WorldWideScience

Sample records for mechanic-caloric energy transformation

  1. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  2. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  3. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  4. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  5. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  7. The GEANT-CALOR interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitnitz, C.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of large scale high energy physics experiments is based mainly on the GEANT package. In the current version 3.15 the simulation of hadronic interacting particles is based on GHEISHA or FLUKA. Both programs miss an accurate simulation of the interaction of low energy neutrons (E kin < 20 MeV) with the materials of the detector. The CALOR89 program package contains a low energetic neutron code. An interface between the CALOR program parts and the GEANT package has been developed

  8. Heat transformers simulation coupled to industrial processes and experimental evaluation of a thermal transformer of two KW power; Simulacion de transformadores de calor acoplados a procesos industriales y evaluacion experimental de un transformador termico de dos kw de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo Roman, Jesus

    2001-12-15

    The burning of primary fuels in the different industrial and transport sectors has originated big health problems to the humanity as well as environmental pollution -mainly due to the high emissions of substances and gases-, besides social-economical problems. Because of this, many countries are investigating new alternate technologies for their substitution. One of the principal technologies proposed is the heat transformers. This equipment is capable of saving thermal energy mainly from industrial processes. Due to this fact, this thesis performs theoretical studies of heat transformers in typical industry processes of the region such as the distillation of oil derivates and the refinement brown sugar in order to evaluate the energy that can be saved by the use of this equipment. On the other side, an experimental evaluation was performed of a heat transformer with additives since they increase the absorption in the absorber, improving the operation coefficient. In the simulation of the oil distillation column the chemical processes simulator Aspen Plus 9.3-2 version was utilized because it contains very reliable thermo- dynamic models for the study of each component's behavior. The results showed that with a heat transformer of one stage operating with the mixture LiBr-H{sub 2} O it can be saved up to 45% of the energy supplied to the boiler and up to 32% with a double absorption transformer. For the modulation of the brown sugar refinery the 6.2 Visual Basic package was used. The package was utilized because it is a friendly graphic language. The results showed that it can be recovered up to 15% of the energy supplied to the boiler. In the experimentation the mixture lithium bromides - water and lithium bromide-water + 1-octanol was used for the evaluation of the one stage heat transformer of 2 KW installed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia en Temixco, Morelos, concluding that the external operation coefficient increases from 6% to 19% at low heat

  9. Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake

  10. Caloric effects in ferroic materials: new concepts for cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehler, Sebastian; Roessler, Ulrich K. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwisssenschaft, Dresden (Germany); Emmerich, Heike [Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Entel, Peter [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Quandt, Eckhard [Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet (CAU), Kiel (Germany); Albe, Karsten [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Refrigeration is one of the main sinks of the German and European electricity consumption and accordingly contributes to worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions. High reduction potentials are envisaged if caloric effects in solid materials are used. The recent discovery of giant entropy changes associated with ferroelastic phase transformations promises higher efficiency. Ferroic transitions enhance the entropy change of magneto-, elasto-, baro-, and electro-caloric effects. Furthermore, because the refrigerant is in a solid state, this technology completely eliminates the need for halofluorocarbon refrigerants having a high global-warming potential. The smaller footprint for operation and the scalable mechanism open up further applications such as cooling of microsystems. While the principal feasibility of magnetocaloric refrigeration is already evident, it requires large magnetic fields (>2 T) which hampers wide industrial and commercial application. It is expected that this obstacle can be overcome by materials with lower hysteresis and by using stress- or electric fields. In order to accelerate research on ferroic cooling, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) decided to establish the priority program SPP 1599 in April 2011. In this article we will address the major challenges for introducing ferroic materials in practical cooling applications: energy efficiency, effect size, and fatigue behavior. Solid state cooling in this sense can be based on the following ''ferroic-caloric'' classes of materials: ferroelastic shape memory alloys, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, and ferroelectric materials and their possible combinations in materials with ''multicaloric'' effects. The open questions require the interdisciplinary collaboration of material scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  13. [Caloric value and energy allocation of Chloris virgata in northeast grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Wang, R; Wang, W

    2001-06-01

    The rules of seasonal changes in caloric values of individual plant, stem, and leaves of Chloris virgata were similar, which had two peak values from early July to early August, and then decreased gradually. Those of inflorescence assumed U shape, and had two peak values in early August and middle September, respectively. The seasonal changes in caloric values of dead standing were irregular, and the maximum value was appeared in early August. The seasonal changes in existent energy value of the aboveground parts in Chloris virgata population presented double peak curve. The two peak values were appeared in early August and early September respectively, and the maximum value was 7381.27 kJ.m-2 in early September. The energy allocation in different seasons was leaf > stem in early July, stem > leaf > dead standing in middle July, stem > leaf > inflorescence > dead standing in August, stem > inflorescence > leaf > dead standing in early September, and stem > inflorescence > dead standing > leaf in middle September. The vertical structure of energy in the aboveground parts was that the energy value gradually increased from the earth's surface to 20 cm high, and then decreased. The maximum value, which accounted for 25.75% of energy in the aboveground parts, was appeared in the layer of 10-20 cm high. In the underground parts, the energy value progressively decreased with the increase of depth, and the maximum value, which accounted for 74.21% of energy in the underground parts, was appeared in the layer of 0-10 cm depth.

  14. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  15. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  16. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  17. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  18. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, T.

    1992-01-01

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation

  19. Impact of caloric intake in critically ill patients with, and without, refeeding syndrome: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Laura E; Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Setten, Coralien; Kars, Johannes C N; van Blokland, Dick; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2017-08-10

    Refeeding syndrome comprises metabolic disturbances that occur after the reintroduction of feeding after prolonged fasting. Standard care consists of correcting fluid and electrolytes imbalances. Energy intake during refeeding syndrome is heavily debated. This study addresses the effect of caloric intake on outcome during the management of refeeding syndrome. A retrospective study among critically ill invasive mechanically ventilated patients admitted for >7 days to a medical-surgical ICU. Refeeding syndrome was diagnosed by the occurrence of new onset hypophosphatemia (refeeding syndrome were compared and subgroup analysis on energy intake within the refeeding population was performed for the duration of survival. Of 337 enrolled patients, 124 (36.8%) developed refeeding syndrome and 213 patients (63.2%) maintained normal serum phosphate levels. Between the two groups, no statistical significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Within the refeeding syndrome group, a reduced 6-month mortality risk for low caloric intake (Refeeding syndrome is common among prolonged mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, however not predictable by baseline characteristics. Among patients that develop refeeding syndrome low caloric intake was associated with a reduction in 6-month mortality risk. This effect was not seen in patients without refeeding syndrome. Findings support caloric restriction in refeeding syndrome during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  1. Mechanically Induced Graphite-Nanodiamonds-Phase Transformations During High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2017-05-01

    Due to their unusual mechanical, chemical, physical, optical, and biological properties, nearly spherical-like nanodiamonds have received much attention as desirable advanced nanomaterials for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Although, nanodiamonds can be successfully synthesized by several approaches, applications of high temperature and/or high pressure may restrict the real applications of such strategic nanomaterials. Distinct from the current preparation approaches used for nanodiamonds preparation, here we show a new process for preparing ultrafine nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) embedded in a homogeneous amorphous-carbon matrix. Our process started from high-energy ball milling of commercial graphite powders at ambient temperature under normal atmospheric helium gas pressure. The results have demonstrated graphite-single wall carbon nanotubes-amorphous-carbon-nanodiamonds phase transformations carried out through three subsequent stages of ball milling. Based on XRD and RAMAN analyses, the percentage of nanodiamond phase + C60 (crystalline phase) produced by ball milling was approximately 81%, while the amorphous phase amount was 19%. The pressure generated on the powder together the with temperature increase upon the ball-powder-ball collision is responsible for the phase transformations occurring in graphite powders.

  2. The physics of compensating calorimetry and the new CALOR89 code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Brau, J.E.; Bishop, B.L.

    1989-03-01

    Much of the understanding of the physics of calorimetry has come from the use of excellent radiation transport codes. A new understanding of compensating calorimetry was introduced four years ago following detailed studies with a new CALOR system. Now, the CALOR system has again been revised to reflect a better comprehension of high energy nuclear collisions by incorporating a modified high energy fragmentation model from FLUKA87. This revision will allow for the accurate analysis of calorimeters at energies of 100's of GeV. Presented in this paper is a discussion of compensating calorimetry, the new CALOR system, the revisions to HETC, and recently generated calorimeter related data on modes of energy deposition and secondary neutron production (E < 50 MeV) in infinite iron and uranium blocks. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Power transformations improve interpolation of grids for molecular mechanics interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, David D L

    2018-02-18

    A common strategy for speeding up molecular docking calculations is to precompute nonbonded interaction energies between a receptor molecule and a set of three-dimensional grids. The grids are then interpolated to compute energies for ligand atoms in many different binding poses. Here, I evaluate a smoothing strategy of taking a power transformation of grid point energies and inverse transformation of the result from trilinear interpolation. For molecular docking poses from 85 protein-ligand complexes, this smoothing procedure leads to significant accuracy improvements, including an approximately twofold reduction in the root mean square error at a grid spacing of 0.4 Å and retaining the ability to rank docking poses even at a grid spacing of 0.7 Å. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Energy Transformation of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).

  5. Cell transformation in vitro by fast neutrons of different energies: implications for mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.; Gaiser, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed to analyse the dependence of the induction of cell transformation and cell reproductive death in cultures of C3H/10T1/2 cells, NBCH-3 cells and WAGR-2 cells on the energy of mono-energetic fast neutrons. The dose-effect relations for 300 kV, 4.2 MeV X rays, 15 MeV and 0.5 MeV neutrons have been analysed on the basis of the representations F(D) = t 1 D+t 2 D 2 and S(D)/S(0) = exp [-a 1 D+a 2 D 2 )] for transformation and survival respectively. The results show that a 1 values for all radiations are a factor of approximately 10 3 larger than corresponding t 1 values. The RBE values for cell reproductive death derived as ratios of a 1 for the various neutrons and 300 kV x rays are similar to the corresponding RBE values for cell transformation derived as ratios of t 1 values of neutrons and X rays. These similarities in the RBE values and differences in absolute values of a 1 and t 1 can be compared with results from published dose-effect relations for reproductive death and chromosome aberrations obtained for other cell lines. The insights obtained can be applied to derive a hypothesis about the induction of these effects, assuming similarities in energy requirements and physico-chemical primary mechanisms of the induction of damage in chromosomes and differences in the specificities of the sites and total size of the targets on chromosomes associated with the various endpoints observed. (author)

  6. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  7. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  8. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Paula B M; Neff, Laurence A; Strosova, Miriam K; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dulloo, Abdul G; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.

  9. Factors contributing to the nuclear caloric curve aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raduta, Al.H.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    1999-01-01

    After the first experimental evaluation of the nuclear caloric curve a large amount of theoretical work was concentrated to reproduce the transition-like plateau of the caloric curve from 5 MeV temperature. Both dynamical and statistical models have been employed in order to deduce the excitation energy dependence of the temperature of the equilibrated nuclear systems formed in violent heavy ion collisions. For describing such kind of systems a microcanonical model fully obeying the involved physical constrains seems to be the most appropriate option. However, the currently used statistical multifragmentation models (SMM and MMMC ) are not fully satisfying the microcanonical rules. For these reasons the nuclear caloric curve is studied in the present work from the point of view of a sharp microcanonical model. In this respect a detailed analysis concerning the contribution of the various energetic degrees of freedom (binding, Coulomb repulsive and internal excitation) to the curve aspect is performed. The method adopted here consists in suppressing each of the above-mentioned degrees of freedom once at a time keeping the rest of the system parameters unchanged. The Coulomb repulsive (V) and excitation (ε) degrees of freedom are suppressed by fixing the respective energies to zero. The binding degree of freedom (B) is 'suppressed' by fixing it to the constant value of - 8.5 MeV/nucleon for all fragments. The effect of the correlation between the Coulomb repulsive and the excitation degrees of freedom on the caloric curve aspect is also studied. The resulting caloric curves are denoted T -V , T -ε , T -B , T -Vε . One may observe that the suppression of the excitation degree of freedom has the effect of lifting and diminishing the plateau and the suppression of the Coulomb degree of freedom is lowering the plateau and almost washes-out the plateau-like region. The spectacular effect concerns the complementary moves T -Vε and - B: While the Vε couple suppression

  10. The effect of alternate-day caloric restriction on the metabolic consequences of 8 days of bed rest in healthy lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Mann, Sebastian Porsdam

    2017-01-01

    (control group, n = 10); and 2) 8 days of bed rest with 25% of total energy requirements every other day and 175% of total energy requirements every other day (ADCR group). Oral glucose tolerance testing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and brain, V̇o......Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment by overlapping mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that alternate-day...... caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after 8 consecutive days in bed. Healthy, lean men (n = 20) were randomized to 1) 8 days of bed rest with three daily isoenergetic meals...

  11. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Theoretical comparison, equivalent transformation, and conjunction operations of electromagnetic induction generator and triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Han, Changbao; Fan, Fengru; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a newly invented technology that is effective using conventional organic materials with functionalized surfaces for converting mechanical energy into electricity, which is light weight, cost-effective and easy scalable. Here, we present the first systematic analysis and comparison of EMIG and TENG from their working mechanisms, governing equations and output characteristics, aiming at establishing complementary applications of the two technologies for harvesting various mechanical energies. The equivalent transformation and conjunction operations of the two power sources for the external circuit are also explored, which provide appropriate evidences that the TENG can be considered as a current source with a large internal resistance, while the EMIG is equivalent to a voltage source with a small internal resistance. The theoretical comparison and experimental validations presented in this paper establish the basis of using the TENG as a new energy technology that could be parallel or possibly equivalently important as the EMIG for general power application at large-scale. It opens a field of organic nanogenerator for chemists and materials scientists who can be first time using conventional organic materials for converting mechanical energy into electricity at a high efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A molecular mechanism for diacylglycerol-mediated promotion of negative caloric balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai H

    2009-12-01

    study demonstrated that 1-monoacylglycerol, a digestive product of DAG, increases serotonin release from the Caco-2 cells, and enhances expression of genes associated with β-oxidation, FA metabolism, and thermogenesis, and that serotonin increases expression of these genes, proposing a novel molecular mechanism for DAG-mediated promotion of negative caloric balance.Keywords: diacylglycerol, energy expenditure, intestine, serotonin, triacylglycerol

  14. Caloric Restriction Promotes Structural and Metabolic Changes in the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Forni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed. When the fur coat is removed, CR mice display increased energy expenditure associated with lean weight loss and locomotion impairment. Our findings indicate that CR promotes extensive skin and fur remodeling. These changes are necessary for thermal homeostasis and metabolic fitness under conditions of limited energy intake, suggesting a potential adaptive mechanism.

  15. Caloric compensation in preschool children: Relationships with body mass and differences by food category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Benson, L; Gibson, E L; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs. 200 kcal]). For Test B, the preloads varied substantially in both macronutrient composition and learned gustatory cues to caloric content (200 ml water [0 kcal] vs. 200 ml strawberry milkshake [200 kcal]). Each preload was followed 30 min later by a multi-item ad-libitum meal containing junk foods (chocolate cookies, cheese-flavored crackers) and core foods (fruits and vegetables, bread rolls, protein foods). Testing took place at the children's own school under normal lunch-time conditions. Children were weighed and measured. Caloric compensation occurred in both tests, in terms of total, junk and core food intake (RMANOVA, all p food intake (RMANOVA preload-by-weight group interaction p foods. Our results suggest that caloric compensation is consistently poorer in heavier children, and that overweight/obese children's preferences for junk foods may overwhelm intake regulation mechanisms within meals containing those foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Martensitic transformation of type 304 stainless steel by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayahara, A.; Satou, M.; Nakashima, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Sasaki, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Kiyama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of high-energy ion implantation on the structural changes of type 304 stainless steel were investigated. Gold, copper and silicon ions with an energy of 1.5 MeV was implanted into stainless steel. The fluences were in the range from 5x10 15 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . It was found that the structure of stainless steel was transformed form the austenitic to the martensitic structure by these ion implantations. This structural change was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The depth profile of the irradiated ions was also analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS). The degree of martensitic transformation was found to be strongly dependent on the surface pretreatment, either mechanical or electrolytic polishing. When the surface damages or strains by mechanical polishing were present, the martensitic transformation was greatly accelerated presumably due to the combined action of ion irradiation and strain-enhanced transformation. Heavier ions exhibit a high efficiency for the transformation. (orig.)

  17. Phase transformations in nickel sulphide: Microstructures and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, Oussama; Donnadieu, Patricia; Brechet, Yves; Robaut, Florence; Charlot, Frederic; Kasper, Andreas; Serruys, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Nickel sulphide inclusions are known to be responsible for delayed fracture in tempered glasses due to phase transformation within the inclusion. Microstructural identification of the phase transformation mechanisms in the Ni-S system close to the NiS composition were carried out on a series of partially transformed states. Observations allow to investigate the morphological evolution during transformation, the phase orientation relationships and the first stages of the transformation were investigated by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation mechanisms change significantly with the change in sulphur content of the α-NiS phase. Massive transformation is observed for near-stoichiometric composition. For overstoichiometric composition, the transformation is controlled by a long-range diffusion mechanism. The influence of stoichiometry and impurities (Fe) on the microstructural evolution and transformation mechanisms has also been studied.

  18. Energy saving in heat exchangers of industrial refrigeration systems; Ahorro de energia en intercambiadores de calor en los sistemas de refrigeracion industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, A; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Ambriz, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the energy losses of the heat exchangers utilized in industrial refrigeration systems . The effects of the different scaling products on the heat transfer rates are presented and the energy not transferred because of them is evaluated. A simplified method for the evaluation is developed and applied to the evaporators and condensers more frequently employed in the industrial refrigeration systems. The internal and external heat transfer coefficients are evaluated in different types of heat exchangers. The energy losses as a function of the scale thickness on the heat exchanger is shown. [Espanol] El trabajo presenta las perdidas energeticas que se tienen en los intercambiadores de calor usados en los sistemas de refrigeracion industrial. Se presentan los efectos que tienen los diferentes incrustantes en las tasas de transferencia de calor y se evalua la energia que no se transfiere causada por aquellos. Se desarrolla un metodo simplificado de evaluacion y se aplica a los evaporadores y condensadores mas comunes empleados en los sistemas de refrigeracion industrial. Se evaluan los coeficientes internos y externos en diferentes tipos de intercambiadores. Se muestran las perdidas energeticas en funcion del espesor del incrustante en la pared del intercambiador.

  19. Glucose transformation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic ionic liquid: A quantum mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin; Puripat, Maneeporn; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-30

    Isomerization and transformation of glucose and fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in both ionic liquids (ILs) and water has been studied by the reference interaction site model self-consistent field spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD) method coupled with ab initio electronic structure theory, namely coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)). Glucose isomerization to fructose has been investigated via cyclic and open chain mechanisms. In water, the calculations support the cyclic mechanism of glucose isomerization; with the predicted activation free energy is 23.8 kcal mol(-1) at experimental condition. Conversely, open ring mechanism is more favorable in ILs with the energy barrier is 32.4 kcal mol(-1) . Moreover, the transformation of fructose into HMF via cyclic mechanism is reasonable; the calculated activation barriers are 16.0 and 21.5 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous and ILs solutions, respectively. The solvent effects of ILs could be explained by the decomposition of free energies and radial distribution functions of solute-solvent that are produced by RISM-SCF-SEDD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical transformer; electrodynamic; energy harvester; self-powered ...... Kennedy S P and Gordner T 2013 Hot spot studies for sheet wound transformer wind- ... and Lambert F 2011 Powering low-cost utility sensors using energy harvesting.

  1. Feeding preference of adult females of ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus through prey proximate-composition and caloric values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Trindade Bittar

    Full Text Available In the present study we analysed the proximate-composition and caloric values of the preferred prey consumed by ribbonfish, Trichiurus lepturus L. 1758 (adult females, that are distributed in the inner continental shelf from northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (~22ºS, assessing the potential of nutritional and energetic approach as a tool to understand the feeding selective pattern of this marine top carnivore. The preferred prey of this predator composed of fish co-specifics, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, squid Doryteuthis plei, and shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were collected from 2007 to 2010 for proximate-composition (water, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate and caloric value analyses. The correspondence analysis showed that protein is the main component in the prey species (61.32% of variance explained, standing out from the other nutrients. Lipid has the highest percentage related to L. grossidens, ash to X. kroyeri and carbohydrate to D. plei. The strong correlations between protein and caloric value (positive and lipid and caloric value (negative indicated that T. lepturus is attending its energy demand through the prey protein content. This work elucidated the feeding preference of adult females of T. lepturus in relation to nutritional and caloric content of their preferred prey. The species showed food selectivity to prey that provide more energy per ingested biomass, so that the feeding events can maximize the predator's caloric gain, which is obtained by a protein-based diet.

  2. Mammalian cell transformation: Mechanisms of carcinogenesis and assays for carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.C.; Tennant, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains nine sections, each consisting of several papers. The section titles are: Molecular Changes in Cell Transformation; Differentiation, Growth Control, and Cell Transformation; Mutagenesis and Cell Transformation; Tumor Promotion and Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Transformation of Human Fibroblasts; Mechanisms of Transformation of Epithelial Cells; Mechanisms of C 3 H 10T12 Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Cell Transformation; and Use of Cell Transformation Assays for Carcinogen Testing

  3. Impacts of Interface Energies and Transformation Strain from BCC to FCC on Massive-like δ-γ Transformation in Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiya, M; Sato, M; Watanabe, M; Nakajima, K; Yokoi, T; Ueshima, N; Nagira, T; Yasuda, H

    2015-01-01

    Interface energies of δ/γ, γ/γ, δ/δ, L/δ, and L/γ interfaces, at first, as a function of misorientation were evaluated with an aid of atomistic simulations with embedded atom method. Then, under geometric constraints where grains or interfaces compete each other to minimize overall free energy, effective interface energies for those interfaces were quantified. It is found that neither the minimum nor effective δ/γ interface energies, 0.41 or 0.56 J/m 2 , respectively, is significantly higher than those of other interfaces including liquid/solid interfaces, but the δ/γ interface energy is significantly high for the small entropy change upon δ-γ massive-like transformation, resulting in significantly higher undercooling required for γ nucleation in the δ phase matrix than in solidification. Detachment of δ-phase dendrite tips away from γ-phase dendrite trunks can be explained only from a viewpoint of interface energy if small misorientationis introduced at the δ/γ interface from the perfect lattice matching between BCC and FCC crystal structures. Examining the BCC-to-FCC transformation strain on the γ nucleation in the massive-like transformation, the γ nucleation is prohibited 170 K or more undercooling is achieved unless any relaxation mechanism for the transformation strain is taken into account. (paper)

  4. The CaloRIC ASIC: Signal Processing for High Granularity Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, L; Manen, S; Soumpholphakdy, X; Bonnard, J; Gay, P

    2013-01-01

    A readout ASIC called CaloRIC, has been developed to fulfil the signal processing requirements for the Silicon-Tungsten (Si-W) electromagnetic calorimeter of the International Linear Collider (ILC). This ASIC performs the complete processing of the signal delivered by the Si-PIN diode of the detector: charge sensitive amplification, shaping, analog memorization and digitization. Measurements show a global integral non-linearity better than 0.2% for low energy particles, and limited to 2% for high energy particles. The measured Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) is evaluated at 0.6 fC, which corresponds to 1/6 times the signal released by a Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP). With the timing sequence of the ILC, the power consumption of the complete channel is evaluated at 43 μW using a power pulsing. A new ASIC (CaloRIC 4 ch) with four improved readout channels has been designed and is ready for manufacturing.

  5. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Kristin E.; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms. PMID:24384399

  6. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  7. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy saving in hotels by means of heat pumps application; Ahorro de energia en hoteles mediante la aplicacion de bombas de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    The thermal energy is presented as an alternate saving technology for utilities by means of the acute implementation of heat pumps. The objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of the application of commercial heat pumps to installations where the handling of opposite temperatures for the conditioning of a space and/or of a fluid is required. In this article it is described the functioning of a heat pump, its different operation principles or types as well as the large diversity of applications they can have in industry, utilities and residential buildings. As an application example the substitution of an electric boiler by a heat pump is presented in a hotel installation and its differences in performance regarding the environmental conditioning of a nearby area and the heating of swimming pool water are analyzed. [Spanish] Se presenta la energia termica como una tecnologia de ahorro alterna para empresas de servicios valiendose de la implementacion agudizada de bombas de calor. El objetivo es demostrar la factibilidad tecnica y economica de la aplicacion de bombas de calor comerciales a instalaciones donde se requiere la manipulacion de temperaturas opuestas para el acondicionamiento de un espacio y/o un fluido. Se describe el funcionamiento de una bomba de calor, sus diferentes principios de operacion o tipos, asi como la gran diversidad de aplicaciones que pueden tener en la industria, empresas de servicios y edificios residenciales. Como ejemplo de aplicacion se presenta la sustitucion de una caldera electrica por una bomba de calor en una instalacion hotelera y sus diferencias de rendimiento en el calentamiento de agua de alberca y el acondicionamiento ambiental de un area cercana.

  9. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada León Raúl; Altamirano Bustamante Nelly

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  10. Effect of bainitic transformation temperature on the mechanical behavior of cold-rolled TRIP steels studied with in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, W.Y., E-mail: wyyang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, L.F.; Sun, Z.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of bainitic transformation temperature (400 and 450 °C) after intercritical annealing on the mechanical behavior of a low alloyed C–Mn–Al–Si cold-rolled TRIP steel was investigated using the in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that the mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were dominated by the micromechanical behaviors of constituent phases, such as yield strength of each phase and stress partitioning among different phases, as well as the transformation kinetics of retained austenite during plastic deformation. The microstructures obtained at different bainitic transformation temperatures were similar, but exhibited obviously different mechanical behaviors. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 450 °C with lower carbon content and yield strength was less stable and transformed into martensite at a relatively faster speed during deformation leading to a higher ultimate tensile strength but a smaller uniform elongation. In addition, stress partitioning among constituent phases was also obtained for the investigated steels in such a way that the ferrite matrix undertook smaller stresses and the bainitic ferrite, martensite and retained austenite bore larger ones during plastic deformation. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 400 °C with higher carbon content displayed significantly higher strength and relatively stronger work-hardening capabilities during deformation in comparison to those of the sample treated at 450 °C.

  11. How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

  12. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  13. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  14. Caloric variability of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia in Rosana Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Moretto Bagatini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and longitudinal variation of caloric density of Corbicula fluminea in Rosana Reservoir. Significant differences concerning the caloric density of C. fluminea were observed throughout the year at the three reservoir sites. The caloric density variation during the year was probably related to reproductive activity, which demanded higher allocation of energy in certain period. The food source used by this species might be an important factor in the caloric value temporal and spatial variation of C. fluminea in Rosana Reservoir.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a variação temporal e longitudinal da densidade calórica de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana. Diferenças significativas na densidade calórica de C. fluminea foram observadas ao longo do ano e nas três estações do reservatório. A variação na densidade calórica de C. fluminea, durante o ano, provavelmente foi relacionada à atividade reprodutiva, que exige uma maior alocação de energia em determinado período. O recurso alimentar utilizado por esta espécie pode ser um importante fator na variação temporal e espacial do valor calórico de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana.

  15. Simple Examples of the Interpretation of Changes in Kinetic and Potential Energy Under Galilean Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Edw. S.

    2018-02-01

    The compatibility of the Newtonian formulation of mechanical energy and the transformation equations of Galilean relativity is demonstrated for three simple examples of motion treated in most introductory physics courses (free fall, a frictionless inclined plane, and a mass/spring system). Only elementary concepts and mathematics, accessible to students at that level, are used. Emphasis is on pedagogy and concepts related to the transformation properties of potential energy.

  16. Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

  17. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  18. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  19. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shibin; Jiang, Jinjin; Zhang, Guofu; Bu, Yongjun; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhao, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40) were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw); and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw) and caloric restriction (30%) partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight. We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30%) and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator) supplementation

  20. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Ding

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy.Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40 were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw; and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw and caloric restriction (30% partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight.We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30% and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator

  1. Metabolic effects of intermittent access to caloric or non-caloric sweetened solutions in mice fed a high-caloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    Human consumption of obesogenic diets and soft drinks, sweetened with different molecules, is increasing worldwide, and increases the risk of metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that the chronic consumption of caloric (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), maltodextrin) and non-caloric (sucralose) solutions under 2-hour intermittent access, alongside the consumption of a high-fat high-sucrose diet, would result in differential obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice had ad libitum access to an HFHS diet and to water (water control group). In addition, some mice had access, 2h/day, 5days/week (randomly chosen) for 12weeks, to different solutions: i) a sucrose solution (2.1kJ/ml), ii) an HFCS solution (2.1kJ/ml), iii) a maltodextrin solution (2.1kJ/ml) and a sucralose solution (60mM) (n=15/group). Despite no changes in total caloric intake, 2h-intermittent access to the sucrose, HFCS or maltodextrin solutions led to increased body weight and accumulation of lipids in the liver when compared to the group consuming water only. The HFCS and sucrose solutions induced a higher fat mass in various fat depots, glucose intolerance, increased glucose oxidation at the expense of lipid oxidation, and a lower hypothalamic expression of NPY in the fasted state. HFCS also reduced proopiomelanocortin expression in the hypothalamus. 2h-intermittent access to sucralose did not result in significant changes in body composition, but caused a stronger expression of CART in the hypothalamus. Finally, sucrose intake showed a trend to increase the expression of various receptors in the nucleus accumbens, linked to dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid signaling. In conclusion, 2h-intermittent access to caloric solutions (especially those sweetened with sucrose and HFCS), but not sucralose, resulted in adverse metabolic consequences in high-fat high-sucrose-fed mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  3. Energy balance in the transformation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim, Carlos Feu; Ferreira, Omar Campos; Eidelman, Frida.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon balance is an important instrument to identify the emission sources of greenhouse effect gases. Since energy use and transformation are fundamental for increasing these gases in the atmosphere, the carbon balance survey can be used to identify sectors and fuels to which priority should be given regarding emissions mitigation. In the case of transformation centers (installations where primary or secondary sources are converted into sub-products or other energy form) the balance indicated some problems regarding the Brazilian inventory calculation. Problems concerning the National Energy Balance data used here were also identified. (author)

  4. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  5. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  6. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  7. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  8. Transformation between divacancy defects induced by an energy pulse in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Liu, XiaoYi; Zhou, Wei; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2016-07-08

    The mutual transformations among the four typical divacancy defects induced by a high-energy pulse were studied via molecular dynamics simulation. Our study revealed all six possible mutual transformations and found that defects transformed by absorbing energy to overcome the energy barrier with bonding, debonding, and bond rotations. The reversibility of defect transformations was also investigated by potential energy analysis. The energy difference was found to greatly influence the transformation reversibility. The direct transformation path was irreversible if the energy difference was too large. We also studied the correlation between the transformation probability and the input energy. It was found that the transformation probability had a local maxima at an optimal input energy. The introduction of defects and their structural evolutions are important for tailoring the exceptional properties and thereby performances of graphene-based devices, such as nanoporous membranes for the filtration and desalination of water.

  9. Conservación por calor

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos García, Angel; Díaz Rubio, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Esta unidade didáctica denominada Conservación por calor forma parte da materia «Tecnoloxía do procesado de alimentos» que se impartirá no primeiro semestre do 2º curso do Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética. A materia estrutúrase en diferentes unidades didácticas, tratando cada unha delas as diferentes tecnoloxías de procesado dos alimentos, tanto de conservación coma de transformación. A presente unidade didáctica aborda a conservación dos alimentos por calor. Este método permite destruír ...

  10. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  11. Hot or cold? Is monothermal caloric testing useful and cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Matthew L; Bingcang, Christopher M; Chang, Edward T; Fornwalt, Brandon; Rayle, Christopher; Gal, Thomas J; Jones, Raleigh O; Shinn, Jennifer B

    2013-06-01

    Videonystagmography (VNG) is used widely in the assessment of balance dysfunction. The full test battery can be time-consuming and can induce patient discomfort. The purpose of this study was to examine the value of monothermal caloric testing in predicting unilateral caloric weakness, as well as abnormal VNG vestibular and nonvestibular eye movement, while considering the time and reimbursement associated with these tests. In a retrospective review of 645 patients who completed a comprehensive VNG test battery with bithermal caloric testing, we calculated the specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values of monothermal caloric testing in relation to bithermal caloric results and noncaloric VNG results. With unilateral vestibular weakness (UVW) defined as a 25% interear difference, warm-air monothermal caloric testing yielded a sensitivity of 87% and a negative predictive value of 90% for predicting UVW. With a 10% UVW definition, the warm-air caloric testing sensitivity increased to 95% and the negative predictive value to 92%. Warm-air monothermal caloric testing had a positive predictive value of 85% and a negative predictive value of 18% for predicting noncaloric VNG findings; cold-air monothermal and bithermal testing displayed similar results. Isolated monothermal testing is a sensitive screening tool for detecting UVW, but is not adequate for predicting noncaloric VNG results.

  12. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  13. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Electrical Efficiencies for all Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformer Equipment Classes (Compliance... ``customers.'' Customers refer to electric utilities in the case of liquid-immersed transformers, and to... for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers'' published by the National Electrical...

  15. New developments in the study of the caloric curve for finite nuclei within relativistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Debora Peres; Providencia, C.

    2001-01-01

    Relativistic nuclear models have been widely used in describing infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties. With the help of the Thomas Fermi approximation, we have investigated droplet formation in the liquid-gas phase transition in cold and warm asymmetric nuclear matters using the non-linear Walecka model. We have shown that the optimal nuclear size of a droplet in a neutron gas is determined by a delicate balance between nuclear Coulomb and surface energies. On the other hand, the production of several intermediate mass fragments in a short time scale during heavy ion collisions is known as nuclear multifragmentation. In these experiments, the spectator matter has been used to investigate a possible liquid-gas phase transition. The caloric curve, which is given by the excitation energy per nucleon in terms of the thermodynamic temperature is an important quantity to be investigated in the search for a signal of a phase transition. In the present work we obtain the excitation energies of arising droplets in a vapor system, up to T = 6.5 MeV. The droplets are described in terms of a non-linear Walecka-type model with the NL1 parameterization, within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We conclude that the excitation energies of droplets either corresponding to 150 Sm or 166 Sm, are consistent with the caloric curve in the Fermi gas approximation with a level density parameter A/13. This result agrees with experimental data obtained in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. We have shown that the caloric curve is sensitive to the proton fraction and the inclusion of the Coulomb interaction is important. (author)

  16. How to transform local energy systems towards bioenergy? Three strategy models for transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, Kjell; Westerberg, Karin

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades, the actors within the energy sector in Sweden-as well as in many other countries-have faced increasing demands to transform the energy system towards ecological sustainability. In Sweden these demands have led to numerous policies and economic incentives promoting the use of renewables (which in the Swedish discourse often also includes a connotation of 'indigenous energy sources'), and especially the promotion of bioenergy. To be successful, however, these policies and economic incentives need to be interpreted and adapted to different local contexts and translated into actual transformation processes. In Sweden the municipal authorities have played an important role as interpreters of such institutional frameworks and implementers of local transformation processes. In this article, we re-construct three transformation processes implemented by local municipal authorities, chiselling out the different strategy models developed through them. We argue that such re-constructions help to make visible the different and complex interactions between national institutional frameworks and local contexts as well as interactions within such local contexts. We hope that the strategy models presented can contribute to the understanding of the different kinds of local actions that can foster a further implementation of bioenergy into the energy system

  17. Health interest modulates brain reward responses to a perceived low-caloric beverage in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Wegman, Joost; Aarts, Esther; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Health labels are omnipresent in the supermarket. Such labels give rise to expectations about the product experience and may change flavor perception and perceived reward value. Consumers vary in their degree of health interest and may be differentially affected by such labels. However, how health interest influences neural reward responses to anticipation and receipt of heath-labeled foods is not known. This study assessed to what extent brain responses induced by anticipation and receipt of a beverage with different levels of perceived caloric content are associated with health interest. Twenty-five females completed an fMRI motivational taste-task in which they were presented with a low-caloric cue or a high-caloric cue and subsequently worked for sips of lemonade by moving a joystick. If they responded correctly and in time, they received the lemonade as a reward. Because of the 2 cue types, participants believed they were receiving 2 different lemonades, a high-caloric (HC-receipt) and a low-caloric (LC-receipt) one. Health interest was assessed with the General health interest subscale of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales. Health interest scores correlated significantly (r = .65) with LC-versus HC-receipt activation in the dorsal striatum (putamen), a region involved in encoding food reward. These findings suggest that the reward value of a healthy product compared to its unhealthy counterpart increases with health interest. This provides more insight into the working mechanism of government campaigns that focus on increasing health interest to encourage the formation of healthy eating habits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Measuring caloric response: comparison of different analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, A I; Longridge, N S; Pace-Asciak, P; Ngo, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) testing has been supplanted by newer techniques of measuring eye movement with infrared cameras (VNG). Most techniques of quantifying caloric induced nystagmus measure the slow phase velocity in some manner. Although our analysis is carried out by very experienced assessors, some systems have computer algorithms that have been "taught" to locate and quantify maximum responses. We wondered what differences in measurement might show up when measuring calorics using different techniques and systems, the relevance of this being that if there was a change in slow phase velocity between ENG and VNG testing when measuring caloric response, then normative data would have to be changed. There are also some subjective but important aspects of ENG interpretation which comment on the nature of the response (e.g. responses which might be "sporadic" or "scant"). Our experiment compared caloric responses in 100 patients analyzed four different ways. Each caloric was analyzed by our old ENG system, our new VNG system, an inexperienced assessor and the computer algorithm, and data was compared. All four systems made similar measurements but our inexperienced assessor failed to recognize responses as sporadic or scant, and we feel this is a limitation to be kept in mind in the rural setting, as it is an important aspect of assessment in complex patients. Assessment of complex VNGs should be left to an experienced assessor.

  19. The publics' understanding of daily caloric recommendations and their perceptions of calorie posting in chain restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Sara N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie posting in chain restaurants has received increasing attention as a policy lever to reduce energy intake. Little research has assessed consumer understanding of overall daily energy requirements or perceived effectiveness of calorie posting. Methods A phone survey was conducted from May 1 through 17, 2009 with 663 randomly selected, nationally-representative adults aged 18 and older, including an oversample of Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. To examine differences in responses by race and ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic and gender, we compared responses by conducting chi-squared tests for differences in proportions. Results We found that most Americans were knowledgeable about energy requirements for moderately active men (78% and women (69%, but underestimated energy requirements for inactive adults (60%. Whites had significantly higher caloric literacy and confidence about their caloric knowledge than Blacks and Hispanics (p Conclusion Mandating calorie posting in chain restaurants may be a useful policy tool for promoting energy balance, particularly among Blacks, Hispanics and women who have higher obesity risk.

  20. Resistance spot welding of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel: Phase transformations and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh-Sh, M.; Marashi, S.P.H.; Pouranvari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase transformations during RSW of AISI430 are detailed. • Grain growth, martensite formation and carbide precipitation are dominant phase transformations. • Failure mode of AISI430 resistance spot welded joints are analyzed. • Larger FZ size provided improved load bearing capacity and energy absorption capability. - Abstract: The paper aims at investigating the process–microstructure–performance relationship in resistance spot welding of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. The phase transformations which occur during weld thermal cycle were analyzed in details, based on the physical metallurgy of welding of the ferritic stainless steels. It was found that the microstructure of the fusion zone and the heat affected zone is influenced by different phenomena including grain growth, martensite formation and carbide precipitation. The effects of welding cycle on the mechanical properties of the spot welds in terms of peak load, energy absorption and failure mode are discussed

  1. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albetran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10 kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17 kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated.

  2. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albetran, Hani; Vega, Victor; Prida, Victor M; Low, It-Meng

    2018-02-23

    The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10) kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17) kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated.

  3. Caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.; Martin, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient was determined by measuring body composition, by multiple isotope dilution, before and at 2-wk intervals while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in 86 septic and 57 nonseptic malnourished patients. All patients received a TPN solution containing 25% dextrose and 2.75% crystalline amino acids. The body composition of the nonseptic patients, who received 51.9 +/- 1.5 kcal/kg.day, improved significantly, while that of the septic patients, receiving 46.8 +/- 1.1 kcal/kg.day was only maintained. The relationship between caloric intake and the restoration of a malnourished body cell mass (BCM) was determined for each group by correlating, using multiple linear regression, the mean daily change in the BCM with the caloric intake and the nutritional state, as determined by body composition. According to the resultant regressions, an intake of 35.1 and 50.7 kcal/kg.day was required to maintain the BCM of the septic and nonseptic patients, respectively. To restore a depleted BCM, caloric intakes in excess of this amount are required

  4. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  5. An in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Ciapaite, J.; Wolters, J.C.; van Riel, N.A.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  6. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wolters, Justina C.; van Riel, Natal A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  7. Is the caloric curve a robust signal of the phase transition in hot nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vient, E.

    2016-01-01

    The richness of the data set, collected by the INDRA Collaboration during the last twenty years, enabled to build a set of caloric curves for nuclei of various sizes, by using, for the first time, a single experimental set-up and a single experimental protocol. We will therefore present the different caloric curves (E ∗ −T) obtained by a new calorimetry, for Quasi-Projectiles produced by symmetric or quasi symmetric reactions at different incident energies (Au+Au, Xe+Sn, Ni+Ni). For all these systems, a clear change of the de-excitation process of hot nuclei is observed but this one is neither a plateau nor a back-bending, but a sudden change of slope.

  8. Caloric utilization of sorbitol and isomalt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figdor, S.K.; Allingham, R.P.; Kita, D.A.; Hobbs, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sorbitol and isomalt are modified saccharides used to substitute for the physical properties of sucrose in various prepared foods. The merits of the various methods for determining caloric availability were reviewed. Balance and growth curve methods are inaccurate and inappropriate for determination of the caloric availability of these substances when present in diets at low concentrations, whereas the radiolabel disposition method is a direct and precise measure of utilization. Accordingly, the authors administered uniformly 14 C-labeled material to rats and collected excreta and expired air. The appearance of about half of the label in CO 2 indicated that, by comparison with labeled glucose, about 80% of the orally administered sorbitol and isomalt was calorically available to the rat. The high caloric availabilities of these materials were confirmed by the appearance in feces of only 14 and 12% of the administered label from sorbitol and isomalt, respectively

  9. The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Heather R; Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Gigliotti, Joseph; Morgan, Keri; Tou, Janet C

    2009-06-01

    Caloric sweetened beverages have been suggested to be a major dietary contributor to weight gain, particularly among adolescents. Dietary recommendations are for moderating intakes of added sugars; however, the question remains whether certain types of sugars should be limited. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking different caloric sweetened beverages on the development of adiposity, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Young (age 28 days) female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8-9 rats/group) were randomly assigned to drink either deionized distilled water (ddH2O) or ddH2O sweetened with 13% (w/v) glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup 55 (HFCS-55) for 8 weeks. Rats drinking caloric sweetened solutions failed to completely compensate for liquid calories ingested by reducing their consumption of solid food. This resulted in greater total energy intake compared to the ddH2O control; however, there was no significant difference in total energy intake between rats drinking sucrose, fructose or HFCS-55. Of the different caloric sweeteners, only rats drinking HFCS-55 had greater (P glucose solution. This may have occurred because drinking HFCS-55 solution promoted a faster body weight gain. Adiposity induced by caloric sweetened water was not accompanied by metabolic disorders indicated by the absence of dyslipidemia and no differences in fasting serum glucose, insulin or C-peptide among the treatment groups. However, rats drinking HFCS-55 showed lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged estrus. Based on this study, the type of caloric sweetener added to beverages should be considered when making dietary recommendation for reducing excess body weight and related health risk.

  10. The minimal ice water caloric test compared with established vestibular caloric test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmäl, Frank; Lübben, Björn; Weiberg, Kerstin; Stoll, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Caloric testing of the vestibular labyrinth is usually performed by classical caloric test procedures (CCTP) using water warmed to 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C. Ice water irrigation (4 degrees C) is usually not performed, although it might be useful as a bedside test. To verify the validity of the Minimal Ice Water Caloric Test (MIWCT), comparative video-oculographic investigations were performed in 22 healthy subjects using ice water (0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 2 ml), CCTP, and cold air (27 degrees C). Frequency, amplitude, slow phase velocity (SPV), the onset, and the duration of nystagmus were documented. After addition of three ice cubes, the temperature of conventional tap water (16 degrees C) fell within 13 min to 4 degrees C. In pessimum position the subjects demonstrated no nystagmus response. Compared to CCTP, MIWCT was associated with a significantly later onset of nystagmus and a significant prolongation of the nystagmus reaction. In contrast to air stimulation (27 degrees C), a significant Spearman's correlation was noted between MIWCT (1 and 2 ml) and established CCTP in respect of essential nystagmus parameters (frequency, amplitude and SPV). Furthermore, MIWCT (0.5 and 1 ml) showed a higher sensitivity and specificity with regard to the detection of canal paresis based on Jongkees' formula compared to stimulation with air 27 degrees C. Thus, MIWCT appears to be a suitable procedure for bedside investigation of vestibular function outside the vestibular laboratory, e.g. in a hospital ward, where bedridden patients with vertigo occasionally require vestibular testing.

  11. Calculation of transformers leakage reactance using electromagnetic energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiz, J.; Mohseni, H.; Sabet Marzooghi, S.; Naderian Jahromi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of transformer leakage reactance using magnetic cores has long been an area of interest to engineers involved in the design of power and distribution transformers. This is required for predicting the performance of transformers before actual assembly of the transformers. In this paper a closed form solution technique applicable to the leakage reactance calculations for transformers is presented. An emphasis is on the development of a simple method to calculate the leakage reactance of the distribution transformers and smaller transformers. Energy technique procedure for computing the leakage reactances in distribution transformers is presented. This method is very efficient compared with the use of flux element and image technique and is also remarkably accurate. Examples of calculated leakage inductances and the short circuit impedance are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the results obtained using test. This paper presents a novel technique for calculation of the leakage inductance in different parts of the transformer using the electromagnetic stored energy

  12. Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Responses to Mild Caloric Restriction in the Brown Norway Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known on the regulation of CR-induced h...

  13. Experimental Study of a Small Scale Hydraulic System for Mechanical Wind Energy Conversion into Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Zdankus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in buildings of moderate and cold climate countries lies within wind energy utilisation. Unlike solar irradiation, character of wind speeds in Central and Northern Europe correspond to the actual thermal energy demand in buildings. However, mechanical wind energy undergoes transformation into electrical energy before being actually used as thermal energy in most wind energy applications. The study presented in this paper deals with hydraulic systems, designed for small-scale applications to eliminate the intermediate energy transformation as it converts mechanical wind energy into heat directly. The prototype unit containing a pump, flow control valve, oil tank and piping was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Results of the experiments showed that the prototype system is highly efficient and adjustable to a broad wind velocity range by modifying the definite hydraulic system resistance. Development of such small-scale replicable units has the potential to promote “bottom-up” solutions for the transition to a zero carbon society.

  14. Transformation of Goethite to Hematite Nanocrystallines by High Energy Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lemine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanocrystallines were prepared by direct transformation via high energy ball milling treatment for α-FeOOH powder. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM are used to characterize the samples obtained after several milling times. Phase identification using Rietveld analysis showed that the goethite is transformed to hematite nanocrystalline after 40 hours of milling. HRTEM confirm that the obtained phase is mostly a single-crystal structure. This result suggested that the mechanochemical reaction is an efficient way to prepare some iron oxides nanocrystallines from raw materials which are abundant in the nature. The mechanism of the formation of hematite is discussed in text.

  15. Calore e termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Zemansky, Mark W

    1970-01-01

    Temperatura ; sistemi termodinamici semplici ; lavoro ; il calore e il primo principio ; gas ideali ; teoria cinetica dei gas ideali ; il secondo principio della termodinamica ; reversibilità e temperatura Kelvin ; entropia ; meccanica statistica sostanze pure ; transizioni di fase, elio liquido ed elio solido ; sistemi particolari ; paramagnetismo, fisica delle basse temperature, temperature negative e terzo principio ; superfluidità e superconduttività ; equilibrio chimico ; reazioni con gas ideali ; sistemi eterogenei.

  16. Comparative study on γ energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise γ energy spectrum of 60 Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for γ energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to γ energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  17. El clima de las ciudades: isla de calor de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Salud Alonso García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado la existencia de la isla de calor urbana (ICU, en una ciudad de tamaño medio, con un clima extremado y focos industriales de poca actividad. Con lo que se puede comprobar cómo afecta el calentamiento urbano a ciudades de estas características, pudiendo influir en los seres vivos de la zona. La existencia del fenómeno isla de calor, y su evolución en el tiempo, se han observado comparando los datos de temperatura registrados en una estación meteorológica situada en la ciudad, con los de otra estación fuera del radio de acción de la urbe, durante el período 1996-1998. Se han detectado dos fenómenos: la isla de calor nocturna, cuando la diferencia térmica entre la ciudad y la zona rural es positiva, que presenta sus valores más altos en otoño, y la isla de calor diurna, cuando la diferencia es negativa, que presenta sus valores más altos en primavera. Realizando un estudio estadístico de la evolución anual de la isla de calor nocturna en Salamanca, podemos definir isla de calor débil si su intensidad es inferior a 2 oC, moderada si se encuentra entre 2 oC y 4 oC e intensa si supera los 4 oC.

  18. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  19. Is contextual-potentiated eating dependent on caloric density of food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One experiment tested whether a specific context could elicit eating in rats as a result of Pavlovian conditioning and whether this effect depended on the caloric density of food. Thirty two deprived rats experienced two contexts. They had access to food in context A, but no food was available in context B. During conditioning, half of the animals received high density caloric food (HD groups whereas the other half, low density caloric food (LD groups. Then, half of the rats in each type of food group was tested in context A and the other half in context B. The results demonstrated an effect of context conditioning only in HD groups. These findings suggest the relevance of both contextual conditioning and caloric density of food in eating behaviour. Implications for the aetiology of binge eating will be discussed.

  20. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  1. Automobilismo: no calor da competição Automovilismo: en el calor de la competición Car racing: in the heat of competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    la producción del calor metabólico capaz de aumentar excesivamente la temperatura interna del piloto en las condiciones ambientales del autódromo el día de su muerte.The present study discusses the role of heat as an additional risk factor for the accident that killed the pilot Ayrton Senna. The competition car racing is a biological challenge, a stressing situation from the physical and mental point of view. The maintenance of performance depends on the oxygen and carbohydrates availability, adequate hydration and constant internal temperature, between 37 and 38ºC. The dissipation of heat produced by the metabolism occurs through the increase on the cutaneous blood flow and sweat and maintaining brain temperature constant becomes a permanent problem. It was experimentally verified that the energy required to the racecar driving is comparable to a sport such as volleyball. During a car race, the individual is exposed to a hot microenvironment in the cockpit, sometimes reaching 50ºC, generated by mechanical and environmental sources of heat. The obstruction of the sweat evaporation by the racesuit results in humidity and personal discomfort, what leads to higher mental effort to drive the car. The anti-heat measures are adopted before the race, considering the nutritional state, hydration and specially the physical conditioning through adequate and regular aerobic exercises that enable increasing the work capacity and the heat tolerance, resulting in lower fatigue during the car racing. Another important procedure should be the previous acclimation of pilots to hot and humid environments. All efforts should be done to reduce the vehicle heating and to respect the warning flag system for the risks of hyperthermia. Finally, although Ayrton Senna was an individual with higher risk of developing hyperthermia, regardless other causes, it seems not to have elapsed sufficient time of race in order to produce metabolic heat capable to increase excessively the pilot

  2. Kramers-Kronig transform for the surface energy loss function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, G.L.; DeNoyer, L.K.; French, R.H.; Guittet, M.J.; Gautier-Soyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new pair of Kramers-Kronig (KK) dispersion relationships for the transformation of surface energy loss function Im[-1/(ε + 1)] has been proposed. The validity of the new surface KK transform is confirmed, using both a Lorentz oscillator model and the surface energy loss functions determined from the experimental complex dielectric function of SrTiO 3 and tungsten metal. The interband transition strength spectra (J cv ) have been derived either directly from the original complex dielectric function or from the derived dielectric function obtained from the KK transform of the surface energy loss function. The original J cv trace and post-J cv trace overlapped together for the three modes, indicating that the new surface Kramers-Kronig dispersion relationship is valid for the surface energy loss function

  3. Caloric restriction decreases orthostatic tolerance independently from 6° head-down bedrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Florian

    Full Text Available Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP. Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory, each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg. Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06. Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01; however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction. Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03. Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight.

  4. Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prain, Angus; Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive a formula describing the transformation of the Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under a conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric. A known formula for the transformation of the Misner–Sharp–Hernandez mass is recovered as a special case. (paper)

  5. Absorption heat pump integrated in an effluent purification system; Bomba de calor por absorcion integrada a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, Socrates; Siqueiros, Javier; Heard, Christopher; Santoyo, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The results derived of the integration of an absorption heat pump to an industrial effluents purification system, are presented. The advantages of these heat pumps with respect to heat pumps by mechanical compression of vapor, as well as the advantages in using absorption heat pumps in simple distillation systems, are mentioned. Finally, a description is made of the equipment designed and built, as well as the results obtained in a preliminary test. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados derivados de la integracion de una bomba de calor por absorcion a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes industriales. Se mencionan las ventajas de este tipo de bombas de calor con respecto a las de calor por compresion mecanica de vapor, asi como las ventajas de usar bombas de calor en sistemas de destilacion simple. Finalmente, se describe el equipo disenado y construido, asi como los resultados obtenidos de una prueba preliminar.

  6. Absorption heat pump integrated in an effluent purification system; Bomba de calor por absorcion integrada a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, Socrates; Siqueiros, Javier; Heard, Christopher; Santoyo, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The results derived of the integration of an absorption heat pump to an industrial effluents purification system, are presented. The advantages of these heat pumps with respect to heat pumps by mechanical compression of vapor, as well as the advantages in using absorption heat pumps in simple distillation systems, are mentioned. Finally, a description is made of the equipment designed and built, as well as the results obtained in a preliminary test. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados derivados de la integracion de una bomba de calor por absorcion a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes industriales. Se mencionan las ventajas de este tipo de bombas de calor con respecto a las de calor por compresion mecanica de vapor, asi como las ventajas de usar bombas de calor en sistemas de destilacion simple. Finalmente, se describe el equipo disenado y construido, asi como los resultados obtenidos de una prueba preliminar.

  7. Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1999-12-01

    Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.

  8. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium) Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  9. Coordinated multitissue transcriptional and plasma metabonomic profiles following acute caloric restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Kerrison, Nicola D; Cooray, Anisha; Piper, Matthew D W; Lingard, Steven J; Barton, Richard H; Schuster, Eugene F; Blanc, Eric; Gems, David; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Thornton, Janet M; Partridge, Linda; Withers, Dominic J

    2006-11-27

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases healthy life span in a range of organisms. The underlying mechanisms are not understood but appear to include changes in gene expression, protein function, and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrate that acute CR alters mortality rates within days in flies. Multitissue transcriptional changes and concomitant metabolic responses to acute CR have not been described. We generated whole genome RNA transcript profiles in liver, skeletal muscle, colon, and hypothalamus and simultaneously measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance in mice subjected to acute CR. Liver and muscle showed increased gene expressions associated with fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in those involved in hepatic lipid biosynthesis. Glucogenic amino acids increased in plasma, and gene expression for hepatic gluconeogenesis was enhanced. Increased expression of genes for hormone-mediated signaling and decreased expression of genes involved in protein binding and development occurred in hypothalamus. Cell proliferation genes were decreased and cellular transport genes increased in colon. Acute CR captured many, but not all, hepatic transcriptional changes of long-term CR. Our findings demonstrate a clear transcriptional response across multiple tissues during acute CR, with congruent plasma metabolite changes. Liver and muscle switched gene expression away from energetically expensive biosynthetic processes toward energy conservation and utilization processes, including fatty acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Both muscle and colon switched gene expression away from cellular proliferation. Mice undergoing acute CR rapidly adopt many transcriptional and metabolic changes of long-term CR, suggesting that the beneficial effects of CR may require only a short-term reduction in caloric intake.

  10. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui eChen; Hui eChen; Sonia eSaad; Shaun eSandow; Paul eBertrand

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causin...

  11. Cigarette Smoking and Brain Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing...

  12. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  13. Modeling mechanical effects on promotion and retardation of martensitic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalekian, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.maalekian@ubc.ca [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. V61Z4 (Canada); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Christian Doppler Laboratory for ' Early Stages of Precipitation' , Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Compressive elastic stresses up to 250 MPa are applied in continuous cooling. {yields} Using the thermodynamic data and maximum value of the mechanical driving force the predicted increase in M{sub s} ({approx}0.1 K/MPa) is in agreement with experiment {yields} Austenite was deformed plastically at different temperatures (800 deg. C-1100 deg. C). {yields} High deformation temperature (i.e. 1100 deg. C) as well as low plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 30%) do not affect martensite transformation noticeably, whereas lower deformation temperature (e.g. 900 deg. C) and large plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 70%) retards martensite transformation. {yields} The theory of mechanical stabilization predicts the depression of M{sub s}. - Abstract: The influence of compressive stress and prior plastic deformation of austenite on the martensite transformation in a eutectoid steel is studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that martensite formation is assisted by stress but it is retarded when transformation occurs from deformed austenite. With the quantitative modeling of the problem based on the theory of displacive shear transformation, the explanation of the two opposite roles of mechanical treatment prior to or simultaneously to martensite transformation is presented.

  14. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The...

  15. Phases of the energy system transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Samadi, Sascha; Hoffmann, Clemens; Henning, Hans-Martin; Pregger, Thomas; Leprich, Uwe; Schmidt, Maike

    2015-01-01

    The energy transition is an ambitious and highly complex process of transformation. This article presents eight theses that can help to better understand the challenges and to identify starting points for future action and to identify research needs. [de

  16. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  17. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  18. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Paola; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Frau-Valenti, Joan; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  19. New Potentials for Old: The Darboux Transformation in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Wesley; Celius, Tevye C.

    2008-01-01

    The Darboux transformation in quantum mechanics is reviewed at a basic level. Examples of how this transformation leads to exactly solvable potentials related to the "particle in a box" and the harmonic oscillator are shown in detail. The connection between the Darboux transformation and some modern operator based approaches to quantum mechanics…

  20. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  1. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paola [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Josep Pla, B2, Pl. Baixa, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Frau-Valenti, Joan [ENDESA, Carrer Joan Maragall, 16 07006 Palma (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan. (author)

  2. Mechanisms of idiomatic transformations creating in contemporary english advertising discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Makedonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with phraseological transformations in English advertising discourse. It was determined that all phraseological transformations can be divided into two types: semantic and structural-semantic. Semantic transformations are formed by mechanisms of dephraseologisation and dual actualization. Structural-semantic transformations are made up by components expanding of original set expressions which realized due to enlargement and wedging, reduction of compositional component by “truncation” and substitution of components

  3. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  4. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  5. A macroscopic model to simulate the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdahcıoğlu, E.S.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically induced martensitic transformation and the associated transformation plasticity phenomena in austenitic stainless steels are studied. The mechanisms responsible for the transformation are investigated and put into perspective based on experimental evidence. The stress and strain partitioning into the austenite and martensite phases are formulated using a mean-field homogenization approach. At this intermediate length-scale the average stress in the austenite phase is computed and utilized to compute the mechanical driving force resolved in the material. The amount of transformation and the transformation plasticity is derived as a function of the driving force. The mechanical response of the material is obtained by combining the homogenization and the transformation models. The model is verified by mechanical tests under biaxial loading conditions during which different transformation rates are observed. As a final verification of the model, a bending test is used which manifests the stress-state dependency of the transformation.

  6. Anomalous acoustic effect during martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2002-01-01

    One carried out experiments to determine effect of external static stress on martensitic transformations and acoustic emission, Martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys under mechanical stress were determined to change nature of acoustic emission to anomalous one - cycling of transformations under gradual increase of mechanical stress during direct martensitic transformation was followed by increase of acoustic emission energy instead of reduction. The mentioned nature of acoustic emission is indicative of essential effect of external stress on martensitic transformations and energy dissipation during transformations [ru

  7. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA

  8. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  9. Scale transformations, the energy-momentum tensor, and the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Equation of State (EOS) relates diagonal elements of the energy-momentum tensor θ μν . The first moment of the energy-momentum tensor generates scale transformations. The virial theorem, a consequence of the behavior of the energy density under scale transformations, allows one to eliminate the kinetic energy in terms of the potential terms. The trace theorem for the energy-momentum tensor expresses ε-3p in terms of ensemble averages of scale-breaking operators, allowing a new approach to the EOS. 10 refs

  10. Resonant transformation of electrostatic energy in ExB field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizuka, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical consideration on an effective transformation of electrostatic potential energy is given. A transformator particle is introduced with the transformation in an ExB field system. A device constant of the system is introduced comparing with some empirical, practical examples and an experimental proof of the transformation is given. Finally a nuclear fusion device plan is proposed based on the idea of the consideration. (author)

  11. Converging ligand-binding free energies obtained with free-energy perturbations at the quantum mechanical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Martin A; Söderhjelm, Pär; Ryde, Ulf

    2016-06-30

    In this article, the convergence of quantum mechanical (QM) free-energy simulations based on molecular dynamics simulations at the molecular mechanics (MM) level has been investigated. We have estimated relative free energies for the binding of nine cyclic carboxylate ligands to the octa-acid deep-cavity host, including the host, the ligand, and all water molecules within 4.5 Å of the ligand in the QM calculations (158-224 atoms). We use single-step exponential averaging (ssEA) and the non-Boltzmann Bennett acceptance ratio (NBB) methods to estimate QM/MM free energy with the semi-empirical PM6-DH2X method, both based on interaction energies. We show that ssEA with cumulant expansion gives a better convergence and uses half as many QM calculations as NBB, although the two methods give consistent results. With 720,000 QM calculations per transformation, QM/MM free-energy estimates with a precision of 1 kJ/mol can be obtained for all eight relative energies with ssEA, showing that this approach can be used to calculate converged QM/MM binding free energies for realistic systems and large QM partitions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Converging ligand‐binding free energies obtained with free‐energy perturbations at the quantum mechanical level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Martin A.; Söderhjelm, Pär

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the convergence of quantum mechanical (QM) free‐energy simulations based on molecular dynamics simulations at the molecular mechanics (MM) level has been investigated. We have estimated relative free energies for the binding of nine cyclic carboxylate ligands to the octa‐acid deep‐cavity host, including the host, the ligand, and all water molecules within 4.5 Å of the ligand in the QM calculations (158–224 atoms). We use single‐step exponential averaging (ssEA) and the non‐Boltzmann Bennett acceptance ratio (NBB) methods to estimate QM/MM free energy with the semi‐empirical PM6‐DH2X method, both based on interaction energies. We show that ssEA with cumulant expansion gives a better convergence and uses half as many QM calculations as NBB, although the two methods give consistent results. With 720,000 QM calculations per transformation, QM/MM free‐energy estimates with a precision of 1 kJ/mol can be obtained for all eight relative energies with ssEA, showing that this approach can be used to calculate converged QM/MM binding free energies for realistic systems and large QM partitions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117350

  13. Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Hubert I; Lee, Jong K

    2010-01-01

    Developed by the late metallurgy professor and master experimentalist Hubert I. Aaronson, this collection of lecture notes details the fundamental principles of phase transformations in metals and alloys upon which steel and other metals industries are based. Mechanisms of Diffusional Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys is devoted to solid-solid phase transformations in which elementary atomic processes are diffusional jumps, and these processes occur in a series of so-called nucleation and growth through interface migration. Instead of relying strictly on a pedagogical approach, it doc

  14. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada León Raúl; Altamirano Bustamante Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty), of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates,...

  15. Calculation of quantum-mechanical system energy spectra using path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, A.M.; Dmitriev, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    A solution of the Feynman quantum-mechanical integral connecting a wave function (psi (x, t)) at a moment t+tau (tau → 0) with the wave function at the moment t is provided by complex variable substitution and subsequent path integration. Time dependence of the wave function is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The Fourier inverse transformation of the wave function by path integration calculated has been applied to determine the energy spectra. Energy spectra are presented of a hydrogen atom derived from wave function psi (x, t) at different x, as well as boson energy spectra of He, Li, and Be atoms obtained from psi (x, t) at X = O

  16. Transformation research for a sustainable energy system. Contributions; Transformationsforschung fuer ein nachhaltiges Energiesystem. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd; Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas (comps.)

    2012-03-15

    Within the 2011 annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) from 12th to 13th October 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Environmentally safe and socially compatible transformation of energy systems (G. Schuette); (2) Open questions on the transformation of energy systems (E. Weber); (3) System analysis on the transformation of energy systems up to 2050 (J. Schmid); (4) Economic aspects: Chances, markets and workplaces (F. Staiss); (5) Perspectives for an interplay of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources as well as their implementation in the energy system (A. Bett); (6) New accents of research promotion for a more rapid development of renewable energy sources (K. Deller); (7) The 6th Energy Research Program of the Federal Government (R. Tryfonidou); (8) Recommendations of the FVEE for the research policy of the Research Government (G. Sadermann); (9) How can research and politics promote the system transformation (M. Hustedt); (10) The energy system of tomorrow - Strategies and research for the transformation of high amounts of renewable energy resources (W. Duerrschmidt); (11) Long-term strategies for the development of renewable energies in Germany (J. Nitsch); (12) Development of storage capacities for an efficient power generation by renewable energy resources in Germany and Europe by 2050 (Y. Scholz); (13) Prognoses of temporal and spatial variability of renewable energy resources (B. Lange); (14) Smart Grids - Transformation of our electrical energy supply (G. Ebert); (15) Model regions for intelligently networked energy systems; (16) Cities and concepts of neighbourhood - model cities (D. Schmidt); (17) Transformation of the German power system to a decentral regenerative economy (U. Leprich); (18) Alteration of the general conditions for new incentive models, heat acts, restoration of buildings (M. Schmidt); (19) Acceptance and participation research on energy sustainability (P

  17. Six and 12 Weeks of Caloric Restriction Increases β Cell Function and Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Concentrations in People with Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathananthan, Matheni; Shah, Meera; Edens, Kim L; Grothe, Karen B; Piccinini, Francesca; Farrugia, Luca P; Micheletto, Francesco; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Rizza, Robert A; Camilleri, Michael; Vella, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caloric restriction alone has been shown to improve insulin action and fasting glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain. Objective: We sought to quantify the effect of caloric restriction on β cell function and glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Nine subjects (2 men, 7 women) with type 2 diabetes [BMI (in kg/m2): 40.6 ± 1.4; age: 58 ± 3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.9% ± 0.2%] were studied using a triple-tracer mixed meal after withdrawal of oral diabetes therapy. The oral minimal model was used to measure β cell function. Caloric restriction limited subjects to a pureed diet (restriction. Results: Fasting glucose concentrations decreased significantly from baseline after 6 wk of caloric restriction with no further reduction after a further 6 wk of caloric restriction (9.8 ± 1.3, 5.9 ± 0.2, and 6.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L at baseline and after 6 and 12 wk of caloric restriction, respectively; P = 0.01) because of decreased fasting endogenous glucose production (EGP: 20.4 ± 1.1, 16.2 ± 0.8, and 17.4 ± 1.1 μmol · kg−1 · min−1 at baseline and after 6 and 12 wk of caloric restriction, respectively; P = 0.03). These changes were accompanied by an improvement in β cell function measured by the disposition index (189 ± 51, 436 ± 68, and 449 ± 67 10−14 dL · kg−1 · min−2 · pmol−1 at baseline and after 6 and 12 wk of caloric restriction, respectively; P = 0.01). Conclusions: Six weeks of caloric restriction lowers fasting glucose and EGP with accompanying improvements in β cell function in people with type 2 diabetes. An additional 6 wk of caloric restriction maintained the improvement in glucose metabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01094054. PMID:26246321

  18. Quantifying the association between obesity, automobile travel, and caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between average adult body mass index (BMI), automobile travel, and caloric intake in the US in order to predict future trends of adult obesity. Annual BMI data (1984-2010) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), vehicle miles traveled data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, licensed drivers data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, and adult average daily caloric intake data (1970-2009) from the US Department of Agriculture were collected. A statistical model is proposed to capture multicollinearity across the independent variables. The proposed statistical model provides an estimate of changes in the average adult BMI associated with changes in automobile travel and caloric intake. According to this model, reducing daily automobile travel by one mile per driver would be associated with a 0.21 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after six years. Reducing daily caloric intake by 100 calories per person would be associated with a 0.16 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after three years. Making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity interventions, implying that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The nature of heat: after two centuries, will it be that the caloric theory is still in some way an attractive idea or, even, useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Bráz de Pádua

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 19th Century, there were two theories absolutely different on the nature of the heat: the Mechanical Theory of the Heat and the Caloric Theory. For the first theory, heat was considered as ‘a vibration’ of the atoms that compose the matter. Thus, the temperature represented the intensity of those vibrations and their propagation was a transfer of heat. When two bodies of different temperatures were put in contact, the atoms of the hottest body communicated part of its vibrations to that of the coldest body by means of collisions until the atoms of both bodies vibrated with the same intensities. For the second theory, the heat was considered a subtle fluid that filled the interior of the bodies. Spread all over the nature, that fluid was propagated or conserved by the bodies according to their properties and temperatures. Before being replaced by the conception of heat as a form of energy, in the middle of the 19th Century, the Caloric Theory reached great successes with the works of Jean-Baptiste Fourier (1768 – 1830 in 1822, Sadi Carnot (1796 – 1832, in 1824 and Émile Clapeyron (1799 – 1864 in 1834. By means of a careful revision of the analytic results of Clapeyron, developed under the basis of the Caloric Theory, we propose in this work to re-adapt these results and to compare them with current experimental data and theories, and to show that we can still understand some characteristics of the thermal phenomena, without considering heat as a form of energy. Especially in the study of the gases, we could obtain objective and precise information about absorption and liberation of heat in the isothermal processes, efficiency of the thermal machine of Carnot and the relationship among specific heats.

  20. Gasto energético e consumo calórico em adolescentes do sexo masculino com diferentes níveis de adiposidade corporal Energy expenditure and caloric intake among male adolescents with different levels of body adiposy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados o gasto energético e consumo calórico de adolescentes com diferentes níveis de gordura corporal. Estudo transversal com 40 adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos do sexo masculino. Os adolescentes foram divididos em dois grupos, cada um com 20 sujeitos, de acordo com o %G: baixo (%G 20%. O gasto energético foi mensurado por acelerômetros triaxiais e recordatório de atividades diárias. O consumo calórico foi avaliado pelo registro de 24 horas. Os jovens com baixo %G tiveram menor consumo calórico ( = 2408,1 ± 557,9 kcal.dia-1 em comparação aos jovens com alto %G ( = 2931,7 ± 679,2 kcal.dia-1, pEnergy expenditure and caloric intake were compared among adolescents with different levels of adiposity. A cross-sectional study was carried with 40 adolescent boys aged 14 to 16 years. The adolescents were divided into two groups of 20 subjects each, according to % body fat (%BF: low ( 20%. Energy expenditure was measured using accelerometer and daily activity diary. The dietary pattern was evaluated based on 24-h recall. Caloric intake was lower in adolescents with low %F ( = 2408.1 ± 557.9 kcal.day-1 compared to those with high %F ( = 2931.7 ± 679.2 kcal.day-1, p<0.05. In addition, they presented greater relative energy expenditure than adolescents with high %F (p<0.05. High %F adolescents showed larger caloric intake than expenditure, while the opposite was observed among low %F males.

  1. Waste energy harvesting mechanical and thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Bing, Kong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Waste Energy Harvesting overviews the latest progress in waste energy harvesting technologies, with specific focusing on waste thermal mechanical energies. Thermal energy harvesting technologies include thermoelectric effect, storage through phase change materials and pyroelectric effect. Waste mechanical energy harvesting technologies include piezoelectric (ferroelectric) effect with ferroelectric materials and nanogenerators. The book aims to strengthen the syllabus in energy, materials and physics and is well suitable for students and professionals in the fields.

  2. The kinetics and mechanism of bainite transformation in high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bainite formation have been studied in high strength Fe-C-Si-Mn and Fe-C-Si-Ni steels using dilatometry, optical and transmission electron microscopy. In these silicon containing steels, carbide precipitation dies not accompany the growth of bainitic ferrite so that the mechanism of transformation can be readily interpreted. The work confirms that the volume fraction of bainite when the reaction stops, is far less that expected from equilibrium or para equilibrium considerations. In addition the bainite exhibits an invariant plane strain surface relief effect with a large shear component, and adopts a sheaf morphology. The results are demonstrated to be consistent with a displacive diffusion less transformation mechanism of bainite, in which the excess carbon is, subsequent to transformation, rejected into the residual austenite. (author)

  3. Saving energy and money at choice of power transformers, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankoski, Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    When power transformers work at regular conditions, besides they exert theirs principal function, they constantly spend electrical energy that is, always work with losses. Depending od performances, sometimes those losses can be drastically different, although the transformers can equal power and some voltages of transformation. Considering that the loss of energy has its own price, a dilemma whether it is better economic reason to purchase new expensive transformer with smaller losses or one cheaper with more losses during its work-comes out. This paper analysis such case. The presented access can usefully serve in practice, in making the right decision in replacing the old transformer with the new one, or choosing the new transformer. (Author)

  4. Saving energy and money at choice of power transformers, v. 16(62)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankoski, Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    When power transformers work at regular conditions, besides they exert theirs principal function, they constantly spend electrical energy that is, always work with losses. Depending od performances, sometimes those losses can be drastically different, although the transformers can equal power and some voltages of transformation. Considering that the loss of energy has its own price, a dilemma whether it is better economic reason to purchase new expensive transformer with smaller losses or one cheaper with more losses during its work-comes out. This paper analysis such case. The presented access can usefully serve in practice, in making the right decision in replacing the old transformer with the new one, or choosing the new transformer. (Author)

  5. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio......Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  6. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  7. Frame transforms, star products and quantum mechanics on phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniello, P; Marmo, G; Man'ko, V I

    2008-01-01

    Using the notions of frame transform and of square integrable projective representation of a locally compact group G, we introduce a class of isometries (tight frame transforms) from the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators in the carrier Hilbert space of the representation into the space of square integrable functions on the direct product group G x G. These transforms have remarkable properties. In particular, their ranges are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces endowed with a suitable 'star product' which mimics, at the level of functions, the original product of operators. A 'phase space formulation' of quantum mechanics relying on the frame transforms introduced in the present paper, and the link of these maps with both the Wigner transform and the wavelet transform are discussed

  8. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  9. Geometry of real and complex canonical transformations in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, A.

    1977-08-01

    Quantum mechanics of finitely many particles involves the group of linear (and affine) canonical transformations. A well-defined ray representation of this group acts in the space of states of any quantum-mechanical system with finitely many degrees of freedom and plays a central role in many different contexts. This representation appears quite naturally in quantum mechanics over phase space (Weyl-Wigner correspondence), that it becomes, when suitably written, just a matter of looking at one object from different symplectic reference frames. This is particularly interesting for complex canonical transformations which are represented by unbounded operators. The list of references gives an idea of the variety of motivations and points of view in the subject

  10. Alleviation of senescence and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in aging kidney by short-term caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics via modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Ning, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Chao; Lv, Yang; Hong, Quan; Cui, Shao-Yuan; Fu, Bo; Guo, Ya-Nan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2017-03-07

    Renal fibrosis contributes to declining renal function in the elderly. What is unclear however, is whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to this age-related renal fibrosis. Here, we analyzed indicators of EMT during kidney aging and investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of short-term regimens of caloric restriction (CR) or caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs), including resveratrol and metformin. High glucose was used to induce premature senescence and EMT in human primary proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in vitro. To test the role of AMPK-mTOR signaling, siRNA was used to deplete AMPK. Cellular senescence and AMPK-mTOR signaling markers associated with EMT were detected. CR or CRMs treatment alleviated age-related EMT in aging kidneys, which was accompanied by activation of AMPK-mTOR signaling. High glucose induced premature senescence and EMT in PTCs in vitro, which was accompanied by down-regulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. CRMs alleviated high glucose-induced senescence and EMT via stimulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. Activation of AMPK/mTOR signaling protected PTCs from high glucose-induced EMT and cellular senescence. Short-term regimens of CR and CRMs alleviated age-related EMT via AMPK-mTOR signaling, suggesting a potential approach to reducing renal fibrosis during aging.

  11. Quantum mechanical theory of epitaxial transformation of silicon to silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, S A; Osipov, A V

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the study of transformation of silicon crystal into silicon carbide crystal via substitution reaction with carbon monoxide gas. As an example, the Si(1 0 0) surface is considered. The cross section of the potential energy surface of the first stage of transformation along the reaction pathway is calculated by the method of nudged elastic bands. It is found that in addition to intermediate states associated with adsorption of CO and SiO molecules on the surface, there is also an intermediate state in which all the atoms are strongly bonded to each other. This intermediate state significantly reduces the activation barrier of transformation down to 2.6 eV. The single imaginary frequencies corresponding to the two transition states of this transformation are calculated, one of which is reactant-like, whereas the other is product-like. By methods of quantum chemistry of solids, the second stage of this transformation is described, namely, the transformation of precarbide silicon into silicon carbide. Energy reduction per one cell is calculated for this ‘collapse’ process, and bond breaking energy is also found. Hence, it is concluded that the smallest size of the collapsing islet is 30 nm. It is shown that the chemical bonds of the initial silicon crystal are coordinately replaced by the bonds between Si and C in silicon carbide, which leads to a high quality of epitaxy and a low concentration of misfit dislocations. (paper)

  12. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.

  13. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty, of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates, thaumatin, D- tagatose, estevia and alitame.

  14. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  15. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  16. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  17. Fenton-like initiation of a toluene transformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fenton-driven oxidation treatment systems, reaction intermediates derived from parent compounds can play a significant role in the overall treatment process. Fenton-like reactions in the presence of toluene or benzene, involved a transformation mechanism that was highly effici...

  18. A macroscopic model to simulate the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically induced martensitic transformation and the associated transformation plasticity phenomena in austenitic stainless steels are studied. The mechanisms responsible for the transformation are investigated and put into perspective based on experimental evidence. The stress and strain

  19. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoran Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (LFD during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32 in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  20. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  1. Hybrid system: Heat pump-solar air dryer for grains; Sistema hibrido: bomba de calor - calentador solar de aire para el secado de productos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Gomez, Willfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Tijuana (Mexico); Ortega Herrera, Jose Angel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Design, building, operation and evaluation energy wise of a hybrid experimental type, with heat pump, that uses no chloride, does not destroy the ozone layer. It is solar air dryer for grains. In this research we dry rice. It has tree systems: 1.- A mechanical compression heat pump, 2.- An air solar heater, and 3.- An agriculture products dryer. The drying capacity is 20 pounds of grain /day, with a median daily solar radiation. The costs is approximately U.S. $ 6 000.00. The heat pump used 22 refrigerant first, and now works with refrigerant SUVA 9000. This refrigerant will be available this year in the I.S., it is one of the ecological class that substitutes the chlorofluorocarbonates. [Spanish] Se disena, construye, opera, y evalua energeticamente, un sistema hibrido tipo experimental, con bomba de calor que utiliza refrigerante que no contiene cloro, y no destruye la capa de ozono y un calentador solar de aire, para secar granos. En este trabajo secamos arroz. Se compone de tres sistemas: 1.- Bomba de calor por compresion mecanica, 2.- Calentador solar de aire, 3.- Secador de productos agricolas. La capacidad de secado es de 10 Kilos de granos/dia promedio. Tiene un costo aproximado de $ 60 000. La bomba de calor utiliza refrigerante 22 en una primera generacion, y actualmente opera con un refrigerante SUVA 9000, en una segunda generacion, este refrigerante se comercializara en este ano, en la Union Americana, pertenece a la familia de los llamados refrigerantes ecologicos, sustitutos de los clorofluorocarbonados.

  2. The economics of energy market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.; Kammen, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates three energy-sector market transformation programs: the US Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program to promote on-grid efficient lighting; the World Bank Group's new Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative; and the federal grain ethanol subsidy. The authors develop a benefit-cost model that uses experience curves to estimate unit cost reductions as a function of cumulative production. Accounting for dynamic feedback between the demand response and price reductions from production experience raises the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the first two programs substantially. The BCR of the ethanol program, however, is approximately zero, illustrating a technology for which subsidization was not justified. Their results support a broader role for market transformation programs to commercialize new environmentally attractive technologies, but the ethanol experience suggests moderately funding a broad portfolio composed of technologies that meet strict selection criteria

  3. Mechanic-electrical transformations in the Kelvin method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkikh, Yu. S., E-mail: yurzhar@gmail.com [Faculty of Radio Physics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 4G, Ave. Academician Glushkov, 03127, Kyiv (Ukraine); Lysochenko, S.V., E-mail: lys@univ.kiev.ua [Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 4G, Ave. Academician Glushkov, 03127, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Used in Kelvin method dynamic capacitor is a mechanic-electrical transformer. • The oscillations of its plate are source of extraneous forces which cause the appearance of an electric current. • The signal is caused not by the contact potential difference, but by oscillation in the screening conditions of charge in the dynamic capacitor gap. • Combining the Kelvin method with electron emission methods to determine the work function may lead to incorrectness. - Abstract: To explain the initiation mechanism of alternating current in an electric circuit containing the dynamic capacitor a model of mechanic- electrical transformation is suggested to use. In such a model, electric charges disposed between the capacitor plates serve as a cause of measured signal in contrast to the contact potential difference, which is considered as the main base in the Kelvin’s model. If one of the plates moves periodically, then the conditions of the charges screening are changed and thereby the capacitor recharging current is arise. The measuring is based on compensation of the recharging current by current, which generated by a source of electromotive force (EMF). The compensation voltage depends on both the distribution of ions or dipoles over the studied surface and the charges creating the surface potential barrier. This voltage is independent on the bulk electro-physical characteristics of a solid.

  4. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  5. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  6. Energy homeostasis targets chromosomal reconfiguration of the human GH1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene, GH1, to assess the effect of high caloric intake on expression as well as the local chromosome structure of the intact GH1 locus. Animals exposed to 3 days of high caloric intake exhibited hyperinsulinemia without hyperglycemia and a decrease in both hGH synthesis and secretion, but no difference in endogenous production of murine GH. Efficient GH1 expression requires a long-range intrachromosomal interaction between remote enhancer sequences and the proximal promoter region through "looping" of intervening chromatin. High caloric intake disrupted this interaction and decreased both histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II occupancy at the GH1 promoter. Incorporation of physical activity muted the effects of excess caloric intake on insulin levels, GH1 promoter hyperacetylation, chromosomal architecture, and expression. These results indicate that energy homeostasis alters postnatal hGH synthesis through dynamic changes in the 3-dimensional chromatin structure of the GH1 locus, including structures required for cell type specificity during development.

  7. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  8. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  9. Predicting Shear Transformation Events in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Falk, Michael L.; Li, J. F.; Kong, L. T.

    2018-03-01

    Shear transformation is the elementary process for plastic deformation of metallic glasses, the prediction of the occurrence of the shear transformation events is therefore of vital importance to understand the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses. In this Letter, from the view of the potential energy landscape, we find that the protocol-dependent behavior of shear transformation is governed by the stress gradient along its minimum energy path and we propose a framework as well as an atomistic approach to predict the triggering strains, locations, and structural transformations of the shear transformation events under different shear protocols in metallic glasses. Verification with a model Cu64 Zr36 metallic glass reveals that the prediction agrees well with athermal quasistatic shear simulations. The proposed framework is believed to provide an important tool for developing a quantitative understanding of the deformation processes that control mechanical behavior of metallic glasses.

  10. Transformation of heat into mechanical energy by means of rotating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mešina Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All heat engines need two different temperatures for their work, T1mechanical energy. The calculated results were presented for simple geometry and can easily be verified experimentally. In combination with an ideal heat pump, the proposed heat engine facilitates the surroundings to withdraw heat and convert it into mechanical work.

  11. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    People attempt to change their lifestyle when obesity impairs their quality of life. The attempts often fail when multiple habits must be changed in unison. Here we explore relations among food addiction, the neurobiology of habits, and caloric restriction, when people seek to return to normal......, and reduced activity in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex. The neurobiological characteristics suggest that obese people also have a pathological dependence in common with addicts, in the form of food addiction. Malnutrition and dieting both relate to binge eating, possibly as a compensation...... of uncontrolled eating increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. This and other evidence suggests that abuse of food is a habit learned by means of mechanisms centred in the basal ganglia, with an increased risk of relapse in the presence of associative amplifiers. This risk is predicted...

  12. Mechanisms and secondary factors involved in the induction of radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The long term of this research program was to gain information concerning the mechanisms that determine the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly high LET radiation exposure. The experimental approach involves parallel studies of the induction of malignant transformation in BALB/3T3 cells and of specific gene mutations in human lymphoblastoid cells. Emphasis was on the biologic effects of internally incorporated Auger electron emitting radionuclides and the initiation of studies to determine the effects of low dose-rate neutron exposure. Auger electron irradiation sever as a model for high LET-type radiation effects and as an experimental tool for studying the effects of radiation at specific sites within the cell. Auger-emitting radiosotopes are commonly used in clinical nuclear medicine, rendering them a potential hazard to human populations. We examined the influence of cellular localization of Auger-emitting radionuclides and the spectrum of energy distribution in DNA on their mutagenic, cytogenetic, and transformational effects. The effects of 125 I (an energetic beta emitter) were compared. We studied the induction of cytogenetic changes by 125 I exposure of the cell membrane, as well as its potential to promote (enhance) transformation initiated by low dose external x-ray exposure. We will investigate the Relative Biological Effectiveness for mutagenesis and transformation of low doses of fast neutrons delivered continuously at variable low dose-rates. 34 refs., 1 tab

  13. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  14. Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jon M.; Virden, Jud W.; Walton, Terry L.; Brog, Terrence K.; Stiles, Dennis L.; Alderson, Karis P.; Melland, Jodi C.; Hobbs, Lori L.; Martinez, Sam J.; Quadrel, Marilyn J.; Quinn, Rod K.

    2008-12-29

    Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System: Three Federal Action Plans for Near- and Long-term Success is a short document written for the incoming U.S. Federal Administration's Transistion Team. The document represents what we believe to be foundational elements of a broad campaign to make rapid progress towards these goals for the longterm transformation necessary to meet our national economic, security, and environmental goals. The three immediate action plans include: * Creating Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure * Decarbonizing the Energy Economy *Enabling Science-Based Policy

  15. SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.

    2012-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development

  16. Methodology for predicting market transformation due to implementation of energy efficiency standards and labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2004-01-01

    There are many papers that have been published on energy efficiency standards and labels. However, a very limited number of articles on the subject have discussed the transformation of appliance energy efficiency in the market after the programs are implemented. This paper is an attempt to investigate the market transformation due to implementation of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labels. Even though the paper only investigates room air conditioners as a case study, the method is also applicable for predicting market transformation for other household electrical appliances

  17. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO 2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  18. [Effeciency of usage of natural low caloric protein-vegetable product by patients with excess body weight and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Istomin, A V; Narutdinov, D A; Kropachev, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the usage of natural low caloric concentrated protein-vegetable food product (LCCF) by 23 persons with excess body weight at the age of 30-44 years (the 1st group) and 30 hypertensive patients at remission stage and overweight at age 45-59 years old (the 2nd group) has been assessed. According to energy expenditure, all examined male persons were classified to II group of physical activity: PhysicalActivity Coefficient (PAC) was 1,35±0,14 and 1,34±0,22 respectively. As for dietary intake, authors revealed an excess of protein (up to 20,1%), fat (up to 17,2%) and daily caloric content over daily energy expenditure that led to an increase of body weight along with metabolic and liver function disorders. Initially, body mass index (BMI) was 29,9±0,6 kg/m2 in the 1st group and 36,2±0,4 kg/m2 in the 2nd group. LCCFP was administrated to persons in studied groups and consisted of fat-free curd, egg white, rye bran, dried apricots, laminaria, leaves of green tea and cowberry. The product was made by cryogenic technology. LCCFP (35 g) was administrated two times per day instead of breakfast and supper during 15 days. Protein content in 1 portion of LCCFP was 5.2 g, fats -3.8 g, carbohydrates - 16.8 g; energy value - 122 kcal. The decrease of daily caloric content was 1225,5 kilocalories (kcal) in the 1st group and 1071,3 kcal in the 2nd group duringperiod of LCCFP administration; the energy value of the diet amounted to an average of 1420 and 1560 kcal per day. During the study, authors found serum protein indices were constant, but revealed the decrease of the level of glucose (by 15,3-18%), cholesterol (18,8-19%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (13,9-15,8%), triglycerides (20-26,3%) and alanine aminotransferase (39,7-41,4%) and asparagine aminotransferase (40,6-40,7%) activity. This provided evidence of positive influence of the natural protein-vegetable LCCFP on fat and carbohydrate metabolisms as well as liver function. Also, the decrease of

  19. Reversible a-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 transformation during ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of hematite to magnetite by high-energy ball milling in a sealed container has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Mechanisms for this transformation are critically discussed. The dominant mechanism is concluded to be due to bond breaking during the high...... energy ball milling followed by release of the oxygen from the vial. The reverse transformation, magnetite to hematite, is demonstrated to occur by ball milling in air. Mechanisms for this reverse transformation are also put forward....

  20. Relationship of dieting and restrained eating to self-reported caloric intake in female college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New transformation mechanism for a zinc-blende to rocksalt phase transformation in MgS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2009-01-01

    The stability of the zinc-blende structured MgS is studied using a constant pressure ab initio molecular dynamics technique. A phase transition into a rocksalt structure is observed through the simulation. The zinc-blende to rocksalt phase transformation proceeds via two rhombohedral intermediate phases within R3m (No:160) and R3-barm (No:166) symmetries and does not involve any bond breaking. This mechanism is different from the previously observed mechanism in molecular dynamics simulations. (fast track communication)

  2. Texture, morphology and deformation mechanisms in β-transformed Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurchea, D.; Furtuna, I.; Todica, M.; Roth, M.

    1996-01-01

    The morphology of the β(bcc) transformed Zircaloy-4 may be treated as a lenticular-twinned martensite. The texture is a consequence of the degeneration of the left angle 0001 right angle α , left angle 1010 right angle α and left angle 1011 right angle α directions into left angle 110 right angle β directions. The crystallographic mechanisms implied in the accommodation of the microscopic Bain strain are (1010) left angle 1120 right angle prism slip, (1012) left angle 101 1 right angle twinning and (1011) left angle 1012 right angle twinning. This degeneration explains the 'parallel plate' and 'basketweave' morphologies observed by microscopy and the texture of the β transformed tube. The macroscopic Bain strain was calculated and agrees with the dimensional measurements. The deformation mechanisms of β transformed Zircaloy-4 are identified from the new texture and from deformation experiments as twinning and interplatelet glide. The interplatelet glide induces a fragile character of fracture in the 'parallel plate' morphology. (orig.)

  3. Low-energy mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Wessel; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    and with as little energy consumption as 41.1 kWh/m2/year including heating and all building services with no use of renewable energy such as PVcells or solar heating. One of the key means of reaching the objectives was to implement mechanical ventilation with low pressure loss and therefore low energy consumption....... The project consists of two buildings, building one is 6 stories high, and building two is 4 stories high. The buildings have a gross area of 50,500 m2 including underground parking. The ventilation and indoor climate concept was to use mechanical ventilation together with mechanical cooling and fanassisted......, with an average of 1.1 kJ/m3. The yearly mean SFP based on estimated runtime is approx. 0.8 kJ/m3. The case shows the unlocked potential that lies within mechanical ventilation for nearzero energy consuming buildings....

  4. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  5. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Meng Xu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published.All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI, OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang. The pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models.The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL group.Our findings

  6. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesooptical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation of straight-line particle tracks in nuclear emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectively viewing eye. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as the main unit is given. This system can be used for fast search particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performances of this system are described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms. As all operations in the MFTM go without any depth scanning this new system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope

  8. [Neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts under the influence of high-energy protons and gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh

    2004-01-01

    Oncoginic transformations of mouse fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 after exposure to proton energies 150 and 584 MeV were compared with fibroblast effects of gamma-radiation. Prior to exposure, cell populations (2.7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) were inoculated in plastic vials with the surface area of 75 cm2 and cultivated 11 days. Survivability was determined by comparing the number of cell colonies in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) vials. Transformation rate was calculated by dividing the total transformation focus number by the number of survived cells in a vial. Rate of oncogenic transformations after gamma- and proton (584 MeV) irradiation was essentially identical, i.e. the parameter grew rapidly at the doses 1 Gy. In the dose interval between 1 and 5 Gy, transformation rate for proton energy 150 MeV was found low compared with gamma-radiation and proton energy 584 MeV. It is hypothesized that the different transformation rate after exposure to proton energy 150 MeV is linked with the high linear energy transfer as compared with the proton energy of 584 MeV and gamma-radiation.

  9. El clima de las ciudades: isla de calor de Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Salud Alonso García; Mª del Rosario Fidalgo Martínez; José Luis Labajo Salazar

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha determinado la existencia de la isla de calor urbana (ICU), en una ciudad de tamaño medio, con un clima extremado y focos industriales de poca actividad. Con lo que se puede comprobar cómo afecta el calentamiento urbano a ciudades de estas características, pudiendo influir en los seres vivos de la zona. La existencia del fenómeno isla de calor, y su evolución en el tiempo, se han observado comparando los datos de temperatura registrados en una estación meteorológica situ...

  10. High-throughput search for caloric materials: the CaloriCool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The high-throughput search paradigm adopted by the newly established caloric materials consortium—CaloriCool®—with the goal to substantially accelerate discovery and design of novel caloric materials is briefly discussed. We begin with describing material selection criteria based on known properties, which are then followed by heuristic fast estimates, ab initio calculations, all of which has been implemented in a set of automated computational tools and measurements. We also demonstrate how theoretical and computational methods serve as a guide for experimental efforts by considering a representative example from the field of magnetocaloric materials.

  11. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  12. Do patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have increased energy needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Lusaus, Michal; Nefussy, Beatrice; Niv, Eva; Comaneshter, Doron; Hallack, Ron; Drory, Vivian E

    2009-04-15

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We investigated the contribution of some of the components contributing to resting energy expenditure (REE) in order to determine whether potentially higher energy needs should be considered for these patients. Thirty three ALS patients and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. REE was measured by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and estimated caloric intake by 7-day food records. Patients had lower body mass indices and lower lean body mass (LBM) than healthy controls. REE values (as a percentage of predicted) was similar but increased when normalized by LBM (Plater. A model for predicting measured REE was constructed based on the different components, with 86% prediction of its variability. ALS is associated with increased REE. Various factors, such as poor caloric intake and mechanical ventilation, may mask this tendency. All the above parameters need to be considered during nutritional intervention to prevent additional muscle loss.

  13. Analysis of Mechanical Energy Transport on Free-Falling Wedge during Water-Entry Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For better discussing and understanding the physical phenomena and body-fluid interaction of water-entry problem, here mechanical-energy transport (wedge, fluid, and each other of water-entry model for free falling wedge is studied by numerical method based on free surface capturing method and Cartesian cut cell mesh. In this method, incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid are numerically calculated by the finite volume method. Then artificial compressibility method, dual-time stepping technique, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are applied in the numerical scheme. Furthermore, the projection method of momentum equations and exact Riemann solution are used to calculate the fluid pressure on solid boundary. On this basis, during water-entry phase of the free-falling wedge, macroscopic energy conversion of overall body-fluid system and microscopic energy transformation in fluid field are analyzed and discussed. Finally, based on test cases, many useful conclusions about mechanical energy transport for water entry problem are made and presented.

  14. Mechanisms of chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts will be continuously exposed to ionizing radiation; therefore, it is necessary to minimize the radiation damage by all possible means. The authors' studies show that DMSO (when present during irradiation) can protect cells from being killed and transformed by X rays and that low concentration of DMSO can reduce the transformation frequency significantly when it is applied to cells, even many days after irradiation. The process of neoplastic cell transformation is a complicated one and includes at least two different stages: induction and expression. DMSO apparently can modify the radiation damage during both stages. There are several possible mechanisms for the DMSO effect: (1) changing the cell membrane structure and properties; (2) inducing cell differentiation by acting on DNA; and (3) scavanging free radicals in the cell. Recent studies with various chemical agents, e.g., 5-azacytidine, dexamethane, rhodamin-123, etc., indicate that the induction of cell differentiation by acting on DNA may be an important mechanism for the suppression of expression of neoplastic cell transformation by DMSO

  15. Effect of modest caloric restriction on oxidative stress in women, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Maciej S; Hongu, Nobuko; Acra, Sari; Wang, Li; Warolin, Joshua; Roberts, L Jackson

    2012-01-01

    It is not established to what extent caloric intake must be reduced to lower oxidative stress in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term, moderate caloric restriction on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese premenopausal women. Randomized trial comparison of 25% caloric restriction (CR) or control diet in 40 overweight or obese women (body mass index 32±5.8 kg/m(2)) observed for 28 days and followed for the next 90 days. Weight, anthropometry, validated markers of oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostane) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), adipokines, hormones, lipids, interleukins, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, during the intervention, and at follow-up. Baseline median F(2)-isoprostane concentration (57.0, IQR = 40.5-79.5) in the CR group was 1.75-fold above average range for normal weight women (32.5 pg/ml). After starting of the caloric restriction diet, F(2)-isoprostane levels fell rapidly in the CR group, reaching statistical difference from the control group by day 5 (median 33.5, IQR = 26.0-48.0, Prestriction diet. Three months after resuming a habitual diet, concentrations of F(2)-isoprostane returned to baseline elevated levels in ∼80% of the women. Oxidative stress can be rapidly reduced and sustained through a modest reduction in caloric intake suggesting potential health benefits in overweight and obese women. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00808275.

  16. Evaluación de un recuperador de calor en una industria frigorífica//Evaluation of waste heat recovery in frigorific industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert‐González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación de calor forma parte de las medidas propuestas para el empleo adecuado del amoniaco en países tropicales. Este artículo analiza un sistema de recuperación de calor instalado en una instalación de refrigeración industrial. En el análisis, que parte de las lecturas comparativas de parámetros de operación de la instalación, se determinó la efectividad del intercambio térmico, el incremento en laeficiencia del sistema de refrigeración, así como el combustible ahorrado por concepto de calentamiento del agua en la industria. Los resultados obtenidos reportaron que el diseño térmico basado en intercambio de calor en espacios anulares, permite un ahorro importante de recursos y un elevado índice de aprovechamiento térmico.Palabras claves: recuperación de calor, instalación frigorífica, ahorro de energía.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe waste heat recovery by heat pipes is accepted as an excellent way of saving energy and preventing global warming. This article assesses the impact of the use of a heat exchanger used as a heat recovery in the refrigeration industry. Elements are evaluated from the point of view of heat transfer, evaluating the quality of heat exchange process. Is calculated increase in the efficiency of the cooling system. The heated water is used in the steam generation system of the industry. Is calculated fuel consumption savings resulting from this warming. The findings provide elements that show the enormous potential of this technique in the refrigeration industry.Key words: waste heat recovery, Industrial refrigeration, saving energy.

  17. Study on rice transformation mediated by low energy ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Wu Lifang; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Delivery of foreign DNA into rice via ion beam was first reported in 1994. In recent years we have aimed to set up efficient transformation system mediated by low energy ion beam. The factors that influence the transformation including type of ion, parameters of ion energy, dose and dose rate, plant genotype, composition of media, concentration of hormones and antibiotics were carefully investigated. Treated with 25ke V Ar + , the transformation efficiencies of the mature embryos of rice variety 02428, Hua pei94-jian-09 and Minghui63 reached 11%, 11.4% and 7.1% measured by produced antibiotic resistant callus and l.52%, 1.87% and l.13% measured by regenerated plants respectively. PCR detection and Southern blot analysis showed that GUS report gene had inserted in rice genome. Low energy ion beam mediated gene transfer will be extended to other cereal recalcitrant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens as soon as methodological parameters were optimized. (authors)

  18. Energy landscape for martensitic phase transformation in shape memory NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibey, S.; Sehitoglu, H.; Johnson, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    First-principles calculations are presented for parent B2 phase and martensitic B19 and B19' phases in NiTi. The results indicate that both B19 and B19' are energetically more stable than the parent B2 phase. By means of ab initio density functional theory, the complete distortion-shuffle energy landscape associated with B2 → B19 transformation in NiTi is then determined. In addition to accounting for the Bain-type deformation through the Cauchy-Born rule, the study explicitly accounts for the shuffle displacements experienced by the internal ions in NiTi. The energy landscape allows the energy barrier associated with the B2 → B19 transformation pathway to be identified. The results indicate that a barrier of 0.48 mRyd atom -1 (relative to the B2 phase) must be overcome to transform the parent B2 NiTi to orthorhombic B19 martensite

  19. Effects of caloric restriction with varying energy density and aerobic exercise on weight change and satiety in young female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sae Won; Bae, Yoon Jung; Lee, Dae Taek

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the combined effects of caloric restriction on body composition, blood lipid, and satiety in slightly overweight women by varying food density and aerobic exercise. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for a four-week weight management program: the high-energy density diet plus exercise (HDE: n = 12, 22 ± 2 yrs, 65 ± 7 kg, 164 ± 5 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) and low-energy density diet plus exercise (LDE: n = 11, 22 ± 1 yrs, 67 ± 7 kg, 161 ± 2 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) groups. Subjects maintained a low-calorie diet (1,500 kcal/day) during the program. Isocaloric (483 ± 26 for HDE, 487 ± 27 kcal for LDE) but different weight (365 ± 68 for HDE, 814 ± 202 g for LDE) of lunch was provided. After lunch, they biked at 60% of maximum capacity for 40 minutes, five times per week. The hunger level was scaled (1: extremely hungry; 9: extremely full) at 17:30 each day. Before and after the program, the subjects' physical characteristics were measured, and fasting blood samples were drawn. The daily energy intake was 1,551 ± 259 for HDE and 1,404 ± 150 kcal for LDE (P > 0.05). After four weeks, the subjects' weights and % fat decreased for both LDE (-1.9 kg and -1.5%, P < 0.05) and HDE (-1.6 kg and -1.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). The hunger level was significantly higher for HDE (2.46 ± 0.28) than for LDE (3.10 ± 0.26) (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a low-energy density diet is more likely to be tolerated than a high-energy density diet for a weight management program combining a low-calorie diet and exercise, mainly because of a reduced hunger sensation.

  20. Energy Barriers and Hysteresis in Martensitic Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH) and 10-15% perchloric acid (HCLO4) by volume, the cathode was stainless steel , the anode was stainless steel or Ti, the...Submitted to Acta Materialia Energy barriers and hysteresis in martensitic phase transformations Zhiyong Zhang, Richard D. James and Stefan Müller...hysteresis based on the growth from a small scale of fully developed austenite martensite needles. In this theory the energy of the transition layer plays a

  1. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  3. Application of Bipartite Entangled States to Quantum Mechanical Version of Complex Wavelet Transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Lu Hailiang; Xu Xuefen

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the bipartite entangled states to present a quantum mechanical version of complex wavelet transform. Using the technique of integral within an ordered product of operators we show that the complex wavelet transform can be studied in terms of various quantum state vectors in two-mode Fock space. In this way the creterion for mother wavelet can be examined quantum-mechanically and therefore more deeply.

  4. DESARROLLOS INSTRUMENTALES EN MICROCALORIMETRIA DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan aspectos generales de la microcalorimetría de conducción de calor. Se describe el diseño y la operación de microcalorímetros de conducción de calor estático y de flujo construidos en este laboratorio, los cuales fueron calibrados eléctrica y químicamente. Estos equipos se emplean en la caracterización de sólidos porosos por la técnica de calorimetría de inmersión y en la determinación de entalpias de transferencia de solutos; su uso se ilustra con algunos resultados típicos. Se mencionan además otras aplicaciones que se dan actualmente a estos aparatos.

  5. Impact of adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices on eating in the absence of hunger and caloric compensation in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E; Issanchou, S; Chabanet, C; Boggio, V; Nicklaus, S

    2015-06-01

    Between the ages of 3 and 5 years, children may become less responsive to internal cues of satiation and more responsive to external cues, which may induce overeating and lead to weight gain. This study aimed to compare eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and caloric compensation in 3- to 6-year-old children, and to relate the measurements with children's adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices. According to a within-subject three sequential condition design, food intake in children (n=236) was measured at lunch during three sessions, once a week. The same meal (565 kcal) was offered at each session. The first session (control) was only composed of the meal. Thirty minutes before the second meal, children were offered an energy preload (137 kcal; caloric compensation condition). Ten minutes after the third meal, children were exposed to a post-meal snack (430 kcal; EAH condition). Individual caloric compensation score (COMPX) and EAH score were calculated. Maternal characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Child anthropometrics were measured by a medical doctor. On average, children compensated 52±4% of the energy preload and ate 24±1% of the energy provided by their meal in the absence of hunger. COMPX and EAH score were not correlated and did not vary with children's adiposity or age. EAH score was higher in boys (P=0.006). Maternal use of food as reward was associated with higher EAH score (P=0.01) but greater COMPX (P=0.005). As early as the age of 3 years children did not fully compensate the energy brought by a snack and ate in the absence of hunger. Parents should be advised to avoid these situations where overeating may occur and to limit the use of food as reward.

  6. Modelling and study on the output flow characteristics of expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yan; Wu, Tiecheng; Cai, Maolin; Liu, Chong [Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    Hydropneumatic transformer (short for HP transformer) is used to pump pressurized hydraulic oil. Whereas, due to its insufficient usage of energy and low efficiency, a new kind of HP transformer: EEUHP transformer (Expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer) was proposed. To illustrate the characteristics of the EEUHP transformer, a mathematical model was built. To verify the mathematical model, an experimental prototype was setup and studied. Through simulation and experimental study on the EEUHP transformer, the influence of five key parameters on the output flow of the EEUHP transformer were obtained, and some conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the mathematical model was proved to be valid. Furthermore, the EEUHP transformer costs fewer of compressed air than the normal HP transformer when the output flow of the two kinds of transformers are almost same. Moreover, with an increase in the output pressure, the output flow decreases sharply. Finally, with an increase in the effective area of hydraulic output port, the output flow increases distinctly. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the EEUHP transformers.

  7. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...

  8. Mechanically induced atomic disorder and phase transformations. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limei, D

    1992-11-30

    The study shows the possibilities of preparing alloys in various metastable configurations by the simple technique of ball milling. Firstly, chapter 2 gives the description of experimental techniques. In chapter 3, evidence of atomic anti-site disordering in A15-structure superconducting compounds Nb3Sn and Nb3Au during an early stage of milling is demonstrated. Chapter 4 represents the experimental results on the B2-structure magnetic compounds CoGa and CoAl upon mechanical impact. These compounds are well known for their particular type of atomic disorder, namely triple-defect disorder. Various examples of experimental evidence of phase transformations induced by mechanical grinding are presented in chapter 5. Section 5.2 gives an example of amorphization induced by mechanical attrition in the intermetallic compound Ni3Sn. Section 5.3 shows the milling experiment of the intermetallic compound V3 Ga. In section 5.4, for the first time, the observation of a phase transformation to a high-temperature phase with a complex structure will be demonstrated for the intermetallic compound Co3Sn2. In the last chapter, detailed studies on the intermetallic Nb-Au binary compounds for a variety of compositions are presented.

  9. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  10. Absence of rotation perception during warm water caloric irrigation in some seniors with postural instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied.Twenty senior subjects were included in the study separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls. We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video-head impulse test (vHIT, caloric tests, and cervical and ocular VEMPs. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All of the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or greater than 15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All of the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions.These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, amongst other factors, from a

  11. Invasive non-native species of fish in upper Paraná river Basin, Brazil: variations of caloric content in Cichla kelberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Espínola

    Full Text Available The allocation of assimilated energy may be influenced by seasonal changes, growth, and reproductive cycle of fish, food consumption and environmental conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the energetic variations of Cichla kelberi in the upper Paraná River floodplain, analyzing the caloric content in muscles, gonadosomatic index (GSI, and the condition factor between assessed systems, sex, and stage of gonadal maturation. The results obtained in the present study permit assuring that this is a species that efficiently converts the resources of the environment into energy. Although presenting higher condition factor in the environment where there is a greater ease in getting food (Paraná subsystem, the energy identified in the muscles was the same in both subsystems. During the process of gonadal maturation there is optimization in energy accumulation in the muscles of females, before and after reproductive period, and somatic growth occurs significantly when the individual is not reproducing. Further detailed studies on ecological mechanisms influencing the success of the species, as the presence of competitors and preference for native preys, are needed to implement effective management measures aimed at preventing that the species proliferation in the environment is even more damaging to local biodiversity.

  12. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  13. Modelo matemático de la transferencia de calor para predecir el perfil de durezas en probetas Jominy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficient was estimated at the bottom surface at Jominy bar end quench specimen by solution of the heat inverse conduction problem. A mathematical model based on the finite-difference method was developed to predict thermal paths and volume fraction of transformed phases. The mathematical model was codified in the commercial package Microsoft Visual Basic v. 6. The calculated thermal path and final phase distribution were used to evaluate the hardness distribution along the AISI 4140 Jominy bar.En el presente trabajo se estimó el coeficiente de transferencia de calor en la superficie que se encuentra en contacto con el chorro de agua en la probeta Jominy mediante la solución del problema inverso de conducción de calor. Con el objetivo de predecir los perfiles térmicos y las fracciones de fase transformadas se formuló un modelo matemático con el método de diferencias finitas y se codificó en el software comercial Microsoft Visual Basic v. 6. Los perfiles térmicos y las fracciones de fase calculadas se utilizaron para predecir el perfil de durezas en una probeta Jominy de acero AISI 4140 mediante el uso de correlaciones empíricas.

  14. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  15. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  16. Achieving Smart Energy Planning Objectives. The Approach of the Transform Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Delponte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities play a dual role in the field of energy and integrated planning. They function as institutional planning and decision making bodies and interfere as actors, e.g. as project developers or launching customers. In the first case their attempts at integrated plans are often unsuccessful in integrating vision, goals and instruments of all stakeholders so that waste, water, energy cycles, urban planning and budgets proceed with no connection to each other.  TRANSFORM Project “Transformation Agenda for Low Carbon Cities” (FP7 tries to improve the integrated energy policy and decision making process of cities, both at a strategic and operational level, by providing the cities with a framework based on overall planning experiences and on-the-field projects and qualitative and quantitative analysis support models. The project intends also to make a step further in the quality of research, by providing a replicable and tested framework for the production of a strategic Transformation Agenda for the city as a whole, combined with district Implementation Plans.

  17. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  18. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, G.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, the Meso-optical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation fo straight line particle tracks in nuclear research emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectivity viewing 'eye'. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as its main unit is given. This system can be used for a fast search for particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from particle accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performance of this system is described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms per image. As all operations in the MFTM proceed without any depth scanning, this new evaluation system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope. (orig.)

  19. Influence of India’s transformation on residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement

  20. Validation of a smooth configuration surface for compact heat exchangers using a numerical method//Validación de la superficie de un intercambiador de calor compacto en configuración lisa utilizando un método numérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José‐L. Leiro‐Garrido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the thermo hydraulics behavior of smooth configuration surface for a compact heat exchanger by means of numerical simulation. The objective is to use the results as baseline for research in the enhancement of heat transfer and drag reduction, directed to reduce the energy consumption and diminish the environmental impact. The fin tube heat exchanger models described.The constraints used in the implementation of the equation solver are announced. The average heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from numerical simulation are compare to experimental results presented in literature for models with the same dimensions and configuration. A good agreement between numerical and experimental results is reached. Local mechanisms responsible for the heat transfer and pressure drop are detailed. The study is conducted inside thelaminar regime for frontal velocities ranging between 0.5 and 6 m/s.Key words: compact heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficient, numerical simulation, pressure drop.______________________________________________________________________________ResumenEste trabajo determina el comportamiento termo hidráulico de una superficie perteneciente a un intercambiador de calor compacto en configuración lisa utilizando un método de simulación numérica. El objetivo es caracterizar la superficie para poder utilizarla como una referencia en las comparaciones con superficies de intercambio de calor intensificadas. Los datos obtenidos seutilizaran en la determinación de los valores relativos de intensificación de la transferencia de calor y el arrastre intentando reducir el consumo energético y su impacto ambiental. Se describe el modelo de intercambiador de calor con tubos aletados. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos presentan unbuen ajuste con los valores experimentales. Los resultados del coeficiente de transferencia de calor global y la caída de presión son explicados a partir de las

  1. Biorthogonal projected energies of a Gutzwiller similarity transformed Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlen-Strothman, J M; Scuseria, G E

    2016-12-07

    We present a method incorporating biorthogonal orbital-optimization, symmetry projection, and double-occupancy screening with a non-unitary similarity transformation generated by the Gutzwiller factor [Formula: see text], and apply it to the Hubbard model. Energies are calculated with mean-field computational scaling with high-quality results comparable to coupled cluster singles and doubles. This builds on previous work performing similarity transformations with more general, two-body Jastrow-style correlators. The theory is tested on 2D lattices ranging from small systems into the thermodynamic limit and is compared to available reference data.

  2. A Redundancy Mechanism Design for Hall-Based Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Long Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional current transformers (CTs suffer from DC and AC saturation and remanent magnetization in many industrial applications. Moreover, the drawbacks of traditional CTs, such as closed iron cores, bulky volume, and heavy weight, further limit the development of an intelligent power protection system. In order to compensate for these drawbacks, we proposed a novel current measurement method by using Hall sensors, which is called the Hall-effect current transformer (HCT. The existing commercial Hall sensors are electronic components, so the reliability of the HCT is normally worse than that of the traditional CT. Therefore, our study proposes a redundancy mechanism for the HCT to strengthen its reliability. With multiple sensor modules, the method has the ability to improve the accuracy of the HCT as well. Additionally, the proposed redundancy mechanism monitoring system provides a condition-based maintenance for the HCT. We verify our method with both simulations and an experimental test. The results demonstrate that the proposed HCT with a redundancy mechanism can almost achieve Class 0.2 for measuring CTs according to IEC Standard 60044-8.

  3. Dal calore all'entropia una introduzione alla termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Vicentini Missoni, Matilde

    1992-01-01

    Panta rei : processi ed equilibrio ; l'universo termodinamico : l'aspetto processuale ; il punto di vista dei processi come bilancio tra proprietà dell'equilibrio ; il fluire dell'energia ; automobili, frigoriferi e pompe di calore : informazioni tecnologiche ; e allora ? l'entropia ; la termostatica come teoria assiomatica ; la termodinamica dei processi.

  4. Capacity of 50Ti-47Ni-3Cu composite to convert heat energy to mechanical work under cyclic measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.P.; Kuz'min, S.L.; Likhachev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The TiNiCu alloy with a shape memory which may be used as a working medium for the martensite engine converting heat energy to mechanical one is studied for its energy characteristics. Mechanical characteristics of the material are studied under torsion of cylindrical specimens of stressed thermocycling through temperature intervals of martensite transformations. It is established that the shape memory and transformation ductility effects determining serviceability and power of the martensite enginem vary gradually with the number of heat changes reaching saturation after 10-15 thermocycles, The heating-and-cooling stress dependence of deformations due to the shape memory and transformation ductility effects also varied with the number of heat changes, Cooling conditions under stress of 50 MPa and heating conditions under 200 MPa and above proved to be most optimal. Serviceability of the engine made of the TiNiCu alloy exceeds 10 MJ/m 3 and its power reaches 10 5 MW m -3 under operation frequency of 10 3 Hz

  5. The mechanism of transforming diamond nanowires to carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, Anastassia; Su, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of diamond nanowires (DNWs) with different diameters and geometries upon heating is investigated with density-functional-based tight-binding molecular dynamics. DNWs of 〈100〉 and 〈111〉 oriented cross-section with projected average line density between 7 and 20 atoms Å −1 transform into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under gradual heating up to 3500–4000 K. DNWs with projected average line density larger than 25 atoms Å −1 transform into double-wall CNTs. The route of transformation into CNTs clearly exhibits three stages, with the intriguing intermediate structural motif of a carbon nanoscroll (CNS). Moreover, the morphology plays an important role in the transformation involving the CNS as one important intermediate motif to form CNTs. When starting with 〈 2-bar 11〉 oriented DNWs with a square cross-section consisting of two {111} facets facing each other, one interesting structure with ‘nano-bookshelf’ shape emerges: a number of graphene ‘shelves’ located inside the CNT, bonding to the CNT walls with sp 3 hybridized atoms. The nano-bookshelf structures exist in a wide range of temperatures up to 3000 K. The further transformation from nano-bookshelf structures depends on the strength of the joints connecting shelves with CNT walls. Notably, the nano-bookshelf structure can evolve into two end products: one is CNT via the CNS pathway, the other is graphene transformed directly from the nano-bookshelf structure at high temperature. This work sheds light on the microscopic insight of carbon nanostructure formation mechanisms with the featured motifs highlighted in the pathways. (paper)

  6. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  7. Focos de Calor na Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara dos Santos Clemente

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo avaliou a ocorrência de focos de calor nos remanescentes da Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sob o aspecto climático. As informações obtidas da base de dados BDQueimadas, do período de junho de 1998 a dezembro de 2015, sofreram estatística descritiva, exploratória e paramétrica. As maiores ocorrências de focos de calor foram registradas nos meses de agosto, setembro e outubro e, os anos com os maiores registros foram nos ciclos 2010/2011 (16,06% e 2014/2015 (41, 24%, ambos somaram 57,30% da série temporal, referente a La Niña e El Niño nas categorias forte e fraco. O teste paramétrico mostrou uma repetição dos meses de abril e junho nos anos avaliados na série temporal de focos de calor. As regiões de Governo Centro-Sul Fluminense e Médio Paraíba registraram os maiores registros de focos de calor, segundo a avaliação espacial. Nossos resultados demonstram que o acesso a uma base gratuita de dados permite a prevenção de danos causados pelas queimadas e incêndios. Com a evolução dos sensores de temperatura e de algoritmos de tratamento de dados, será possível diferenciar os focos de calor que representam incêndios e queimadas daqueles que indicam, por exemplo, atividade de indústrias.

  8. Take-Off Efficiency: Transformation of Mechanical Work Into Kinetic Energy During the Bosco Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandova Sona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to present a new method for determining the efficiency of take-off during a 60-s Bosco repeated vertical jump test. Method. The study involved 15 physical education students (age: 21.5 ± 2.4 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.08 m; mass: 76 ± 9 kg. The data were collected with the use of a pedobarographical system (Pedar-x; Novel, Munich, Germany. The statistical analysis utilized a simple linear regression model. Results. Owing to possible fatigue, flight time and flight height decreased. The average flight height was 0.260 ± 0.063 m, and the average contact time equalled 0.54 ± 0.16 s. The average anaerobic power values calculated for the 60-s work period had the mean value of 21.9 ± 6.7 W · kgBW-1; there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease in anaerobic power during the 60-s Bosco test. Conclusions. The efficiency of mechanical work was highest at the beginning of the test, reaching values of up to 50%. The efficiency of mechanical work conversion into mechanical energy seems to be an appropriate determinant of rising fatigue during the 60-s Bosco jumping test.

  9. 77 FR 32916 - Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-2010-BT-STD-0048] RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public... information that it is making available about the liquid-immersed distribution transformer equipment classes... equipment classes for several different types of liquid-immersed distribution transformers. In addition to...

  10. La Isla de calor en la ciudad de Lloret de Mar

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno García, María del Carmen; Serra Pardo, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo muestra el resultado de un trabajo de investigación sobre el fenómeno de la isla de calor en la ciudad de Lloret de Mar, donde se evidencia la existencia del fenómeno y se caracteriza. Utilizando el método de los transectos se han realizado mediciones de temperatura en cuatro campañas anuales entre julio del 2010 y marzo de 2014, durante el verano e invierno. El análisis de los 11.360 valores térmicos recopilados muestra una isla de calor urbana con una intensidad media de 3,3ºC...

  11. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  12. Determinación del calor de fraguado de cemento por icrocalorimetría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Girlado G.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el calor de fraguado del cemento Río Claro tipo III (Río Claro, Antioquia, Colombia por microcalorimetría de conducción de calor; así como también los efectos de la glucosa y de la sacarosa en el proceso de fraguado de este material. Al emplear 0,15 y 0,05% ( % en peso de estos aditivos en la preparación de las pastas, se observan retardos considerables en el fraguado de las mismas. Los aditivos también modifican el calor de fraguado: la pasta libre de estos presenta un valor de 38,03 J/g en tanto que la adición de glucosa y sacarosa producen valores menores, excepto en el caso de la sacarosa al 0,05% donde se observa un efecto térmico de 55.80 J/s,

  13. Calorimetric investigation on mechanically activated storage energy mechanism of sphalerite and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongliang; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Hu Huiping; Wu Daoxin

    2005-01-01

    The structural changes of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite under different grinding conditions were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser particle size analyzer and elemental analysis. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite was measured by a calorimetric method. A thermochemical cycle was designed so that mechanically activated and non-activated minerals reached the same final state when dissolved in the same oxidizing solvent. The results show that the storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite rises with increased in grinding time, and reaches a maximum after a certain grinding period. The storage energy of mechanically activated pyrite decreases when heated under inert atmosphere. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite remains constant when treated below 573 K under inert atmosphere. The percentage of the storage energy caused by surface area increase during mechanical activation decreases with increasing grinding time. These results support our opinion that the mechanically activated storage energy of sphalerite is closely related to lattice distortions, and the mechanically activated storage energy of pyrite is mainly caused by the formation of reactive sites on the surface

  14. Phenomenological approach to the caloric theory of heat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Šesták, Jaroslav; Špička, Václav; Krištofik, Jozef; Stávek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 474, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 16-24 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA AV ČR IAA100100639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : caloric * entropy * heat * thermodynamics * heat engines Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2008

  15. Difference in reproduction energy content in muscles on fish from reservoirs in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Espínola

    Full Text Available The variation in energy in the muscles of the most representative fish species from three Neotropical Reservoirs was investigated to determine the effect of the reproductive process on the amount of energy allocated and a possible relationship between the general welfare of the species and their caloric content. Significant differences were detected between the sexes and among the stages of gonad maturity. In general, the variation in energy in the muscles indicate to be a function of the reproductive cycle. In most examined species, females presented the highest caloric values, reflecting physiological differences in their use of energy, relative to the reproductive process. However, there was no significant correlation between caloric values and the condition factor of any species. Significant differences in the caloric content and condition factor were identified in each species belonging different trophic groups, indicating an effect of food quality on the amount of energy stored in the muscles. We conclude that the analyzed species presented a similar pattern of variation in energy, but that this was not reflected in their condition. In addition, an effect of reproduction and feeding habit on energy allocation was observed in both sexes.

  16. Exercise training improves relaxation response and SOD-1 expression in aortic and mesenteric rings from high caloric diet-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with a variety of disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidences have shown that exercise training promotes beneficial effects on these disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical preconditioning prevents the deleterious effect of high caloric diet in vascular reactivity of rat aortic and mesenteric rings. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD; trained (TR; sedentary diet (SDD and trained diet (TRD groups. Run training (RT was performed in sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (70–80% VO2max. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx- were measured. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP were obtained. Expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 was assessed by Western blotting. Results High caloric diet increased triglycerides concentration (SDD: 216 ± 25 mg/dl and exercise training restored to the baseline value (TRD: 89 ± 9 mg/dl. Physical preconditioning significantly reduced insulin levels in both groups (TR: 0.54 ± 0.1 and TRD: 1.24 ± 0.3 ng/ml as compared to sedentary animals (SD: 0.87 ± 0.1 and SDD: 2.57 ± 0.3 ng/ml. On the other hand, glucose concentration was slightly increased by high caloric diet, and RT did not modify this parameter (SD: 126 ± 6; TR: 140 ± 8; SDD: 156 ± 8 and TRD 153 ± 9 mg/dl. Neither high caloric diet nor RT modified NOx- levels (SD: 27 ± 4; TR: 28 ± 6; SDD: 27 ± 3 and TRD: 30 ± 2 μM. Functional assays showed that high caloric diet impaired the relaxing response to ACh in mesenteric (about 13%, but not in aortic rings. RT improved the relaxing responses to ACh either in aortic (28%, for TR and 16%, to TRD groups or mesenteric rings (10%, for TR and 17%, to TRD groups that was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD-1

  17. Transformation of topologically close-packed β-W to body-centered cubic α-W: Comparison of experiments and computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmak, Katayun; Liu, Jiaxing; Harlan, Liam; Xiao, Penghao; Duncan, Juliana; Henkelman, Graeme

    2017-10-21

    The enthalpy and activation energy for the transformation of the metastable form of tungsten, β-W, which has the topologically close-packed A15 structure (space group Pm3¯n), to equilibrium α-W, which is body-centered cubic (A2, space group Im3¯m), was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The β-W films were 1 μm-thick and were prepared by sputter deposition in argon with a small amount of nitrogen. The transformation enthalpy was measured as -8.3 ± 0.4 kJ/mol (-86 ± 4 meV/atom) and the transformation activation energy as 2.2 ± 0.1 eV. The measured enthalpy was found to agree well with the difference in energies of α and β tungsten computed using density functional theory, which gave a value of -82 meV/atom for the transformation enthalpy. A calculated concerted transformation mechanism with a barrier of 0.4 eV/atom, in which all the atoms in an A15 unit cell transform into A2, was found to be inconsistent with the experimentally measured activation energy for any critical nucleus larger than two A2 unit cells. Larger calculations of eight A15 unit cells spontaneously relax to a mechanism in which part of the supercell first transforms from A15 to A2, creating a phase boundary, before the remaining A15 transforms into the A2 phase. Both calculations indicate that a nucleation and growth mechanism is favored over a concerted transformation. More consistent with the experimental activation energy was that of a calculated local transformation mechanism at the A15-A2 phase boundary, computed as 1.7 eV using molecular dynamics simulations. This calculated phase transformation mechanism involves collective rearrangements of W atoms in the disordered interface separating the A15 and A2 phases.

  18. Detection of low caloric power of coal by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu De-shan; Sang Hai-feng; Qiao Shuang; Liu Yu-ren, Liu Lin-mao; Jing Shi-wei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun

    2004-01-01

    Analysis method and principle of pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) are introduced. A system for the measurement of low caloric power of coal by PFTNA is also presented. The 14 MeV pulse neutron generator and BGO detector and 4096 MCA were applied in this system. A multiple linear regression method applied to the data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The error of low caloric power between chemical analysis and experiment was less than 0.4 MJ/kg. (author)

  19. Uso de transdutores de fluxo de calor no estudo da transferência de calor em alimentos embalados The use of heat flux transducers to study heat transfer in canned foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Carciofi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A densidade de fluxo de calor que atravessa uma superfície é classicamente determinada mediante a medição das temperaturas apropriadas e da aplicação da Lei de Fourier. Uma alternativa a esse procedimento é a utilização de transdutores de fluxo de calor, os quais geram um sinal elétrico proporcional ao fluxo térmico que os atravessa. Neste trabalho, processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos foram estudados em laboratório, utilizando-se um recipiente de vidro cilíndrico para simular uma embalagem. Dois transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial foram previamente instalados no recipiente, revestindo completamente a superfície lateral do mesmo. O recipiente contendo a amostra foi inserido em banho de água circulante à temperatura constante. Os sinais fornecidos pelos transdutores e por termopares inseridos no interior do recipiente foram registrados por um sistema de aquisição de dados computadorizado. Os resultados obtidos com o uso dos transdutores foram comparados com aqueles obtidos através de balanços de energia realizados a partir dos dados experimentais de evolução temporal das temperaturas da amostra junto à superfície interna da embalagem e no centro da mesma. A comparação mostrou que os transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial puderam determinar os fluxos de calor, com tempo de resposta característico dos termopares. Os resultados apresentados mostraram a viabilidade de utilização desses fluxímetros no estudo não destrutivo e não invasivo dos processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos, fornecendo informações complementares àquelas obtidas pelo uso de termopares instalados no interior da embalagem.Heat flux determination in thermal processes is classically carried out by appropriate temperature measurements and the application of the Fourier Law. An alternative to this procedure is to determine the heat flux that crosses a surface using heat flux

  20. Flux and transformation of the solar wind energy in the magnetosheath of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Semenov, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Energy flux, incoming from the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere is calculated. It is shown that Poynting vector flux, incoming to the reconnection area is generated mainly in the transitional area between the departed shock wave front and magnetopause in the result of the retardation of the solar wind and partial transformation of its kinetic energy into magnetic one. In this case the energy transformation coefficient depends on the interplanetary magnetic field intensity. Solar wind energy gets into the area of magnetic field reconnection at the magnetopause mainly in two forms: electromagnetic and thermal energy. In the course of reconnection process magnetic energy converts into kinetic energy of the accelerated plasma mass movement and subsequently turns (in a high-latitude boundary layer) into electromagnetic energy, incoming directly to magnetosphere tail

  1. Sensitivity evaluation in air and water caloric stimulation of the vestibular organs using videonystagmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałocha-Kaczka, Anna; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Miłoński, Jarosław; Olszewski, Jurek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare air and water caloric stimulation of the vestibular organs using videonystagmography (VNG). The study covered 18 women aged 21-63 and 11 men aged 21-74 years hospitalized at the ENT, without complaints for vertigo and/or balance disorders. The alternate binaural bithermal caloric test with cool 30°C and warm 44°C air or water irrigations (after 2h interval for the recordings) with the use of VNG was done. All parameters of air and water vestibular caloric stimulations, assessed in the VNG, differed significantly but were within the normal range. The research showed a statistically significant difference between canal paresis but only for the left ear at 30°C and 44°C. Absolute directional preponderance, relative directional preponderance, vestibular excitability, slow component velocity, frequency were different statistically for both ears at both temperatures. Our study showed that both air and water caloric stimulations were able to distinguish physiological and impaired vestibular function. The obtained results showed statistically higher response for water than air stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Martensitic transformation, shape memory effects, and other curious mechanical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review tutorially the subject of martensitic transformations in uranium alloys emphasizing their role in the shape memory effect (SME). We examine first what a martensitic transformation is, illustrating some of its characteristics with specific examples. As well as being athermal in nature, as expected, data are presented indicating that martensitic transformations in some uranium alloys also have a strong isothermal component. In addition, a few alloys are known to exhibit thermoelastic martensitic reactions. The SME, which is associated with these, is defined and demonstrated graphically with data from a uranium-6 wt % niobium alloy. Some of the important variables influencing SME behavior are described. Specifically, these are reheat temperature, amount of deformation, crystal structure, and composition. A mechanism for SME is postulated and the association with martensitic transformation is detailed. A self-induced shape instability in the uranium-7.5 wt % niobium-2.5 wt % zirconium alloy with a rationalization of the behavior in terms of texture and lattice parameter change during aging is reviewed and discussed. 24 figures

  3. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the energy transfer mechanisms in azulene, benzene, toluene, and isotopomers. Also discussed is the coupled energy reservoirs model, quantum effects in energy transfer, NO 2 energy transfer, densities of states, the reactant states model, and O 3 excited electronic states

  4. Temas de Física para Ingeniería: Temperatura y propagación del calor

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica: "Temperatura y propagación del calor". Introducción. Descripciones macroscópica y microscópica de un sistema. Equilibrio térmico y principio cero de la termodinámica. Termómetros y escala de temperaturas del gas ideal. Dilatación térmica. Propagación del calor.

  5. Nonlinear mechanisms of two-dimensional wave-wave transformations in the initially coupled acoustic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The present study concerns two-dimensional nonlinear mechanisms of bidirectional and unidirectional channeling of longitudinal and shear waves emerging in the locally resonant acoustic structure. The system under consideration comprises an oscillatory chain of the axially coupled masses. Each mass of the chain is subject to the local linear potential along the lateral direction and incorporates the lightweight internal rotator. In the present work, we demonstrate the emergence of special resonant regimes of complete bi- and unidirectional transitions between the longitudinal and the shear waves of the locally resonant chain. These regimes are manifested by the two-dimensional energy channeling between the longitudinal and the shear traveling waves in the recurrent as well as the irreversible fashion. We show that the spatial control of the two dimensional energy flow between the longitudinal and the shear waves is solely governed by the motion of the internal rotators. Nonlinear analysis of the regimes of a bidirectional wave channeling unveils their global bifurcation structure and predicts the zones of their spontaneous transitions from a complete bi-directional wave channeling to the one-directional entrapment. An additional regime of a complete irreversible resonant transformation of the longitudinal wave into a shear wave is analyzed in the study. The intrinsic mechanism governing the unidirectional wave reorientation is described analytically. The results of the analysis of both mechanisms are substantiated by the numerical simulations of the full model and are found to be in a good agreement.

  6. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in ob......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein....../day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P......-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men...

  7. Finite element evaluation of elasto-plastic accommodation energies during solid state transformations: Coherent, spherical precipitate in finite matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Sethuraman, R.

    1996-01-01

    The molar volume difference between the matrix and the precipitate phases in the case of solid state phase transformations results in the creation of stain energy in the system due to the misfit strains. A finite element model based on the initial strain approach is proposed to evaluate elasto-plastic accommodation energies during solid state transformation. The three-dimensional axisymmetric model has been used to evaluate energies as a function of transformation for α-β hydrogen transformations in the Nb-H system. The transformation has been analyzed for the cases of transformation progressing both from the center to surface and from the surface to center of the system. The effect of plastic deformation has been introduced to make the model realistic, specifically to the Nb-NbH phase transformation which involves a 4% linear misfit strain. It has been observed that plastic deformation reduces the strain energies compared to the linear elastic analysis

  8. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  9. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    employs the in- variance of the Maxwell equations under coordinate transformations to convert the free- space wave solutions in a coordinate... ENERGY WEAPON DEFENSE by Jacob D. Thompson June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: James Luscombe Brett Borden Approved for public release; distribution is...2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN TRANSFORMATION OPTICS-BASED METAMATE- RIAL SHIELDS FOR COUNTER DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON

  10. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    OpenAIRE

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one...

  11. Transitional grain boundary structures and the influence on thermal, mechanical and energy properties from molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbery, N.J.; Das, R.; Ferguson, W.G.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-kinetic characteristics that dictate the activation of atomistic crystal defects significantly influence the mechanical properties of crystalline materials. Grain boundaries (GBs) primarily influence the plastic deformation of FCC metals through their interaction with mobile dislocation defects. The activation thresholds and atomic mechanisms that dictate the thermo-kinetic properties of grain boundaries have been difficult to study due to complex and highly variable GB structure. This paper presents a new approach for modelling GBs which is based on a systematic structural analysis of metastable and stable GBs. GB structural transformation accommodates defect interactions at the interface. The activation energy for such structural transformations was evaluated with nudged elastic band analysis of bi-crystals with several metastable 0 K grain boundary structures in pure FCC Aluminium (Al). The resultant activation energy was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the metastable grain boundary structures, with predictions of transition time based on transition state theory. The predictions are in very good agreement with the minimum time for irreversible structure transformation at 300 K obtained with molecular dynamics simulations. Analytical methods were used to evaluate the activation volume, which in turn was used to predict and explain the influence of stress and strain rate on the thermal and mechanical properties. Results of molecular dynamics simulations show that the GB structure is more closely related to the elastic strength at 0 K than the GB energy. Furthermore, the thermal instability of the GB structure directly influences the relationship between bi-crystal strength, temperature and strain rate. Hence, theoretically consistent models are established on the basis of activation criteria, and used to make predictions of temperature-dependent yield stress at a low strain rate, in agreement with experimental results.

  12. Application of a Laplace transform pair model for high-energy x-ray spectral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, B R; Almond, P R; Wagner, L K

    1985-01-01

    A Laplace transform pair model, previously shown to accurately reconstruct x-ray spectra at diagnostic energies, has been applied to megavoltage energy beams. The inverse Laplace transforms of 2-, 6-, and 25-MV attenuation curves were evaluated to determine the energy spectra of these beams. The 2-MV data indicate that the model can reliably reconstruct spectra in the low megavoltage range. Experimental limitations in acquiring the 6-MV transmission data demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to systematic experimental error. The 25-MV data result in a physically realistic approximation of the present spectrum.

  13. Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as sugar-containing beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley A.; Hamill, Liam R.; Davies, Sarah; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative ‘expected satiation’ (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5–205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages. PMID:26122755

  14. Full wave dc-to-dc converter using energy storage transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Full wave dc-to-dc converter, for an ion thrustor, uses energy storage transformers to provide a method of dc-to-dc conversion and regulation. The converter has a high degree of physical simplicity, is lightweight and has high efficiency.

  15. Oncogenic transformation in C3H10T1/2 cells by low-energy neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Napoli, J; Shah, H; Hall, E J; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J

    2000-03-01

    Occupational exposure to neutrons typically includes significant doses of low-energy neutrons, with energies below 100 keV. In addition, the normal-tissue dose from boron neutron capture therapy will largely be from low-energy neutrons. Microdosimetric theory predicts decreasing biological effectiveness for neutrons with energies below about 350 keV compared with that for higher-energy neutrons; based on such considerations, and limited biological data, the current radiation weighting factor (quality factor) for neutrons with energies from 10 keV to 100 keV is less than that for higher-energy neutrons. By contrast, some reports have suggested that the biological effectiveness of low-energy neutrons is similar to that of fast neutrons. The purpose of the current work is to assess the relative biological effectiveness of low-energy neutrons for an endpoint of relevance to carcinogenesis: in vitro oncogenic transformation. Oncogenic transformation induction frequencies were determined for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to two low-energy neutron beams, respectively, with dose-averaged energies of 40 and 70 keV, and the results were compared with those for higher-energy neutrons and X-rays. These results for oncogenic transformation provide evidence for a significant decrease in biological effectiveness for 40 keV neutrons compared with 350 keV neutrons. The 70 keV neutrons were intermediate in effectiveness between the 70 and 350 keV beams. A decrease in biological effectiveness for low-energy neutrons is in agreement with most (but not all) earlier biological studies, as well as microdosimetric considerations. The results for oncogenic transformation were consistent with the currently recommended decreased values for low-energy neutron radiation weighting factors compared with fast neutrons.

  16. DISEÑO Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE PROTOTIPO PARA MEDICIÓN DE FLUJO DE CALOR APLICANDO CALORIMETRÍA DIRECTA: SENSADO POR FLUJO DE CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR CADENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el diseño de un prototipo inalámbrico para la medición de flujo de calor, que permita a futuro aplicar el método de calorimetría directa por gradiente de flujo de calor en el área de la electrónica médica. Esta técnica se desarrolla gracias al avance y creación de sensores que permiten medir este tipo de variables, y se postula como una alternativa a las formas de medición utilizadas actualmente, presentando mejoras en su desempeño y costo. Los resultados obtenidos luego de efectuar la calibración del equipo permiten inferir que la técnica propuesta se adapta de forma eficiente y puede utilizarse como un sustituto significativamente más ventajoso comparado con los métodos existentes en la actualidad y aplicados en el seguimiento metabólico de personas.

  17. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  18. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  19. Phase transformations and systems driven far from equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.; Atzmon, M.; Bellon, P.; Trivedi, R.

    1998-01-01

    This volume compiles invited and contributed papers that were presented at Symposium B of the 1997 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Phase Transformations and Systems Driven Far From Equilibrium, which was held December 1--5, in Boston, Massachusetts. While this symposium followed the tradition of previous MRS symposia on the fundamental topic of phase transformations, this year the emphasis was on materials systems driven far from equilibrium. The central theme of the majority of the work presented is the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations, with significant coverage of metastable materials and externally forced transformations driven, for example, by energy beams or mechanical deformation. The papers are arranged in seven sections: solidification theory and experiments; nucleation; solid state transformations and microstructural evolution; beam-induced transformations; amorphous solids; interfacial and thin film transformations; and nanophases and mechanical alloying. One hundred three papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  1. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Rijn, van I.; Bosch, van den I.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty

  2. The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timiras, Paola S; Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Thung, Elaine; Chinn, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    The phenome represents the observable properties of an organism that have developed under the continued influences of both genome and environmental factors. Phenotypic properties are expressed through the functions of cells, organs and body systems that operate optimally, close to equilibrium. In complex organisms, maintenance of the equilibrium is achieved by the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms. In the elderly, dynamic instability may lead to progressive loss of normal function, failure of adaptation and increased pathology. Extensive research (reported elsewhere in this journal) has demonstrated that genetic manipulations of endocrine signaling in flies, worms and mice increase longevity. Another effective strategy for prolonging the lifespan is caloric restriction: in data presented here, the persistence of estrogen-sensitive cells in the hypothalamus of caloric restricted 22-month-old female mice, may explain the persistence of reproductive function at an age, when reproductive function has long ceased in ad libitum fed controls. Still another strategy utilizes the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to promote in vitro proliferation of neuroglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their subsequent de-differentiation generates immature precursor cells potentially capable of differentiating into neuroblasts and neurons. These and other examples suggest that, in terms of functional outcomes, "the genome proposes but the phenome disposes".

  3. Linear models for assessing mechanisms of sperm competition: the trouble with transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Reinhardt, Klaus; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2003-01-01

    Although sperm competition is a pervasive selective force shaping the reproductive tactics of males, the mechanisms underlying different patterns of sperm precedence remain obscure. Parker et al. (1990) developed a series of linear models designed to identify two of the more basic mechanisms: sperm lotteries and sperm displacement; the models can be tested experimentally by manipulating the relative numbers of sperm transferred by rival males and determining the paternity of offspring. Here we show that tests of the model derived for sperm lotteries can result in misleading inferences about the underlying mechanism of sperm precedence because the required inverse transformations may lead to a violation of fundamental assumptions of linear regression. We show that this problem can be remedied by reformulating the model using the actual numbers of offspring sired by each male, and log-transforming both sides of the resultant equation. Reassessment of data from a previous study (Sakaluk and Eggert 1996) using the corrected version of the model revealed that we should not have excluded a simple sperm lottery as a possible mechanism of sperm competition in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus.

  4. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity....... visceral fat compared to the active group. Following the two-week period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycaemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive...

  5. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Heighes, Philippa T; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Chesher, Douglas; Caterson, Ian D; Reade, Michael C; Harrigan, Peter W J

    2015-12-01

    Equipoise exists regarding the benefits of restricting caloric intake during electrolyte replacement for refeeding syndrome, with half of intensive care specialists choosing to continue normal caloric intake. We aimed to assess whether energy restriction affects the duration of critical illness, and other measures of morbidity, compared with standard care. We did a randomised, multicentre, single-blind clinical trial in 13 hospital intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia (11 sites) and New Zealand (two sites). Adult critically ill patients who developed refeeding syndrome within 72 h of commencing nutritional support in the ICU were enrolled and allocated to receive continued standard nutritional support or protocolised caloric restriction. 1:1 computer-based randomisation was done in blocks of variable size, stratified by enrolment serum phosphate concentration (>0·32 mmol/L vs ≤0·32 mmol/L) and body-mass index (BMI; >18 kg/m(2)vs ≤18 kg/m(2)). The primary outcome was the number of days alive after ICU discharge, with 60 day follow-up, in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly allocated patients except those mistakenly enrolled. Days alive after ICU discharge was a composite outcome based on ICU length of stay, overall survival time, and mortality. The Refeeding Syndrome Trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number 12609001043224). Between Dec 3, 2010, and Aug 13, 2014, we enrolled 339 adult critically ill patients: 170 were randomly allocated to continued standard nutritional support and 169 to protocolised caloric restriction. During the 60 day follow-up, the mean number of days alive after ICU discharge in 165 assessable patients in the standard care group was 39·9 (95% CI 36·4-43·7) compared with 44·8 (95% CI 40·9-49·1) in 166 assessable patients in the caloric restriction group (difference 4·9 days, 95% CI -2·3 to 13·6, p=0·19). Nevertheless, protocolised caloric

  6. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  7. Phase Transformation Mechanism of Li-Ion Storage in Iron(III) Hydroxide Phosphates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian; Wegeberg, Christina; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    transformation mechanism of selected materials is investigated through synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction collected during galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. This confirms a complete solid solution transformation both during Li-insertion (discharge) and -extraction (charge), but also reveals...... a highly anisotropic evolution in lattice dimensions, which is linked to an irreversible reaction step and the high vacancy concentration in Fe2-y(PO4)(OH)3-3y(H2O)3y-2....

  8. Heat transfer in simple houses; Transferencia de calor en casas habitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, Miguel Angel; Rubio, Eduardo; Fernandez, Jose Luis [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Baja California Sur, (Mexico); Gomez Munoz, Victor [Centro Interdiciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A lumped parameter model is used to represent, with a high degree of precision, the temperature and comfort evolution with the time of a simple house, under any hot, extreme weather variation. Results are validated by experimental work in physical models, built to scale 1:2, with materials and building techniques typical of social interest housing in Baja California, Mexico. With the mathematical model properly calibrated, adequately validated heat transfer coefficients between walls, ceiling and windows are calculated. Sensitivity analyses lead to values of heat loads in simple houses with varying shapes, orientation, shading devices, and construction materials and techniques. Energy balance in the present work is achieved by means of three simultaneous equations, each depicting energy equilibrium in one of the basic building elements: the window glazing, the building materials, and inside air. Simultaneous solution of the equations is accomplished with of the Kutta method, which yields the representative temperature along the day of each of the components, while heat flow among them is calculated, together with thermal exchange with the environment. Comfort levels, energy consumption and saving are hence easily derived, and the economical pertinence of passive elements can be evaluated. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelo matematico de parametros concentrados que representa, de manera apropiada, el comportamiento de una casa habitacion tipica a lo largo de un dia cualquiera. Los resultados se validan mediante la experimentacion en modelo fisico, donde se ensayan casetas de material y dimensiones similares a las casas de interes social, a escala 1:2. Una vez que se ha calibrado el modelo, se pueden determinar, mediante corridas apropiadas en computadora, los coeficientes especificos de transferencia de calor en muros, ventanas y techo. Los analisis subsecuentes de sensibilidad producen informacion util para conocer los requerimientos energeticos de cada casa

  9. Acoustic emission on thermoelastic martensitic transformations in alloys in the course of mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The connection of the emission process with the process of the deformation accumulation and relaxation in the cycle of the martensitic transformations is studied. The martensitic transformations cycling was investigated by cycling change in the temperature in the Ti 50 Ni 50 Cu 10 alloys. The deformation accumulation and recovery is observed in the alloys undergoing the thermoelastic martensitic transformations under the mechanical loading conditions. The acoustic emission, accompanying the martensitic transformations, reflects the peculiarities of the alloy deformation behavior by the martensitic transformations. The anomalous acoustic effect correlates with the reversible deformation accumulation and does not correlates with the irreversible deformation accumulation [ru

  10. A Potential Issue Involving the Application of the Unit Base Transformation to the Interpolation of Secondary Energy Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Sutton; T Trumbull

    2005-01-01

    Secondary neutron energy spectra used by Monte Carlo codes are often provided in tabular format. Examples are the spectra obtained from ENDF/B-VI File 5 when the LF parameter has the value 1. These secondary spectra are tabulated on an incident energy mesh, and in a Monte Carlo calculation the tabulated spectra are generally interpolated to the energy of the incident neutron. A common method of interpolation involves the use of the unit base transformation. The details of the implementation vary from code to code, so here we will simply focus on the mathematics of the method. Given an incident neutron with energy E, the bracketing points E i and E i+1 on the incident energy mesh are determined. The corresponding secondary energy spectra are transformed to a dimensionless energy coordinate system in which the secondary energies lie between zero and one. A dimensionless secondary energy is then sampled from a spectrum obtained by linearly interpolating the transformed spectra--often using the method of statistical interpolation. Finally, the sampled secondary energy is transformed back into the normal energy coordinate system. For this inverse transformation, the minimum and maximum energies are linearly interpolated from the values given in the non-transformed secondary spectra. The purpose of the unit base transformation is to preserve (as nearly as possible) the physics of the secondary distribution--in particular the minimum and maximum energies possible for the secondary neutron. This method is used by several codes including MCNP and the new MC21 code that is the subject of this paper. In comparing MC21 results to those of MCNP, it was discovered that the nuclear data supplied to MCNP is structured in such a way that the code may not be doing the best possible job of preserving the physics of certain nuclear interactions. In this paper, we describe the problem and explain how it may be avoided

  11. How to Transform, with a Capacitor, Thermal Energy into Usable Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is taken into account to study the energy change in a capacitor that follows a cycle between a cold and a hot thermal reservoir. There is a net energy gain in the process that, in principle, can be transformed into usable work. The paper is simple enough as to be used with keen…

  12. Calibration of a Fusion Experiment to Investigate the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Ashleigh

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear equation of state (EoS), the relation between two thermodynamic quantities can be examined. The correlation between the temperature and excitation energy of a nucleus, also known as the caloric curve, has been previously observed in peripheral heavy-ion collisions to exhibit a dependence on the neutron-proton asymmetry. To further investigate this result, fusion reactions (78Kr + 12C and 86Kr + 12C) were measured; the beam energy was varied in the range 15-35 MeV/u in order to vary the excitation energy. The light charged particles (LCPs) evaporated from the compound nucleus were measured in the Si-CsI(TI)/PD detector array FAUST (Forward Array Using Silicon Technology). The LCPs carry information about the temperature. The calibration of FAUST will be described in this presentation. The silicon detectors have resistive surfaces in perpendicular directions to allow position measurement of the LCP's to better than 200 um. The resistive nature requires a position-dependent correction to the energy calibration to take full advantage of the energy resolution. The momentum is calculated from the energy of these particles, and their position on the detectors. A parameterized formula based on the Bethe-Bloch equation was used to straighten the particle identification (PID) lines measured with the dE-E technique. The energy calibration of the CsI detectors is based on the silicon detector energy calibration and the PID. A precision slotted mask enables the relative positions of the detectors to be determined. DOE Grant: DE-FG02-93ER40773 and REU Grant: PHY - 1659847.

  13. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A.

    2016-01-01

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. PMID:27507595

  14. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  15. Isla de calor en Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Constantino Morales Méndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El clima de la ciudad de Toluca y del mundo ha sido modificado como consecuencia del crecimiento de su población y el aumento de las dimensiones de su distribución territorial. Las variaciones atmosféricas son más acusadas entre los espacios urbanos y rurales a medida que las ciudades son más grandes y su mancha urbana es más extensa,así como de la reducción de la vegetación, el aumento en la calefacción en casas y edificios y por la contaminación del aire. Para identificar los espacios con calor más intenso por la infraestructura urbana, se propone una metodología que consiste en la determinación de los valores de temperatura que se registraron en dos días típicos de invierno y verano, durante el día y la noche,mostrando la distribución de la isla de calor en la zona de estudio, a partir de los datos delas estaciones de la Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA. Asimismo, se considera el comportamiento y variación de algunas variables atmosféricas como humedad relativa, precipitación y viento, para mostrar su comportamiento relativamente anómalo en la zona urbana.

  16. Evaluating direct energy savings and market transformation effects: A decade of technical design assistance in the northwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin; Brown, G.Z.; Burpee, Heather; Djunaedy, Ery; Gladics, Gunnar; Kline, Jeff; Loveland, Joel; Meek, Christopher; Thimmanna, Harshana

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the direct energy savings and energy efficiency market transformation impacts of a multi-state design assistance program in the northwestern US. The paper addresses four specific aims. (1) It provides a conservative and justified estimate of the direct energy savings associated with design assistance activities of a market transformation program from 2001 to 2010. (2) It provides a rigorous methodology to evaluate direct energy savings associated with design assistance market transformation programs. (3) It provides a low-cost replicable method to predict energy savings in new buildings by evaluating the integrated design process. (4) It provides quantitative indicators useful for estimating indirect energy savings from market transformation. Applying the recommended analysis method and assuming a 12-year measure life, the direct energy savings of the population (626 buildings; 51,262,000 ft 2 ) is estimated as 45.3 aMW (average megawatts) (electric), and 265,738.089 therms (non-electric). If the entire program budget were divided into the electric savings only, the Lab Network cost per kWh saved ranged from $0.0016 to $0.003 using the recommended method and $0.0092/kWh using the most conservative method. These figures do not isolate contextual influences or represent total resource cost. Statistically significant correlations (r 2 =0.1−0.3) between integrated design scores and energy savings are reported. - Highlights: ► Estimated direct energy savings of a market transformation program are presented. ► A methodology to evaluate energy savings from multiple baselines is documented. ► Level of integrated design can be used to estimate energy savings in new buildings. ► Quantitative evaluation indicators of efficiency market transformation are provided. ► Electric energy saved from design assistance costs between $0.0016 and $0.0092/kWh.

  17. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  18. Tema 4. Calor y temperatura (Guía del tema)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Guía del "Tema 4. Calor y temperatura" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I" del "Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen" impartido en la Escuela Politécnica Superior de la Universidad de Alicante.

  19. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurina Tyagita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to one of three groups: ADF with 70 % calorie intake (30% CR, ADF with 100 % calorie intake (0% CR, and ADF with 140 % calorie intake (excessive calorie intake and AL (fed ad libitum. All groups were subjected to 6 hour fasting per day (9 a.m. until 3 p.m. or 15 days. The plasma sample was taken for MDA level assessment. Urinary 8-oxodG levels were determined by using ELISA. Results: ADF with 30% calorie restriction (F70 group had the lowest MDA level. Measurement of 8-oxodG level showed that group F70 had the highest production of 8-oxodG. There was an inverse relationship between MDA level and 8-oxodG level meaning the lower MDA level, the lower 8-oxodG levels were produced. Conclusion: ADF fasting with 30% caloric restriction reduce the MDA level but increase 8-oxodG levels. This study suggest the beneficial effect of fasting requires decrease in overall caloric intake.

  20. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  1. Effects of caloric deprivation and satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuriy P

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of short-term and long-term factors such as body mass, gender, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence, smoking, composition of oral fluid, state of oral hygiene, consumption of some foods among many others. A few studies have demonstrated the effects of hunger and caloric satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system in obese humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of short-term caloric deprivation and satiety on recognition taste thresholds of healthy, non-smoking, non-drinking, non-obese young male subjects. The two-alternative forced-choice technique was used to measure taste threshold. Results Recognition thresholds for sucrose and salt were significantly lower during fasting state than after a meal (t = 2.23, P Conclusions Short-term caloric deprivation in our study model was associated with increased taste sensitivity to sweet and salty substances compared to satiated state while taste sensitivity to bitter substances was not affected by the conditions of measurements. Selective modulation of sensitivity of the gustatory system might reflect the different biological importance of salty, sweet and bitter qualities of taste.

  2. Rotating-Sleeve Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator for High Efficiency of Harvesting Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ran; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bin; Yin, Yingying; Yuan, Zuqing; Li, Congju; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-22

    Currently, a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) have been hybridized to effectively scavenge mechanical energy. However, one critical issue of the hybrid device is the limited output power due to the mismatched output impedance between the two generators. In this work, impedance matching between the TENG and EMG is achieved facilely through commercial transformers, and we put forward a highly integrated hybrid device. The rotating-sleeve triboelectric-electromagnetic hybrid nanogenerator (RSHG) is designed by simulating the structure of a common EMG, which ensures a high efficiency in transferring ambient mechanical energy into electric power. The RSHG presents an excellent performance with a short-circuit current of 1 mA and open-circuit voltage of 48 V at a rotation speed of 250 rpm. Systematic measurements demonstrate that the hybrid nanogenerator can deliver the largest output power of 13 mW at a loading resistance of 8 kΩ. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a wind-driven RSHG can light dozens of light-emitting diodes and power an electric watch. The distinctive structure and high output performance promise the practical application of this rotating-sleeve structured hybrid nanogenerator for large-scale energy conversion.

  3. Amorphization Mechanism of Icosahedral Platinum Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apra, Edoardo; Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The amorphization mechanism of high-symmetry pt nanoclusters is investigated by a combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and Density Functional calculations. A general mechanism for amorphization, involving rosette-like structural transformations at fivefold vertices, is proposed. IN the tosette, a fivefold vertex is transformed into a hexagonal ring. We show that for icosahedral Pt nanoclusters, this transformation is associated with an energy gain, so that their most favorable structures have a low symmetry even at icosahedral magic numbers

  4. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor y pérdida de eficiencia en intercambiadores de calor de placas durante el enfriamiento del licor amoniacal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres-Tamayo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la planta de Recuperación de Amoniaco de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara la pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, se asocia a la incorrecta estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio; lo anterior incrementa el consumo de agua, la energía disponible en el sistema y los costos de mantenimiento. Se realizó una investigación en un intercambiador de calor de placas, con el objetivo de determinar los coeficientes de transferencia y la influencia de las incrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se determinó la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su dependencia con el Reynolds y Prandtl, para ello se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial y mediciones de los parámetros de trabajo de la instalación en función del tiempo. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientes para el cálculo del número de Nusselt, con los valores de Reynolds y Prandtl, para ambos fluidos (licor amoniacal y agua. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La comparación con resultados de otros autores muestra correspondencia con los de Thonon. Se recomienda la limpieza y mantenimiento de la instalación en un período de 27 días debido a la reducción de la eficiencia térmica hasta valores inferiores al 70 %.

  5. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  6. Caloric restriction protects against electrical kindling of the amygdala by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Victor Phillips-Farfan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to possess antiepileptic properties; however its mechanism of action is poorly understood. CR might inhibit the activity of the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling cascade, which seems to participate crucially in the generation of epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the effect of CR on the mTOR pathway and whether CR modified epilepsy generation due to electrical amygdala kindling. The former was studied by analyzing the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B and the ribosomal protein S6. The mTOR cascade is regulated by energy and by insulin levels, both of which may be changed by CR; thus we investigated if CR altered the levels of energy substrates in the blood or the level of insulin in plasma. Finally, we studied if CR modified the expression of genes that encode proteins participating in the mTOR pathway. CR increased the after-discharge threshold and tended to reduce the after-discharge duration, indicating an anti-convulsive action. CR diminished the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and ribosomal protein S6, suggesting an inhibition of the mTOR cascade. However, CR did not change glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate or insulin levels; thus the effects of CR were independent from them. Interestingly, CR also did not modify the expression of any investigated gene. The results suggest that the anti-epileptic effect of CR may be partly due to inhibition of the mTOR pathway.

  7. Transmutor demo unit and thermal into electrical energy transformation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Fiedler, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the three circuits layout of the transmutor the heat is transferred from the primary through the secondary circuits by a favourable heat carrier into the tertiary circuit where the thermal into electrical energy transformation in turbo-generator comes into force. Properties as well as parameters of the heat carrier in the secondary circuit affect basically both the conceptual layout of the tertiary circuit and consequently investments costs for its realization and the effectiveness of the transformation of thermal into electrical energy. For several heat carriers considered for the transmutor secondary circuit particular tertiary circuit concepts for the demonstration transmutor unit of approx. 15 W thermal power rate are analyzed, layout features and possibilities of turbogenerator selection are commented and investment costs as well as effectiveness of thermal into electrical energy transformation are estimated. Some of the results are as follows: (i) Heat carrier properties influence thermodynamics of the TDU water/steam cycle substantially. One of the dominant parameters is the melting (freezing) temperature of the heat carrier. (ii) Heat carrier properties influence investment costs of components of the TDU tertiary circuit substantially. Dominantly influenced are costs of the steam generator, steam turbine and high pressure regeneration system. (iii) If the heat carrier has to be a molten salt than a salt with a low melting temperature is recommended to be selected, for example KHF2. (iv) Eutectic alloy Pb-Bi as the heat carrier serves changes to design the TDU with efficient thermodynamics, with acceptable low investment costs of the tertiary as well as secondary circuit components and with an acceptable level of the nuclear safety

  8. A balance principle approach for modeling phase transformation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, M.; Krauss, G.; Jou, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    A balance principle is offered to model volume fraction kinetics of phase transformation kinetics at a continuum level. This microbalance provides a differential equation for transformation kinetics which is coupled to the differential equations governing the mechanical and thermal aspects of the process. Application here is restricted to diffusive transformations for the sake of clarity, although the principle is discussed for martensitic phase transitions as well. Avrami-type kinetics are shown to result from a special class of energy functions. An illustrative example using a 0.5% C Chromium steel demonstrates how TTT and CCT curves can be generated using a particularly simple effective energy function. (orig.)

  9. Solución numérica de procesos de transferencia de calor en aleaciones con condiciones de contorno no lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of a great number of alloys, especially specific heat, show a sharply temperature dependence both during the phase change and the allotropic transformations. This fact, in conjunction with the existence of convection or radiation boundary conditions, or both simultaneously, increase the complexity of the transient heat transfer problem because of the inherent no linearity. The numerical model proposed for the solution of this problem is able to assume the above hypothesis as well as the temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivity. Applications to alloys are presented.

    Las propiedades térmicas de numerosas aleaciones, especialmente la capacidad calorífica, acusan una marcada dependencia con la temperatura tanto en los cambios de fase como en las transformaciones alotrópicas. Este hecho, junto con la aplicación de condiciones de contorno de convección, radiación o ambas, simultáneamente, aumentan la complejidad del problema de transferencia de calor en los procesos transitorios debido a la no linealidad inherente. El modelo numérico propuesto para la solución de este problema es capaz de asumir las hipótesis anteriores así como las posibles dependencias de la conductividad térmica con la temperatura. Se presentan aplicaciones a procesos térmicos en aleaciones.

  10. Mechanical energy dissipation in natural ceramic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, George

    2017-12-01

    Ceramics and glasses, in their monolithic forms, typically exhibit low fracture toughness values, but rigid natural marine ceramic and glass composites have shown remarkable resistance to mechanical failure. This has been observed in load-extension behavior by recognizing that the total area under the curve, notably the part beyond the yield point, often conveys substantial capacity to carry mechanical load. The mechanisms underlying the latter observations are proposed as defining factors for toughness that provide resistance to failure, or capability to dissipate energy, rather than fracture toughness. Such behavior is exhibited in the spicules of glass sponges and in mollusk shells. There are a number of similarities in the manner in which energy dissipation takes place in both sponges and mollusks. It was observed that crack diversion, a new form of crack bridging, creation of new surface area, and other important energy-dissipating mechanisms occur and aid in "toughening". Crack tolerance, key to energy dissipation in these natural composite materials, is assisted by promoting energy distribution over large volumes of loaded specimens by minor components of organic constituents that also serve important roles as adhesives. Viscoelastic deformation was a notable characteristic of the organic component. Some of these energy-dissipating modes and characteristics were found to be quite different from the toughening mechanisms that are utilized for more conventional structural composites. Complementary to those mechanisms found in rigid natural ceramic/organic composites, layered architectures and very thin organic layers played major roles in energy dissipation in these structures. It has been demonstrated in rigid natural marine composites that not only architecture, but also the mechanical behavior of the individual constituents, the nature of the interfaces, and interfacial bonding play important roles in energy dissipation. Additionally, the controlling

  11. Potential Energy Landscape of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water and the transformation between Low-Density and High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, N.; Sciortino, F.; Starr, F. W.; Poole, P. H.

    The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics for describing supercooled liquids and glasses. We use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the transformation between low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water, and between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). We employ the ST2 water model that exhibits a LDL-HDL first-order phase transition and a sharp LDA-HDA transformation, as observed in experiments. Our results are consistent with the view that LDA and HDA configurations are associated with two distinct regions (megabasins) of the PEL that are separated by a potential energy barrier. At higher temperature, we find that LDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as LDA, and that HDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as HDA. We show that the pressure-induced LDL-HDL and LDA-HDA transformations occur along paths that interconnect these two megabasins, but that the path followed by the liquid and the amorphous ice differ. We also study the liquid-to-ice-VII first-order phase transition. The PEL properties across this transition are qualitatively similar to the changes found during the LDA-HDA transformation, supporting the interpretation that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like phase transition between out-of-equilibrium states.

  12. Study on linear canonical transformation in a framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.; Solofoarisina, W.C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on linear canonical transformation in the framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced in our previous work. We begin with a brief recall about the so called phase space representation. We give the definition of linear canonical transformation with the transformation law of coordinate and momentum operators. We establish successively the transformation laws of mean values, dispersions, basis state and wave functions.Then we introduce the concept of isodispersion linear canonical transformation.

  13. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  14. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of post-caloric nystagmus caused by postural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Y H; Chiang, C W; Wang, C P

    2001-01-01

    In order to record caloric nystagmus (CN) using three-dimensional videonystagmography (3D VNG) 14 subjects were placed in the supine position with the head tilted up 30 degrees relative to the earth's horizontal plane. After the primary-phase CN had terminated, the subjects were repositioned from a supine to a sitting position, with the head anteflexed 30 degrees for recording the post-caloric nystagmus (PCN). In addition, 8 of the original subjects were placed in the supine position but with the head turned 40 degrees to the left so that the irrigated (right) ear was oriented upwards. After the primary-phase CN had terminated, the subjects were rotated by 180 degrees so that the irrigated ear was oriented downwards to record PCN. The results indicated that both methods successfully provoked horizontal and vertical CN. For torsional CN, the irrigated ear up/down method produced a higher provocation rate (75%) than the supine/sitting method (50%), but the difference was not significant. Comparing the provocation rate of the PCN for the horizontal component revealed that the two methods do not differ significantly. However, when comparing the provocation rates of PCN for the vertical component, the irrigated ear up/down method showed a higher rate (82%) than the supine/sitting method (18%). Thus using 3D VNG coupled with postural change during caloric testing, the horizontal or vertical components of PCN can be successfully provoked.

  16. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  17. Pattern transformations in periodic cellular solids under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zhao, X. W.; Duan, H. L.; Karihaloo, B. L.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    The structural patterns of periodic cellular materials play an important role in their properties. Here, we investigate how these patterns transform dramatically under external stimuli in simple periodic cellular structures that include a nanotube bundle and a millimeter-size plastic straw bundle. Under gradual hydrostatic straining up to 20%, the cross-section of the single walled carbon nanotube bundle undergoes several pattern transformations, while an amazing new hexagram pattern is triggered from the circular shape when the strain of 20% is applied suddenly in one step. Similar to the nanotube bundle, the circular plastic straw bundle is transformed into a hexagonal pattern on heating by conduction through a baseplate but into a hexagram pattern when heated by convection. Besides the well-known elastic buckling, we find other mechanisms of pattern transformation at different scales; these include the minimization of the surface energy at the macroscale or of the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale and the competition between the elastic energy of deformation and either the surface energy at the macroscale or the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale. The studies of the pattern transformations of periodic porous materials offer new insights into the fabrication of novel materials and devices with tailored properties.

  18. A Transforming Electricity System: Understanding the Interactions Between Clean Energy Technologies, Markets, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, David

    The U.S. electricity system is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. State-level renewable portfolio standards, abundant natural gas at low prices, and rapidly falling prices for wind and solar technologies are among the factors that have ushered in this transformation. With objective, rigorous, technology-neutral analysis, NREL aims to increase the understanding of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, and infrastructure and their connections with economic, environmental, and security priorities. The results of these analyses are meant to inform R&D, policy, and investment decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application to market penetration. This talk will provide an overview of how NREL uses high-fidelity data, deep knowledge of energy technology cost and performance, and advanced models and tools to provide the information needed to ensure this transformation occurs economically, while maintaining system reliability. Examples will be explored and will include analysis of tax credit impacts on wind and solar deployment and power sector emissions, as well as analysis of power systems operations in the Eastern Interconnection under 30% wind and solar penetration scenarios. Invited speaker number 47185.

  19. Metastable phase transformation and hcp-ω transformation pathways in Ti and Zr under high hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lei; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Lookman, Turab; Salje, E. K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The energy landscape of Zr at high hydrostatic pressure suggests that its transformation behavior is strongly pressure dependent. This is in contrast to the known transition mechanism in Ti, which is essentially independent of hydrostatic pressure. Generalized solid-state nudged elastic band calculations at constant pressure shows that α-Zr transforms like Ti only at the lowest pressure inside the stability field of ω-phase. Different pathways apply at higher pressures where the energy landscape contains several high barriers so that metastable states are expected, including the appearance of a transient bcc phase at ca. 23 GPa. The global driving force for the hcp-ω transition increases strongly with increasing pressure and reaches 23.7 meV/atom at 23 GPa. Much of this energy relates to the excess volume of the hcp phase compared with its ω phase.

  20. Metastable phase transformation and hcp-ω transformation pathways in Ti and Zr under high hydrostatic pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Lei; Ding, Xiangdong, E-mail: dingxd@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: ekhard@esc.cam.ac.uk; Sun, Jun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salje, E. K. H., E-mail: dingxd@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: ekhard@esc.cam.ac.uk [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-18

    The energy landscape of Zr at high hydrostatic pressure suggests that its transformation behavior is strongly pressure dependent. This is in contrast to the known transition mechanism in Ti, which is essentially independent of hydrostatic pressure. Generalized solid-state nudged elastic band calculations at constant pressure shows that α-Zr transforms like Ti only at the lowest pressure inside the stability field of ω-phase. Different pathways apply at higher pressures where the energy landscape contains several high barriers so that metastable states are expected, including the appearance of a transient bcc phase at ca. 23 GPa. The global driving force for the hcp-ω transition increases strongly with increasing pressure and reaches 23.7 meV/atom at 23 GPa. Much of this energy relates to the excess volume of the hcp phase compared with its ω phase.

  1. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Potential Role of Cardiac Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Shinmura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of aging has not been fully clarified, but the free radical theory of aging is one of the strongest aging theories proposed to date. The free radical theory has been expanded to the oxidative stress theory, in which mitochondria play a central role in the development of the aging process because of their critical roles in bioenergetics, oxidant production, and regulation of cell death. A decline in cardiac mitochondrial function associated with the accumulation of oxidative damage might be responsible, at least in part, for the decline in cardiac performance with age. In contrast, lifelong caloric restriction can attenuate functional decline with age, delay the onset of morbidity, and extend lifespan in various species. The effect of caloric restriction appears to be related to a reduction in cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence that sirtuins play an essential role in the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative stress during caloric restriction. We speculate that cardiac sirtuins attenuate the accumulation of oxidative damage associated with age by modifying specific mitochondrial proteins posttranscriptionally. Therefore, the distinct role of each sirtuin in the heart subjected to caloric restriction should be clarified to translate sirtuin biology into clinical practice.

  2. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  3. Driving forces for texture transformation in thin Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Elizabeth A.; Chmielus, Markus; Lin, Ming-Tzer; Joress, Howie; Visser, Kyle; Woll, Arthur; Vinci, Richard P.; Brown, Walter L.; Baker, Shefford P.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known thickness-dependent (111)-to-(100) texture transformation in thin FCC films is usually attributed to a competition between interface and strain energies. In this model, thin films retain their (111) texture due to the lower energy of the (111) interface, while thick films transform to (100) due to the lower stiffness and thus strain energy of a (100) film. However, recent work has called this model into question, suggesting that neither the stress nor the interface energy play a dominant role in texture transformation. We investigated the driving forces involved in this transformation by using a bulge test apparatus to induce different stresses in thin Ag films under identical annealing conditions. In situ synchrotron XRD measurements show the change in texture during annealing, and reveal that applied stresses have no effect on the transformation. Stress analysis shows that differences in driving forces for texture transformation due to applied bulge pressure were significant (≈200 kJ/m 3 ), suggesting that a different, much larger driving force must be responsible. Reduction in defect energy has been proposed as an alternative. However, vacancy and dislocation densities must be exceptionally high to significantly exceed the strain energy and do not provide obvious orientation selection mechanisms. Nanotwins in reported densities are shown to provide greater driving force (≈1000 kJ/m 3 ) and may account for orientation selection. The large difference between the calculated strain and defect energies and the driving force for grain growth (21,100 kJ/m 3 ) casts doubt on the applicability of a simple thermodynamic model of texture transformation.

  4. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  5. Analysis of Energy Overshoot of High Frequency Waves with Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fan

    2000-01-01

    A study is made on the overshoot phenomena in wind-generated waves. The surface displace ments of time-growing waves are measured at four fetches in a wind wave channel. The evolution of high frequency waves is displayed with wavelet transform. The results are compared with Sutherland's. It is found that high frequency wave components experience much stronger energy overshoot in the evolution.The energy of high frequency waves decreases greatly after overshoot

  6. Transformation of cooperative free energies between ligation systems of hemoglobin: resolution of the carbon monoxide binding intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Ackers, G K

    1996-01-23

    A strategy has been developed for quantitatively "translating" the distributions of cooperative free energy between different oxygenation analogs of hemoglobin (Hb). The method was used to resolve the cooperative free energies of all eight carbon monoxide binding intermediates. These parameters of the FeCOHb system were determined by thermodynamic transformation of corresponding free energies obtained previously for all species of the Co/FeCO system, i.e., where cobalt-substituted hemes comprise the unligated sites [Speros, P. C., et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7254-7262]. Using hybridized combinations of normal and cobalt-substituted Hb, ligation analog systems Co/FeX (X = CO, CN) were constructed and experimentally quantified. Energetics of cobalt-induced structural perturbation were determined for all species of both the "mixed metal" Co/Fe system and also the ligated Co/FeCN system. It was found that major energetic perturbations of the Co/Fe hybrid species originate from a pure cobalt substitution effect on the alpha subunits. These perturbations are transduced to the beta subunit within the same dimeric half-tetramer, resulting in alteration of the free energies for binding at the nonsubstituted (Fe) sites. Using the linkage strategy developed in this study along with the determined energetics of these couplings, the experimental assembly free energies for the Co/FeCO species were transformed into cooperative free energies of the 10 Fe/FeCO species. The resulting values were found to distribute according to predictions of a symmetry rule mechanism proposed previously [Ackers, G. K., et al. (1992) Science 255, 54-63]. Their distribution is consistent with accurate CO binding data of normal Hb [Perrella, M., et al. (1990b) Biophys. Chem. 37, 211-223] and also with accurate O2 binding data obtained under the same conditions [Chu, A. H., et al. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 604-617].

  7. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  8. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-12-05

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce arcuate Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of Sudan’s Energy Supply, Transformation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop energy flow diagram (Sankey diagram of Sudan for the base year 2014. The developed Sankey diagram is the first of its kind in Sudan. The available energy balance for the base year 2012 is a simple line draw and did not count the energy supply by private and mixed sectors such as sugar and oil industries and marine and civil aviation. The private and mixed sectors account for about 7% of the national grid electric power. Four energy modules are developed: resources, transformation, demand, and export and import modules. The data are obtained from relevant Sudanese ministries and directorates and Sudan Central Bank. “e!Sankey 4 pro” software is used to develop the Sankey diagram. The main primary types of energy in Sudan are oil, hydro, biomass, and renewable energy. Sudan has a surplus of gasoline, petroleum coke, and biomass and deficit in electric power, gasoil, jet oil, and LPG. The surplus of gasoline is exported; however, the petroleum coke is kept as reserve. The deficit is covered by import. The overall useful energy is 76% and the loss is 24%. The useful energy is distributed among residential (38%, transportation (33%, industry (12%, services (16%, and agriculture (1% sectors.

  10. Dynamics of nucleus-nucleus collisions up to 100 MeV/u and caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.; Angelique, J.C.; Auger, G.

    1997-01-01

    Using the 4π multidetector array Mur + Tonneau at GANIL made it possible to determine that, at incidence energy 35-95 MeV/u, the fusion (or one main source) cross section is very small in nearly symmetrical light and medium systems. Dissipative binary collisions accompanied by mid-rapidity (participant) emission were found to dominate at all impact parameters. The excitation energy of the reconstructed quasi-projectile was obtained via calorimetry and reaches high values. Using the 4π array INDRA several new features of mid-rapidity emission were revealed: the isotopic composition, mean transverse momentum and apparent temperature do not vary with the impact parameter, whereas the number of emitted nucleons increases with decreasing impact parameter. Mid-rapidity products are more n-rich than quasi-projectile products. Hot quasi-projectiles formed in two reactions were used to study the caloric curve. The apparent temperatures were obtained from several double isotopic yield ratios and slopes of kinetic energy spectra at excitation energy per nucleon ranging up to 24 MeV. Different thermometers give different values, but all of them increase steadily with excitation energy. These data can be explained by calculations assuming a steady increase of the initial temperature with excitation energy, without a plateau which was claimed as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition. (authors)

  11. China's energy system transformation towards the 2 °C goal: Implications of different effort-sharing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunzhang, Pan; Wenying, Chen; Clarke, Leon E.; Lining, Wang; Guannan, Liu

    2017-01-01

    In coping with climate change, China's CO_2 mitigation targets should keep in step with the achievement of the long-term goal of holding temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels by the end of this century (this is referred to as the 2 °C goal). Many previous papers have highlighted the implications of different effort-sharing principles and schemes in determining national contributions to global mitigations. In this paper, China's energy transformation towards the 2 °C goal until 2100 is examined in an integrated-assessment model in light of different effort-sharing principles to understand how the application of such schemes may alter China's energy system transformation on a pathway to this long-term goal. Across scenarios, China's non-fossil energy will account for 50–70% and 85% of primary energy consumption in 2050 and 2100, respectively in the scenarios in this study. Fossil energy with carbon capture and storage technologies and non-fossil energy will dominate power generation in China over the long run. Coal will be phased out in end-use sectors and electricity use will expand regardless of the effort-sharing principles. The sensitivity analysis of long-term steady-state levels implies that the ultimate level that emissions could reach will have great influences on the energy system transformation in China. - Highlights: • China's energy transformation towards the 2 °C goal until 2100 are examined in a bottom-up model. • The implications of effort-sharing principles on China's mitigations beyond 2030 are analyzed. • The achievement of China's INDC is incorporated in the discussion. • The sensitivity analysis of long-term emissions levels is discussed. • Non-fossil energy would account for 50–70% and 85% of primary energy consumption in 2050 and 2100.

  12. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  13. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  14. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  15. Investigation on caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis using TG-DSC analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Fang [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)]. E-mail: hf@sdut.edu.cn; Yi Weiming [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China); Bai Xueyuan [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2006-09-15

    The caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis has an important influence on the course of the thermal conversion. However, precise data are difficult to achieve by the current calculation method because of the complexity of the process. A new method for achieving the caloric requirement of the process by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves was proposed after the simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC) and DSC curves were investigated. Experiments were conducted for wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut shell on a Netsch STA 449C analyzer. Powder samples were put into a platinum crucible with a lid on a high accuracy DSC-cp sample holder in the furnace and then heated from ambient temperature up to the maximum temperature of 973 K at the heating rate of 10 K/min in the analyzer. The product gases were swept away by 25 ml/min nitrogen. Mass changes (TG) and calorimetric effects (DSC) were recorded and analyzed. The process was investigated in detail through comparison of the DTG (differential thermogravimetric) and DSC curves of wheat straw. After the water influence in the DSC was eliminated, the relationship of the caloric requirement with the temperature of the aforementioned dry biomass was obtained by integrating the DSC curve. The results showed that 523 kJ, 459 kJ, 646 kJ and 385 kJ were required, respectively, to increase the temperature of 1 kg of dried wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut from 303 K to 673 K.

  16. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Chirality Switching by Martensitic Transformation in Protein Cylindrical Crystals: Application to Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Ricardo Kiyohiro

    Martensitic transformations provide unique engineering properties that, when designed properly, become important parts of new technology. Martensitic transformations have been studied for many years in traditional alloys (iron, steel, titanium, etc.), however there is still much to be learned in regards to these transformations in biological materials. Olson and Hartman showed in 1982 that these transformations are also observed in bacterial flagella and T4 bacteriophage viral sheaths, allowing for propulsion of bacteria in a fluid environment and, for the virus, is responsible for the infection mechanism. This work demonstrates, using the bacterial flagella as an example, that these transformations can be modelled using thermodynamic methods that are also used to model the transformations in alloys. This thesis work attempts to explain the transformations that occur in bacterial flagella, which are capable of small strain, highly reversible martensitic transformations. The first stress/temperature phase diagrams of these flagella were created by adding the mechanical energy of the transformation of the flagella to limited chemical thermodynamics information of the transformation. Mechanical energy is critical to the transformation process because the bacterial body applies a torque to the radius of the flagella. Finally, work has begun and will be completed in regards to understanding the kinetics of the transformation of the flagella. The motion of the transformation interface can be predicted by using a Landau-Ginzburg model. The crystallography of the transformation in bacterial flagella is also being computed to determine the invariant lines of transformation that occur within this cylindrical crystal. This work has shown that it is possible to treat proteins in a similar manner that alloys are treated when using thermodynamic modelling. Much can be learned from translating what is known regarding phase transformations in hard material systems to soft, organic

  19. Darboux Transformations for Energy-Dependent Potentials and the Klein–Gordon Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2013-01-01

    We construct explicit Darboux transformations for a generalized Schrödinger-type equation with energy-dependent potential, a special case of which is the stationary Klein–Gordon equation. Our results complement and generalize former findings (Lin et al., Phys Lett A 362:212–214, 2007).

  20. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Morsche Hennie G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  1. Improved Scheduling Mechanisms for Synchronous Information and Energy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Danyang; Yang, Songxiang; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jingya; Ding, Qun

    2017-06-09

    Wireless energy collecting technology can effectively reduce the network time overhead and prolong the wireless sensor network (WSN) lifetime. However, the traditional energy collecting technology cannot achieve the balance between ergodic channel capacity and average collected energy. In order to solve the problem of the network transmission efficiency and the limited energy of wireless devices, three improved scheduling mechanisms are proposed: improved signal noise ratio (SNR) scheduling mechanism (IS2M), improved N-SNR scheduling mechanism (INS2M) and an improved Equal Throughput scheduling mechanism (IETSM) for different channel conditions to improve the whole network performance. Meanwhile, the average collected energy of single users and the ergodic channel capacity of three scheduling mechanisms can be obtained through the order statistical theory in Rayleig, Ricean, Nakagami- m and Weibull fading channels. It is concluded that the proposed scheduling mechanisms can achieve better balance between energy collection and data transmission, so as to provide a new solution to realize synchronous information and energy transmission for WSNs.

  2. The influence of caffeine on calorics and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Kathleen; Coad, Mary Lou; Burkard, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Prior to undergoing vestibular function testing, it is not uncommon for clinicians to request that patients abstain from caffeine 24 hr prior to the administration of the tests. However, there is little evidence that caffeine affects vestibular function. To evaluate whether the results from two tests commonly used in a clinical setting to assess vestibular function (i.e., calorics and the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP]) are affected by caffeine. Subjects were tested with and without consuming a moderate amount of caffeine prior to undergoing calorics and cVEMPs. Thirty young healthy controls (mean = 23.28 yr; females = 21). Subjects were excluded if they reported any history of vestibular/balance impairment. The Variotherm Plus Caloric Irrigator was used to administer the water, while the I-Portal VNG software was used to collect and analyze subjects' eye movements. The TECA Evoked Potential System was used for the cVEMP stimulus presentation as well as for the data collection. During cVEMP collection, subjects were asked to monitor their sternocleidomastoid muscle contraction with a Delsys EMG monitor. IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was used to statistically analyze the results via paired t-tests. Analysis of the data revealed that ingestion of caffeine did not significantly influence the results of either test of vestibular function. The results revealed that a moderate amount of caffeine does not have a clinically significant effect on the results from caloric and cVEMP tests in young healthy adults. Future research is necessary to determine whether similar results would be obtained from individuals with a vestibular impairment, as well as older adults. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. Stress-Induced Cubic-to-Hexagonal Phase Transformation in Perovskite Nanothin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi-Gu; Li, Yunsong; Wu, Hong-Hui; Wang, Jie; Huang, Baoling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-08-09

    The strong coupling between crystal structure and mechanical deformation can stabilize low-symmetry phases from high-symmetry phases or induce novel phase transformation in oxide thin films. Stress-induced structural phase transformation in oxide thin films has drawn more and more attention due to its significant influence on the functionalities of the materials. Here, we discovered experimentally a novel stress-induced cubic-to-hexagonal phase transformation in the perovskite nanothin films of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) with a special thermomechanical treatment (TMT), where BaTiO 3 nanothin films under various stresses are annealed at temperature of 575 °C. Both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show a higher density of hexagonal phase in the perovskite thin film under higher tensile stress. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy does not detect any change in the valence state of Ti atoms, thereby excluding the mechanism of oxygen vacancy induced cubic-to-hexagonal (c-to-h) phase transformation. First-principles calculations show that the c-to-h phase transformation can be completed by lattice shear at elevated temperature, which is consistent with the experimental observation. The applied bending plus the residual tensile stress produces shear stress in the nanothin film. The thermal energy at the elevated temperature assists the shear stress to overcome the energy barriers during the c-to-h phase transformation. The stress-induced phase transformation in perovskite nanothin films with TMT provides materials scientists and engineers a novel approach to tailor nano/microstructures and properties of ferroelectric materials.

  4. Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear

  5. The impact of exercise training compared to caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert H; Williams, Rick H; Yeo, Sophie E; Kortebein, Patrick M; Bodenner, Don L; Kern, Philip A; Evans, William J

    2009-11-01

    It has been difficult to distinguish the independent effects of caloric restriction versus exercise training on insulin resistance. Utilizing metabolic feeding and supervised exercise training, we examined the influence of caloric restriction vs. exercise training with and without weight loss on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. Thirty-four obese, older subjects were randomized to: caloric restriction with weight loss (CR), exercise training with weight loss (EWL), exercise training without weight loss (EX), or controls. Based on an equivalent caloric deficit in EWL and CR, we induced matched weight loss. Subjects in the EX group received caloric compensation. Combined with [6,6(2)H(2)]glucose, an octreotide, glucagon, multistage insulin infusion was performed to determine suppression of glucose production (SGP) and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD). Computed tomography scans were performed to assess changes in fat distribution. Body weight decreased similarly in EWL and CR, and did not change in EX and controls. The reduction in visceral fat was significantly greater in EWL (-71 +/- 15 cm(2)) compared to CR and EX. The increase in SGP was also almost 3-fold greater (27 +/- 2%) in EWL. EWL and CR promoted similar improvements in ISGD [+2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.9 mg x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1) x min(-1)], respectively. EWL promoted the most significant reduction in visceral fat and the greatest improvement in SGP. Equivalent increases in ISGD were noted in EWL and CR, whereas EX provided a modest improvement. Based on our results, EWL promoted the optimal intervention-based changes in body fat distribution and systemic insulin resistance.

  6. Integral transforms of the quantum mechanical path integral: Hit function and path-averaged potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, James P.; Gerber, Urs; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, Maria Anabel; Weber, Axel

    2018-04-01

    We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).

  7. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  8. Cardiac Frequency and Caloric Cost of Aerobic Dancing in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing indicated that it can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency in most cases. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing is approximately 50 percent greater than an equal duration of barre and center-floor exercise by elite ballet dancers. (JD)

  9. Using the fast fourier transform in binding free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hai; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Minh, David D L

    2018-04-30

    According to implicit ligand theory, the standard binding free energy is an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF), an exponential average of the interaction energy between the unbound ligand ensemble and a rigid receptor. Here, we use the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to efficiently evaluate BPMFs by calculating interaction energies when rigid ligand configurations from the unbound ensemble are discretely translated across rigid receptor conformations. Results for standard binding free energies between T4 lysozyme and 141 small organic molecules are in good agreement with previous alchemical calculations based on (1) a flexible complex ( R≈0.9 for 24 systems) and (2) flexible ligand with multiple rigid receptor configurations ( R≈0.8 for 141 systems). While the FFT is routinely used for molecular docking, to our knowledge this is the first time that the algorithm has been used for rigorous binding free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Khalil, B.

    2008-12-01

    After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost

  11. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Definition of Smart Energy City and State of the art of 6 Transform cities using Key Performance Indicators. Deliverable 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieverts Nielsen, P.; Amer, S.B.; Halsnaes, K.

    2013-08-15

    This report summarises the work undertaken under the EU-FP7 TRANSFORM project for Work Package 1 (part 1): Becoming a Smart Energy City, state of the Art and Ambition. Part 1 starts with a clear outline of each of the participating cities. The work describes the context in terms of climate, energy assets, ambitions, targets and main possibilities in terms of energy efficiency, flows and energy production. After this first step, the work focuses on the description of what a smart energy city is (this report), what the main Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are that should be met and how this relates to where the current cities and the living labs are. It describes at the same time the current status of city planning, energy planning tools, and existing energy data. The outline should also include information on energy production, energy flows and energy efficiency, where possible. The work will draw largely on existing Strategic Energy Action Plans, Climate Action Plans and planning documents. This report establishes a definition of smart cities, develops Key Elements, Key Performance Indicators and reports on the state of the art regarding the KPIs for the 6 Transform cities. As specified in the Transform proposal, the objective of the evaluation is to identify previous and existing initiatives as a sort of stocktaking on the way to establishing a smart city transformation pathway for each of the participating cities in the Transform project. The definition of a smart energy city and the key performance indicators will be used throughout Transform the guide the work. (Author)

  13. An estimate of spherical impactor energy transfer for mechanical frequency up-conversion energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Corr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibration energy harvesters, which use the impact mechanical frequency up-conversion technique, utilize an impactor, which gains kinetic energy from low frequency ambient environmental vibrations, to excite high frequency systems that efficiently convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. To take full advantage of the impact mechanical frequency up-conversion technique, it is prudent to understand the energy transfer from the low frequency excitations, to the impactor, and finally to the high frequency systems. In this work, the energy transfer from a spherical impactor to a multi degree of freedom spring / mass system, due to Hertzian impact, is investigated to gain insight on how best to design impact mechanical frequency up-conversion energy harvesters. Through this academic work, it is shown that the properties of the contact (or impact area, i.e., radius of curvature and material properties, only play a minor role in energy transfer and that the equivalent mass of the target system (i.e., the spring / mass system dictates the total amount of energy transferred during the impact. The novel approach of utilizing the well-known Hertzian impact methodology to gain an understanding of impact mechanical frequency up-conversion energy harvesters has made it clear that the impactor and the high frequency energy generating systems must be designed together as one system to ensure maximum energy transfer, leading to efficient ambient vibration energy harvesters.

  14. Grain nucleation and growth during phase transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offerman, S.E.; Dijk, N.H. van; Sietsma, J.

    2002-01-01

    of individual grains. Our measurements show that the activation energy for grain nucleation is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by thermodynamic models. The observed growth curves of the newly formed grains confirm the parabolic growth model but also show three fundamentally...... different types of growth. Insight into the grain nucleation and growth mechanisms during phase transformations contributes to the development of materials with optimal mechanical properties....

  15. Plasticity induced phase transformation in molecular crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Koslowski, Marisol

    2014-01-01

    Solid state amorphization (SSA) can be achieved in crystalline materials including metal alloys, intermetallics, semiconductors, minerals and molecular crystals. Even though the mechanisms may differ in different materials, the crystalline to amorphous transformation occurs when the crystal reaches a metastable state in which its free energy is higher than that of the amorphous phase. SSA is observed in metal alloys because of interdiffusion of the crystalline elements during mechanical milli...

  16. Less-than-expected weight loss in normal-weight women undergoing caloric restriction and exercise is accompanied by preservation of fat-free mass and metabolic adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K; De Souza, M J; Williams, N I

    2017-03-01

    Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic hormones associated with energy conservation. Weight loss occurred in SEV (-3.7±0.9 kg, P0.33). RMR decreased by -6±2% in MOD (P=0.020). In SEV, RMR did not change on a group level (P=0.66), but participants whose RMR declined lost more weight (P=0.020) and had a higher baseline RMR (P=0.026) than those whose RMR did not decrease. Characteristic changes in leptin (P=0.003), tri-iodothyronine (P=0.013), insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.016) and ghrelin (P=0.049) occurred only in SEV. The energy deficit and adaptive changes in RMR explained 54% of the observed weight loss. In normal-weight women, caloric restriction and exercise resulted in less-than-predicted weight loss. In contrast to previous literature, weight loss consisted almost exclusively of fat mass, whereas fat-free mass was preserved.

  17. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  18. The Use of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based on the Fast Fourier Transform in the Analysis of Multi-channel Electrogastrography Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Dariusz; Pietraszek, Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of multi-channel electrogastrographic (EGG) signals using the continuous wavelet transform based on the fast Fourier transform (CWTFT). The EGG analysis was based on the determination of the several signal parameters such as dominant frequency (DF), dominant power (DP) and index of normogastria (NI). The use of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) allows for better visible localization of the frequency components in the analyzed signals, than commonly used short-time Fourier transform (STFT). Such an analysis is possible by means of a variable width window, which corresponds to the scale time of observation (analysis). Wavelet analysis allows using long time windows when we need more precise low-frequency information, and shorter when we need high frequency information. Since the classic CWT transform requires considerable computing power and time, especially while applying it to the analysis of long signals, the authors used the CWT analysis based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The CWT was obtained using properties of the circular convolution to improve the speed of calculation. This method allows to obtain results for relatively long records of EGG in a fairly short time, much faster than using the classical methods based on running spectrum analysis (RSA). In this study authors indicate the possibility of a parametric analysis of EGG signals using continuous wavelet transform which is the completely new solution. The results obtained with the described method are shown in the example of an analysis of four-channel EGG recordings, performed for a non-caloric meal.

  19. Exploiting the gain-modulation mechanism in parieto-motor neurons: application to visuomotor transformations and embodied simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Sylvain; Braud, Raphaël; Gaussier, Philippe; Quoy, Mathias; Pitti, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    The so-called self-other correspondence problem in imitation demands to find the transformation that maps the motor dynamics of one partner to our own. This requires a general purpose sensorimotor mechanism that transforms an external fixation-point (partner's shoulder) reference frame to one's own body-centered reference frame. We propose that the mechanism of gain-modulation observed in parietal neurons may generally serve these types of transformations by binding the sensory signals across the modalities with radial basis functions (tensor products) on the one hand and by permitting the learning of contextual reference frames on the other hand. In a shoulder-elbow robotic experiment, gain-field neurons (GF) intertwine the visuo-motor variables so that their amplitude depends on them all. In situations of modification of the body-centered reference frame, the error detected in the visuo-motor mapping can serve then to learn the transformation between the robot's current sensorimotor space and the new one. These situations occur for instance when we turn the head on its axis (visual transformation), when we use a tool (body modification), or when we interact with a partner (embodied simulation). Our results defend the idea that the biologically-inspired mechanism of gain modulation found in parietal neurons can serve as a basic structure for achieving nonlinear mapping in spatial tasks as well as in cooperative and social functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary energy-transformations in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehninger, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    In this paper I shall review the main outlines of current research on the molecular aspects of the primary energy-coupling mechanisms in cells, those carried out by energy-transducing membranes. They include the capture of solar energy by the chloroplast membranes of green plants, used to generate carbohydrates and molecular oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, and the counterpart of photosynthesis, the process of respiration in heterotrophic organisms, in which reduced organic products generated by photosynthesis are oxidized at the expense of dioxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. Although the cycling of dioxygen, carbon dioxide, and organic matter between the plant and animal worlds is well known, it is not generally appreciated that the magnitude of biological energy flux in these cycles is huge compared to the total energy flux in man-made devices. A major consequence is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing at a significant rate, at a time when there is also a decrease, at least in some parts of the world, in the counterbalancing utilization of CO/sub 2/ by green plants, due to deforestation. The greenhouse effect of increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ may not only change the earth's climate, but also may influence the rate of photosynthesis. It is also not generally appreciated that energy flow in the biosphere leads to production of enormous amounts of organic matter potentially useful in furnishing man's energy requirements.

  1. Fundamental Studies on Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds in Advanced Naval Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    naval and structural applications. However, prior to this research project, a fundamental understanding of the phase transformation behavior under the...prior to this research project, a fundamental understanding of the phase transformation behavior under the high heating and cooling rates associated...HAZ mechanical properties. Such a treatment is expensive, time consuming , and cannot be practically applied to large structures. However, the absence

  2. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2005-01-01

    The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR (low energy nuclear reaction) is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle [1] and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes [2]. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play role as a trigger for LENR. Superlow energy o...

  3. Mechanism of Process-Induced Salt-to-Free Base Transformation of Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    pH-solubility profiles of a model drug in salt form was established and the mechanism of salt-to-free base form transformation was investigated by increasing pH of the system. Wet massing experiments along with suspension experiments were used to investigate the effects of excipients on the stabi...

  4. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  5. Estimativa do fluxo de calor latente pelo balanço de energia em cultivo protegido de pimentão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Antonio Ribeiro da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e relacionar a radiação líquida com o calor latente equivalente, em mm de água, nos cultivos protegido e de campo, na cultura de pimentão. O experimento foi feito em Botucatu, SP. A estimativa do fluxo de calor latente foi feita pelo método do balanço de energia, por meio da razão de Bowen. Foram feitas medidas instantâneas da radiação líquida (Rn, dos fluxos convectivos de calor latente (LE e sensível (H, do fluxo de calor no solo (G, e dos gradientes psicrométricos sobre a cultura. O cultivo protegido, apesar de receber menor quantidade de radiação solar global, foi mais eficiente na conversão da radiação líquida disponível em matéria seca total e na produtividade de frutos. No balanço de energia, o cultivo protegido apresentou razões G/Rn e LE/Rn inferiores e H/Rn superior, com um fluxo de calor latente, equivalente em milímetros, 45,43% menor que no cultivo no campo. Apresentou, ainda, menor quantidade de radiação líquida disponível e menores perdas de energia, mostrando-se mais eficiente no uso da água.

  6. Hacia un modelo dinámico para la isla de calor urbana de Madrid = Towards a Dynamic Model for the Urban Heat Island of Madrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Núñez Peiró

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se enmarca dentro del proyecto MODIFICA (modelo predictivo - Edificios - Isla de Calor Urbano, financiado por el Programa de I + D + i Orientada a los Retos de la sociedad 'Retos Investigación' de 2013. Está dirigido a desarrollar un modelo predictivo de eficiencia energética para viviendas, bajo el efecto de isla de calor urbano (AUS con el fin de ponerla en práctica en la evaluación de la demanda de energía real y el consumo en las viviendas. A pesar de los grandes avances que se han logrado durante los últimos años en el rendimiento energético de edificios, los archivos de tiempo utilizados en la construcción de simulaciones de energía se derivan generalmente de estaciones meteorológicas situadas en las afueras de la ciudad. Por lo tanto, el efecto de la Isla de Calor Urbano (ICU no se considera en estos cálculos, lo que implica una importante falta de precisión. Centrado en explorar cómo incluir los fenómenos ICU, el presente trabajo recopila y analiza la dinámica por hora de la temperatura en diferentes lugares dentro de la ciudad de Madrid. Abstract This research is framed within the project MODIFICA (Predictive model - Buildings - Urban Heat Island, funded by Programa de I+D+i orientada a los retos de la sociedad 'Retos Investigación' 2013. It is aimed at developing a predictive model for dwelling energy performance under the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect in order to implement it in the evaluation of real energy demand and consumption in dwellings. Despite great advances on building energy performance have been achieved during the last years, weather files used in building energy simulations are usually derived from weather stations placed in the outskirts of the city. Hence, Urban Heat Island (UHI effect is not considered in this calculations, which implies an important lack of accuracy. Focused on exploring how to include the UHI phenomena, the present paper compiles and analyses the hourly dynamics

  7. Upper and lower bounds on the set of recoverable strains and on effective energies in cubic-to-monoclinic martensitic phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlömerkemper Anja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A major open problem in the mathematical analysis of martensitic phase transformations is the derivation of explicit formulae for the set of recoverable strains and for the relaxed energy of the system. These are governed by the mathematical notion of quasiconvexity. Here we focus on bounds on these quasiconvex hulls and envelopes in the setting of geometrically-linear elasticity. Firstly, we will present mathematical results on triples of transformation strains. This yields further insight into the quasiconvex hull of the twelve transformation strains in cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformations. Secondly, we consider bounds on the energy of such materials based on the so-called energy of mixing thus obtaining a lamination upper bound on the quasiconvex envelope of the energy. Here we present a new algorithm that yields improved upper bounds and allows us to relate numerical results for the lamination upper bound on the energy with theoretical inner bounds on the quasiconvex hull of triples of transformation strains.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  9. Heat transfer study for convection and radiation in an open cavity; Estudio de de la transferencia de calor por convencion y radiacion en una cavidad abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanillas Lopez, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Estrada Gasca, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Alvarez Garcia, Gabriela S [CENIDET, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Interaction of natural convection and radiation heat transfer in an open side square cavity has been simulated numerically. Previous studies have shown results of the simulation of heat transfer for convection on this geometry. This paper reports the effect of considering both the convection and the radiation mechanisms. Radiation was found to have a great influence on the total amount of heat lost by the cavity as well as on the pattern of flow and on the temperature field. Computations were performed within the domain of the cavity for two-dimensional laminar flow problem. The average of heat transfer coefficient was calculated for several values of the Grashof number for air (Pr = 0.7), with the bottom wall at 500 K (constant temperature) and the open side at 300 K. [Spanish] Se presenta el estudio de la interaccion conveccion natural-radiacion en una cavidad rectangular abierta. Algunos estudios anteriores han mostrado resultados sobre la transferencia de calor por el mecanismo de conveccion natural sobre cavidades abiertas. Aqui se presenta la influencia de considerar ambos mecanismos de transferencia de calor, la conveccion y la radiacion. Se demuestra que el intercambio radiactivo tiene una gran influencia tanto en la cantidad total de calor perdido por la cavidad al ambiente, como en el patron de flujo y de temperatura dentro de la cavidad. Se resuelven numericamente las ecuaciones gobernantes para flujo laminar en dos dimensiones y se calcula el coeficiente promedio de transferencia de calor para diferentes valores del Grashof en una cavidad llena de aire (Pr 0.7), teniendo la pared del fondo de la cavidad a 500 K y los alrededores a 300 K.

  10. Elevated-temperature mechanical stability and transformation behavior of retained austenite in a quenching and partitioning steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Junying, E-mail: junying.min@gmail.com [Chair of Production Systems, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Hector, Louis G. [General Motors Research & Development, Warren, MI 48095-9055 (United States); Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jianping [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Carsley, John E. [General Motors Research & Development, Warren, MI 48095-9055 (United States); Sun, Li [General Motors China Science Lab, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The mechanical stability and transformation behavior of both film and blocky retained austenite (RA) in a quenching and partitioning steel are investigated at 293 K, 423 K and 573 K with X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Blocky RA both completely and incompletely transforms to twinned martensite during deformation at 293 K and 423 K, respectively, and completely transforms to lath martensite during deformation at 573 K. At 293 K and 423 K, only the film RA with widths larger than ~70 nm transforms to twinned martensite. However, film RA incompletely transforms to lath martensite at 573 K. Hence, RA transformation is non-monotonic with temperature. Significant carbide formation at 573 K, and therefore less carbon to stabilize RA, overcomes the increase in austenite stability due to the decrease in the temperature-dependent chemical driving force for the martensite transformation.

  11. Negotiating energy dynamics through embodied action in a materially structured environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scherr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide evidence that a learning activity called Energy Theater engages learners with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including disambiguating matter flow and energy flow and theorizing mechanisms for energy transformation. A participationist theory of learning, in which learning is indicated by changes in speech and behavior, supports ethnographic analysis of learners’ embodied interactions with each other and the material setting. We conduct detailed analysis to build plausible causal links between specific features of Energy Theater and the conceptual engagement that we observe. Disambiguation of matter and energy appears to be promoted especially by the material structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants, while objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope. Theorizing mechanisms of energy transformation is promoted especially by Energy Theater’s embodied action, which necessitates modeling the time ordering of energy transformations.

  12. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since no single experimental technique is the best method for energy transfer experiments, we have used both time-dependent infrared fluorescence (IRF) and time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) to study energy transfer in various systems. We are investigating pump-probe techniques employing resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). IRF was used to study benzene, azulene, and toluene. TDTL was used to study CS 2 and SO 2 (data not given for latter). Large molecule energy transfer mechanisms are discussed. 10 figs

  13. Structural evolution in nanocrystalline Cu obtained by high-energy mechanical milling: Phases formation of copper oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitouni, Mohamed; Daly, Rakia; Mhadhbi, Mohsen; Kolsi, Abdelwaheb

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline copper with mean crystallite size of 18 nm was synthesized by using high-energy mechanical milling. The structural and morphological changes during mechanical milling especially, the formation of CuO and Cu 2 O phases were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmittance mode (FTIR). Mechanical milling of Cu results in a continuous decrease in the Cu means crystallite size and an increase in microstrain. Moreover, milling of Cu, in air synthetic, results in partial oxidation to Cu 2 O and CuO. Prolonged milling supports the formation of CuO oxide. SEM results show that flattened Cu flakes were laid and welded on each other and tend to form a matrix of randomly welded thin layers of highly deformed particles.

  14. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in a constrained zirconia microcrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvie, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis was made of a simple model comprising a transforming t-ZrO 2 microcrystal of size d constrained in a matrix subjected to a hydrostatic tensile stress field. The field generated a critical size range such that a t-particle transformed if dsub(cl) < d < dsub(cu). The lower limit dsub(cl) exists because at this point the maximum energy (supplied by the applied stress) which can be taken up by the crystal is insufficient to drive the transformation. The upper limit dsub(cu) is a consequence of the microcrystal being so large that it transforms spontaneously when the material is cooled to room temperature. Using the thermodynamic (Griffith) approach and assuming that transformation toughening is due to the dilational strain energy, this mechanism accounted for about one-third of the total observed effective surface energy in a peak-aged Ca-PSZ alloy. (author)

  16. R Peak Detection Method Using Wavelet Transform and Modified Shannon Energy Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Sang-Woong; Park, Unsang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatic detection of the fiducial points-namely, the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave-is necessary for early detection of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper, we present an R peak detection method using the wavelet transform (WT) and a modified Shannon energy envelope (SEE) for rapid ECG analysis. The proposed WTSEE algorithm performs a wavelet transform to reduce the size and noise of ECG signals and creates SEE after first-order differentiation and amplitude normalization. Subsequently, the peak energy envelope (PEE) is extracted from the SEE. Then, R peaks are estimated from the PEE, and the estimated peaks are adjusted from the input ECG. Finally, the algorithm generates the final R features by validating R-R intervals and updating the extracted R peaks. The proposed R peak detection method was validated using 48 first-channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database with a sensitivity of 99.93%, positive predictability of 99.91%, detection error rate of 0.16%, and accuracy of 99.84%. Considering the high detection accuracy and fast processing speed due to the wavelet transform applied before calculating SEE, the proposed method is highly effective for real-time applications in early detection of CVDs.

  17. One-Year Behavioral Treatment of Obesity: Comparison of Moderate and Severe Caloric Restriction and the Effects of Weight Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared weight losses of 49 obese women assigned to 52-week behavioral program combined with moderate or severe caloric restriction. Those in severe caloric restriction group lost significantly more weight during first 26 weeks but regained some weight. Reports of binge eating declined in both groups, and no relationship was observed between…

  18. Synthesis and phase transformation mechanism of Nb{sub 2}C carbide phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwanadh, B., E-mail: visubathula@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Murthy, T.S.R.Ch. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Arya, A.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 094 (India)

    2016-06-25

    In the present work, Niobium carbide samples were prepared through powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique. Some of these samples were heat treated at 900 °C up to 7 days. In order to investigate the phase transformation in Nb{sub 2}C carbide, the as-prepared and heat treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy techniques. EBSD could index the same area of the sample in terms of any of the three allotropes of Nb{sub 2}C carbide phases (γ-Nb{sub 2}C, β-Nb{sub 2}C and α-Nb{sub 2}C) with good confidence index. From the EBSD patterns orientation relationships (OR) among γ, β and α-Nb{sub 2}C have been determined. Based on this OR when crystals of the three allotropes were superimposed, it has revealed that the basic Nb metal atom lattice (hcp lattice) in all the Nb{sub 2}C phases is same. The only difference exists in the carbides is the ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in the octahedral positions of the hcp Nb metal atom lattice. Crystallographic analysis showed that for the transformation of γ-Nb{sub 2}C → β-Nb{sub 2}C → α-Nb{sub 2}C, large movement of Nb atoms is not required; but only by ordering of carbon atoms ensues the phase transformation. Literature shows that in the Nb–C system formation of the α-Nb{sub 2}C is not well established. Therefore, first principle calculations were carried out on these carbides. It revealed that the formation energy for α-Nb{sub 2}C is lower than the β and γ-Nb{sub 2}C carbides which indicate that the formation of α-Nb{sub 2}C is thermodynamically feasible. - Highlights: • Nb{sub 2}C carbide was produced by Spark Plasma Sintering in a single process. • Phase transformation mechanism of different Nb{sub 2}C carbide phases is studied. • In all the three Nb{sub 2}C carbides (γ, β, α), the base Nb lattice remains same. • Among γ, β and α-Nb{sub 2}C

  19. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Nader, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. → We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. → Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  20. Transformational leadership climate : Performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions at the organizational level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menges, J.; Walter, F.; Vogel, B.; Bruch, H.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TFL) climate describes the degree to which leaders throughout an organization engage in TFL behaviors. In this study, we investigate performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions of TFL climate at the organizational level of analysis. In a sample of 158

  1. Moderate caloric restriction during gestation in rats alters adipose tissue sympathetic innervation and later adiposity in offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula García

    Full Text Available Maternal prenatal undernutrition predisposes offspring to higher adiposity in adulthood. Mechanisms involved in these programming effects, apart from those described in central nervous system development, have not been established. Here we aimed to evaluate whether moderate caloric restriction during early pregnancy in rats affects white adipose tissue (WAT sympathetic innervation in the offspring, and its relationship with adiposity development. For this purpose, inguinal and retroperitoneal WAT (iWAT and rpWAT, respectively were analyzed in male and female offspring of control and 20% caloric-restricted (from 1-12 d of pregnancy (CR dams. Body weight (BW, the weight, DNA-content, morphological features and the immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase and Neuropeptide Y area (TH+ and NPY+ respectively, performed by immunohistochemistry of both fat depots, were studied at 25 d and 6 m of age, the latter after 2 m exposure to high fat diet. At 6 m of life, CR males but not females, exhibited greater BW, and greater weight and total DNA-content in iWAT, without changes in adipocytes size, suggesting the development of hyperplasia in this depot. However, in rpWAT, CR males but not females, showed larger adipocyte diameter, with no changes in DNA-content, suggesting the development of hypertrophy. These parameters were not different between control and CR animals at the age of 25 d. In iWAT, both at 25 d and 6 m, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+ and NPY(+, suggesting lower sympathetic innervation in CR males compared to control males. In rpWAT, at 6 m but not at 25 d, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+ and NPY(+. Thus, the effects of caloric restriction during gestation on later adiposity and on the differences in the adult phenotype between internal and subcutaneous fat depots in the male offspring may be associated in part with specific alterations in sympathetic innervation, which may impact on WAT architecture.

  2. Scenarios of energy sobriety and societal transformations. When lifestyle and society changes mean energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By using prospective energy scenarios, the objective of this study performed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region is to quantify energy savings induced by possible public policies or by lifestyle changes, and then to use the obtained results as tools of support to public decision, and means to make people aware of the end of an abundant and cheap oil, of the potential of solar energy, and of the benefits of energy sobriety. Four scenarios are thus defined. The first one concerns food habits, and corresponds to a more biological production, seasonal and less transformed foodstuffs, more vegetal plates, and reduced distances between producers and consumers. The second one concerns material goods: evolution towards more mutualization, re-use, and durability of products, and a reduced usage of equipment. The third one concerns buildings: the end of individual equipment and of always increasing surfaces, a modulated comfort depending on the room, and more collective organisations. The last scenario concerns displacements: less frequent displacements, shorter distances, use of soft modes, smaller vehicles, and energy saving in the use of vehicles

  3. Effect of hydrogen on the microstructure, mechanical properties and phase transformations in austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.Y.; Xing, Z.S.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of high-pressure hydrogen charging on the microstructure, mechanical properties and phase transformations in austenitic steels has been investigated and discussed. The results show that the strength and impact toughness of the steels increase slightly and that the ductility decreases after hydrogen charging. The existence of δ-ferrite deteriorates the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of the steels. The occurrence of carbide in the steel resulted from aging reduces the ductility of the steel and makes the steel sensitive to HE. The existence of sufficient hydrogen promotes the ε-martensitic transformation and suppresses the α'-martensitic transformation. The permeabilities and diffusivities of hydrogen in the steels have also been determined. (orig.)

  4. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Keefe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of traditional formulations of the Second Law, evidenced by attainment of a final process temperature below that which would result from an adiabatic magneto-caloric process applied to bulk dimensioned specimens.

  5. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianduo; Xiao Gang; Di Yuming; Han Feng; Qiu Xiaoling

    1999-01-01

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  6. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    The XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR2012, was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico from 4-8 June 2012. The series of conferences on calorimetry started in 1990 at Fermilab, and they have been the premier event for calorimeter aficionados, a trend that CALOR2012 upheld. This year, several presentations focused on the status of the major calorimeter systems, especially at the LHC. Discussions on new and developing techniques in calorimetry took a full day. Excellent updates on uses of calorimeters or about ideas that are deeply rooted in particle physics calorimetry in astrophysics and neutrino physics were followed by talks on algorithms and special triggers that rely on calorimeters. Finally, discussions of promising current developments and ongoing R&D work for future calorimeters capped the conference. The field of calorimetry is alive and well, as evidenced by the more than 100 attendees and the excellent quality of over 80 presentations. You will find the written contributions in this volume. The presentations can be found at calor2012.ttu.edu. The first day of the conference was dedicated to the LHC. In two invited talks, Guillaume Unal (CERN) and Tommaso Tabarelli de Fatis (Universita' & INFN Milano Bicocca) discussed the critical role electromagnetic calorimeters play in the hunt for the Standard Model Higgs boson in ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The enhanced sensitivity for light Higgs in the two-gamma decay channel renders electromagnetic calorimeters indispensible. Much of the higher mass region was already excluded for the SM Higgs by the time of this conference, and after less than a month, on 4 July, CERN announced the discovery of a new boson at 125 GeV, a particle that seems consistent with the Higgs particle so far. Once again, without the electromagnetic calorimeters, this would not have been possible. Professor Geoffrey West from the Santa Fe Institute gave the keynote address. His talk, 'Universal Scaling Laws

  7. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  8. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  9. Energy Transformations of Soil Organic Matter in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, A. M.; Coucheney, E.; Grice, S. M.; Ritz, K.; Harris, J.

    2011-12-01

    The role of soils in governing the terrestrial carbon balance is acknowledged as being important but remains poorly understood within the context of climate change. Soils exchange energy with their surroundings and are therefore open systems thermodynamically, but little is known how energy transformations of decomposition processes are affected by temperature. Soil organic matter and the soil biomass can be conceptualised as analogous to the 'fuel' and 'biological engine' of the earth, respectively, and are pivotal in driving the belowground carbon cycle. Thermodynamic principles of soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated by means of isothermal microcalorimetry (TAM Air, TA Instruments, Sollentuna Sweden: (i) Mineral forest soils from the Flakaliden long-term nitrogen fertilisation experiment (Sweden) were amended with a range of different substrates representing structurally simple to complex, ecologically pertinent organic matter and heat signatures were determined at temperatures between 5 and 25°C. (ii) Thermodynamic and resource-use efficiencies of the biomass were determined in arable soils which received contrasting long-term management regimes with respect to organic matter and nitrogen since 1956. The work showed that (i) structurally labile components have higher activation energy and temperature dependence than structurally more complex organic components. This is, however, in contrast to the thermodynamic argument which suggests the opposite that reactions metabolising structurally complex, aromatic components have higher temperature dependence than reactions metabolising structurally more labile components. (ii) Microbial communities exposed to long-term stress by heavy metal and low pH were less thermodynamic efficient and showed a decrease in resource-use efficiency in comparison with conventional input regimes. Differences in efficiencies were mirrored in both the phenotypic and functional profiles of the communities. We will present our

  10. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  11. Medida de calor específico e lei de resfriamento de Newton: um refinamento na análise dos dados experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Wilton Pereira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das técnicas para a determinação do calor específico de sólidos e líquidos dispensa o uso de um calorímetro e utiliza a lei de resfriamento de Newton na análise dos dados experimentais. O sucesso desta técnica pressupõe que seja possível determinar, com pequenas incertezas, as temperaturas do sistema imediatamente antes e imediatamente depois das transferências internas de calor devido à imersão do corpo (dujo calor específico se deseja medir em um recipiente contendo água quente. Neste artigo é proposto um refinamento desta técnica utilizando-se dois ajustes de curvas para a função que descreve a lei de resfriamento, com pequenas extrapolações, para de determinar essas temperaturas e também as suas incertezas. Isto possibilita determinar não só o valor médio do calor específico, mas também a incerteza deste valor médio, por propagação de erros. O ajuste da própria função que descreve a lei de resfriamento aos dados possibilitou a comparação imediata dos parâmetros obtidos experimentalmente com aqueles previstos pela teoria, e há uma grande concerdânciaentre eles. A aplicaçãodeste refinamento na determinação do calor específico do alumínio indica que tal procedimento é eficaz mesmo quando se trabalha com instrumentos de baixo custo, voltados para o ensino.

  12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of the effect of microstructure on tensile behavior and retained austenite stability of thermo-mechanically processed transformation induced plasticity steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Kun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liss, Klaus-Dieter [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Timokhina, Ilana B. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V., E-mail: elenap@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-04-26

    Transmission electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the martensitic transformation and lattice strains under uniaxial tensile loading of Fe-Mn-Si-C-Nb-Mo-Al Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel subjected to different thermo-mechanical processing schedules. In contrast with most of the diffraction analysis of TRIP steels reported previously, the diffraction peaks from the martensite phase were separated from the peaks of the ferrite-bainite α-matrix. The volume fraction of retained γ-austenite, as well as the lattice strain, were determined from the diffraction patterns recorded during tensile deformation. Although significant austenite to martensite transformation starts around the macroscopic yield stress, some austenite grains had already experienced martensitic transformation. Hooke’s Law was used to calculate the phase stress of each phase from their lattice strain. The ferrite-bainite α-matrix was observed to yield earlier than austenite and martensite. The discrepancy between integrated phase stresses and experimental macroscopic stress is about 300 MPa. A small increase in carbon concentration in retained austenite at the early stage of deformation was detected, but with further straining a continuous slight decrease in carbon content occurred, indicating that mechanical stability factors, such as grain size, morphology and orientation of the retained austenite, played an important role during the retained austenite to martensite transformation.

  13. Isla de calor y ocupación espacial urbana en San Juan, Argentina: análisis evolutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Papparelli, Alberto; Kurbán, Alejandra; Cúnsulo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    En este articulo se presentan resultados finales de un proyecto de investigacion bianual (2009-2010), denominado Variación histórica y espacial de la isla de calor urbana en zona árida, financiado por la Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina. Su objetivo principal es determinar la progresiva modificacion de la isla de calor urbana en un periodo de quince anos (1995-2010) y la correlacion de esta con la ocupacion del area urbana del Gran San Juan (GSJ), localizada en la diagonal arida de...

  14. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  15. Olas de calor e influencia urbana en Madrid y su área metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández García, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and duration of the warmest temperature episodes, a common phenomenon under the continental Mediterranean conditions of the Spanish Southern Meseta, has increased in the Madrid area since the 80´s, although their magnitude remains unchanged. The effect of the urban environment on those extreme events has exacerbated the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures along the night time hours. Nevertheless, the diversity of the urban morphology introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas.

    La frecuencia y duración de los episodios cálidos extremos, un fenómeno habitual en el clima mediterráneo continental de la Meseta Meridional, ha aumentado en el área de Madrid desde los años noventa, aunque su magnitud permanece constante. En el interior de la aglomeración urbana, el efecto general de la ciudad sobre estos eventos climáticos extremos ha supuesto una exacerbación del calor, no tanto por un aumento de la temperatura máxima, como por una persistencia del calor en las horas nocturnas. No obstante, la diversidad de la morfología urbana introduce variaciones espaciales en la intensidad de este calor nocturno, agravando sus efectos en las áreas densamente urbanizadas y mitigándolos en las proximidades de las áreas verdes.

  16. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1978--February 14, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1979-02-01

    High energy reactions of halogen atoms or ions, activated by nuclear transformations, were studied in gaseous, high pressure and condensed phase saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, halomethanes and other organic systems in order to better understand the mechanisms and dynamics of high energy monovalent species. The experimental and theoretical program consists of six interrelated areas: (1) the reactions of iodine with alkenes and alkynes activated by radiative neutron capture and isomeric transition in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators, high pressure and liquid systems; (2) the gas to condensed state transition in halogen high chemistry, involving bromine activated by the (n,γ) and (I.T.) processes in ethane was investigated in more detail; (3) systematics of halogen hot atom reactions. The reactions of 80 Br/sup m/, 80 Br, 82 Br/sup m/ + 82 Br, 82 Br, 128 I, 130 I, and 130 I/sup m/ + 130 I activated by radiative neutron capture or isomeric transition in hydrocarbons and halo-substituted alkanes in low pressure and high pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators; (4) kinetic theory applications of high energy reactions and mathematical development of caging mechanisms were developed; (5) the sterochemistry of 38 Cl substitution reactions involving diastereomeric 1,2-dichloro-1,2-difluorethane in liquid mixtures was completed, suggesting that the stereochemical course of the substitution process is controlled by the properties of the solvent molecules; and (6) the applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems was continued, especially involving aluminum and vanadium trace determinations

  17. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  18. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, S; van Nieuwpoort, I C; van Bunderen, C C; de Ruiter, M B; Twisk, J W R; Deijen, J B; Veltman, D J; Drent, M L

    2016-11-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m -2 . The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss.

  19. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  20. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a Modified Watershed Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8270 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter...Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a Modified Watershed Transform by Kwok F Tom Sensors and Electron...1 October 2016–30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a

  1. A crise do socialismo analisada no calor da hora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Benedito Dias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo demonstra como os acontecimentos que levaram à crise e desintegração dos países do bloco soviético foram analisados no calor dos acontecimentos, tomando como parâmetro os livros "Nós, o povo" e "A desintegração do monolito", selecionados por causa das diferentes perspectivas metodológicas e ideológicas que representam.  

  2. Energy transfer mechanism between manganese and neodymium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R [Department of Physics, Government Raza Post-Graduate College, Rampur 244901, U.P., India

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism of energy transfer between Mn/sup 2 +/ ..-->.. Nd/sup 3 +/ in barium borate glass has been investigated. The change in emission intensities and lifetimes of Mn/sup 2 +/ (donor) due to the presence of Nd/sup 3 +/ (acceptor) are observed. It has been concluded that the mechanism of energy transfer involves a nonradiative resonance process. The electrostatic multiple interaction responsible for the transfer is dipole-dipole in nature.

  3. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  4. Unified patterns to transform business rules into an event coordination mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    De Roover, Willem; Vanthienen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Business rules define and constrain various aspects of the business, such as vocabulary, behavior and organizational issues. Enforcing the rules of the business in information systems is however not straightforward, because different mechanisms exist for the (semi-)automatic transformation of various business constraints and rules. In this paper, we examine if and how business rules, not only data rules, but also process rules, timing rules, authorization rules, etc., can be expressed i...

  5. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  6. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  7. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  8. Finite element calculation of the interaction energy of shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Yong

    2004-01-01

    Strain energy due to the mechanical interaction between self-accommodation groups of martensitic phase transformation is called interaction energy. Evaluation of the interaction energy should be accurate since the energy appears in constitutive models for predicting the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy. In this paper, the interaction energy is evaluated in terms of theoretical formulation and explicit finite element calculation. A simple example with two habit plane variants was considered. It was shown that the theoretical formulation assuming elastic interaction between the self-accommodation group and matrix gives larger interaction energy than explicit finite element calculation in which transformation softening is accounted for

  9. Mechanism of reduction in hydrogen atmosphere and thermal transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masina, C.J.; Neethling, J.H.; Olivier, E.J.; Ferg, E.; Manzini, S.; Lodya, L.; Mohlala, P.; Ngobeni, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic measurements used to study thermal transformation of ferrihydrite. • Reduction mechanisms of ferrihydrite were monitored by TPR, MS, and in-situ XRD. • Nanocrystalline Fe was produced by the reducing ferrihydrite in H 2 . • The presence of SiO 2 in ferrihydrite alters the reduction pathway of ferrihydrite. - Abstract: The thermal transformation under vacuum and the reduction behavior in hydrogen atmosphere of 2- and 6-line ferrihydrite (FeOOH·nH 2 O) as well as 2-line FeOOH·nH 2 O deposited onto silica are reported. The investigation methods include magnetization measurements, temperature programmed reduction, in-situ X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal transformation of FeOOH·nH 2 O to hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) was monitored through changes in the magnetization as a function of temperature; it appears to proceed through the loss of the lattice water and sintering accompanied by improved crystallinity and structural changes. Such a transformation is initiated at T ∼ 580 K for 2-line and 6-line FeOOH·nH 2 O and at T ∼ 660 K for 2-line FeOOH·nH 2 O/SiO 2 , i.e., the presence of SiO 2 appears to inhibit the transformation. SiO 2 also tends to prevent the increase of the crystallite size above a certain threshold value. Reduction reactions are initiated at relatively lower temperatures (∼480 K) implying that a gaseous environment facilitates the thermal dehydration/dehydroxylation process. Three different reduction mechanisms of FeOOH·nH 2 O to metallic iron (α-Fe) are observed: a two-stage process via magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as an intermediate phase for 2-line FeOOH·nH 2 O, a three-step reduction involving Fe 3 O 4 and wüstite (FeO) as intermediate phases for 2-line FeOOH·nH 2 O/SiO 2 and a thermal transformation to α-Fe 2 O 3 followed by a two-step reduction via Fe 3 O 4 intermediate for 6-line FeOOH·nH 2 O. It is inferred that SiO 2 interacts with Fe species to form Fe–O–Fe structures which tend

  10. Quantum mechanical theory behind "dark energy"?

    CERN Multimedia

    Colin Johnson, R

    2007-01-01

    "The mysterious increase in the acceleration of the universe, when intuition says it should be slowing down, is postulated to be caused by dark energy - "dark" because it is undetected. Now a group of scientists in the international collaboration Essence has suggested that a quantum mechanical interpretation of Einstein's proposed "cosmological constant" is the simplest explanation for dark energy. The group measured dark energy to within 10 percent." (1,5 page)

  11. Energy transformation and flow topology in an elbow draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a computational study of energy transformation in two geometrical configurations of Kaplan turbine elbow draft tube. Pressure recovery, hydraulic efficiency and loss coefficient are evaluated for a series of flow rates and swirl numbers corresponding to operating regimes of the turbine. These integral characteristics are then correlated with local flow field properties identified by extraction of topological features. Main focus is to find the reasons for hydraulic efficiency drop of the elbow draft tube.

  12. Effect of herbal medicine daikenchuto on oral and enteral caloric intake after liver transplantation: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shinoda, Masahiro; Inomata, Yukihiro; Yagi, Takahito; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Takada, Yasutsugu; Ohdan, Hideki; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Susumu; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ogata, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Michio; Morita, Satoshi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-20

    Postoperative early oral or enteral intake is a crucial element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol. However, normal food intake or enteral feeding cannot be started early in the presence of coexisting bowel dysfunction in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the enhancement effects of the Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on oral/enteral caloric intake in patients undergoing LT. A total of 112 adult patients undergoing LT at 14 Japanese centers were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either DKT or placebo from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 14. The primary endpoints were total oral/enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension, and pain on POD 7. The secondary endpoints included sequential changes in total oral/enteral caloric intake after LT, and portal venous flow volume and velocity in the graft. A total of 104 patients (DKT, n = 55; placebo, n = 49) were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of primary endpoints. However, postoperative total oral/enteral caloric intake was significantly accelerated in the DKT group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.023). Moreover, portal venous flow volume (POD 10, 14) and velocity (POD 14) were significantly higher in the DKT group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047, P = 0.025, P = 0.014, respectively). Postoperative administration of DKT may enhance total oral/enteral caloric intake and portal venous flow volume and velocity after LT and favorably contribute to the performance of the ERAS protocol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Short-term Quercetin, Caloric Restriction and Combined Treatment on Age-related Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugoju, Phaniendra; Swamy, Vkd Krishan; Periyasamy, Latha

    2018-03-14

    Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male Wistar rats. 21 months aged rats were divided into four groups (n=6-8) such as group 1-fed ad libitum (AL); group 2-quercetin supplementation of 50 mg/kg b.w/day for 45 days fed ad libitum (QUER); group 3: caloric restricted (CR) (fed 40% reduced AL for 45 days); group 4-fed 40% CR and 50 mg/kg b.w/day QUER for 45 days (CR + QUER). Group 5-three month age old rats served as young control (YOUNG). Our results demonstrate that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin significantly improved the age associated decline in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes [such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and glutathione (GSH) content and attenuated elevated levels of protein carbonyl content (PCC), lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, it is also observed that combined treatment ameliorated age associated alterations in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) such as Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca+2-ATPase (but not Mg+2- ATPase) enzyme activities. Finally, we conclude that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin (but not either treatment alone) in late life is an effective anti-aging therapy to counteract the age related accumulation of oxidative macromolecular damage

  14. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens; María Cintia Píccolo; Jorge Hernández González; Gustavo Navarrette

    2001-01-01

    Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45 S y 72º 40 W). Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m) y Conunhueno (360 m). Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ...

  15. Mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lithium lens and transformer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.; Hojvat, C.; Lennox, A.J.; Biallas, G.; Cilyo, F.; Leininger, M.; McCarthy, J.; Sax, W.; Snowdon, S.

    1983-03-01

    A lithium-lens focusing device will be used for the collection of 8-GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab Tevatron I Project. The details of the mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lens and its associated toroidal transformer are discussed. The lens, with a radium of 1 cm and length 15 cm, is expected to achieve gradients of 1000 T/m for a focal distance of 0.225 m. The gradient requires a current on the order of 5 x 10 5 A, resulting in large electromagnetic and thermal stresses. The power-supply discharge current and the effect of the inductance of the power leads and connections are minimized by the use of a toroidal matching transformer surrounding the lens itself

  16. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice.

  17. Sistemas de transmisión de calor para hornos de vía seca en la fabricación de cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonry, J. Richard

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn los últimos años se han puesto en marcha numerosos sistemas para mejorar la transmisión de calor en los hornos de vía seca y, en consecuencia, el consumo de combustible en la industria del cemento. El objetivo principal ha sido el ahorro de combustible y la obtención de mayores velocidades de producción en comparación con los hornos horizontales normales. Estos sistemas pueden dividirse en dos grupos: (1 externos, donde fluyen en contracorriente sólidos y gases calientes, 71 (2 internos, con exposición de superficie y radiación de la misma como medio de transmisión de calor. Esta tendencia a sistemas de este tipo puede compararse a la que hubo hace cuarenta años con las calderas de recuperación de calor en hornos de vía seca. El primer objetivo, tanto entonces como ahora, es la mejor utilización del calor en los gases de escape.

  18. Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.

  19. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  20. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  1. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

  2. Fluxo de calor sensível em cultivo de feijão-caupi Sensible heat flux in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. de S Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o fluxo de calor sensível obtido pelo método do balanço de energia-razão de Bowen (H_B e pelo método aerodinâmico (H_A, em uma área de 4 ha cultivada com feijão-caupi em Areia-PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" O, 620 m. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, temperatura e umidade do solo, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluvial, os quais eram lidos a cada minuto, e armazenados, em uma central de aquisição de dados, como médias a cada 30 min, com exceção da pluviometria, cujo valor foi totalizado no período. Obteve-se excelente concordância entre H_A e H_B, com um índice "d " de 0,980, um erro padrão (EP de 14,88 W m-2, e sem diferença significativa entre H_A e H_B, pelo teste t-Student. Deste modo, o método aerodinâmico pode ser usado em conjunto com medidas de saldo de radiação e de fluxo de calor no solo, para se estimar o fluxo de calor latente e, consequentemente, a evapotranspiração da cultura do feijão-caupi, para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brejo Paraibano.A study was performed to compare the bulk aerodynamic (H_A and Bowen ratio energy balance (H_B methods in the estimation of the sensible heat flux in a cowpea crop. Data of net radiation, soil heat flux, soil water content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were collected on 30-min time intervals in an area of 4 ha belonging to the municipality of Areia, PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" W, 620 m. Results showed that there was a good agreement between H_A and H_B with an index "d" of 0.98 and standard error of estimate (SEE of 14.88 W m-2, no significant difference between H_A H_B, by the t-Student test. Thus, the bulk aerodynamic method can be used in conjunction with measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux to estimate the evapotranspiration of the cowpea under soil and climatic condition of

  3. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coker Robert H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess adipose tissue and sarcopenia presents a multifaceted clinical challenge that promotes morbidity and mortality in the obese, elderly population. Unfortunately, the mortality risks of muscle loss may outweigh the potential benefits of weight loss in the elderly. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of whey protein and essential amino acids towards the preservation of lean tissue, even under the conditions of strict bedrest in the elderly. Methods In the context of caloric restriction-based weight loss, we hypothesized that a similar formulation given as a meal replacement (EAAMR would foster the retention of lean tissue through an increase in the skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR. We also proposed that EAAMR would promote the preferential loss of adipose tissue through the increased energy cost of skeletal muscle FSR. We recruited and randomized 12 elderly individuals to an 8 week, caloric restriction diet utilizing equivalent caloric meal replacements (800 kcal/day: 1 EAAMR or a 2 competitive meal replacement (CMR in conjunction with 400 kcal of solid food that totaled 1200 kcal/day designed to induce 7% weight loss. Combined with weekly measurements of total body weight and body composition, we also measured the acute change in the skeletal muscle FSR to EAAMR and CMR. Results By design, both groups lost ~7% of total body weight. While EAAMR did not promote a significant preservation of lean tissue, the reduction in adipose tissue was greater in EAAMR compared to CMR. Interestingly, these results corresponded to an increase in the acute skeletal muscle protein FSR. Conclusion The provision of EAAMR during caloric restriction-induced weight loss promotes the preferential reduction of adipose tissue and the modest loss of lean tissue in the elderly population.

  4. Efficiency of a gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical wave energy to electrical energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Darula, Radoslav; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical ocean wave energy to electrical energy. Two models of the device derived from standard engineering mechanics from the literature are analysed, and a model is derived from analytical mechanics considerations. From...... these models, estimates of the power production, eciency, forces and moments are made. We nd that it is possible to extract a signicant amount of energy from an ocean wave using the described device. Further studies are required for a full treatment of the device....

  5. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Brenna; Lusk, Jayson L; Davis, David

    2013-02-08

    Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans' health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners' socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious - probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did little for those consumers who were already

  6. Towards an automatic model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex event-driven systems requires studies and analysis prior to deployment with the goal of detecting unwanted behavior. UML is a language widely used by the software engineering community for modeling these systems through state machines, among other mechanisms. Currently, these models do not have appropriate execution and simulation tools to analyze the real behavior of systems. Existing tools do not provide appropriate libraries (sampling from a probability distribution, plotting, etc. both to build and to analyze models. Modeling and simulation for design and prototyping of systems are widely used techniques to predict, investigate and compare the performance of systems. In particular, the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS formalism separates the modeling and simulation; there are several tools available on the market that run and collect information from DEVS models. This paper proposes a model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models in the Model-Driven Development (MDD context, through the declarative QVT Relations language, in order to perform simulations using tools, such as PowerDEVS. A mechanism to validate the transformation is proposed. Moreover, examples of application to analyze the behavior of an automatic banking machine and a control system of an elevator are presented.

  7. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  8. Caloric Restriction-Induced Extension of Chronological Lifespan Requires Intact Respiration in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Sung-Keun; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2017-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC gene-deleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension. On the contrary, the other 16 respiration-capable mutants showed increased CLS upon CR along with increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, with decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We measured the same parameters in the 17 non-respiratory mutants upon CR. CR simultaneously increased MMP and mitochondrial superoxide generation without altering intracellular ATP levels. In conclusion, respiration is essential for CLS extension by CR and is important for balancing MMP, ROS, and ATP levels.

  9. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  10. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mohammad M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake; on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1 Islamic Ramadan; 2 the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption; and 3 the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  11. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  12. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-10-07

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  13. In Brief: Report calls for transforming the U.S. energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    The United States should develop a coordinated, government-wide, federal energy policy to transform the nation's energy system within 1-2 decades, according to a 29 November report by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). A key recommendation is for the president to establish a quadrennial energy review process to provide a road map for short- and long-term energy objectives, to outline legislative proposals, to put forward anticipated executive branch actions, and to identify resource requirements for research and development programs. Entitled “Report to the president on accelerating the pace of change in energy technologies through an integrated federal energy policy,” the report also calls for the government to invest $16 billion per year for clean energy innovation. The report indicates that this would be an approximate tripling of current Department of Energy investments in energy science and technology. Stating that “the discretionary budget is under severe pressure,” the report recommends that the president engage the private sector and Congress to generate about $10billion per year of funding through new revenue streams. A small charge on electricity and transportation fuel could be “well within the normal fluctuations in price seen by consumers” and generate billions of dollars for research.

  14. Collaboration Mechanism for Equipment Instruction of Multiple Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Tuo; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhao; Zhao, Mingyu; Wang, Yinghui

    2018-01-01

    When multiple energy systems execute optimization instructions simultaneously, and the same equipment is Shared, the instruction conflict may occur. Aiming at the above problems, taking into account the control objectives of each system, the characteristics of different systems, such as comprehensive clean energy, energy efficiency, and peak filling, etc., designed the instruction coordination mechanism for the daemon. This mechanism mainly acts on the main station of the system, and form a final optimization instruction. For some specific scenarios, the collaboration mechanism of unlocking the terminal is supplemented. The mechanism determines the specific execution instructions based on the arrival time of the instruction. Finally, the experiment in Tianjin eco-city shows that this algorithm can meet the instruction and collaboration requirements of multi-energy systems, and ensure the safe operation of the equipment.

  15. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H; Campbell, Kristin L; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L; Bain, Carolyn E; Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction. ©2012 AACR

  16. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  17. Rapid Convergence of Energy and Free Energy Profiles with Quantum Mechanical Size in Quantum Mechanical-Molecular Mechanical Simulations of Proton Transfer in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susanta; Nam, Kwangho; Major, Dan Thomas

    2018-03-13

    In recent years, a number of quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) enzyme studies have investigated the dependence of reaction energetics on the size of the QM region using energy and free energy calculations. In this study, we revisit the question of QM region size dependence in QM/MM simulations within the context of energy and free energy calculations using a proton transfer in a DNA base pair as a test case. In the simulations, the QM region was treated with a dispersion-corrected AM1/d-PhoT Hamiltonian, which was developed to accurately describe phosphoryl and proton transfer reactions, in conjunction with an electrostatic embedding scheme using the particle-mesh Ewald summation method. With this rigorous QM/MM potential, we performed rather extensive QM/MM sampling, and found that the free energy reaction profiles converge rapidly with respect to the QM region size within ca. ±1 kcal/mol. This finding suggests that the strategy of QM/MM simulations with reasonably sized and selected QM regions, which has been employed for over four decades, is a valid approach for modeling complex biomolecular systems. We point to possible causes for the sensitivity of the energy and free energy calculations to the size of the QM region, and potential implications.

  18. Determination of the Critical Stress Associated with Dynamic Phase Transformation in Steels by Means of Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodualdo Aranas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The double differentiation method overestimates the critical stress associated with the initiation of dynamic transformation (DT because significant amounts of the dynamic phase must be present in order for its effect on the work hardening rate to be detectable. In this work, an alternative method (referred to here as the free energy method is presented based on the thermodynamic condition that the driving force is equal to the total energy obstacle during the exact moment of transformation. The driving force is defined as the difference between the DT critical stress (measured in the single-phase austenite region and the yield stress of the fresh ferrite that takes its place. On the other hand, the energy obstacle consists of the free energy difference between austenite and ferrite, and the work of shear accommodation and dilatation associated with the phase transformation. Here, the DT critical stresses in a C-Mn steel were calculated using the free energy method at temperatures ranging from 870 °C to 1070 °C. The results show that the calculated critical stress using the present approach appears to be more accurate than the values measured by the double differentiation method.

  19. Multi-criteria decision analysis of energy system transformation pathways: A case study for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkart, Kathrin; Weidmann, Nicolas; Bauer, Christian; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Two recent political decisions are expected to frame the development of the Swiss energy system in the coming decades: the nuclear phase-out and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target. To accomplish both of them, low-carbon technologies based on renewable energy and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are expected to gain importance. The objective of the present work is to support prospective Swiss energy policy-making by providing a detailed sustainability analysis of possible energy system transformation pathways. For this purpose, the results of the scenario quantification with an energy system model are coupled with multi-criteria sustainability analysis. Two climate protection and one reference scenario are addressed, and the trade-offs between the scenarios are analysed based on a set of 12 interdisciplinary indicators. Implementing a stringent climate policy in Switzerland is associated with co-benefits such as less fossil resource use, less fatalities in severe accidents in the energy sector, less societal conflicts and higher resource autonomy. The availability and implementation of CCS allows for achieving the GHG emission reduction target at lower costs, but at the expense of a more fossil fuel-based energy system. - Highlights: • Three energy system transformation pathways for Switzerland are analysed. • A set of policy-relevant sustainability indicators are quantified for each pathway. • Implementing a stringent climate policy in Switzerland is associated with co-benefits. • In the CCS scenario fossil fuel use increases, but the total system costs are lower. • Fossil-fuelled transport substantially contributes to most of the addressed criteria.

  20. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Mercury Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    smith, jeremy

    2014-04-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we used quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. The results show that, whereas in the gas phase the binding affinity of two identical anionic ligands (forming HgL2) increases with ligand (L–) hardness, in contrast, in the aqueous phase the affinity increases with ligand softness. This switch in affinity upon hydration is shown to result mostly from interactions with only a small number (e.g. one or two) of water molecules. The results yield a clear, robust periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and are in agreement with the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands. By comparing the Hg2+ binding of one with two anions, the gas phase preferences are found to arise from the enhancement of reactivity of the cationic complex (HgL+) with the hardness of L–. The approach establishes a theoretical basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  2. Calculating solution redox free energies with ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiancheng; Hu Hao; Hu Xiangqian; Yang Weitao

    2009-01-01

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids 'on-the-fly' QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.

  3. Role of four-membered rings in C32 fullerene stability and mechanisms of generalized Stone-Wales transformation: a density functional theory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Dang, Jingshuang; Zhao, Xiang

    2011-08-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) methods have been applied to study C(32) fullerenes built from four-, five-, and six-membered rings. The relative energies of pure C(32) fullerenes have been evaluated to locate three most stable structures, 32:D(4d) with two squares, 1:D(3) without square and 5:C(s) with one square. Structural analysis reveals that there is a rearrangement pathway between the lowest energy classical isomer 1:D(3) and the lowest energy non-classical isomer 32:D(4d), and 5:C(s) behaves just as an intermediate between them. The kinetic processes of generalized Stone-Wales transformation (GSWT) with four-membered rings have been explored and two distinct reaction mechanisms are determined by all the transition states and intrinsic reaction coordinates with PBE1PBE/6-31G(d) approach for the first time. One mechanism is the concerted reaction with a rotating dimer closed to the cage surface and another is the stepwise reaction with a carbene-like sp(3) structure, whereas the latter is sorted into two paths based on four-membered ring vanishing before or after the formation of the carbene-like structure. It is indicated that there is no absolute preference for any mechanism, which depends on the adaptability of different reactants on the diverse mechanisms. Furthermore, it's found that the interconversion process with the participation of squares is more reactive than the rearrangement between C(60)_I(h) and C(60)_C(2v), implying some potential importance of non-classical small fullerenes in the fullerene isomerization.

  4. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-06-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ( E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ( E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  5. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ(E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ(E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  6. Caloric restriction lowers endocannabinoid tonus and improves cardiac function in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyk, van H.J.; Schinkel, van L.D.; Kantae, V.; Dronkers, C.E.A.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Roos, de A.; Lamb, H.J.; Jukema, J.W.; Harms, A.C.; Hankemeier, T.; Stelt, van der M.; Jazet, I.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2018-01-01

    Background/ObjectivesEndocannabinoids (ECs) are associated with obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, both of which play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of prolonged caloric restriction on ECs in relation to fat distribution and cardiac

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanoindentation-induced Mechanical Deformation and Phase Transformation in Monocrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sheng-Rui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis work presents the molecular dynamics approach toward mechanical deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of monocrystalline Si(100 subjected to nanoindentation. We demonstrate phase distributions during loading and unloading stages of both spherical and Berkovich nanoindentations. By searching the presence of the fifth neighboring atom within a non-bonding length, Si-III and Si-XII have been successfully distinguished from Si-I. Crystallinity of this mixed-phase was further identified by radial distribution functions.

  8. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  9. EFFECTS TO MODIFY THE CALORIC CONTENT OF WATER ON BODY WEIGHT, WATER, FOOD AND CALORIES CONSUMPTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA GABRIELA MARTÍNEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Six albino rats were divided in two experimental groups and one control. The experiment began withfifteen days of free access; subsequently experimental groups maintained available three concentrationsof glucose: high, middle and low. First group received high-middle-low-high-middle-low sequence andsecond group received low-middle-high-low-middle-high sequence during six days. Control group notreceived glucose concentrations. Caloric concentration of food never changed. Results suggest thatmodification of caloric concentration in water affects feeding behavior. Nevertheless, water with glucoseconsumption did not change body weight.

  10. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity, and highlight the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Mechanism of reduction in hydrogen atmosphere and thermal transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, C.J., E-mail: colani.masina@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H.; Olivier, E.J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Ferg, E. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Manzini, S.; Lodya, L.; Mohlala, P.; Ngobeni, M.W. [Sasol Technology R and D, 1 Klasie Havenga Road, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • Magnetic measurements used to study thermal transformation of ferrihydrite. • Reduction mechanisms of ferrihydrite were monitored by TPR, MS, and in-situ XRD. • Nanocrystalline Fe was produced by the reducing ferrihydrite in H{sub 2}. • The presence of SiO{sub 2} in ferrihydrite alters the reduction pathway of ferrihydrite. - Abstract: The thermal transformation under vacuum and the reduction behavior in hydrogen atmosphere of 2- and 6-line ferrihydrite (FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O) as well as 2-line FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O deposited onto silica are reported. The investigation methods include magnetization measurements, temperature programmed reduction, in-situ X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal transformation of FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O to hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was monitored through changes in the magnetization as a function of temperature; it appears to proceed through the loss of the lattice water and sintering accompanied by improved crystallinity and structural changes. Such a transformation is initiated at T ∼ 580 K for 2-line and 6-line FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O and at T ∼ 660 K for 2-line FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}, i.e., the presence of SiO{sub 2} appears to inhibit the transformation. SiO{sub 2} also tends to prevent the increase of the crystallite size above a certain threshold value. Reduction reactions are initiated at relatively lower temperatures (∼480 K) implying that a gaseous environment facilitates the thermal dehydration/dehydroxylation process. Three different reduction mechanisms of FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O to metallic iron (α-Fe) are observed: a two-stage process via magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) as an intermediate phase for 2-line FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O, a three-step reduction involving Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and wüstite (FeO) as intermediate phases for 2-line FeOOH·nH{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} and a thermal transformation to α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by a two-step reduction via Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} intermediate for 6-line Fe

  12. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, John C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sarrao, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Chicago; Flemming, Graham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ratner, Mark [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    FIVE TRANSFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE As a result of this effort, it has become clear that the progress made to date on the five Grand Challenges has created a springboard for seizing five new Transformative Opportunities that have the potential to further transform key technologies involving matter and energy. These five new Transformative Opportunities and the evidence supporting them are discussed in this new report, “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science.” Mastering Hierarchical Architectures and Beyond-Equilibrium Matter Complex materials and chemical processes transmute matter and energy, for example from CO2 and water to chemical fuel in photosynthesis, from visible light to electricity in solar cells and from electricity to light in light emitting diodes (LEDs) Such functionality requires complex assemblies of heterogeneous materials in hierarchical architectures that display time-dependent away-from-equilibrium behaviors. Much of the foundation of our understanding of such transformations however, is based on monolithic single- phase materials operating at or near thermodynamic equilibrium. The emergent functionalities enabling next-generation disruptive energy technologies require mastering the design, synthesis, and control of complex hierarchical materials employing dynamic far-from-equilibrium behavior. A key guide in this pursuit is nature, for biological systems prove the power of hierarchical assembly and far- from-equilibrium behavior. The challenges here are many: a description of the functionality of hierarchical assemblies in terms of their constituent parts, a blueprint of atomic and molecular positions for each constituent part, and a synthesis strategy for (a) placing the atoms and molecules in the proper positions for the component parts and (b) arranging the component parts into the required hierarchical structure. Targeted functionality will open the door

  13. Study on Government Management Mechanism of Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of energy conservation and emission reduction, and propose legal guarantees, management innovation, technology innovation, service system construction and upgrading of industrial structure are the critical factors to energy conservation and emission reduction management mechanism's performance. Then discuss the ...

  14. Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Rolls, B J; Moran, T H; Kelly, T H; McNelis, A L; Fischman, M W

    1992-02-01

    Six subjects participated in a residential study assessing the effects of covert macronutrient and energy manipulations during three required-eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, and afternoon snack) on total macronutrient and energy intakes. Overall, energy content of the occasions varied between approximately 3000 and approximately 7000 kJ (approximately 700 and approximately 1700 kcal) with the majority of the differential derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each condition (high, medium, and low fat; high, medium, and low CHO; and no required eating) was examined for 2 d. Subjects compensated for the energy content of the required occasions such that only under the low-CHO condition (11,297 +/- 3314 kJ) was total daily energy intake lower than that observed in the absence of required occasions (13,297 +/- 1356 kJ). Only total energy intake under the high-fat condition (12,326 +/- 2548 kJ) was significantly different from its matched CHO condition (high-CHO condition: 14,665 +/- 2686 kJ). In contrast to the clear evidence for caloric compensation, there were no differential effects of condition on macronutrient intake, ie, there was no macronutrient compensation.

  15. Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razny, Urszula; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Goralska, Joanna; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Wnek, Dominika; Zdzienicka, Anna; Gruca, Anna; Childs, Caroline E; Kapusta, Maria; Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna; Calder, Philip C; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona

    2015-12-01

    Caloric restriction and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation protect from some of the metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a low calorie diet with or without n-3 PUFA supplementation on glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) output and insulin sensitivity markers in obese subjects. Obese, non-diabetic subjects (BMI 30-40 kg/m(2)) and aged 25-65 yr. were put on low calorie diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) supplemented with either 1.8 g/day n-3 PUFA (DHA/EPA, 5:1) (n = 24) or placebo capsules (n = 24) for three months in a randomized placebo controlled trial. Insulin resistance markers and GIP levels were analysed from samples obtained at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Caloric restriction with n-3 PUFA led to a decrease of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and a significant reduction of insulin output as well as decreased GIP secretion during the OGTT. These effects were not seen with caloric restriction alone. Changes in GIP output were inversely associated with changes in red blood cell EPA content whereas fasting GIP level positively correlated with HOMA-IR index. Blood triglyceride level was lowered by caloric restriction with a greater effect when n-3 PUFA were included and correlated positively with fasting GIP level. Three months of caloric restriction with DHA + EPA supplementation exerts beneficial effects on insulin resistance, GIP and triglycerides. Combining caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA improves insulin sensitivity, which may be related to a decrease of GIP levels.

  16. Short-Term Caloric Restriction Suppresses Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy Caused by Chronic Pressure Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Miyuki; Furumori-Yukiya, Akiko; Kitamura, Miho; Matsumura, Mihoko; Ohigashi, Makoto; Toba, Hiroe; Nakata, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) prevents senescent changes, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a critical role. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We examined whether CR alters cardiac redox state and hypertrophy from chronic pressure overload. Male c57BL6 mice were subjected to ascending aortic constriction (AAC) with ad libitum caloric intake (AL + AAC group) or 40% restricted caloric intake (CR + AAC group). CR was initiated 2 weeks before AAC and was continued for 4 weeks. Two weeks after constriction, AAC increased LV wall thickness, impaired transmitral flow velocity, and augmented myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, in association with enhancement of BNP and collagen III expressions in the AL + AAC group. In the AL + AAC group, oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and mitochondria were enhanced, and NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production were elevated. These changes were significantly attenuated in the CR + AAC group. Additionally, in antioxidant systems, myocardial glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were enhanced in the CR + AAC group. Chronic pressure overload increased cardiac oxidative damage, in association with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Short-term CR suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac function, suggesting that short-term CR could be a useful strategy to prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Agarwala, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  18. Assessment of Food Insecurity and Coping Mechanisms among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constitute about 60% of the country's area have not been very well addressed. ... Therefore, the consumption data collected on the basis of seven days ... Then, in order to calculate the households' daily caloric .... Energy available per ... stage of food shortage only adults practiced reduction ofthe daily food portions both.

  19. DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ćućić, Branimir; Meško, Nina; Mikulić, Martina; Trstoglavec, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    In the paper design improvements of distribution transformers related to improved energy efficiency and environmental awareness are discussed. Eco design of transformers, amorphous transformers, voltage regulated transformers and transformers filled with ester liquids are analyzed. As a consequence of growing energy efficiency importance, European Commission has adopted new regulation which defines maximum permissible levels of load and no-load losses of transformers with rated...

  20. Micromechanics of transformation-induced plasticity and variant coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketz, F.; Fischer, F.D.; University for Mining and Metallurgy, Leoben; Tanaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative micromechanics descriptions of both transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) associated with the martensitic transformation in an Fe-Ni alloy and of variant coalescence in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy are presented. The macroscopic deformation behavior of a polycrystalline aggregate as a result of the rearrangements within the crystallites is modelled with the help of a finite element based periodic microfield approach. In the case of TRIP the parent→martensite transformation is described by microscale thermodynamic and kinetic equations taking into account internal stress states. The simulation of a classical experiment on TRIP allows to quantify the Magee-effect and the Greenwood-Johnson effect. Furthermore, the development of the martensitic microstructure is studied with respect to the stress-assisted transformation of preferred variants. In the case of variant coalescence the strain energy due to internal stress states has an important influence on the mechanical behavior. Formulating the reorientation process on the size scale of self-accommodating plate groups in terms of the mobility of the boundaries between martensitic variants the macroscopic behavior in uniaxial tension is predicted by an incremental modelling procedure. Furthermore, influence of energy dissipation on the overall behavior is quantified. (orig.)

  1. On the Galilean covariance of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1991-08-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single interacting particle is described. In this scheme constitutive relations defining forces are rejected and acting forces are determined by some fundamental differential equations. It is shown that total energy of the interacting particle transforms under Galilean transformations differently from the kinetic energy. The statement is illustrated on the exactly solvable examples of the harmonic oscillator and the case of constant forces and also, in the suitable version of the perturbation theory, for the anharmonic oscillator. (author)

  2. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  3. Technological Prospective (Chapter 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva tecnologica (Capitulo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how the prospective analysis is carried on in: the trash and its transformation into energy that is made through thermal or biological processes; geothermal, where the relation with low and intermediate temperature resources will be differentiated from those of high temperature for electrical power generation; thermo-solar, that is a high temperature system for electrical power generation and low temperature systems for space heating or process heat; photovoltaic, that is the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity; the wind energy is the advantage of the kinetic energy of the wind; the use of the biomass or its derivatives requires of transformations on the basis of processes of direct combustion; the gasification or pyrolysis to produce, either in direct form or through the production of a synthetic gas, process heat or electricity in facilities and, mini-hydro energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como es llevado el analisis prospectivo en: la basura y su transformacion en energia que se realiza a traves de procesos termicos o de procesos biologicos; la geotermia donde se distinguira la relacion con los recursos de temperatura baja e intermedia y los de alta temperatura para generacion electrica; la termosolar que es un sistema de alta temperatura para generacion electrica y sistema de baja temperatura para acondicionamiento de espacios o calor de proceso; fotovoltaico que es la conversion directa de la radiacion solar a electricidad; la energia eolica es el aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento; la utilizacion de la biomasa o sus derivados requiere de transformaciones en base a procesos de combustion directa; la gasificacion o pirolisis para producir, o bien en forma directa o a traves de la produccion de un gas sintetico, calor de proceso o electricidad en instalaciones y, la minihidroenergia.

  4. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  5. Quantificação da ilha de calor de curitiba considerando aspectos de estabilidade atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Krüger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A relação entre crescimento urbano e o surgimento de ilhas de calor urbanas, ou seja, diferenças climáticas entre a área urbana e as áreas rurais no entorno, é demonstrada por diversos autores e em diferentes regiões climáticas. Em Curitiba, a população saltou de aproximadamente 600.000 habitantes para um milhão e meio em três décadas. O objetivo do presente trabalho é propor uma metodologia de análise da ilha de calor urbana de Curitiba (25º25'40"S, 49º16'23"W, 934m acima do nível do mar. A cidade está localizada em região de clima subtropical de altitude; o monitoramento climático foi conduzido segundo uma série anual, entre dezembro de 2011 e fevereiro de 2013, utilizando um par de estações meteorológicas dentro e fora (perifericamente da mancha urbana de Curitiba. De modo a minimizar possíveis influências atmosféricas na análise, foi feita a classificação dos dias de medição por classes de estabilidade atmosférica segundo o método de Pasquill-Gifford-Turner (PGT, procedendo-se à análise para dias com maior estabilidade atmosférica. Como complemento à análise, adota-se um modelo de conforto desenvolvido para Curitiba a partir de uma extensa pesquisa de sensação e percepção térmicas em espaços abertos, de modo a verificar o efeito integrado das diversas variáveis climáticas em termos de percentuais de horas em frio, conforto e calor e suas variações dentro e fora da área urbana. Em Curitiba, a ilha de calor urbana pode ser benéfica durante o inverno, porém trazendo consequências em termos de excesso de calor em ambientes internos no verão.

  6. The effect of a portion size intervention on French fries consumption, plate waste, satiety and compensatory caloric intake: an on-campus restaurant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Marie; Versele, Vickà; Stok, Marijn; Mullie, Patrick; D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom

    2018-04-13

    One of the driving factors of dietary overconsumption throughout the last decennia is the increase of food portion sizes. Larger portions induce higher daily energy intake, so reducing portion size may reduce intake of excess calories. However, real-life studies about the effects of portion size reduction are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption, French fries plate waste, satiety and caloric intake during the subsequent afternoon among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus restaurant setting. Moreover, this study evaluated consumers' perception about the portion size reduction. The study took place over a two-time (i.e. baseline and intervention week) 4-day period (Tuesday-Friday) in the on-campus restaurant where ±1200 meals are served every day. French fries' portions were reduced by 20% by replacing the usual porcelain bowl served during the baseline week (±200 g) with smaller volume paper bags during the intervention week (±159 g) in a pre-post real-life experiment. French fries consumption and plate waste were measured in 2056 consumers at baseline and 2175 consumers at intervention. Additionally, interviews were conducted directly after lunch and again between 4 and 6 p.m. on the same day to assess satiety and caloric intake at pre and post in a small subsample of both French fries consumers (n = 19) and non-French fries consumers (n = 14). Post-intervention, the same subsample was interviewed about their perception of the portion size reduction (n = 28). Total French fries intake decreased by 9.1%, and total plate waste decreased by 66.4%. No differences were found in satiety or caloric intake between baseline and intervention week among the French fries' consumers. The majority (n = 24, 86%) of French fries consumers noticed the reduction in portion size during the intervention. Although most participants (n = 19, 68%) perceived the

  7. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes through induction of insulin resistance. Treatment of type 2 diabetes has been limited by little translational knowledge of insulin resistance although there have been several well-documented hypotheses for insulin resistance. In those hypotheses, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity have been the major concepts and have received a lot of attention. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, genetic background, aging, fatty liver, hypoxia and lipodystrophy are active subjects in the study of these concepts. However, none of those concepts or views has led to an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. The reason is that there has been no consensus for a unifying mechanism of insulin resistance. In this review article, literature is critically analyzed and reinterpreted for a new energy-based concept of insulin resistance, in which insulin resistance is a result of energy surplus in cells. The energy surplus signal is mediated by ATP and sensed by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Decreasing ATP level by suppression of production or stimulation of utilization is a promising approach in the treatment of insulin resistance. In support, many of existing insulin sensitizing medicines inhibit ATP production in mitochondria. The effective therapies such as weight loss, exercise, and caloric restriction all reduce ATP in insulin sensitive cells. This new concept provides a unifying cellular and molecular mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, which may apply to insulin resistance in aging and lipodystrophy. PMID:23471659

  8. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackowrth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electro-magnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exists simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers

  9. Energy transfer in a mechanically trapped exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Jeremy K; Iwamura, Munetaka; Tahara, Tahei; Fujita, Makoto

    2009-07-15

    Host-guest complexes involving M(6)L(4) coordination cages can display unusual photoreactivity, and enclathration of the very large fluorophore bisanthracene resulted in an emissive, mechanically trapped intramolecular exciplex. Mechanically linked intramolecular exciplexes are important for understanding the dependence of energy transfer on donor-acceptor distance, orientation, and electronic coupling but are relatively unexplored. Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements have revealed that selective excitation of the encapsulated guest fluorophore results in efficient energy transfer from the excited guest to an emissive host-guest exciplex state.

  10. Direct design of an energy landscape with bistable DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Marras, Alexander E; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-03-11

    Structural DNA nanotechnology provides a feasible technique for the design and fabrication of complex geometries even exhibiting controllable dynamic behavior. Recently we have demonstrated the possibility of implementing macroscopic engineering design approaches to construct DNA origami mechanisms (DOM) with programmable motion and tunable flexibility. Here, we implement the design of compliant DNA origami mechanisms to extend from prescribing motion to prescribing an energy landscape. Compliant mechanisms facilitate motion via deformation of components with tunable stiffness resulting in well-defined mechanical energy stored in the structure. We design, fabricate, and characterize a DNA origami nanostructure with an energy landscape defined by two stable states (local energy minima) separated by a designed energy barrier. This nanostructure is a four-bar bistable mechanism with two undeformed states. Traversing between those states requires deformation, and hence mechanical energy storage, in a compliant arm of the linkage. The energy barrier for switching between two states was obtained from the conformational distribution based on a Boltzmann probability function and closely follows a predictive mechanical model. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability to actuate the mechanism into one stable state via additional DNA inputs and then release the actuation via DNA strand displacement. This controllable multistate system establishes a foundation for direct design of energy landscapes that regulate conformational dynamics similar to biomolecular complexes.

  11. Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical processes during the expansion phase of a steam explosion with intimately fragmented liquid particles is investigated based on elementary principles and analytical solutions. During a short load pulse, the different densities of the water and the melted particles lead to different velocities. After the load pulse, viscosity effects lead to a slow down of the higher velocities and to a corresponding reconversion of the kinetic energy of the mixture into thermal energy. It is shown that both effects are proportional to each other. The ratio between the residual and the applied mechanical energy is defined as the mechanical efficiency of the steam explosion. Using data typical for a steam explosion in a pressurized water reactor, mechanical efficiencies of <50% are estimated. Considering that the thermodynamic efficiencies are quite limited, the very low conversion rates from thermal energy into mechanical energy observed during steam explosion experiments can be more easily understood

  12. Heat pumping using the thermal earth gradient to produce air conditioned and hot water with savings of up to 70%; Bombeo de calor utilizando el gradiente termico de la tierra para producir aire acondicionado y agua caliente con ahorros de hasta un 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [Novaenergia de Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The pumping of heat using the Earth heat as partial energy source bases its principle on which the energy of the ground is constant and the energy efficiency to produce air conditioning and hot water simultaneously is important, obtaining savings up to 70%, comparing itself with the traditional equipment and what these operate of separated way to produce each one of them the cold air and the hot water. The use of this technology presents an opportunity to reduce the energy costs of and the demand of the company. [Spanish] El bombeo de calor utilizando el calor de la tierra como fuente parcial de energia basa su principio en que la energia del suelo es constante y el rendimiento energetico para producir simultaneamente aire acondicionado y agua caliente es importante, obteniendose ahorros hasta de un 70%, comparandose con los equipos tradicionales y que estos operan de manera separada para producir cada uno de ellos el aire frio y el agua caliente. El uso de esta tecnologia presenta una oportunidad para reducir los costos de energia y demanda de la empresa.

  13. Interactions in the energy supply system. Mechanisms - interactions - examples. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausfelder, Florian; Wagemann, Kurt; Drake, Frank-Detlef; Paschke, Marian; Schueth, Ferdi; Themann, Michael; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2015-01-01

    In embarking on the energy turnaround Germany has taken upon itself one of the greatest self-chosen challenges of the future, namely to transform the energy supply system from being predominantly dependent on fossil fuels to relying almost entirely on renewable energy resources. The driving goal behind this project, which has wide public acceptance, is to ensure that our energy supply remains sustainable, safe and affordable. This transformation process by a successful industrial nation is being followed abroad with great interest. The present document does not undertake a political assessment of the energy turnaround or its goals. It rather focuses on an analysis of effects brought about by individual measures on the system as a whole. This systemic view opens up a new perspective on the ''engine room'' of the energy turnaround. It allows one to inquire whether a given measure actually fulfils the expectations that have been placed in it for the system as a whole - expectations that are often born from too narrow a perspective - or whether it is having unexpected, undesirable effects. These can impact on the effectiveness of a specific measure in realising the goals of the energy turnaround. The authors believe that having as precise knowledge as possible of these systemic interactions is a fundamental prerequisite to managing the energy turnaround in such a way that its goals are achieved as effectively and efficiently as possible.

  14. On phase transformation models for thermo-mechanically coupled response of Nitinol

    KAUST Repository

    Sengupta, Arkaprabha

    2011-03-31

    Fully coupled thermomechanical models for Nitinol at the grain level are developed in this work to capture the inter-dependence between deformation and temperature under non-isothermal conditions. The martensite transformation equations are solved using a novel algorithm which imposes all relevant constraints on the volume fractions. The numerical implementation of the resulting models within the finite element method is effected by the monolithic solution of the momentum and energy equations. Validation of the models is achieved by means of thin-tube experiments at different strain rates. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Evaluation of dysphagia risk, nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly patients with Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig; de Oliveira, Lilian Oliveira; Hack, Jaqueline; Magro, Marcela; Bonini, Juliana Sartori

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. Methods the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed. Results it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients. Conclusion an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26107841

  16. Evaluation of dysphagia risk, nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly patients with Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernanda Goes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease.METHODS: the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed.RESULTS: it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients.CONCLUSION: an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (pdiet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  18. An eigenstrain approach to predict phase transformation and self-accommodation in partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensl, Th.; Mühlich, U.; Budnitzki, M.; Kuna, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical model to predict phase transformation in PSZ is developed. • Analytical model to predict number of twins in monoclinic inclusions in PSZ. • Models consider inclusions size, shape, temperature, remote loading and surface energy. - Abstract: This work focuses on micromechanical modeling of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation (t–m transformation) in partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Tetragonal particles dispersed in a cubic matrix may transform into the monoclinic phase under sufficiently high mechanical loading or if the material is cooled down below a critical temperature. This phase transformation is supposed to be responsible for the so called transformation toughening effect of PSZ. The transformation is usually accompanied by a self-accommodation process, which reduces the occurring eigenstresses in the surrounding matrix. The influences of particle size and geometry, chemical driving force, temperature, surface energy and remote loading on the t–m transformation are estimated by a thermostatic approach. We assume, that transformations occur, once the Gibbs free energy of the transformed equilibrium state is lower than that of the untransformed reference state. To obtain an analytical solution, the microstructure is modeled as an inclusion of rectangular cross section, restrained by an infinite elastic matrix, under plane strain conditions. The developed model for phase transformation captures the well-known size and temperature dependencies. Furthermore, it indicates a significant influence of the particle geometry, that large aspect ratios of the inclusion’s cross section lower the trigger stress for phase transformation

  19. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improved longevity with caloric restriction (CR) in rodents. Little is known regarding effects of CR in genetically lean versus obese strains. Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rats make an ideal comparison for a CR study because the percentage body fat of young adult LE rats is double that of BN rats. Male LE and BN rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or were caloricallyrestricted to 80 or 90% of their AL weight. The percentages of fat, lean and fluid mass were measured non-invasively at 2- to 4-week intervals. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of CR. Overall health was scored monthly. The percentage of fat of the LE strain decreased with CR, whereas the percentage of fat of the BN strain remained above the AL group for several months. The percentage of lean mass increased above the AL for both strains subjected to CR. The percentage offluid was unaffected by CR. The average metabolic rate over 22 h of the BN rats subjected to CR was reduced, whereas that of LE rats was increased slightly above the AL group. The respiratory quotient of BN rats wasdecreased with CR. Overall health of the CR LE group was significantly improved compared with t

  20. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  1. Environmental cost of distribution transformer losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgilakis, Pavlos S.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency of electrical equipment reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to the protection of the environment. Moreover, as system investment and energy costs continue to increase, electric utilities are increasingly interested in installing energy-efficient transformers at their distribution networks. This paper analyzes the impact of the environmental cost of transformer losses on the economic evaluation of distribution transformers. This environmental cost is coming form the cost to buy GHG emission credits because of the GHG emissions associated with supplying transformer losses throughout the transformer lifetime. Application results on the Hellenic power system for 21 transformer offers under 9 different scenarios indicate that the environmental cost of transformer losses can reach on average 34% and 8% of transformer purchasing price for high loss and medium loss transformers, respectively. That is why it is important to incorporate the environmental cost of transformer losses into the economic evaluation of distribution transformers.

  2. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  3. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  4. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  5. Promoting energy-efficient products: GEF experience and lessons for market transformation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, Sabrina; Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has allocated more than $90 million over the past 10 years to eight projects promoting energy-efficient products in developing and transition countries. We review the early experience from these projects and suggest lessons relevant to market transformation programs. Based on GEF project designs, we also propose a menu of generic supply-side and demand-side interventions useful for designing and analyzing market transformation programs. Experience suggests that institutional and policy changes, leading to sustained price reductions and higher market volumes, are important outcomes for market transformation; that market impacts can appear early in programs due to increased expectations and awareness; and that projects can have a catalytic effect. We recommend eight principles for designers of future projects but caution that no single approach guarantees success

  6. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  7. 78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... nominal EL values. Table I.5--Electrical Efficiencies for All Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformer... 2,500 99.53 Table I.6--Electrical Efficiencies for All Low-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformer... Transformers'' published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA TP 1-2002). [[Page 23343...

  8. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  9. On the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Smets, A. H. M.; Creatore, M.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited by using the expanding thermal plasma and their oxidation upon air exposure was followed in time. Transmission spectra were

  10. Antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmlöf, Kjell; Hastrup, Sven; Wulff, Birgitte Schellerup; Hansen, Barbara C; Peschke, Bernd; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Hohlweg, Rolf; Rimvall, Karin

    2007-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1202, on caloric intake in pigs and in rhesus monkeys. The compound was given intragastrically (5 or 15 mg/kg), to normal pigs (n=7) and subcutaneously (1 or 0.1mg/kg) to obese rhesus monkeys (n=9). The energy intake recorded following administration of vehicle to the same animals served as control for the effect of the compound. In addition, rhesus monkey and pig histamine H(3) receptors were cloned from hypothalamic tissues and expressed in mammalian cell lines. The in vitro antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the H(3) receptors were determined using a functional GTPgammaS binding assay. Porcine and human H(3) receptors were found to have 93.3% identity at the amino acid level and the close homology between the monkey and human H(3) receptors (98.4% identity) was confirmed. The antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the porcine, monkey and human histamine H(3) receptors were high as evidenced by K(i)-values being clearly below 20 nM, whereas the K(i)-value on the rat H(3) receptor was significantly higher (56+/-6.0 nM). NNC 38-1202, given to pigs in a dose of 15 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction (55%) of calorie intake compared with vehicle alone, (132.6+/-10.0 kcal/kgday versus 59.7+/-10.2 kcal/kgday). In rhesus monkeys administration of 0.1 and 1mg/kg decreased (p<0.05) average calorie intakes by 40 and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that antagonistic targeting of the histamine H(3) receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

  11. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  12. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and one-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy.

  13. Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.

    1976-01-01

    The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.

  14. Concepciones alternativas de los docentes en formación del Instituto Pedagógico Superior Juan Demóstenes Arosemena sobre los conceptos de energía, calor y temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, Viterbo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2009 en el Instituto Pedagógico Superior Juan Demóstenes Arosemena. La metodología utilizada en el estudio es del tipo descriptiva cuantitativa y se utilizó una prueba de elección múltiple para recoger los datos. Cada ítem de la prueba centraba la atención en las concepciones alternativas sobre energía, calor y temperatura. Dicha prueba, después de su validación y pilotaje, fue desarrollada por 241 estudiantes de licenciatura de este Instituto. Luego de analizar las respuestas de los ítems, se obtuvo suficiente evidencia para concluir, significativamente, que los docentes en formación tienen concepciones alternativas: el 63.8% sobre el concepto de energía; 69% sobre el concepto de calor, y el 70.7% sobre el concepto de temperatura y movimiento (p=0.05. Las respuestas proporcionadas por los estudiantes demuestran que un elevado número considera que las transformaciones de energía ocurren sin ningún tipo de intercambio ni degradación de la misma. Esto revela su falta de comprensión de las leyes de la termodinámica. Las concepciones alternativas sobre el concepto de energía sugieren tres áreas o líneas principales de problemas: el concepto mismo de energía, los procesos que implican la transferencia de energía y el principio de conservación de la energía.Abstract: This article presents the results of research conducted in 2009 in the Instituto Pedagógico Superior Juan Demóstenes Arosemena. The methodology used in the study is descriptive research with a predominantly quantitative approach. A test was used with multiple-choice questions to collect data. Each item of the test was focused on alternative conceptions about energy, heat and temperature. The test, after validation and Piloting, was solved by 241 undergraduate students from the teaching training programs at Instituto Pedagógico. After analyzing the answers of the items, we

  15. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of a Hot-Rolled High-Manganese Dual-Phase Transformation-Induced Plasticity/Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liming; Shan, Mokun; Zhang, Daoda; Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei; Shan, Aidang

    2017-05-01

    The microstructures and deformation behavior were studied in a high-temperature annealed high-manganese dual-phase (28 vol pct δ-ferrite and 72 vol pct γ-austenite) transformation-induced plasticity/twinning-induced plasticity (TRIP/TWIP) steel. The results showed that the steel exhibits a special Lüders-like yielding phenomenon at room temperature (RT) and 348 K (75 °C), while it shows continuous yielding at 423 K, 573 K and 673 K (150 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) deformation. A significant TRIP effect takes place during Lüders-like deformation at RT and 348 K (75 °C) temperatures. Semiquantitative analysis of the TRIP effect on the Lüders-like yield phenomenon proves that a softening effect of the strain energy consumption of strain-induced transformation is mainly responsible for this Lüders-like phenomenon. The TWIP mechanism dominates the 423 K (150 °C) deformation process, while the dislocation glide controls the plasticity at 573 K (300 °C) deformation. The delta-ferrite, as a hard phase in annealed dual-phase steel, greatly affects the mechanical stability of austenite due to the heterogeneous strain distribution between the two phases during deformation. A delta-ferrite-aided TRIP effect, i.e., martensite transformation induced by localized strain concentration of the hard delta-ferrite, is proposed to explain this kind of Lüders-like phenomenon. Moreover, the tensile curve at RT exhibits an upward curved behavior in the middle deformation stage, which is principally attributed to the deformation twinning of austenite retained after Lüders-like deformation. The combination of the TRIP effect during Lüders-like deformation and the subsequent TWIP effect greatly enhances the ductility in this annealed high-manganese dual-phase TRIP/TWIP steel.

  16. Effects of caloric deprivation on thyroid hormone tissue uptake and generation of low-T3 syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Heyden, J.T.M.; Docter, R.; van Toor, H.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Hennemann, G.; Krenning, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in the low-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) syndrome cannot be fully explained in all conditions by a decrease in 5'-deiodinase activity. Recent observations showed that in rat hepatocytes iodothyronines are taken up by an active transport mechanism. To investigate whether regulation, i.e., inhibition of active transmembraneous transport for iodothyronines in humans may contribute to the generation of the low-T 3 syndrome, tracer thyroxine (T 4 ) and T 3 kinetic studies were performed in 10 obese subjects before and after 7 days on a 240 kcal diet. Kinetics analyses were performed according to a three-pool model of distribution and metabolism for both T 4 and T 3 . For T 4 kinetics, during caloric deprivation serum total T 4 and plasma pool did not change and production rate and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) were significantly lower. Despite a significantly higher serum free T 4 , the mass transfer rate to the rapidly equilibrating pool (REP) and the slowly equilibrating pool (SEP) diminished significantly, leading to smaller tissue pools. For T 3 kinetics, both serum total T 3 , free T 3 , plasma pool, and production rate diminished significantly, while MCR remained unchanged. These changes cannot be fully explained by a similar decrease of serum free T 3 (only 25%), indicating a diminished transport efficiency for T 3 . In conclusion, during caloric restriction, transport of T 4 and T 3 into tissues is diminished, and this phenomenon is much more pronounced for T 4 transport per se may contribute to low-T 3 production and low-T 3 serum levels due to less substrate (i.e., T 4 ) availability in tissues

  17. Energy spectrum of the nucleus 73Ta181 by a canonical transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, D.; Bueyuekkilic, F.

    1990-01-01

    The quasi-particle creation and annihilation operators introduced in the BCS formalism for the sake of convenience in the calculations, are taken as a function of a parameter (σ). This parameter is also a function of an arbitrary parameter in terms of the probability of the states being occupied or unoccupied. The canonical transformation of the general Hamiltonian of the nucleus has been performed in terms of this new parameter. Using the Hamiltonian obtained, the matrix elements of the odd-mass nucleus are calculated and the energy spectra are determined. The single-particle energies are calculated by diagonalization of the Lamm Hamiltonian with the asymptotic base wave function. It is observed that the energy values can be found in a rational manner by a suitable choice of all the parameters. (author) 10 refs.; 4 tabs

  18. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  19. Procurement for market transformation for energy-efficient products. A study under the SAVE-programme[SAVE = Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the findings from the SAVE study, 'Procurement for Market Transformation for Energy Efficient Products', focusing on the possibility of executing co-operative procurement activities at the European level. The conclusions are based upon findings from 36 market studies carried out in nine European countries regarding four different products: induction motors, solar-energy systems for water heating, office lighting systems, and combined fridge-freezers, as well as practical experience from about 30 procurements carried out by NUTEK in Sweden, and the experience of the IEA DSM Implementing agreement annex III 'Co-operative Procurement of Innovative Technologies'. The study concludes that co-operative procurement is a promising instrument for consideration in combination with other instruments for future energy-efficiency policy at the EU level. By seeking to transform the European market in its totality, the current prevailing differences between national markets can be softened contributing to the completion of a single European market and providing a basis for a more integrated market transformation approach. However, carrying out the process at the EU level is complex and it therefore needs careful designing in order to be successful. A main barrier to measures of this kind being implemented is the lack of experience, and therefore trust in the process as such, which is why further practical experience on both a national and international level is needed. To encourage member states to participate and co-operate whatever the form chosen, the study suggests that concrete and active support from the Commission is an important signalling effect, since the importance of energy efficiency on the political agenda differs considerably between countries that, furthermore, are more or less flexible when it comes to adopting new policy instruments.

  20. Do nistagmo às provas calóricas com ar e com água From nystagmus to the air and water caloric tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Marques Perrella de Barros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A prova calórica é uma importante ferramenta na avaliação da função labiríntica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o nistagmo pós-calórico da prova com ar a 50ºC e 24ºC com o da prova com água a 44ºC e 30ºC. Desenho científico: Estudo clínico cruzado randomizado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 40 indivíduos hígidos submetidos à avaliação da função vestibular incluindo a prova calórica com ar a 50ºC e 24ºC e com água a 44ºC e 30ºC. RESULTADOS: À comparação das provas com ar e com água, não houve diferença significante entre os valores da velocidade angular da componente lenta (VACL do nistagmo pós-calórico quanto à ordem de realização das estimulações, entre as orelhas e entre os valores de predomínio labiríntico e de preponderância direcional. Os valores da VACL foram maiores nas estimulações com água (p = 0,008; p The caloric test is an important tool for the assessment of labyrinthine function. OBJECTIVE: To compare the nystagmus response in the caloric tests with air at 50ºC and 24ºC and with water at 44ºC and 30ºC. Study Design: Randomized crossover clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation, including caloric tests with air at 50ºC and 24ºC and water at 44ºC and 30ºC. RESULTS: Comparing the air and water caloric tests, there were no significant differences among the post-caloric nystagmus slow-phase velocity in relation to the stimulation order, between ears and between the values of unilateral weakness and directional preponderance. The slow-phase velocity values were higher with water (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, and cold stimulation produced stronger responses (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Comparing 50ºC and 24ºC air caloric test and 44ºC and 30ºC water caloric test, we observed similar slow-phase velocity values for both ears, higher responses in the cold temperature and in the test with water, and similar results of unilateral weakness or directional

  1. Stacking faults and mechanisms strain-induced transformations of hcp metals (Ti, Mg) during mechanical activation in liquid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubnin, A. N.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Nikonova, R. M.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Lad'yanov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of the structure and substructure of metals Ti and Mg with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice is studied during their mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill in liquid hydrocarbons (toluene, n-heptane) and with additions of carbon materials (graphite, fullerite, nanotubes) by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The temperature behavior and hydrogen-accumulating properties of mechanocomposites are studied. During mechanical activation of Ti and Mg, liquid hydrocarbons decay, metastable nanocrystalline titanium carbohydride Ti(C,H) x and magnesium hydride β-MgH2 are formed, respectively. The Ti(C,H) x and MgH2 formation mechanisms during mechanical activation are deformation ones and are associated with stacking faults accumulation, and the formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) packing of atoms. Metastable Ti(C,H)x decays at a temperature of 550°C, the partial reverse transformation fcc → hcp occurs. The crystalline defect accumulation (nanograin boundaries, stacking faults), hydrocarbon destruction, and mechanocomposite formation leads to the enhancement of subsequent magnesium hydrogenation in the Sieverts reactor.

  2. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  3. Transformation of potential energy surfaces for estimating isotopic shifts in anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, Robert [Clemens-Schöpf Institut für Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.

  4. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials.

  5. Estudio y optimización de los sistemas de intercambio de calor en generación termoeléctrica aplicada al aprovechamiento del calor residual

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia el aprovechamiento del calor residual mediante generación termoeléctrica para la obtención de potencia eléctrica generada gracias al efecto Seebeck. Dos son las aproximaciones empleadas, la simulación computacional, empleando variables obtenidas experimentalmente y la experimentación de escenarios reales. Ambas dos han obtenido valores muy prometedores para la generación eléctrica a través de los gases residuales. Con el desarrollo de esta tesis doctoral,...

  6. Investigating different mechanisms for biogenic selenite transformations: Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Veillonella atypica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.I.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Law, N.; Charnock, J.M.; Coker, V.S.; Fellowes, J.W.; Oremland, R.S.; Lloyd, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Veillonella atypica, use different mechanisms to transform toxic, bioavailable sodium selenite to less toxic, non-mobile elemental selenium and then to selenide in anaerobic environments, offering the potential for in situ and ex situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, sediments, industrial effluents, and agricultural drainage waters. The products of these reductive transformations depend on both the organism involved and the reduction conditions employed, in terms of electron donor and exogenous extracellular redox mediator. The intermediary phase involves the precipitation of elemental selenium nanospheres and the potential role of proteins in the formation of these structures is discussed. The bionanomineral phases produced during these transformations, including both elemental selenium nanospheres and metal selenide nanoparticles, have catalytic, semiconducting and light-emitting properties, which may have unique applications in the realm of nanophotonics. This research offers the potential to combine remediation of contaminants with the development of environmentally friendly manufacturing pathways for novel bionanominerals. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Finite Element Calculation of Local Variation in the Driving Force for Austenite to Martensite Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, K.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Huetink, J.; Post, J.; Dinsdale, A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of strain induced martensitic transformation are coupled for a metastable alloy steel and implemented in FE models of forming processes. The basic formulations are based on a fifty year old treaty by Patel and Cohen. The variation in Gibbs energy due to local variation in strain, strain rate, temperature and state of stress of a forming part is calculated by FE codes. The local variation in Gibbs energy gives a probabilistic image of the potential sites for strain induced martensitic transformations

  8. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  9. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  10. REDES DE INTERCAMBIO DE CALOR APLICADAS A LA ESTERIFICACIÓN DE ACEITES VEGETALES USADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Laborde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available E n este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de redes de intercambio de calor (RIC a la esterificación de aceites vegetales usados (AVUs con catálisis ácida para la producción de biodiesel. Se aplican distintos métodos para obtener las cantidades mínimas de calor y la RIC para una capacidad de procesamiento de 0,19 kg/s de AVUs. Se considera una diferencia de temperatura mínima (∆Tmin de 10°C y los requerimientos mínimos de calentamiento y enfriamiento, resultan ser de 4629,87 W y de 10066,30 W, respectivamente. Al aplicar la red de intercambio calórico disminuye en un 78,92% el servicio de vapor requerido en el proceso y en un 62,48% el servicio de agua de enfriamiento, lo que demuestra que la integración reduce los requerimientos energéticos respecto al proceso no integrado.

  11. Caloric restriction in the presence of attractive food cues: external cues, eating, and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2008-08-06

    A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [[34]. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105-1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned about negative psychological and behavioral sequelae of such restriction, advocates of CR continue to urge people to adopt sharply reduced eating regimes in order to increase their longevity. Yet very few people are even attempting to reap the benefits of such restriction. The present paper explores one factor that may deter many humans from drastically reducing their food consumption--the presence of abundant, attractive food cues in the environment. Research on the influence of food cues on food-related behaviors is reviewed to demonstrate that the presence of food cues makes restriction of intake more difficult.

  12. Multisensor signal denoising based on matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform for mechanical fault condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cancan; Lv, Yong; Xiao, Han; Huang, Tao; You, Guanghui

    2018-04-01

    Since it is difficult to obtain the accurate running status of mechanical equipment with only one sensor, multisensor measurement technology has attracted extensive attention. In the field of mechanical fault diagnosis and condition assessment based on vibration signal analysis, multisensor signal denoising has emerged as an important tool to improve the reliability of the measurement result. A reassignment technique termed the synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (SWT) has obvious superiority in slow time-varying signal representation and denoising for fault diagnosis applications. The SWT uses the time-frequency reassignment scheme, which can provide signal properties in 2D domains (time and frequency). However, when the measured signal contains strong noise components and fast varying instantaneous frequency, the performance of SWT-based analysis still depends on the accuracy of instantaneous frequency estimation. In this paper, a matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (MSWT) is investigated as a potential candidate to replace the conventional synchrosqueezing transform for the applications of denoising and fault feature extraction. The improved technology utilizes the comprehensive instantaneous frequency estimation by chirp rate estimation to achieve a highly concentrated time-frequency representation so that the signal resolution can be significantly improved. To exploit inter-channel dependencies, the multisensor denoising strategy is performed by using a modulated multivariate oscillation model to partition the time-frequency domain; then, the common characteristics of the multivariate data can be effectively identified. Furthermore, a modified universal threshold is utilized to remove noise components, while the signal components of interest can be retained. Thus, a novel MSWT-based multisensor signal denoising algorithm is proposed in this paper. The validity of this method is verified by numerical simulation, and experiments including a rolling

  13. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy......Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...... to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...

  14. A Laplace transform method for energy multigroup hybrid discrete ordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatto, C.F.; Vilhena, M.T.; Barros, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this work we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N) method for energy multigroup slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. The idea is based on the fact that in weakly absorbing media whose physical size is several neutron mean free paths in extent, even the S 2 method (P 1 approximation), leads to an accurate result. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) analytical numerical method to calculate the two-energy group neutron flux distributions and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems.

  15. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Salman A; Nashwan, Samar Z; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m 2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while fasting ( Ramadan ). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan ). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  16. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Usi