalamong them could be achieved if credibility and policy occur. This study is aimed to analyze the influence of TB medical personnel’s concordance behaviour principle to patient obedience at primary health care in Medan.The design of this study was quasi experimental, focusing on interventional primary health care, which is those who applied concordance behaviour principle to non-interventionalprimary health care. The population is TB patients, starting from 18 years old, TB category I with positive Acid Fast Bacilli Smear Test (AFBST), and taking TB regimens at Medan. Seventy- four patients were selected to be samples. They had undergone interview based on validated concordance principle, knowledge, behavior, and treatment. Data were analyzed using chi- square. The percentage of knowledge, behavior of TB patient to the treatment is higher on interventional primary health care than noninterventional ones. Treatment awareness based on concordance principle is expected to planish DOTS-based TB programs.

  4. On the magnetoreception mechanism in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses a mechanism of avian magnetoreception, which is based on the interaction of magnetite and maghemite micro particles, recently found in subcellular compartments within the sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. The analysis of forces acting between...... the iron particles shows that the orientation of the external geomagnetic field can significantly change the probability of the mechanosensitive ion channels opening and closing inducing a primary receptor potential via strain-sensitive membrane channels leading to a certain bird orientation effect...

  5. Office-Based Tools and Primary Care Visit Communication, Length, and Preventive Service Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Shay, L Aubree; Brown, Richard; Street, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    The use of physician office-based tools such as electronic health records (EHRs), health risk appraisal (HRA) instruments, and written patient reminder lists is encouraged to support efficient, high-quality, patient-centered care. We evaluate the association of exam room use of EHRs, HRA instruments, and self-generated written patient reminder lists with patient-physician communication behaviors, recommended preventive health service delivery, and visit length. Observational study of 485 office visits with 64 primary care physicians practicing in a health system serving the Detroit metropolitan area. Study data were obtained from patient surveys, direct observation, office visit audio-recordings, and automated health system records. Outcome measures included visit length in minutes, patient use of active communication behaviors, physician use of supportive talk and partnership-building communication behaviors, and percentage of delivered guideline-recommended preventive health services for which patients are eligible and due. Simultaneous linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between tool use and outcomes. Adjusted models controlled for patient characteristics, physician characteristics, characteristics of the relationship between the patient and physician, and characteristics of the environment in which the visit took place. Prior to adjusting for other factors, visits in which the EHR was used on average were significantly (p communication behaviors facilitating patient involvement (2.1 vs. 2.6 occurrences), but more use of active patient communication behaviors (4.4 vs. 2.6). Likewise, HRA use was significantly associated with increased preventive services delivery (62.1 percent vs. 57.0 percent). All relationships remained significant (p > .05) in adjusted models with the exception of that between HRA use and preventive service delivery. Office-based tools intended to facilitate the implementation of desired primary care practice

  6. A Mini Review on Nanocarbon-Based 1D Macroscopic Fibers:Assembly Strategies and Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Kou; Yingjun Liu; Cheng Zhang; Le Shao; Zhanyuan Tian; Zengshe Deng; Chao Gao

    2017-01-01

    Nanocarbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotubes(CNTs) and graphene have been attached much attention by scientific and industrial community. As two representative nanocarbon materials, one-dimensional CNTs and twodimensional graphene both possess remarkable mechanical properties. In the past years, a large amount of work have been done by using CNTs or graphene as building blocks for constructing novel, macroscopic, mechanically strong fibrous materials. In this review, we summarize the assembly approaches of CNT-based fibers and graphene-based fibers in chronological order, respectively. The mechanical performances of these fibrous materials are compared, and the critical influences on the mechanical properties are discussed. Personal perspectives on the fabrication methods of CNT-and graphene-based fibers are further presented.

  7. Primary Food Processing : Cornerstone of plant-based food production and the bio-economy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logatcheva, K.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the supply chains and special characteristics of plant-based primary food processors; producers of (wheat) flour, starches, vegetable oils and fats, sugar, and cocoa. The production value, direct employment in the industry, and indirect employment in farming were calculated.

  8. Primary mechanisms of photosensitization by furocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossweiner, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    A proper understanding of the PUVA therapy action mechanism requires the synthesis of concepts developed at the level of molecules, single cells and whole organisms. Although progress has been made in identifying key factors within each level of organization, the interrelationships remain obscure. Important unanswered questions at the molecular and cellular levels include: (1) Which excited states of the furocoumarin in molecule (triplet or excited singlet) are involved in the formation of DNA monoadducts, and the conversion of monoadducts to cross-links. (2) How does the spectrum of the incident radiation affect the distribution of the initial photochemical products from the PUVA sensitizers. (3) What are the relative contributions of furocoumarin-DMA monoadducts, furocoumarin-DNA cross-links and singlet oxygen to mutagenesis and lethality in cells, at the furocoumarin and UV-A dose levels corresponging to PUVA therapy. Additional information about these key aspects of furocoumarin photosensitization should lead to a more definitive relationship of the cellular level events to the endpoints observed with PUVA therapy, and suggest directions for potential improvements in the current clinical procedures

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Jamshed; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Masih, Rashid

    2012-10-15

    This work aims at study of thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers isolated from Plantago ovata (PO), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basilicum (OB). The analysis was performed by isoconversional method. The materials exhibited mainly two-stage degradation. The weight loss at ambient-115°C characterized by low activation energy corresponds to loss of moisture. The kinetic triplets consisting of E, A and g(α) model of the materials were determined. The major degradation stage represents a loss of high boiling volatile components. This stage is exothermic in nature. Above 340°C complete degradation takes place leaving a residue of 10-15%. The master plots of g(α) function clearly differentiated the degradation mechanism of hexose-based OB and SA polymers and pentose-based PO polymer. The pentose-based carbohydrate polymer showed D(4) type and the hexose-based polymers showed A(4) type degradation mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of nylon fiber on mechanical properties of cement based mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, I. M.; Syuhaili, M. R. Noor; Hasmori, M. F.; Shahmi, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the effect of nylon fiber on the mechanical properties of cement based mortar after receiving large quantities of nylon waste. Subsequently, this research was conducted to compare the compressive, tensile and flexural strength of normal cement based mortar with nylon fiber cement based mortar. All samples using constant water-cement ratio of 0.63 and three different percentages of nylon fiber were added in the mixture during the samples preparation period which consists of 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.5% by total weight of cement based mortar. The results obtained with different nylon percentage marked an increases in compressive strength (up to 17%), tensile strength (up to 21%) and flexural strength (up to 13%) when compared with control cement based mortar samples. Therefore, the results obtained from this study shows that by using nylon fiber as additive material can improve the mechanical properties of the cement based mortar and at the same time produce a good sustainable product that can protects and conserve the marine environment.

  11. Gating mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels of large conductance, I: a continuum mechanics-based hierarchical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Qiang; Tang, Yuye; Yoo, Jejoong; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-07-01

    A hierarchical simulation framework that integrates information from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations into a continuum model is established to study the mechanical response of mechanosensitive channel of large-conductance (MscL) using the finite element method (FEM). The proposed MD-decorated FEM (MDeFEM) approach is used to explore the detailed gating mechanisms of the MscL in Escherichia coli embedded in a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylethanolamine lipid bilayer. In Part I of this study, the framework of MDeFEM is established. The transmembrane and cytoplasmic helices are taken to be elastic rods, the loops are modeled as springs, and the lipid bilayer is approximated by a three-layer sheet. The mechanical properties of the continuum components, as well as their interactions, are derived from molecular simulations based on atomic force fields. In addition, analytical closed-form continuum model and elastic network model are established to complement the MDeFEM approach and to capture the most essential features of gating. In Part II of this study, the detailed gating mechanisms of E. coli-MscL under various types of loading are presented and compared with experiments, structural model, and all-atom simulations, as well as the analytical models established in Part I. It is envisioned that such a hierarchical multiscale framework will find great value in the study of a variety of biological processes involving complex mechanical deformations such as muscle contraction and mechanotransduction.

  12. Research on base rock mechanic characteristics of caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Katsuyama, Kunihisa; Seto, Masahiro; Ogata, Yuji; Utagawa, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    It has been considered that underground space is mechanically stable as compared with on the ground, and superior for storing radioactive waste for long period. However, in order to utilize underground space for the place of radioactive waste disposal, its long term stability such as the aseismatic ability of base rocks must be ensured, and for this purpose, it is necessary to grasp the mechanical characteristics of the base rocks around caverns, and to advance the technology for measuring and evaluating minute deformation and earth pressure change. In this research, the study on the fracture mechanics characteristics of base rocks and the development of the technology for measuring long terms stress change of base rocks were carried out. In this research, what degree the memory of past stress is maintained by rocks was presumed by measuring AE and strain when stress was applied to rock test pieces. The rocks tested were tuff, sandstone and granite. The experimental method and the experimental results of the prestress by AE method and DRA are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials.

  14. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  15. Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A

    2015-11-07

    We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric Primary Care-Based Obesity Prevention for Parents of Preschool Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D

    2015-12-01

    The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.

  17. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Christoph; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Whyte, Graeme; Homewood, Philip; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Guck, Jochen

    2015-03-07

    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetrically etched glass plates, combines exact optical fiber alignment, low laser damage threshold and high imaging quality with the possibility of several microfluidic inlet and outlet channels. We show the utility of such a custom-built optical stretcher glass chip by measuring and sorting single cells in a heterogeneous population based on their different mechanical properties and verify sorting accuracy by simultaneous fluorescence detection. This offers new possibilities of exact characterization and sorting of small populations based on rheological properties for biological and biomedical applications.

  18. Thermo-mechanical evaluation of carbon-carbon primary structure for SSTO vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croop, Harold C.; Lowndes, Holland B.; Hahn, Steven E.; Barthel, Chris A.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced development program to demonstrate carbon-carbon composite structure for use as primary load carrying structure has entered the experimental validation phase. The component being evaluated is a wing torque box section for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The validation or demonstration component features an advanced carbon-carbon design incorporating 3D woven graphite preforms, integral spars, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The validation component represents the culmination of a four phase design and fabrication development effort. Extensive developmental testing was performed to verify material properties and integrity of basic design features before committing to fabrication of the full scale box. The wing box component is now being set up for testing in the Air Force Research Laboratory Structural Test Facility at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. One of the important developmental tests performed in support of the design and planned testing of the full scale box was the fabrication and test of a skin/spar trial subcomponent. The trial subcomponent incorporated critical features of the full scale wing box design. This paper discusses the results of the trial subcomponent test which served as a pathfinder for the upcoming full scale box test.

  19. Hot isostatic pressing of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys: Mechanism of pore closure and effect on Mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epishin Alexander I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pore annihilation was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4. HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa were interrupted at different times, then the specimens were investigated by TEM, metallography and density measurements. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined. The pore closure mechanism was identified as plastic deformation on the octahedral slip systems. A model describing the kinetics of pore closure has been developed on the base of crystal plasticity and large strain theory. Mechanical tests with the superalloy CMSX-4 and the Ru-containing superalloy VGM4 showed, that HIP significantly increases the fatigue life at low temperatures but has no effect on creep strength.

  20. SPECIFICS OF IMPLEMENTING TECHNOLOGY OF ASSOCIATIVE TEACHING ENGLISH AT PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lobachova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the application of the associative teaching technology at primary school and the peculiarities of its implementation in teaching English to primary schoolchildren. It is found out that the modern primary school student should be able to think creatively, to solve given tasks, find associative links between objects, and be able to intercultural communication. So, a teacher has to master the innovative teaching technologies that optimize and intensify the educational process to forming primary schoolchildren’s abilities of this kind. It is determined that the technology of associative teaching English to primary schoolchildren is one of the most effective technologies because it meets quite new goals and tasks of teaching foreign languages at primary school, age and individual characteristics, needs, and interests of primary schoolchildren. It is shown that the associative teaching technology is based on the principle of harmony with nature and it creates conditions that are close to life situations, makes learning the foreign language accessible and relaxed. Associative teaching a foreign language and its various aspects are performed in accordance with the primary schoolchildren’s individual characteristics. The psychological mechanism is very important in the organization of associative teaching; it is taken into account in teaching children of primary school because human beings think with images and words are sound images that allow you to express what a person sees, feels, and thinks. Associative teaching combines both verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Associative teaching contributes to learning a foreign language based on the child’s real actions in the form of the active actions with items in accordance with the human linguistic programme that defines phased sequence of the language development. An effective method of teaching a foreign language is a method of Mind Mapping, which

  1. Practical Diagnosis and Management of Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease in the Primary Care Setting: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Diana R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review evidence-based guidance on the primary care of Alzheimer’s disease and clinical research on models of primary care for Alzheimer’s disease to present a practical summary for the primary care physician regarding the assessment and management of the disease. Data Sources: References were obtained via search using keywords Alzheimer’s disease AND primary care OR collaborative care OR case finding OR caregivers OR guidelines. Articles were limited to English language from January 1, 1990, to January 1, 2013. Study Selection: Articles were reviewed and selected on the basis of study quality and pertinence to this topic, covering a broad range of data and opinion across geographical regions and systems of care. The most recent published guidelines from major organizations were included. Results: Practice guidelines contained numerous points of consensus, with most advocating a central role for the primary care physician in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Review of the literature indicated that optimal medical and psychosocial care for people with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers may be best facilitated through collaborative models of care involving the primary care physician working within a wider interdisciplinary team. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines assign the primary care physician a critical role in the care of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Research on models of care suggests the need for an appropriate medical/nonmedical support network to fulfill this role. Given the diversity and breadth of services required and the necessity for close coordination, nationwide implementation of team-based, collaborative care programs may represent the best option for improving care standards for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24392252

  2. Sleep disorders associated with primary mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Ryan J; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2014-11-15

    Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. We examined publication reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/ or hyperapnea that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hyperapnea. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  3. Experimental evaluation of radiator control based on primary supply temperature for district heating substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; Deventer, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    . To maintain a stable indoor temperature at times when the primary supply and outdoor temperatures deviates from their assumed relation, the radiator system flow must be controlled by an additional control-loop. The results confirms that it is possible to control the radiator system based on the primary supply temperature while maintaining comfort; however, conclusions regarding improvements in ΔT were hard to distinguish.

  4. Location-based restoration mechanism for multi-domain GMPLS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Calle, Eusibi; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate the efficiency of a location-based restoration mechanism in a dynamic multi-domain GMPLS network. We focus on inter-domain link failures and utilize the correlation between the actual position of a failed link along the path with the applied restoration...

  5. Fe-based composite materials with improved mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werniewicz, Katarzyna [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Kuehn, Uta; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kulik, Tadeusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    Following a previous study by the authors two new compositions (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 91}C{sub 9} and (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} have been developed with the aim of improving the ductility of Fe{sub 65.5}Cr{sub 4}Mo{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}P{sub 12}C{sub 5}B{sub 5.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG). In contrast to the alloys in that study, the recently prepared Fe-based materials are Ga-free. It was expected that the variations in the composition will lead to the changes in the phase formation and, hence, in the mechanical response of the investigated alloys. It was recognized that in-situ formed Fe-based composites show superior plasticity ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}37%) for the alloy with lower C content and ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}4%) for the alloy with higher C content compared to monolithic glass ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}0.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of present as well as previous investigations it has been shown that the Ga addition is beneficial for the plasticity of these Fe-based alloys. It was observed that the (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} alloy exhibits a significantly smaller fracture strain ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}5%) compared to its Ga-containing counterpart ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}16%). Therefore, it can be concluded that appropriate alloying additions are crucial in enhancing the mechanical properties of the complex Fe-based materials developed here.

  6. Part of the hydrogen in the intergranular crack by stress corrosion in primary circuit for the 600 and 690 nickel base alloys; Role de l'hydrogene dans le mecanisme de fissuration intergranulaire par corrosion sous contrainte en milieu primaire des alliages base nickel 600 et 690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC/SCCME/LECA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J. [Evry Univ., UMR 8587 CNRS / CEA, LAMBE, 91 (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is, in a first part, to characterize the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of the 600 and 690 based alloys in order to better understand the hydrogen role in the stress corrosion mechanism which appears in theses alloys in the primary circuit of the PWR type reactors. The authors studies how the hydrogen embrittlement is resulting from an interaction between the hydrogen and the plastic deformation. (A.L.B.)

  7. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in metropolitan areas: conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available selected for the analysis are mainly those that offered public primary health care services and acted as first point of contact with the health service delivery system. Attached to the facility data are attribute data indicating the capacity...-Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology...

  8. Thermal runaway reaction hazards and mechanisms of hydroxylamine with acid/base contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chunyang; Saraf, Sanjeev R.; Rogers, William J.; Sam Mannan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxylamine (HA) has been involved in two incidents since 1999 because of its thermal instability and incompatibility. In this study, thermal runaway reactions of hydroxylamine with various concentrations of KOH and HCl were studied using the reactive system screening tool (RSST) and automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). The thermokinetic data, such as onset temperature, heat of reaction, maximum self-heat rate, maximum pressure rate, and non-condensable gas pressure, were compared with those of hydroxylamine solution without added impurity. Our study shows that the thermal decomposition behavior of hydroxylamine is affected by the presence of acid/base, and mixing of hydroxylamine with acid/base may cause thermal decomposition at lower temperatures. Different decomposition pathways can be initiated by hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. The decomposition mechanisms of hydroxylamine in alkaline and acidic solutions are proposed based on the products, information from the literature, and quantum mechanical calculations. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the proposed reaction mechanisms

  9. The Application of Problem-Based Learning in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Z. A.; Dewi, M.

    2018-02-01

    The course of Technology and Material Testing prepare students with the ability to do a variety of material testing in the study of mechanical engineering. Students find it difficult to understand the materials to make them unable to carry out the material testing in accordance with the purpose of study. This happens because they knowledge is not adequately supported by the competence to find and construct learning experience. In this study, quasy experiment research method with pre-post-test with control group design was used. The subjects of the study were students divided in two groups; control and experiment with twenty-two students in each group. Study result: their grades showed no difference in between the pre-test or post-test in control group, but the difference in grade existed between the pre-test and post-test in experiment group. Yet, there is no significant difference in the study result on both groups. The researcher recommend that it is necessary to develop Problem-Based Learning that suits need analysis on D3 Program for Mechanical Engineering Department at the State University of Padang, to ensure the compatibility between Model of Study and problems and need. This study aims to analyze how Problem-Based Learning effects on the course of Technology and Material Testing for the students of D3 Program of Mechanical Engineering of the State University of Padang.

  10. Characterisation of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model based on primary porcine capillary endothelial cells in monoculture or co-culture with primary rat or porcine astrocytes and pericytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Moos, Torben

    to in vivo such as efflux transporters, tight junction proteins, and high transendothelial electric resistance (TEER). Primary BCECs are isolated from a variety of mammals such as rats, mice, cattle and pigs. Often bovine and porcine BCECs are cultured in monoculture or in co-culture with rat astrocytes......In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) in monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are often applied for studying physiology of the BBB. Primary BCECs retain many morphological and biochemical properties similar...... obtained from neonatal rats which have been shown to strengthen the barrier properties of the BCECs. In this study, brain endothelial cells (PBECs), astrocytes and pericytes are isolated from pig brains donated by the local abattoir. The brains are from 6 month old domestic pigs. The availability and high...

  11. Mechanical properties correlation to processing parameters for advanced alumina based refractories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alumina based refractories are usually used in metallurgical furnaces and their thermal shock resistance is of great importance. In order to improve thermal shock resistance and mechanical properties of alumina based refractories short ceramic fibers were added to the material. SEM technique was used to compare the microstructure of specimens and the observed images gave the porosity and morphological characteristics of pores in the specimens. Standard compression test was used to determine the modulus of elasticity and compression strength. Results obtained from thermal shock testing and mechanical properties measurements were used to establish regression models that correlated specimen properties to process parameters.

  12. A time-based admission control mechanism for IEEE 802.11 ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Luís Henrique M. K.; Cerveira, Carlos Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a time-based admission control mechanism (TAC) for IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. The proposed mechanism was adapted to the QoS AODV routing protocol, which takes the quality of service requirements of the data flow into account in the route discovery process. TAC-AODV estimates the idle time of the physical medium based on the frames listened. The incoming traffic is admitted according to the offered load as well as the intra-flow interference, calculated based on the numbe...

  13. Market-Based Coordination and Auditing Mechanisms for Self-Interested Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, MyungJoo

    2009-01-01

    We propose market-based coordinated task allocation mechanisms, which allocate complex tasks that require synchronized and collaborated services of multiple robot agents to robot agents, and an auditing mechanism, which ensures proper behaviors of robot agents by verifying inter-agent activities, for self-interested, fully-distributed, and…

  14. The Evidence-base for Using Ontologies and Semantic Integration Methodologies to Support Integrated Chronic Disease Management in Primary and Ambulatory Care: Realist Review. Contribution of the IMIA Primary Health Care Informatics WG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C; Terry, A L; Jones, S; Soler, J K; de Lusignan, S

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic diseases are managed in primary and ambulatory care. The chronic care model (CCM) suggests a wide range of community, technological, team and patient factors contribute to effective chronic disease management. Ontologies have the capability to enable formalised linkage of heterogeneous data sources as might be found across the elements of the CCM. To describe the evidence base for using ontologies and other semantic integration methods to support chronic disease management. We reviewed the evidence-base for the use of ontologies and other semantic integration methods within and across the elements of the CCM. We report them using a realist review describing the context in which the mechanism was applied, and any outcome measures. Most evidence was descriptive with an almost complete absence of empirical research and important gaps in the evidence-base. We found some use of ontologies and semantic integration methods for community support of the medical home and for care in the community. Ubiquitous information technology (IT) and other IT tools were deployed to support self-management support, use of shared registries, health behavioural models and knowledge discovery tools to improve delivery system design. Data quality issues restricted the use of clinical data; however there was an increased use of interoperable data and health system integration. Ontologies and semantic integration methods are emergent with limited evidence-base for their implementation. However, they have the potential to integrate the disparate community wide data sources to provide the information necessary for effective chronic disease management.

  15. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  16. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers’ PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure ALKIŞ KÜÇÜKAYDIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  17. A reagent for safe and efficient diazo-transfer to primary amines: 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mitsuru; Kato, So; Yano, Masakazu; Tashiro, Norifumi; Shiratake, Yuichiro; Sando, Mitsuyoshi; Okauchi, Tatsuo

    2014-07-07

    Organic azides were prepared from primary amines in high yields by a metal free diazo-transfer reaction using 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate (ADMP), which is safe and stable crystalline. The choice of base was important in the diazo-transfer reaction. In general, 4-(N,N-dimethyl)aminopyridine (DMAP) was efficient, but a stronger base such as alkylamine or DBU was more appropriate for the reaction of nucleophilic primary amines. X-ray single crystal structural analysis and geometry optimization using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G**) were conducted to study the ADMP structure, and the diazo-transfer reaction mechanism was explained with the help of the results of these analyses.

  18. Systems consultation: protocol for a novel implementation strategy designed to promote evidence-based practice in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew; Brown, Randall T; E Zgierska, Aleksandra; A Johnson, Roberta; Robinson, James M; Jacobson, Nora

    2016-01-27

    Adoption of evidence-based practices takes place at a glacial place in healthcare. This research will pilot test an innovative implementation strategy - systems consultation -intended to speed the adoption of evidence-based practice in primary care. The strategy is based on tenets of systems engineering and has been extensively tested in addiction treatment. Three innovations have been included in the strategy - translation of a clinical practice guideline into a checklist-based implementation guide, the use of physician peer coaches ('systems consultants') to help clinics implement the guide, and a focus on reducing variation in practices across prescribers and clinics. The implementation strategy will be applied to improving opioid prescribing practices in primary care, which may help ultimately mitigate the increasing prevalence of opioid abuse and addiction. The pilot test will compare four intervention clinics to four control clinics in a matched-pairs design. A leading clinical guideline for opioid prescribing has been translated into a checklist-based implementation guide in a systematic process that involved experts who wrote the guideline in consultation with implementation experts and primary care physicians. Two physicians with expertise in family and addiction medicine are serving as the systems consultants. Each systems consultant will guide two intervention clinics, using two site visits and follow-up communication by phone and email, to implement the translated guideline. Mixed methods will be used to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of the implementation strategy in an evaluation that meets standards for 'fully developed use' of the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance). The clinic will be the primary unit of analysis. The systems consultation implementation strategy is intended to generalize to the adoption of other clinical guidelines. This pilot test is intended to prepare

  19. Radiosensitivity Differences Between Liver Metastases Based on Primary Histology Suggest Implications for Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Caudell, Jimmy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); El-Haddad, Ghassan [Department of Interventional Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Berglund, Anders E.; Welsh, Eric A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Yue, Binglin [Department of Biostastistics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Hoffe, Sarah E.; Naghavi, Arash O.; Abuodeh, Yazan A.; Frakes, Jessica M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Eschrich, Steven A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Torres-Roca, Javier F., E-mail: Javier.torresroca@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Evidence from the management of oligometastases with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) reveals differences in outcomes based on primary histology. We have previously identified a multigene expression index for tumor radiosensitivity (RSI) with validation in multiple independent cohorts. In this study, we assessed RSI in liver metastases and assessed our clinical outcomes after SBRT based on primary histology. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our prospective, observational protocol. The previously tested RSI 10 gene assay was run on samples and calculated using the published algorithm. An independent cohort of 33 patients with 38 liver metastases treated with SBRT was used for clinical correlation. Results: A total of 372 unique metastatic liver lesions were identified for inclusion from our prospective, institutional metadata pool. The most common primary histologies for liver metastases were colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=314, 84.4%), breast adenocarcinoma (n=12, 3.2%), and pancreas neuroendocrine (n=11, 3%). There were significant differences in RSI of liver metastases based on histology. The median RSIs for liver metastases in descending order of radioresistance were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (0.57), melanoma (0.53), colorectal neuroendocrine (0.46), pancreas neuroendocrine (0.44), colorectal adenocarcinoma (0.43), breast adenocarcinoma (0.35), lung adenocarcinoma (0.31), pancreas adenocarcinoma (0.27), anal squamous cell cancer (0.22), and small intestine neuroendocrine (0.21) (P<.0001). The 12-month and 24-month Kaplan-Meier rates of local control (LC) for colorectal lesions from the independent clinical cohort were 79% and 59%, compared with 100% for noncolorectal lesions (P=.019), respectively. Conclusions: In this analysis, we found significant differences based on primary histology. This study suggests that primary histology may be an important factor to consider in SBRT radiation dose selection.

  20. Radiosensitivity Differences Between Liver Metastases Based on Primary Histology Suggest Implications for Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Caudell, Jimmy J.; El-Haddad, Ghassan; Berglund, Anders E.; Welsh, Eric A.; Yue, Binglin; Hoffe, Sarah E.; Naghavi, Arash O.; Abuodeh, Yazan A.; Frakes, Jessica M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Torres-Roca, Javier F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Evidence from the management of oligometastases with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) reveals differences in outcomes based on primary histology. We have previously identified a multigene expression index for tumor radiosensitivity (RSI) with validation in multiple independent cohorts. In this study, we assessed RSI in liver metastases and assessed our clinical outcomes after SBRT based on primary histology. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our prospective, observational protocol. The previously tested RSI 10 gene assay was run on samples and calculated using the published algorithm. An independent cohort of 33 patients with 38 liver metastases treated with SBRT was used for clinical correlation. Results: A total of 372 unique metastatic liver lesions were identified for inclusion from our prospective, institutional metadata pool. The most common primary histologies for liver metastases were colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=314, 84.4%), breast adenocarcinoma (n=12, 3.2%), and pancreas neuroendocrine (n=11, 3%). There were significant differences in RSI of liver metastases based on histology. The median RSIs for liver metastases in descending order of radioresistance were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (0.57), melanoma (0.53), colorectal neuroendocrine (0.46), pancreas neuroendocrine (0.44), colorectal adenocarcinoma (0.43), breast adenocarcinoma (0.35), lung adenocarcinoma (0.31), pancreas adenocarcinoma (0.27), anal squamous cell cancer (0.22), and small intestine neuroendocrine (0.21) (P<.0001). The 12-month and 24-month Kaplan-Meier rates of local control (LC) for colorectal lesions from the independent clinical cohort were 79% and 59%, compared with 100% for noncolorectal lesions (P=.019), respectively. Conclusions: In this analysis, we found significant differences based on primary histology. This study suggests that primary histology may be an important factor to consider in SBRT radiation dose selection.

  1. Teletactile System Based on Mechanical Properties Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro M. Sette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tactile feedback is a major missing feature in minimally invasive procedures; it is an essential means of diagnosis and orientation during surgical procedures. Previous works have presented a remote palpation feedback system based on the coupling between a pressure sensor and a general haptic interface. Here a new approach is presented based on the direct estimation of the tissue mechanical properties and finally their presentation to the operator by means of a haptic interface. The approach presents different technical difficulties and some solutions are proposed: the implementation of a fast Young’s modulus estimation algorithm, the implementation of a real time finite element model, and finally the implementation of a stiffness estimation approach in order to guarantee the system’s stability. The work is concluded with an experimental evaluation of the whole system.

  2. Systems consultation: protocol for a novel implementation strategy designed to promote evidence-based practice in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbeck, Andrew; Brown, Randall T; E Zgierska, Aleksandra; A Johnson, Roberta; Robinson, James M; Jacobson, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Background Adoption of evidence-based practices takes place at a glacial place in healthcare. This research will pilot test an innovative implementation strategy ? systems consultation ?intended to speed the adoption of evidence-based practice in primary care. The strategy is based on tenets of systems engineering and has been extensively tested in addiction treatment. Three innovations have been included in the strategy ? translation of a clinical practice guideline into a checklist-based im...

  3. The relationship between motivation, monetary compensation, and data quality among US- and India-based workers on Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Robinson, Jonathan; Rosenzweig, Cheskie

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined data quality among Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers based in India, and the effect of monetary compensation on their data quality. Recent studies have shown that work quality is independent of compensation rates, and that compensation primarily affects the quantity but not the quality of work. However, the results of these studies were generally based on compensation rates below the minimum wage, and far below a level that was likely to play a practical role in the lives of workers. In this study, compensation rates were set around the minimum wage in India. To examine data quality, we developed the squared discrepancy procedure, which is a task-based quality assurance approach for survey tasks whose goal is to identify inattentive participants. We showed that data quality is directly affected by compensation rates for India-based participants. We also found that data were of a lesser quality among India-based than among US participants, even when optimal payment strategies were utilized. We additionally showed that the motivation of MTurk users has shifted, and that monetary compensation is now reported to be the primary reason for working on MTurk, among both US- and India-based workers. Overall, MTurk is a constantly evolving marketplace where multiple factors can contribute to data quality. High-quality survey data can be acquired on MTurk among India-based participants when an appropriate pay rate is provided and task-specific quality assurance procedures are utilized.

  4. Communication between office-based primary care providers and nurses working within patients' homes: an analysis of process data from CAPABLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick D; Boyd, Cynthia; Bellantoni, Julia; Roth, Jill; Becker, Kathleen L; Savage, Jessica; Nkimbeng, Manka; Szanton, Sarah L

    2016-02-01

    To examine themes of communication between office-based primary care providers and nurses working in private residences; to assess which methods of communication elicit fruitful responses to nurses' concerns. Lack of effective communication between home health care nurses and primary care providers contributes to clinical errors, inefficient care delivery and decreased patient safety. Few studies have described best practices related to frequency, methods and reasons for communication between community-based nurses and primary care providers. Secondary analysis of process data from 'Community Aging in Place: Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE)'. Independent reviewers analysed nurse documentation of communication (phone calls, letters and client coaching) initiated for 70 patients and analysed 45 letters to primary care providers to identify common concerns and recommendations raised by CAPABLE nurses. Primary care providers responded to 86% of phone calls, 56% of letters and 50% of client coaching efforts. Primary care providers addressed 86% of concerns communicated by phone, 34% of concerns communicated by letter and 41% of client-raised concerns. Nurses' letters addressed five key concerns: medication safety, pain, change in activities of daily living, fall safety and mental health. In letters, CAPABLE nurses recommended 58 interventions: medication change; referral to a specialist; patient education; and further diagnostic evaluation. Effective communication between home-based nurses and primary care providers enhances care coordination and improves outcomes for home-dwelling elders. Various methods of contact show promise for addressing specific communication needs. Nurses practicing within patients' homes can improve care coordination by using phone calls to address minor matters and written letters for detailed communication. Future research should explore implementation of Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation in home care to promote

  5. Why Aren't More Primary Care Residents Going into Primary Care? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Theodore; Chaiyachati, Krisda; Bosu, Olatunde; Sircar, Sohini; Richards, Bradley; Garg, Megha; McGarry, Kelly; Solomon, Sonja; Berman, Rebecca; Curry, Leslie; Moriarty, John; Huot, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Workforce projections indicate a potential shortage of up to 31,000 adult primary care providers by the year 2025. Approximately 80 % of internal medicine residents and nearly two-thirds of primary care internal medicine residents do not plan to have a career in primary care or general internal medicine. We aimed to explore contextual and programmatic factors within primary care residency training environments that may influence career choices. This was a qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-person interviews. Three primary care internal medicine residency programs were purposefully selected to represent a diversity of training environments. Second and third year residents were interviewed. We used a survey guide developed from pilot interviews and existing literature. Three members of the research team independently coded the transcripts and developed the code structure based on the constant comparative method. The research team identified emerging themes and refined codes. ATLAS.ti was used for the analysis. We completed 24 interviews (12 second-year residents, and 12 third-year residents). The age range was 27-39 years. Four recurrent themes characterized contextual and programmatic factors contributing to residents' decision-making: resident expectations of a career in primary care, navigation of the boundary between social needs and medical needs, mentorship and perceptions of primary care, and structural features of the training program. Addressing aspects of training that may discourage residents from careers in primary care such as lack of diversity in outpatient experiences and resident frustration with their inability to address social needs of patients, and strengthening aspects of training that may encourage interests in careers in primary care such as mentorship and protected time away from inpatient responsibilities during primary care rotations, may increase the proportion of residents enrolled in primary care training programs who pursue

  6. The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO 2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO 2 reductions in other countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation. (author)

  7. ICT-Supported Problem-Based Learning: Possibilities of Applying Problem-Based Learning from Primary School to Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czékmán Balázs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Based Learning was originally created for medical students to better diagnose new illnesses; this methodology can be used in almost all the fields of education. Teachers can teach by appealing to students’ natural instincts to create, and they can improve the students’ performance in different disciplines. So, we can say that it is an easy way of the acquisition and integration of new knowledge. While the content and structure of PBL courses may differ, the general goals and learning objectives tend to be similar. It begins with the assumption that learning is an active, integrated, and constructive process influenced by social and contextual factors. The task of our paper is to show how Problem-Based Learning can be used from primary to university level education in teaching different subjects.

  8. Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

  9. Game-based programming towards developing algorithmic thinking skills in primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariklia Tsalapatas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents cMinds, a learning intervention that deploys game-based visual programming towards building analytical, computational, and critical thinking skills in primary education. The proposed learning method exploits the structured nature of programming, which is inherently logical and transcends cultural barriers, towards inclusive learning that exposes learners to algorithmic thinking. A visual programming environment, entitled ‘cMinds Learning Suite’, has been developed aimed for classroom use. Feedback from the deployment of the learning methods and tools in classrooms in several European countries demonstrates elevated learner motivation for engaging in logical learning activities, fostering of creativity and an entrepreneurial spirit, and promotion of problem-solving capacity

  10. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  11. Platelet-released growth factors inhibit proliferation of primary keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Berndt, Rouven; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF ® ) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes' differentiation. In the present study we analyzed the influence of PRGF on primary human keratinocytes' proliferation. Using the molecular proliferation marker Ki-67 we observed a concentration- and time dependent inhibition of Ki-67 gene expression in PRGF treated primary keratinocytes. These effects were independent from the EGFR- and the IL-6-R pathway. Inhibition of primary keratinocytes' proliferation by PRGF treatment was confirmed in colorimetric cell proliferation assays. Together, these data indicate that the clinically observed positive effects of autologous thrombocytes concentrates in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal wounds are not based on an increased keratinocytes proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Autoimmunity and primary immunodeficiency: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhold E; Grimbacher, Bodo; Witte, Torsten

    2017-12-19

    Autoimmunity and immunodeficiency were previously considered to be mutually exclusive conditions; however, increased understanding of the complex immune regulatory and signalling mechanisms involved, coupled with the application of genetic analysis, is revealing the complex relationships between primary immunodeficiency syndromes and autoimmune diseases. Single-gene defects can cause rare diseases that predominantly present with autoimmune symptoms. Such genetic defects also predispose individuals to recurrent infections (a hallmark of immunodeficiency) and can cause primary immunodeficiencies, which can also lead to immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. Moreover, risk factors for polygenic rheumatic diseases often exist in the same genes as the mutations that give rise to primary immunodeficiency syndromes. In this Review, various primary immunodeficiency syndromes are presented, along with their pathogenetic mechanisms and relationship to autoimmune diseases, in an effort to increase awareness of immunodeficiencies that occur concurrently with autoimmune diseases and to highlight the need to initiate appropriate genetic tests. The growing knowledge of various genetically determined pathologic mechanisms in patients with immunodeficiencies who have autoimmune symptoms opens up new avenues for personalized molecular therapies that could potentially treat immunodeficiency and autoimmunity at the same time, and that could be further explored in the context of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

  13. Primary tumor resection in metastatic breast cancer: A propensity-matched analysis, 1988-2011 SEER data base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Nasreen A; Brinkley, Jason; Kachare, Swapnil; Muzaffar, Mahvish

    2018-03-02

    Primary tumor resection (PTR) in metastatic breast cancer is not a standard treatment modality, and its impact on survival is conflicting. The primary objective of this study was to analyze impact of PTR on survival in metastatic patients with breast cancer. A retrospective study of metastatic patients with breast cancer was conducted using the 1988-2011 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data base. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between PTR and survival and to adjust for the heterogeneity between the groups, and a propensity score-matched analysis was also performed. A total of 29 916 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included in the study, and 15 129 (51%) of patients underwent primary tumor resection, and 14 787 (49%) patients did not undergo surgery. Overall, decreasing trend in PTR for metastatic breast cancer in last decades was noted. Primary tumor resection was associated with a longer median OS (34 vs 18 months). In a propensity score-matched analysis, prognosis was also more favorable in the resected group (P = .0017). Primary tumor resection in metastatic breast cancer was associated with survival improvement, and the improvement persisted in propensity-matched analysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Radiolysis of nucleosides in aqueous solutions: base liberation by the base attack mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.

    1984-01-01

    On the radiolysis of uridine and some other nucleosides in aqueous solution, a pH-dependent liberation of uracil or the corresponding base was found. e - sub(aq) and HOsup(anion radicals) 2 gave no freed bases, although many oxidizing radicals, including OH, Clsup(anion radicals) 2 , Brsup(anion radicals) 2 , (CNS)sup(anion radicals) 2 and SOsup(anion radicals) 4 , did cause the release of unaltered bases, depending on the pH of the solutions. The base yields were generally high at pH >= 11, with the exception of SOsup(anion radicals) 4 , which gave a rather high yield of uracil (from uridine) even in the pH region of - , present at high pH as the dissociated form of OH, may act partly as an oxidizing radical. A plausible mechanism of 3 1 -radical formation is discussed. (author)

  15. Alginate foam-based three-dimensional culture to investigate drug sensitivity in primary leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpoor, Mahroo; Yebra-Fernandez, Eva; Parhizkar, Maryam; Orlu, Mine; Craig, Duncan; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2018-04-01

    The development of assays for evaluating the sensitivity of leukaemia cells to anti-cancer agents is becoming an important aspect of personalized medicine. Conventional cell cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bone marrow (BM), the extracellular matrix and stromal components which are crucial for the growth and survival of leukaemia stem cells. To accurately predict the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells in an in vitro assay a culturing system containing the essential components of BM is required. In this study, we developed a porous calcium alginate foam-based scaffold to be used for 3D culture. The new 3D culture was shown to be cell compatible as it supported the proliferation of both normal haematopoietic and leukaemia cells. Our cell differential assay for myeloid markers showed that the porous foam-based 3D culture enhanced myeloid differentiation in both leukaemia and normal haematopoietic cells compared to two-dimensional culture. The foam-based scaffold reduced the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells to the tested antileukaemia agents in K562 and HL60 leukaemia cell line model and also primary myeloid leukaemia cells. This observation supports the application of calcium alginate foams as scaffold components of the 3D cultures for investigation of sensitivity to antileukaemia agents in primary myeloid cells. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Variation in primary site resection practices for advanced colon cancer: a study using the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mark A; Pradarelli, Jason C; Krell, Robert W; Regenbogen, Scott E; Suwanabol, Pasithorn A

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of metastatic colon cancer may be driven as much by practice patterns as by features of disease. To optimize management, there is a need to better understand what is determining primary site resection use. We evaluated all patients with stage IV cancers in the National Cancer Data Base from 2002 to 2012 (50,791 patients, 1,230 hospitals). We first identified patient characteristics associated with primary tumor resection. Then, we assessed nationwide variation in hospital resection rates. Overall, 27,387 (53.9%) patients underwent primary site resection. Factors associated with resection included younger age, having less than 2 major comorbidities, and white race (P primary tumor resection rates ranged from 26.0% to 87.8% with broad differences across geographical areas and hospital accreditation types. There is statistically significant variation in hospital rates of primary site resection. This demonstrates inconsistent adherence to guidelines in the presence of conflicting evidence regarding resection benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dependence of mechanical characteristics from composition and structure and optimization of mechanical fracture energy of polymer composite material based on high-molecular rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurullaev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By means of numerical experiment the authors investigate dependence of conventional rupturing stress and mechanical fracture energy at uniaxial tension from fractional composition of dispersed filler, plasticizer volume fraction in polymer binder, effective density of transverse bonds, applied to development of covering for different purposes and with advanced service life in temperature range from 223 to 323 K. They compare mechanical characteristics of polymer composite materials (PCMs based on high- and low-molecular rubbers. It was shown that rupturing stress of high-molecular rubber-based PCM is of a higher magnitude than the stress of low-molecular rubber-based one at almost invariable rupturing deformation. Numerical simulation by variation of composition parameters and molecular structure enables evaluation of its maximum fracture energy which is 1000 times higher than mechanical fracture energy of similar composites based on low-molecular rubbers.

  18. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 3: Primary Circuit. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 3, Primary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 211. Focus of the exercises and pretests is testing the primary ignition circuit. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the eight performance objectives…

  19. Quality Assessment in the Primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield

  20. Molecular mechanisms of the sleep wake cycle : therapeutic applications to insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Grima, Melanie; Hunter, Therese; Zhang, Yimeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to explore the molecular mechanism and genetic components of the sleepwake cycle and insomnia. Moreover, we wanted to review the correlation between primary insomnia and its comorbidities. With this aim, a systematic review of recent evidence of the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the causation of primary insomnia, along with associations between primary insomnia and other diseases were conducted. Primary insomnia is a complex disorder which accounts for...

  1. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar; Johnson, Mark; Wild, Ben; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  2. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  3. Layered Location-Based Security Mechanism for Mobile Sensor Networks: Moving Security Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs. Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes’ dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy.

  4. Layered Location-Based Security Mechanism for Mobile Sensor Networks: Moving Security Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Zhang, Haijuan; Wu, Luqiang; Zhou, Chang

    2015-09-25

    Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs). Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA) is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes' dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy.

  5. The Coming Primary Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-04-01

    The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.

  6. Classroom-Based Assessment and the Issue of Continuity between Primary and Secondary School Languages Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from an ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment practices in languages classrooms (Indonesian) in the final year of primary (Year 6) and the first year of secondary (Year 7), respectively. In particular, the paper focuses on differences between the respective year levels in how learning was assessed…

  7. Probability and heritability estimates on primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousgaard, Søren Glud; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk and heritab......INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk...... and heritability of primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to a total hip arthroplasty, and if this heritability increased with increasing age. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based follow-up study 118,788 twins from the Danish Twin Register and 90,007 individuals from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register...... not have had a total hip arthroplasty at the time of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 94,063 twins eligible for analyses, comprising 835 cases of 36 concordant and 763 discordant twin pairs. The probability increased particularly from 50 years of age. After sex and age adjustment a significant additive...

  8. College education and social trust: an evidence-based study on the causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of college education on social trust at the individual level. Based on the literature of trust and social trust, we hypothesize that life experience/development since adulthood and perceptions of cultural/social structures are two primary channels in the causal

  9. A continuum mechanics-based musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we extend our previous esophageal transport model using an immersed boundary (IB) method with discrete fiber-based structural model, to one using a continuum mechanics-based model that is approximated based on finite elements (IB-FE). To deal with the leakage of flow when the Lagrangian mesh becomes coarser than the fluid mesh, we employ adaptive interaction quadrature points to deal with Lagrangian-Eulerian interaction equations based on a previous work (Griffith and Luo [1]). In particular, we introduce a new anisotropic adaptive interaction quadrature rule. The new rule permits us to vary the interaction quadrature points not only at each time-step and element but also at different orientations per element. This helps to avoid the leakage issue without sacrificing the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the interaction equations. For the material model, we extend our previous fiber-based model to a continuum-based model. We present formulations for general fiber-reinforced material models in the IB-FE framework. The new material model can handle non-linear elasticity and fiber-matrix interactions, and thus permits us to consider more realistic material behavior of biological tissues. To validate our method, we first study a case in which a three-dimensional short tube is dilated. Results on the pressure-displacement relationship and the stress distribution matches very well with those obtained from the implicit FE method. We remark that in our IB-FE case, the three-dimensional tube undergoes a very large deformation and the Lagrangian mesh-size becomes about 6 times of Eulerian mesh-size in the circumferential orientation. To validate the performance of the method in handling fiber-matrix material models, we perform a second study on dilating a long fiber-reinforced tube. Errors are small when we compare numerical solutions with analytical solutions. The technique is then applied to the problem of esophageal transport. We use two

  10. Contract-Based Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP and mobile users (MUs, crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive.

  11. Humidity Responsive Photonic Sensor based on a Carboxymethyl Cellulose Mechanical Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Hartings, Matthew; Douglass, Kevin O.; Neice, Claire; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    We describe an intuitive and simple method for exploiting humidity-driven volume changes in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to fabricate a humidity responsive actuator on a glass fiber substrate. We optimize this platform to generate a photonic-based humidity sensor where CMC coated on a fiber optic containing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) actuates a mechanical strain in response to humidity changes. The humidity-driven mechanical deformation of the FBG results in a large lin...

  12. MODIS-based global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Kobayashi, H.; Li, J.; van Ingen, C.; Agarwal, D.; Jackson, K.; Humphrey, M.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to quantify gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) at global scale (5 km resolution with 8-day interval). The MODIS-based, process-oriented approach couples photosynthesis, evaporation, two-leaf energy balance and nitrogen, which are different from the previous satellite-based approaches. We couple information from MODIS with flux towers to assess the drivers and parameters of GPP and ET. Incoming shortwave radiation components (direct and diffuse PAR, NIR) under all sky condition are modeled using a Monte-Carlo based atmospheric radiative transfer model. The MODIS Level 2 Atmospheric products are gridded and overlaid with MODIS Land products to produce spatially compatible forcing variables. GPP is modeled using a two-leaf model (sunlit and shaded leaf) and the maximum carboxylation rate is estimated using albedo-Nitrogen-leaf trait relations. The GPP is used to calculate canopy conductance via Ball-Berry model. Then, we apply Penman-Monteith equation to calculate evapotranspiration. The process-oriented approach allows us to investigate the main drivers of GPP and ET at global scale. Finally we explore the spatial and temporal variability of GPP and ET at global scale.

  13. Multiple primary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  14. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-01-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  15. Mechanism of chain formation in nanofluid based MR fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism of structure formation in bidispersed colloids is important for its physical and optical properties. It is microscopically observed that the mechanism of chain formation in magnetic nanofluid based magnetorheological (MR) fluid is quite different from that in the conventional MR fluid. Under the application of magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles are filled inside the structural microcavities formed due to the association of large magnetic particles, and some of the magnetic nanoparticles are attached at the end of the chains formed by the large particles. The dipolar energy of the large particles in a magnetic nanofluid matrix becomes effective magnetic permeability (μ eff ) times smaller than that of the neutral medium. Inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles (∼10 nm) with large magnetic particles (∼3-5 μm) restricts the aggregation of large particles, which causes the field induced phase separation in MR fluids. Hence, nanofluid based MR fluids are more stable than conventional MR fluids, which subsequently increase their application potentiality. - Research highlights: → In bidispersed magnetic colloids nanoparticles are attached at the end of the chains formed by the large particles. → Inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles (∼10 nm) with large magnetic particles (∼3-5 m) restricts the aggregation of large particles. → Nanofluid based MR fluids are more stable than conventional MR fluids.

  16. Chemosensitivity testing of primary human renal cell carcinoma by a tetrazolium based microculture assay (MTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickisch, G; Fajta, S; Keilhauer, G; Schlick, E; Tschada, R; Alken, P

    1990-01-01

    MTT staining procedures have been used in chemosensitivity testing of established cell lines of human and other sources as well as of human leukaemias, but only limited information on its application in primary solid human tumors is presently available. We have evaluated MTT staining in primary human Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCCs), studied various factors interfering with the optimal use, and finally applied it in subsequent chemosensitivity testing. The method depends on the conversion of a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (MTT) to a purple colored formazan precipitate, a reaction effected by enzymes active only in living cells. Single cell suspensions of RCCs were obtained either by enzymatic dispersion or by mechanical dissagregation, filtered through gauze, and purified by Ficoll density centrifugation. Tests were carried out in 96-well microculture plates. 10(4) viable tumor cells per well at 4 h incubation time with 20 micrograms MTT/100 microliters total medium volume yielded best results. Formazan crystals were dissolved with DMSO, and the plates were immediately measured on a microculture plate reader at 540 nm. Under these criteria, linearity of the system could be demonstrated. For chemosensitivity testing, cells were continuously exposed to a number of drugs prior to the MTT staining procedure. Reproducibility of results was assessed and confirmed by culturing RCCs in flasks additionally, resubmitting them after 1, 2, and 4 weeks to the MTT assay. We conclude that the semiautomated MTT assay offers a valid, rapid, reliable and simple method to determine the degree of chemoresistance in primary human RCCs.

  17. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  18. MeRy-B, a metabolomic database and knowledge base for exploring plant primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plant primary metabolites are organic compounds that are common to all or most plant species and are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. They are intermediates and products of metabolism involved in photosynthesis and other biosynthetic processes. Primary metabolites belong to different compound families, mainly carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, steroids, or lipids. Until recently, unlike the Human Metabolome Database ( http://www.hmdb.ca ) dedicated to human metabolism, there was no centralized database or repository dedicated exclusively to the plant kingdom that contained information on metabolites and their concentrations in a detailed experimental context. MeRy-B is the first platform for plant (1)H-NMR metabolomic profiles (MeRy-B, http://bit.ly/meryb ), designed to provide a knowledge base of curated plant profiles and metabolites obtained by NMR, together with the corresponding experimental and analytical metadata. MeRy-B contains lists of plant metabolites, mostly primary metabolites and unknown compounds, with information about experimental conditions, the factors studied, and metabolite concentrations for 19 different plant species (Arabidopsis, broccoli, daphne, grape, maize, barrel clover, melon, Ostreococcus tauri, palm date, palm tree, peach, pine tree, eucalyptus, plantain rice, strawberry, sugar beet, tomato, vanilla), compiled from more than 2,300 annotated NMR profiles for various organs or tissues deposited by 30 different private or public contributors in September 2013. Currently, about half of the data deposited in MeRy-B is publicly available. In this chapter, readers will be shown how to (1) navigate through and retrieve data of publicly available projects on MeRy-B website; (2) visualize lists of experimentally identified metabolites and their concentrations in all plant species present in MeRy-B; (3) get primary metabolite list for a particular plant species in MeRy-B; and for a

  19. Apical extrusion of debris in primary molar root canals using mechanical and manual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, B; Hascizmeci, C; Aksoy, S; Nur Aydin, M; Guvendi, O N

    2018-03-01

    Apical extrusion of debris in primary root canal treatment has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of primary molar root canals using ProTaper, ProTaper Next, Self-adjusting File (SAF) and hand files. One hundred sixty extracted primary mandibular molar teeth were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1: Resorbed (n=80) and Group 2: Non-resorbed (n=80) and randomly to four subgroups (n=20 teeth for each subgroup) according to the instruments used, ProTaper, ProTaper Next, SAF, and hand file. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendof tubes. The dry weight was calculated by subtracting the preoperative weight from the postoperative weight. Data were analysed statistically using the ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc t-test. The amount of apically extruded debris was significantly less for the non-resorbed group compared to the resorbed group (PProTaper Next and SAF extruded significantly less debris than did the ProTaper and hand files (PProTaper Next and SAF (P>0.05). All instruments caused apically extruded debris in primary teeth.

  20. The effect of shape, length and diameter of implants on primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Barikani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of shape, diameter and length of implants on their primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis. Materials and Methods: Replace select tapered and Branemark MK III implants were selected. Each of these two selected groups was divided into nine subgroups based on the implant length (IL (short, medium and long and the implant diameter (ID (narrow platform [NP], regular platform [RP] and wide platform [WP]. Five implants were assigned to each of the nine subgroups. Implants were placed in artificial bone blocks with bone quality similar to D3 bone. Immediately after the implant placement, its primary stability was measured using Osstell Mentor equipment. T-test and Tukey′s honest significant difference Post hoc were performed for data analysis. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: Replace select system showed significantly higher primary stability compared to the Branemark system, when using the short implants for all three diameters (P ≤ 0.004. However, in medium length implants there were no significant differences between the two implant systems (P ≥ 0.31. In long implants, only when the NP and RP implants were used, the Replace Select system showed significantly higher primary stability compared to the Branemark system (P = 0.000. In the replace select system, long implants had a significantly higher primary stability compared to medium and short length implants (P ≤ 0.003. In the NP and RP Branemark implants, short implants showed significantly lower primary stability compared to medium and long implants (P ≤ 0.002. However, in WP Branemark implants, primary stability increased significantly with increasing the IL from short to medium and from medium to long (P = 0.000. There were also significant differences between NP and the two other wider implants in both systems (P = 0.000. Conclusion: The use of tapered implants is

  1. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Berg, van den J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols -- in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues, we

  2. Pharmacist-led, primary care-based disease management improves hemoglobin A1c in high-risk patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Russell; Malone, Robb; Bryant, Betsy; Horlen, Cheryl; Pignone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a comprehensive pharmacist-led, primary care-based diabetes disease management program for patients with Type 2 diabetes and poor glucose control at our academic general internal medicine practice. The primary goal of this program was to improve glucose control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Clinic-based pharmacists offered support to patients with diabetes through direct teaching about diabetes, frequent phone follow-up, medication algorithms, and use of a database that tracked patient outcomes and actively identified opportunities to improve care. From September 1999, to May 2000, 159 subjects were enrolled, and complete follow-up data were available for 138 (87%) patients. Baseline HbA1c averaged 10.8%, and after an average of 6 months of intervention, the mean reduction in HbA1c was 1.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). In predictive regression modeling, baseline HbA1c and new onset diabetes were associated with significant improvements in HbA1c. Age, race, gender, educational level, and provider status were not significant predictors of improvement. In conclusion, a pharmacist-based diabetes care program integrated into primary care practice significantly reduced HbA1c among patients with diabetes and poor glucose control.

  3. The primary opinion on the formation mechanisms of mega dunes and lakes in the Badain jaran desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Li Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Badain Jaran Desert is famous in distribution of many lakes and mega dunes in the world. Up to now, there are several different opinions about formation problems of lakes and mega dunes. Actually, these problems are directly correlated to the groundwater circulation and alternation in the area. Refering to the prevenient research results and combining with the current hydrogeological investigation in the desert, the paper discussed the problems about the formation mechanisms of lakes and mega dunes. The Primary cognition is that: the lakes in the desert were formed mainly by the lateral recharge of groundwaters both from Yabulai mountain and mega dunes. The formation of the mega dunes was related nearly to the rainfall and groundwater in the area. The formation and coexistence relationship between lakes and mega dunes is that: the mega dunes were formed firstly, and then the lakes. That is to say the mega dunes are the basic conditions for the lake formation. (authors)

  4. Effect of addition of organo clay on mechanical properties and dynamic-mechanical based TPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorato, Luciana R.; Silva, Adriana A.; Soares, Bluma G.; Soares, Ketly P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of organophilic clay on the mechanical and dynamical-mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on polypropylene (PP) and nitrile rubber (NBR) was investigated. The addition of clay was performed from a master batch prepared by a solution intercalation of NBR inside the clay galleries. Since the PP/NBR blend is highly incompatible, PP functionalized with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and carboxylated NBR (XNBR) were employed as compatibilizing system together with triethylene-tetramine (TETA) used as coupling agent. The addition of Clay inside the elastomeric phase of the TPV resulted in a significant decrease of the elongation at break without changes on the tensile strength. The presence of clay also promoted a slight increase of the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. The small angle X ray scattering confirmed the high dispersion of clay inside the TPV. Analysis of light scattering small angle (SAXS) confirmed the high dispersion of clay in the matrix of the TPV. (author)

  5. Plant physiology meets phytopathology: plant primary metabolism and plant-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Susanne; Sinha, Alok K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Phytopathogen infection leads to changes in secondary metabolism based on the induction of defence programmes as well as to changes in primary metabolism which affect growth and development of the plant. Therefore, pathogen attack causes crop yield losses even in interactions which do not end up with disease or death of the plant. While the regulation of defence responses has been intensively studied for decades, less is known about the effects of pathogen infection on primary metabolism. Recently, interest in this research area has been growing, and aspects of photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and source-sink regulation in different types of plant-pathogen interactions have been investigated. Similarly, phytopathological studies take into consideration the physiological status of the infected tissues to elucidate the fine-tuned infection mechanisms. The aim of this review is to give a summary of recent advances in the mutual interrelation between primary metabolism and pathogen infection, as well as to indicate current developments in non-invasive techniques and important strategies of combining modern molecular and physiological techniques with phytopathology for future investigations.

  6. Influence of geometry on mechanical properties of bio-inspired silica-based hierarchical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimas, Leon S; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms, bone, nacre and deep-sea sponges are mineralized natural structures found abundantly in nature. They exhibit mechanical properties on par with advanced engineering materials, yet their fundamental building blocks are brittle and weak. An intriguing characteristic of these structures is their heterogeneous distribution of mechanical properties. Specifically, diatoms exhibit nanoscale porosity in specific geometrical configurations to create regions with distinct stress strain responses, notably based on a single and simple building block, silica. The study reported here, using models derived from first principles based full atomistic studies with the ReaxFF reactive force field, focuses on the mechanics and deformation mechanisms of silica-based nanocomposites inspired by mineralized structures. We examine single edged notched tensile specimens and analyze stress and strain fields under varied sample size in order to gain fundamental insights into the deformation mechanisms of structures with distinct ordered arrangements of soft and stiff phases. We find that hierarchical arrangements of silica nanostructures markedly change the stress and strain transfer in the samples. The combined action of strain transfer in the deformable phase, and stress transfer in the strong phase, acts synergistically to reduce the intensity of stress concentrations around a crack tip, and renders the resulting composites less sensitive to the presence of flaws, for certain geometrical configurations it even leads to stable crack propagation. A systematic study allows us to identify composite structures with superior fracture mechanical properties relative to their constituents, akin to many natural biomineralized materials that turn the weaknesses of building blocks into a strength of the overall system. (paper)

  7. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1985-07-01

    Radiation damage to DNA results from the direct interaction of radiation with DNA where positive ions, electrons and excited states are formed in the DNA, and the indirect effect where radical species formed in the surrounding medium by the radiation attack the DNA. The primary mechanism proposed for radiation damage, by the direct effect, is that positive and negative ions formed within the DNA strand migrate through the stacked DNA bases. The ions can then recombine, react with the DNA bases most likely to react by protonation of the anion and deprotonation or hydroxylation of the cation or transfer out of the DNA chain to the surrounding histone protein. This work as aimed at understanding the possible reactions of the DNA base ion radicals, as well as their initial distribution in the DNA strand. 31 refs

  8. Vision-Based Interest Point Extraction Evaluation in Multiple Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKeehan, Zachary D

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based vision is becoming a primary sensor mechanism in many facets of real world 2-D and 3-D applications, including autonomous robotics, augmented reality, object recognition, motion tracking, and biometrics...

  9. A QM/MM–Based Computational Investigation on the Catalytic Mechanism of Saccharopine Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Almasi, Joel N.; Bushnell, Eric A.C.; Gauld, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an NADPH-containing enzyme in the α-aminoadipate pathway, catalyses the formation of saccharopine, a precursor to L-lysine, from the substrates glutamate and α-aminoadipate-δ-semialdehyde. Its catalytic mechanism has been investigated using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) ONIOM-based approaches. In particular, the overall catalytic pathway has been elucidated and the effects of electron correlation and the anisotropic polar protein...

  10. Trajectory Generation and Stability Analysis for Reconfigurable Klann Mechanism Based Walking Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaichandar Kulandaidaasan Sheba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable legged robots based on one degree of freedom are highly desired because they are effective on rough and irregular terrains and they provide mobility in such terrain with simple control schemes. It is necessary that reconfigurable legged robots should maintain stability during rest and motion, with a minimum number of legs while maintaining their full range of walking patterns resulting from different gait configuration. In this paper we present a method to generate input trajectory for reconfigurable quadruped robots based on Klann mechanism to properly synchronize movement. Six useful gait cycles based on this reconfigurable Klann mechanism for quadruped robots has been clearly shown here. The platform stability for these six useful gait cycles are validated through simulated results which clearly shows the capabilities of reconfigurable design.

  11. Exploring Context and the Factors Shaping Team-Based Primary Healthcare Policies in Three Canadian Provinces: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renée; Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Boakye, Omenaa; Wong, Sabrina; Nasmith, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses findings from a high-level scan of the contextual factors and actors that influenced policies on team-based primary healthcare in three Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The team searched diverse sources (e.g., news reports, press releases, discussion papers) for contextual information relevant to primary healthcare teams. We also conducted qualitative interviews with key health system informants from the three provinces. Data from documents and interviews were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. We then wrote narrative summaries highlighting pivotal policy and local system events and the influence of actors and context. Our overall findings highlight the value of reviewing the context, relationships and power dynamics, which come together and create "policy windows" at different points in time. We observed physician-centric policy processes with some recent moves to rebalance power and be inclusive of other actors and perspectives. The context review also highlighted the significant influence of changes in political leadership and prioritization in driving policies on team-based care. While this existed in different degrees in the three provinces, the push and pull of political and professional power dynamics shaped Canadian provincial policies governing team-based care. If we are to move team-based primary healthcare forward in Canada, the provinces need to review the external factors and the complex set of relationships and trade-offs that underscore the policy process. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  12. An Enhanced Erasure Code-Based Security Mechanism for Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing offers a wide range of luxuries, such as high performance, rapid elasticity, on-demand self-service, and low cost. However, data security continues to be a significant impediment in the promotion and popularization of cloud computing. To address the problem of data leakage caused by unreliable service providers and external cyber attacks, an enhanced erasure code-based security mechanism is proposed and elaborated in terms of four aspects: data encoding, data transmission, data placement, and data reconstruction, which ensure data security throughout the whole traversing into cloud storage. Based on the mechanism, we implement a secure cloud storage system (SCSS. The key design issues, including data division, construction of generator matrix, data encoding, fragment naming, and data decoding, are also described in detail. Finally, we conduct an analysis of data availability and security and performance evaluation. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that SCSS achieves high availability, strong security, and excellent performance.

  13. Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented

  14. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  15. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Fiona M.; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M.; Simms, Matthew S.; Boyle, Ross W.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer

  16. An evidence-based health workforce model for primary and community care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of best practice care can markedly improve clinical outcomes in patients with chronic disease. While the provision of a skilled, multidisciplinary team is pivotal to the delivery of best practice care, the occupational or skill mix required to deliver this care is unclear; it is also uncertain whether such a team would have the capacity to adequately address the complex needs of the clinic population. This is the role of needs-based health workforce planning. The objective of this article is to describe the development of an evidence-informed, needs-based health workforce model to support the delivery of best-practice interdisciplinary chronic disease management in the primary and community care setting using diabetes as a case exemplar. Discussion Development of the workforce model was informed by a strategic review of the literature, critical appraisal of clinical practice guidelines, and a consensus elicitation technique using expert multidisciplinary clinical panels. Twenty-four distinct patient attributes that require unique clinical competencies for the management of diabetes in the primary care setting were identified. Patient attributes were grouped into four major themes and developed into a conceptual model: the Workforce Evidence-Based (WEB planning model. The four levels of the WEB model are (1 promotion, prevention, and screening of the general or high-risk population; (2 type or stage of disease; (3 complications; and (4 threats to self-care capacity. Given the number of potential combinations of attributes, the model can account for literally millions of individual patient types, each with a distinct clinical team need, which can be used to estimate the total health workforce requirement. Summary The WEB model was developed in a way that is not only reflective of the diversity in the community and clinic populations but also parsimonious and clear to present and operationalize. A key feature of the

  17. How do Policy and Institutional Settings Shape Opportunities for Community-Based Primary Health Care? A Comparison of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Tenbensel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-based primary health care describes a model of service provision that is oriented to the population health needs and wants of service users and communities, and has particular relevance to supporting the growing proportion of the population with multiple chronic conditions. Internationally, aspirations for community-based primary health care have stimulated local initiatives and influenced the design of policy solutions. However, the ways in which these ideas and influences find their way into policy and practice is strongly mediated by policy settings and institutional legacies of particular jurisdictions. This paper seeks to compare the key institutional and policy features of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand that shape the ‘space available’ for models of community-based primary health care to take root and develop. Our analysis suggests that two key conditions are the integration of relevant health and social sector organisations, and the range of policy levers that are available and used by governments. New Zealand has the most favourable conditions, and Ontario the least favourable. All jurisdictions, however, share a crucial barrier, namely the ‘barbed-wire fence’ that separates funding of medical and ‘non-medical’ primary care services, and the clear interests primary care doctors have in maintaining this fence. Moves in the direction of system-wide community-based primary health care require a gradual dismantling of this fence.

  18. An investigation of primary school teachers’ PCK towards science subjects using an ınquiry-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure Alkış Küçükaydın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  19. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  20. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  1. The long term importance of English primary care groups for integration in primary health care and deinstitutionalisation of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, N

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital) services and also, potentially, social care. This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.

  2. The long term importance of English primary care groups for integration in primary health care and deinstitutionalisation of hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Goodwin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Theory: Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital services and also, potentially, social care. Method: This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Results: Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. Conclusions: The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.

  3. Are the resources adoptive for conducting team-based diabetes management clinics? An explorative study at primary health care centers in Muscat, Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Kamila; Johansson, Helene; Al Mandhari, Ahmed; Norberg, Margareta

    2018-05-08

    AimThe aim of this study is to explore the perceptions among primary health center staff concerning competencies, values, skills and resources related to team-based diabetes management and to describe the availability of needed resources for team-based approaches. The diabetes epidemic challenges services available at primary health care centers in the Middle East. Therefore, there is a demand for evaluation of the available resources and team-based diabetes management in relation to the National Diabetes Management Guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 public primary health care centers in Muscat, the capital of Oman. Data were collected from manual and electronic resources as well as a questionnaire that was distributed to the physician-in-charge and diabetes management team members.FindingsThe study revealed significant differences between professional groups regarding how they perceived their own competencies, values and skills as well as available resources related to team-based diabetes management. The perceived competencies were high among all professions. The perceived team-related values and skills were also generally high but with overall lower recordings among the nurses. This pattern, along with the fact that very few nurses have specialized qualifications, is a barrier to providing team-based diabetes management. Participants indicated that there were sufficient laboratory resources; however, reported that pharmacological, technical and human resources were lacking. Further work should be done at public primary diabetes management clinics in order to fully implement team-based diabetes management.

  4. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  5. The Influence of an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool on Primary Grades Students' Number Sense Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.; Middleton, Catharina Win

    2017-01-01

    This study examined primary grades students' achievement on number sense tasks administered through an Internet-based formative assessment tool, Assessing Math Concepts Anywhere. Data were analyzed from 2,357 students in teachers' classrooms who had participated in a year-long professional development program on mathematics formative assessment,…

  6. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-throughput profiling of signaling networks identifies mechanism-based combination therapy to eliminate microenvironmental resistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihong; Liu, Wenbin; Tsao, Twee; Qiu, YiHua; Zhao, Yang; Samudio, Ismael; Sarbassov, Dos D; Kornblau, Steven M; Baggerly, Keith A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment is known to provide a survival advantage to residual acute myeloid leukemia cells, possibly contributing to disease recurrence. The mechanisms by which stroma in the microenvironment regulates leukemia survival remain largely unknown. Using reverse-phase protein array technology, we profiled 53 key protein molecules in 11 signaling pathways in 20 primary acute myeloid leukemia samples and two cell lines, aiming to understand stroma-mediated signaling modulation in response to the targeted agents temsirolimus (MTOR), ABT737 (BCL2/BCL-XL), and Nutlin-3a (MDM2), and to identify the effective combination therapy targeting acute myeloid leukemia in the context of the leukemia microenvironment. Stroma reprogrammed signaling networks and modified the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia samples to all three targeted inhibitors. Stroma activated AKT at Ser473 in the majority of samples treated with single-agent ABT737 or Nutlin-3a. This survival mechanism was partially abrogated by concomitant treatment with temsirolimus plus ABT737 or Nutlin-3a. Mapping the signaling networks revealed that combinations of two inhibitors increased the number of affected proteins in the targeted pathways and in multiple parallel signaling, translating into facilitated cell death. These results demonstrated that a mechanism-based selection of combined inhibitors can be used to guide clinical drug selection and tailor treatment regimens to eliminate microenvironment-mediated resistance in acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  9. Challenges and Strategies in Providing Home Based Primary Care for Refugees in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febles, C; Nies, M A; Fanning, K; Tavernier, S S

    2017-12-01

    The recent crisis in the Middle East has prompted the exodus of millions of refugees from the region who are at present seeking shelter across Europe and in the United States. Among the most immediate needs of refugees upon arrival in a host country is health care, and it is one of the most sustained interactions they experience. Home visits are a common form of primary care for refugees. The authors review the literature to identify themes related to challenges and strategies for providing home based primary care to refugees. The literature review was performed by searching cross-disciplinary databases utilizing Onesearch, but focusing primarily on results produced through CINAHL, EBSCOHOST, and Pub Med databases. To maximize the number of studies included, there was no time frame placed upon publication dates of articles within the search. A total of 55 articles were included in this paper.

  10. Impaired Interoceptive Accuracy in Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Marshall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInteroception (the perception of internal bodily sensations is strongly linked to emotional experience and sensitivity to the emotions of others in healthy subjects. Interoceptive impairment may contribute to the profound socioemotional symptoms that characterize frontotemporal dementia (FTD syndromes, but remains poorly defined.MethodsPatients representing all major FTD syndromes and healthy age-matched controls performed a heartbeat counting task as a measure of interoceptive accuracy. In addition, patients had volumetric MRI for voxel-based morphometric analysis, and their caregivers completed a questionnaire assessing patients’ daily-life sensitivity to the emotions of others.ResultsInteroceptive accuracy was impaired in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia relative to healthy age-matched individuals, but not in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia. Impaired interoceptive accuracy correlated with reduced daily-life emotional sensitivity across the patient cohort, and with atrophy of right insula, cingulate, and amygdala on voxel-based morphometry in the impaired semantic variant group, delineating a network previously shown to support interoceptive processing in the healthy brain.ConclusionInteroception is a promising novel paradigm for defining mechanisms of reduced emotional reactivity, empathy, and self-awareness in neurodegenerative syndromes and may yield objective measures for these complex symptoms.

  11. Primary care ... where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, G B

    1999-07-01

    Corporate-based nurse managed centers are not the national norm. More prevalent is the use of an occupational health or physician-directed medical model of care. The author describes how a 14-year-old primary care center at a North Carolina computer software company is just "business as usual" when viewed in the context of the company's philosophy, goals, and culture. Included are considerations for nurse practitioners interested in the successful transplantation of this primary care model to other settings.

  12. Material recognition based on thermal cues: Mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni

    2018-01-01

    Some materials feel colder to the touch than others, and we can use this difference in perceived coldness for material recognition. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying material recognition based on thermal cues. It provides an overview of the physical, perceptual, and cognitive processes involved in material recognition. It also describes engineering domains in which material recognition based on thermal cues have been applied. This includes haptic interfaces that seek to reproduce the sensations associated with contact in virtual environments and tactile sensors aim for automatic material recognition. The review concludes by considering the contributions of this line of research in both science and engineering.

  13. A consensus-based guideline defining clinical target volume for primary disease in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kaneyasu, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based guideline to define clinical target volume for primary disease (clinical target volume primary) in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. The working subgroup of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) Radiation Therapy Study Group began developing a guideline for primary clinical target volume in November 2009. The group consisted of 10 radiation oncologists and 2 gynecologic oncologists. The process started with comparing the contouring on computed tomographic images of actual cervical cancer cases among the members. This was followed by a comprehensive literature review that included primary research articles and textbooks as well as information on surgical procedures. Extensive discussion occurred in face-to-face meetings (three occasions) and frequent e-mail communications until a consensus was reached. The working subgroup reached a consensus on the definition for the clinical target volume primary. The clinical target volume primary consists of the gross tumor volume, uterine cervix, uterine corpus, parametrium, vagina and ovaries. Definitions for these component structures were determined. Anatomical boundaries in all directions were defined for the parametrium. Examples delineating these boundaries were prepared for the posterior border of the parametrium for various clinical situations (id est (i.e.) central tumor bulk, degree of parametrial involvement). A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume primary was developed for external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. This guideline will serve as a template for radiotherapy protocols in future clinical trials. It may also be used in actual clinical practice in the setting of highly precise external beam radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy. (author)

  14. College Education and Social Trust: An Evidence-Based Study on the Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen; Groot, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of college education on social trust at the individual level. Based on the literature of trust and social trust, we hypothesize that life experience/development since adulthood and perceptions of cultural/social structures are two primary channels in the causal linkage between college education and social trust.…

  15. Value of recruitment strategies used in a primary care practice-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shellie D; Bertoni, Alain G; Bonds, Denise E; Clinch, C Randall; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Blackwell, Caroline; Chen, Haiying; Lischke, Michael; Goff, David C

    2007-05-01

    "Physicians-recruiting-physicians" is the preferred recruitment approach for practice-based research. However, yields are variable; and the approach can be costly and lead to biased, unrepresentative samples. We sought to explore the potential efficiency of alternative methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of 10 recruitment strategies used to recruit primary care practices to a randomized trial to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. We measured response and recruitment yields and the resources used to estimate the value of each strategy. Providers at recruited practices were surveyed about motivation for participation. Response to 6 opt-in marketing strategies was 0.40% (53/13290), ranging from 0% to 2.86% by strategy; 33.96% (18/53) of responders were recruited to the study. Of those recruited from opt-out strategies, 8.68% joined the study, ranging from 5.35% to 41.67% per strategy. A strategy that combined both opt-in and opt-out approaches resulted in a 51.14% (90/176) response and a 10.80% (19/90) recruitment rate. Cost of recruitment was $613 per recruited practice. Recruitment approaches based on in-person meetings (41.67%), previous relationships (33.33%), and borrowing an Area Health Education Center's established networks (10.80%), yielded the most recruited practices per effort and were most cost efficient. Individual providers who chose to participate were motivated by interest in improving their clinical practice (80.5%); contributing to CVD primary prevention (54.4%); and invigorating their practice with new ideas (42.1%). This analysis provides suggestions for future recruitment efforts and research. Translational studies with limited funds could consider multi-modal recruitment approaches including in-person presentations to practice groups and exploitation of previous relationships, which require the providers to opt-out, and interactive opt-in approaches which rely on borrowed networks. These

  16. Primary health care in Canada: systems in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-06-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  17. Surface modification of biomaterials based on high-molecular polylactic acid and their effect on inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages: perspective for personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Ksenia S; Gudima, Alexandru; Filimonov, Victor D; Klüter, Harald; Mamontova, Evgeniya M; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) based implants can cause inflammatory complications. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammation. To provide higher biocompatibility of PLA-based implants with local innate immune cells their surface properties have to be improved. In our study surface modification technique for high-molecular PLA (MW=1,646,600g/mol) based biomaterials was originally developed and successfully applied. Optimal modification conditions were determined. Treatment of PLA films with toluene/ethanol=3/7 mixture for 10min with subsequent exposure in 0.001M brilliant green dye (BGD) solution allows to entrap approximately 10(-9)mol/cm(2) model biomolecules. The modified PLA film surface was characterized by optical microscopy, SERS, FT-IR, UV and TG/DTA/DSC analysis. Tensile strain of modified films was determined as well. The effect of PLA films modified with BGD on the inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated. We developed in vitro test-system by differentiating primary monocyte-derived macrophages on a coating material. Type 1 and type 2 inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL18) secretion and histological biomarkers (CD206, stabilin-1) expression were analyzed by ELISA and confocal microscopy respectively. BGD-modified materials have improved thermal stability and good mechanical properties. However, BGD modifications induced additional donor-specific inflammatory reactions and suppressed tolerogenic phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, our test-system successfully demonstrated specific immunomodulatory effects of original and modified PLA-based biomaterials, and can be further applied for the examination of improved coatings for implants and identification of patient-specific reactions to implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii-Tabar, Hashem, E-mail: rafii-tabar@nano.ipm.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-06

    Insight into the mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures is of fundamental interest and indeed poses a great challenge to the research communities around the world. These structures are ultra fine in size and consequently performing standard experiments to measure their various properties is an extremely difficult and expensive endeavor. Hence, to predict the mechanical characteristics of the nanoscopic structures, different theoretical models, numerical modeling techniques, and computer-based simulation methods have been developed. Among several proposed approaches, the nonlocal continuum-based modeling is of particular significance because the results obtained from this modeling for different nanoscopic structures are in very good agreement with the data obtained from both experimental and atomistic-based studies. A review of the essentials of this model together with its applications is presented here. Our paper is a self contained presentation of the nonlocal elasticity theory and contains the analysis of the recent works employing this model within the field of nanoscopic structures. In this review, the concepts from both the classical (local) and the nonlocal elasticity theories are presented and their applications to static and dynamic behavior of nanoscopic structures with various morphologies are discussed. We first introduce the various nanoscopic structures, both carbon-based and non carbon-based types, and then after a brief review of the definitions and concepts from classical elasticity theory, and the basic assumptions underlying size-dependent continuum theories, the mathematical details of the nonlocal elasticity theory are presented. A comprehensive discussion on the nonlocal version of the beam, the plate and the shell theories that are employed in modeling of the mechanical properties and behavior of nanoscopic structures is then provided. Next, an overview of the current literature discussing the application of the nonlocal models

  19. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical characteristics of nanoscopic structures is of fundamental interest and indeed poses a great challenge to the research communities around the world. These structures are ultra fine in size and consequently performing standard experiments to measure their various properties is an extremely difficult and expensive endeavor. Hence, to predict the mechanical characteristics of the nanoscopic structures, different theoretical models, numerical modeling techniques, and computer-based simulation methods have been developed. Among several proposed approaches, the nonlocal continuum-based modeling is of particular significance because the results obtained from this modeling for different nanoscopic structures are in very good agreement with the data obtained from both experimental and atomistic-based studies. A review of the essentials of this model together with its applications is presented here. Our paper is a self contained presentation of the nonlocal elasticity theory and contains the analysis of the recent works employing this model within the field of nanoscopic structures. In this review, the concepts from both the classical (local) and the nonlocal elasticity theories are presented and their applications to static and dynamic behavior of nanoscopic structures with various morphologies are discussed. We first introduce the various nanoscopic structures, both carbon-based and non carbon-based types, and then after a brief review of the definitions and concepts from classical elasticity theory, and the basic assumptions underlying size-dependent continuum theories, the mathematical details of the nonlocal elasticity theory are presented. A comprehensive discussion on the nonlocal version of the beam, the plate and the shell theories that are employed in modeling of the mechanical properties and behavior of nanoscopic structures is then provided. Next, an overview of the current literature discussing the application of the nonlocal models

  20. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  1. Establishment of primary keratinocyte culture from horse tissue biopsates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej OGOREVC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell lines established from skin tissue can be used in immunological, proteomic and genomic studies as in vitro skin models. The goal of our study was to establish a primary keratinocyte cell culture from tissue biopsates of two horses. The primary keratinocyte cell culture was obtained by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation and with explant culture method. The result was a heterogeneous primary culture comprised of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. To distinguish epithelial and mesenchymal cells immunofluorescent characterisation was performed, using antibodies against cytokeratin 14 and vimentin. We successfully at attained a primary cell line of keratinocytes, which could potentially be used to study equine skin diseases, as an animal model for human diseases, and for cosmetic and therapeutic product testing.

  2. Global land-surface primary productivity based upon Nimbus-7 37 GHz data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Accumulation and renewal of organic matter as quantified through net primary productivity (NPP) is considered a very major function of the biosphere, and its estimation is crucial in understanding the carbon cycle. A physically-based model relating NPP to the difference of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures (Delta T) observed at 37 GHz frequency of the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer on board the Nimbus-7 satellite is used for fitting areally averaged values of NPP and Delta T for five biomes. The land-surface NPP within 80 deg N to 55 deg S is then calculated using the Delta T data and compared with other estimates.

  3. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  4. Mechanical Seal Opening Condition Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the measurement of mechanical sealing film thickness and just-lift-off time is very difficult, the sealing film condition monitoring method based on acoustic emission signal is proposed. The mechanical seal acoustic emission signal present obvious characteristics of time-varying nonlinear and pulsating. In this paper, the acoustic emission signal is used to monitor the seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition. The acoustic emission signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition into a series of intrinsic mode function with independent characteristics of different time scales and different frequency band. The acoustic emission signal only generated by end faces friction is obtained by eliminating the false intrinsic mode function components. The correlation coefficient of acoustic emission signal and Multi-scale Laplace Wavelet is calculated. It is proved that the maximum frequency (8000 Hz of the correlation coefficient is appeared at the spindle speed of 300 rpm. And at this time (300 rpm the end faces have just lifted off. By a set of mechanical oil seal running test, it is demonstrated that this method could accurately identify mechanical seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition.

  5. Protein structure refinement using a quantum mechanics-based chemical shielding predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratholm, Lars Andersen; Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2017-01-01

    The accurate prediction of protein chemical shifts using a quantum mechanics (QM)-based method has been the subject of intense research for more than 20 years but so far empirical methods for chemical shift prediction have proven more accurate. In this paper we show that a QM-based predictor...... of a protein backbone and CB chemical shifts (ProCS15, PeerJ, 2016, 3, e1344) is of comparable accuracy to empirical chemical shift predictors after chemical shift-based structural refinement that removes small structural errors. We present a method by which quantum chemistry based predictions of isotropic...

  6. Questionnaire Based Assessment of Risk Factors for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343

  7. Effects of school-based deworming on hemoglobin level, growth development and school performance of primary school children in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, A. P.; Angellee, J.; Pasaribu, S.

    2018-03-01

    Worm infestation is mainly caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infecting one-third of the world’s population, where the most affected are primary school children. This chronic, long-lasting infection can affect the growth aspects in children. A school-based deworming is one of the treatments recommended by WHO to counterattack worm infection in primary school children. To evaluate the effect of school-based deworming on the hemoglobin level, growth and school performance of primary school children, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted on 165 targeted populations in SukaKaro village, North Sumatra; 156 of which were then chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples’ feces- sampling, hemoglobin level, and growth chart data were recorded on the first day of study before any treatment was given. They were then divided into two groups; the first group of 80 samples did not receive any treatment, while the second group of 76 samples received 400mg of albendazole as part of a school-based deworming program. The samples were being followed up after sixth months of study. In conclusion, albendazole is able to improve the hemoglobin level, growth development, and school performance of the samples, although there were no significant differences between the two groups.

  8. [Interactions of DNA bases with individual water molecules. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics computation results vs. experimental data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E; Lino, J; Deriabina, A; Herrera, J N F; Poltev, V I

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate details of the DNA-water interactions we performed the calculations and systemaitic search for minima of interaction energy of the systems consisting of one of DNA bases and one or two water molecules. The results of calculations using two force fields of molecular mechanics (MM) and correlated ab initio method MP2/6-31G(d, p) of quantum mechanics (QM) have been compared with one another and with experimental data. The calculations demonstrated a qualitative agreement between geometry characteristics of the most of local energy minima obtained via different methods. The deepest minima revealed by MM and QM methods correspond to water molecule position between two neighbor hydrophilic centers of the base and to the formation by water molecule of hydrogen bonds with them. Nevertheless, the relative depth of some minima and peculiarities of mutual water-base positions in' these minima depend on the method used. The analysis revealed insignificance of some differences in the results of calculations performed via different methods and the importance of other ones for the description of DNA hydration. The calculations via MM methods enable us to reproduce quantitatively all the experimental data on the enthalpies of complex formation of single water molecule with the set of mono-, di-, and trimethylated bases, as well as on water molecule locations near base hydrophilic atoms in the crystals of DNA duplex fragments, while some of these data cannot be rationalized by QM calculations.

  9. The World of Barilla Taylor: A Primary Source-Based Kit for Students in Grades 8-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Kelly; Stearns, Liza

    1995-01-01

    Examines a primary source-based kit that describes the life of a young woman factory worker in early 19th-century New England. The kit includes five document sets, utilizing maps, newspaper articles, deeds, letters, poems, and other artifacts. The document sets illustrate various topics including mill life and personal life. (MJP)

  10. Computer-Based Phonological Skills Training for Primary Students with Mild to Moderate Dyslexia--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of "Phonics Alive 2: The Sound Blender", a computer-based phonological skills training program, delivered with both at-home and at-school components over a 10-week period, as a potential treatment of phonological dyslexia. Participants were 20 dyslexic primary students with an average delay of…

  11. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  12. Exploring informal workplace learning in primary healthcare for continuous professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynes, Viktoria; Kerr, Micky; Treasure-Jones, Tamsin

    2017-07-01

    All health and social care professionals learn on the job through both formal and informal learning processes, which contributes to continuous professional development (CPD). This study explored workplace learning in General Practices, specifically looking at the role of informal learning and the workplace practices that appear to support or restrict that learning, as well as how technology was integrated into these learning processes. Three focus groups with general practitioners, practice nurses, managerial and administrative staff were conducted followed by twelve individual semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from the focus groups. Three observations of multi-disciplinary team meetings were used to establish potential team-based learning activities. Triggers for informal workplace learning included patients presenting challenging or unusual conditions; exposure to others' professional practice; and policy driven changes through revised guidance and protocols. By exploring how these triggers were acted upon, we identified mechanisms through which the primary care workplace supports or restricts informal learning through working practices, existing technologies and inter-professional structures. Informal workplace learning was identified as arising from both opportunistic encounters and more planned activities, which are both supported and restricted through a variety of mechanisms. Maximising informal learning opportunities and removing barriers to doing so should be a priority for primary care practitioners, managers and educators.

  13. Simulation based engineering in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This book begins with a brief historical perspective of the advent of rotating machinery in 20th century Solid Mechanics and the development of the discipline of the Strength of Materials. High Performance Computing (HPC) and Simulation Based Engineering Science (SBES) have gradually replaced the conventional approach in Design bringing science directly into engineering without approximations. A recap of the required mathematical principles is given. The science of deformation, strain and stress at a point under the application of external traction loads is next presented. Only one-dimensional structures classified as Bars (axial loads), Rods (twisting loads) and Beams (bending loads) are considered in this book. The principal stresses and strains and von Mises stress and strain that used in design of structures are next presented. Lagrangian solution was used to derive the governing differential equations consistent with assumed deformation field and solution for deformations, strains and stresses were obtai...

  14. Primary processes during water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Briefly reviewed are investigations of primary process mechanism taking place during radiolysis of water and similar systems, executed by direct and indirect methods. A conclusion is made on the important role of the water structure during radiolysis of aqueous solutions of some substances. A necessity to take account of this factor during consideration of radiolysis theoretical models is pointed out

  15. Waterbomb base: a symmetric single-vertex bistable origami mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Brandon H; Lund, Jason M; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L; Lang, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The origami waterbomb base is a single-vertex bistable origami mechanism that has unique properties which may prove useful in a variety of applications. It also shows promise as a test bed for smart materials and actuation because of its straightforward geometry and multiple phases of motion, ranging from simple to more complex. This study develops a quantitative understanding of the symmetric waterbomb base's kinetic behavior. This is done by completing kinematic and potential energy analyses to understand and predict bistable behavior. A physical prototype is constructed and tested to validate the results of the analyses. Finite element and virtual work analyses based on the prototype are used to explore the locations of the stable equilibrium positions and the force–deflection response. The model results are verified through comparisons to measurements on a physical prototype. The resulting models describe waterbomb base behavior and provide an engineering tool for application development. (paper)

  16. An EV Charging Scheduling Mechanism Based on Price Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs. This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN, including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator’s income, reduce the EV users’ costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system.

  17. Primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants: contribution to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provens, H.

    2002-01-01

    In every country since the 80's, a clear downward trend is observed concerning the occupational doses at nuclear power plants, as shows the regularly decreasing annual collective dose per operating reactor. Even if technology and work management are improving, the reduction and the control of radiation sources remain one critical point. This paper summarizes the results of an extended study on the primary circuit contamination in nuclear power plants and its contribution to workers' exposure. The paper reviews the origin and mechanisms of radiation production and the different ways of radiation control or reduction based on physical and chemical parameters and not organisational or human factors. It underlines that chemistry control of the primary circuit is one essential component of radiation protection optimisation in nuclear power plants. Results reported come from scientific data in open literature and cannot be generalized to all the power plants

  18. Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

    2013-04-01

    The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

  19. US Approaches to Physician Payment: The Deconstruction of Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary ...

  20. Costs of health care across primary care models in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients? primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Methods Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 1...

  1. Sensing a Sensor: Identifying the Mechanosensory Function of Primary Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul M.; Jin, Xingjian; Nauli, Surya M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, primary cilia have emerged as the premier means by which cells sense and transduce mechanical stimuli. Primary cilia are sensory organelles that have been shown to be vitally involved in the mechanosensation of urine in the renal nephron, bile in the hepatic biliary system, digestive fluid in the pancreatic duct, dentin in dental pulp, lacunocanalicular fluid in bone and cartilage, and blood in vasculature. The prevalence of primary cilia among mammalian cell types is matched by the tremendously varied disease states caused by both structural and functional defects in cilia. In the process of delineating the mechanisms behind these disease states, calcium fluorimetry has been widely utilized as a means of quantifying ciliary function to both fluid flow and pharmacological agents. In this review, we will discuss the approaches used in associating calcium levels to cilia function. PMID:24839551

  2. A damage mechanics based general purpose interface/contact element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chengyong

    Most of the microelectronics packaging structures consist of layered substrates connected with bonding materials, such as solder or epoxy. Predicting the thermomechanical behavior of these multilayered structures is a challenging task in electronic packaging engineering. In a layered structure the most complex part is always the interfaces between the strates. Simulating the thermo-mechanical behavior of such interfaces, is the main theme of this dissertation. The most commonly used solder material, Pb-Sn alloy, has a very low melting temperature 180sp°C, so that the material demonstrates a highly viscous behavior. And, creep usually dominates the failure mechanism. Hence, the theory of viscoplasticity is adapted to describe the constitutive behavior. In a multilayered assembly each layer has a different coefficient of thermal expansion. Under thermal cycling, due to heat dissipated from circuits, interfaces and interconnects experience low cycle fatigue. Presently, the state-of-the art damage mechanics model used for fatigue life predictions is based on Kachanov (1986) continuum damage model. This model uses plastic strain as a damage criterion. Since plastic strain is a stress path dependent value, the criterion does not yield unique damage values for the same state of stress. In this dissertation a new damage evolution equation based on the second law of thermodynamic is proposed. The new criterion is based on the entropy of the system and it yields unique damage values for all stress paths to the final state of stress. In the electronics industry, there is a strong desire to develop fatigue free interconnections. The proposed interface/contact element can also simulate the behavior of the fatigue free Z-direction thin film interconnections as well as traditional layered interconnects. The proposed interface element can simulate behavior of a bonded interface or unbonded sliding interface, also called contact element. The proposed element was verified against

  3. Norm-based mechanism design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing presence of autonomous (software) systems in open environments in general, and the complex interactions taking place among them in particular, require flexible control and coordination mechanisms to guarantee desirable overall system level properties without limiting the autonomy of

  4. Microstructure evolution and its influence on deformation mechanisms during high temperature creep of a nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Javad [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: javadsafari@yahoo.com; Nategh, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nategh@sharif.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interaction of dislocation with strengthening particles, including primary and secondary {gamma}', during different stages of creep of Rene-80 was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During creep of the alloy at 871 deg. C under stress of 290 MPa, the dislocation network was formed during the early stages of creep, and the dislocation glide and climb process were the predominant mechanism of deformation. The density of dislocation network became more populated during the later stages of the creep, and at the latest stage of the creep, primary particles shearing were observed alongside with the dislocation glide and climb. Shearing of {gamma}' particles in creep at 871 deg. C under stress of 475 MPa was commenced at the earlier creep times and governed the creep deformation mechanism. In two levels of examined stresses, as far as the creep deformation was controlled by glide and climb, creep curves were found to be at the second stage of creep and commence of the tertiary creep, with increasing creep rate, were found to be in coincidence with the particles shearing. Microstructure evolution, with regard to {gamma}' strengthening particles, led to particles growth and promoted activation of other deformation mechanisms such as dislocation bypassing by orowan loop formation. Dislocation-secondary {gamma}' particles interaction was detected to be the glide and climb at the early stages of creep, while at the later stages, the dislocation bypassed the secondary precipitation by means of orowan loops formation, as the secondary particle were grown and the mean inter-particle distance increased.

  5. Mechanical properties of tannin-based rigid foams undergoing compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celzard, A., E-mail: Alain.Celzard@enstib.uhp-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Zhao, W. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, A. [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-University, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Fierro, V. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-25

    The mechanical properties of a new class of extremely lightweight tannin-based materials, namely organic foams and their carbonaceous counterparts are detailed. Scaling laws are shown to describe correctly the observed behaviour. Information about the mechanical characteristics of the elementary forces acting within these solids is derived. It is suggested that organic materials present a rather bending-dominated behaviour and are partly plastic. On the contrary, carbon foams obtained by pyrolysis of the former present a