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Sample records for meat-mutagens increase lung

  1. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  2. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  3. Hazy increased density in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.S.; Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Warnock, M.; Park, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of ground glass density on high-resolution CT scans of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other lung disorders, the authors have reviewed 200 high-resolution CT studies and found 50 cases demonstrating areas of hazy increased lung density. Disease entities most often associated with this finding included DIP, UIP, alveolar proteinosis, sarcoidosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans/ organizing pneumonia. Pathologic examination revealed either cellular or fluid material lining terminal air spaces, often associated with alveolar wall infiltration and an absence of fibrosis. Gallium scans and bronchoalveolar lavage in some cases showed active inflammation Follow-up high-resolution CT studies in 10 patients showed either change or resolution of the hazy densities, confirming the presence of a reversible parenchymal lesion

  4. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  5. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure (12 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH2O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH2O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH2O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method.

  6. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure [12 cmH 2 O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)] or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH 2 O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method

  7. [Utility of Multiple Increased Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Li, Junling; Liu, Yutao; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-10-20

    Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who receiving the first line chemotherapy in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristic, serum tumor markers before chemotherapy, efficacy evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Except CEA and CA125, the highest ratio of increased tumor markersin group A was CYFRA21-1 (93%), then was NSE (36%), SCC (13%) and ProGRP (12%). Patients with multiple increased tumor markers tend to have more distant metastasis (Ptumor markers have high risk of relapse, and maintenance therapy can reduce relapse risk.

  8. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  9. Increased hydrostatic pressure enhances motility of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chiu; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressures within most solid tumors are significantly higher than that in the surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, cancer cells must proliferate and migrate under the influence of elevated hydrostatic pressure while a tumor grows. In this study, we developed a pressurized cell culture device and investigated the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the migration speeds of lung cancer cells (CL1-5 and A549). The migration speeds of lung cancer cells were increased by 50-60% under a 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure. We also observed that the expressions of aquaporin in CL1-5 and A549 cells were increased under the hydrostatic pressure. Our preliminary results indicate that increased hydrostatic pressure plays an important role in tumor metastasis.

  10. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    In order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms relating to the large lung volumes of swimmers, tests of mechanical lung function, including lung distensibility (K) and elastic recoil, pulmonary diffusion capacity, and respiratory mouth pressures, together with anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, chest width, depth and surface area), were compared in eight elite male swimmers, eight elite male long distance athletes and eight control subjects. The differences in training profiles of each group were also examined. There was no significant difference in height between the subjects, but the swimmers were younger than both the runners and controls, and both the swimmers and controls were heavier than the runners. Of all the training variables, only the mean total distance in kilometers covered per week was significantly greater in the runners. Whether based on: (a) adolescent predicted values; or (b) adult male predicted values, swimmers had significantly increased total lung capacity ((a) 145 +/- 22%, (mean +/- SD) (b) 128 +/- 15%); vital capacity ((a) 146 +/- 24%, (b) 124 +/- 15%); and inspiratory capacity ((a) 155 +/- 33%, (b) 138 +/- 29%), but this was not found in the other two groups. Swimmers also had the largest chest surface area and chest width. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was largest in the swimmers ((b) 122 +/- 17%) and FEV1 as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% was similar for the three groups. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) was also highest in the swimmers (117 +/- 18%). All of the other indices of lung function, including pulmonary distensibility (K), elastic recoil and diffusion coefficient (KCO), were similar. These findings suggest that swimmers may have achieved greater lung volumes than either runners or control subjects, not because of greater inspiratory muscle strength, or differences in height, fat free mass, alveolar distensibility, age at start of training or sternal length or

  11. Increased radiolucency of the lungs in infancy: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Daniel Lahan; Pereira Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Nanni, Livio; Baracat, Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic asymmetries characterized by increased radiolucency of the lungs are important causes of morbidity in infants and children. Evaluation of affected patients frequently requires multiple imaging methods to diagnose the abnormality and to plan the surgical correction. The authors review and illustrate the characteristics of both common and rare thoracic asymmetries with emphasis on the radiological findings. The usefulness of different imaging methods in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions is evaluated. The differential diagnosis as well the pitfalls and diagnostic difficulties are also discussed. (author)

  12. Multiple fields may offer better esophagus sparing without increased probability of lung toxicity in optimized IMRT of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Fraass, Benedick A.; Haken, Randall K. ten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether increasing numbers of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields enhance lung-tumor dose without additional predicted toxicity for difficult planning geometries. Methods and Materials: Data from 8 previous three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) patients with tumors located in various regions of each lung, but with planning target volumes (PTVs) overlapping part of the esophagus, were used as input. Four optimized-beamlet IMRT plans (1 plan that used the 3D-CRT beam arrangement and 3 plans with 3, 5, or 7 axial, but predominantly one-sided, fields) were compared. For IMRT, the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in the whole PTV was optimized simultaneously with that in a reduced PTV exclusive of the esophagus. Normal-tissue complication probability-based costlets were used for the esophagus, heart, and lung. Results: Overall, IMRT plans (optimized by use of EUD to judiciously allow relaxed PTV dose homogeneity) result in better minimum PTV isodose surface coverage and better average EUD values than does conformal planning; dose generally increases with the number of fields. Even 7-field plans do not significantly alter normal-lung mean-dose values or lung volumes that receive more than 13, 20, or 30 Gy. Conclusion: Optimized many-field IMRT plans can lead to escalated lung-tumor dose in the special case of esophagus overlapping PTV, without unacceptable alteration in the dose distribution to normal lung

  13. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gregory D; Merlo, Christian; O' Driscoll, Peter; Mehta, Shruti H; Galai, Noya; Vlahov, David; Samet, Jonathan; Engels, Eric A

    2007-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Link to the Intravenous Experience Study has prospectively observed a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, since 1988, using biannual collection of clinical, laboratory, and behavioral data. Lung cancer deaths were identified through linkage with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the effect of HIV infection on lung cancer risk, controlling for smoking status, drug use, and clinical variables. Among 2086 AIDS Link to the Intravenous Experience Study participants observed for 19,835 person-years, 27 lung cancer deaths were identified; 14 of the deaths were among HIV-infected persons. All but 1 (96%) of the patients with lung cancer were smokers, smoking a mean of 1.2 packs per day. Lung cancer mortality increased during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, compared with the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy period (mortality rate ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and calendar period, HIV infection was associated with increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.9). Preexisting lung disease, particularly noninfectious diseases and asthma, displayed trends for increased lung cancer risk. Illicit drug use was not associated with increased lung cancer risk. Among HIV-infected persons, smoking remained the major risk factor; CD4 cell count and HIV load were not strongly associated with increased lung cancer risk, and trends for increased risk with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy were not significant. HIV infection is associated with significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer, independent of smoking status.

  14. Anticoagulant drugs increase natural killer cell activity in lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, M.; Boubelík, Michael; Fišerová, Anna; Luptovcová, Martina; Vannucci, Luca; Kacprzak, G.; Kolodzej, J.; Majewski, A.M.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2005), s. 215-223 ISSN 0169-5002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : anticoagulant drugs * lung cancer * NK cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2005

  15. Increased alveolar soluble Annexin V promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, S.; Shi, W.; Xu, W.; Frey, M.R.; Moats, R.; Pardo, A.; Selman, M.; Warburton, D.

    2015-01-01

    The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesized that alveolar soluble Annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF BALF containing high Annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when Annexin V was depleted from the BALF.

  16. Lung Beractant Increases Free Cytosolic Levels of Ca2+ in Human Lung Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guzmán-Silva

    Full Text Available Beractant, a natural surfactant, induces an antifibrogenic phenotype and apoptosis in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF. As intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been related to programmed cell death, we aimed to assess the effect of beractant on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in NHLF in vitro. Cultured NHLF were loaded with Fura-2 AM (3 μM and Ca2+ signals were recorded by microfluorimetric techniques. Beractant causes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a EC50 of 0.82 μg/ml. The application of beractant, at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which has been shown to exert an apoptotic effect in human fibroblasts, elicited different patterns of Ca2+ signals in NHLF: a a single Ca2+ spike which could be followed by b Ca2+ oscillations, c a sustained Ca2+ plateau or d a sustained plateau overlapped by Ca2+ oscillations. The amplitude and pattern of Ca2+ transients evoked by beractant were dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that beractant activates a Ca2+ signal through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ, Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs and Ca2+ influx via a store-operated pathway. Moreover, beractant-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by preventing membrane depolarization upon removal of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+. Finally, the inhibition of store-operated channels prevented beractant-induced NHLF apoptosis and downregulation of α1(I procollagen expression. Therefore, beractant utilizes SOCE to exert its pro-apoptotic and antifibrinogenic effect on NHLF.

  17. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Warner, Timothy D.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2009-01-01

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB 2 ) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB 2 but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  18. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase induces lung cancer cell death via increasing the nuclear p27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Chan, Joey S.Y.; Yip, Johnson H.Y.; Li, Mingyue; Leung, Billy C.S. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Mok, Tony S.K. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Warner, Timothy D. [The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom); Underwood, Malcolm J. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The role of thromboxane in lung carcinogenesis is not clearly known, though thromboxane B2 (TXB{sub 2}) level is increased and antagonists of thromboxane receptors or TXA2 can induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells. p27, an atypical tumor suppressor, is normally sequestered in the nucleus. The increased nuclear p27 may result in apoptosis of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induces the death of lung cancer cells and that such inhibition is associated with the nuclear p27 level. Our experiment showed that the inhibition of TXS significantly induced the death or apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The activity of TXS was increased in lung cancer. The nuclear p27 was remarkably reduced in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of TXS caused the cell death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, likely via the elevation of the nuclear p27 since the TXS inhibition promoted the nuclear p27 level and the inhibition of p27 by its siRNA recovered the cell death induced by TXS inhibition. Collectively, lung cancer cells produce high levels of TXB{sub 2} but their nuclear p27 is markedly reduced. The inhibition of TXS results in the p27-related induction of cell death in lung cancer cells.

  19. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R.; Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Benedict, Sheela; Othman, Aws R.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Varga, Steven M.; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O 2 consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R., E-mail: alsuwaidia@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Albawardi, Alia, E-mail: alia.albawardi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Almarzooqi, Saeeda, E-mail: saeeda.almarzooqi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Benedict, Sheela, E-mail: sheela.benedict@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Othman, Aws R., E-mail: aws.rashad@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Hartwig, Stacey M., E-mail: stacey-hartwig@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Varga, Steven M., E-mail: steven-varga@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Souid, Abdul-Kader, E-mail: asouid@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  2. High bias gas flows increase lung injury in the ventilated preterm lamb.

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    Katinka P Bach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation of preterm babies increases survival but can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI, leading to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is not known whether shear stress injury from gases flowing into the preterm lung during ventilation contributes to VILI. METHODS: Preterm lambs of 131 days' gestation (term = 147 d were ventilated for 2 hours with a bias gas flow of 8 L/min (n = 13, 18 L/min (n = 12 or 28 L/min (n = 14. Physiological parameters were measured continuously and lung injury was assessed by measuring mRNA expression of early injury response genes and by histological analysis. Control lung tissue was collected from unventilated age-matched fetuses. Data were analysed by ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test when appropriate. RESULTS: High bias gas flows resulted in higher ventilator pressures, shorter inflation times and decreased ventilator efficiency. The rate of rise of inspiratory gas flow was greatest, and pulmonary mRNA levels of the injury markers, EGR1 and CTGF, were highest in lambs ventilated with bias gas flows of 18 L/min. High bias gas flows resulted in increased cellular proliferation and abnormal deposition of elastin, collagen and myofibroblasts in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: High ventilator bias gas flows resulted in increased lung injury, with up-regulation of acute early response genes and increased histological lung injury. Bias gas flows may, therefore, contribute to VILI and BPD.

  3. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  4. Intermittent Hypoxia Increases the Severity of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

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    Thomas Gille

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH is common in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Here, we evaluated the impact of IH on bleomycin- (BLM- induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Methods. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal BLM or saline and were exposed to IH (40 cycles/hour; FiO2 nadir: 6%; 8 hours/day or intermittent air (IA. In the four experimental groups, we evaluated (i survival; (ii alveolar inflammation, pulmonary edema, lung oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes; (iii lung cell apoptosis; and (iv pulmonary fibrosis. Results. Survival at day 21 was lower in the BLM-IH group (p<0.05. Pulmonary fibrosis was more severe at day 21 in BLM-IH mice, as assessed by lung collagen content (p=0.02 and histology. At day 4, BLM-IH mice developed a more severe neutrophilic alveolitis, (p<0.001. Lung oxidative stress was observed, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression was decreased in BLM-IH mice (p<0.05 versus BLM-IA group. At day 8, pulmonary edema was observed and lung cell apoptosis was increased in the BLM-IH group. Conclusion. These results show that exposure to chronic IH increases mortality, lung inflammation, and lung fibrosis in BLM-treated mice. This study raises the question of the worsening impact of severe OSA in IPF patients.

  5. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin kills mice by inducing a major increase in lung vascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geny, Blandine; Khun, Huot; Fitting, Catherine; Zarantonelli, Leticia; Mazuet, Christelle; Cayet, Nadège; Szatanik, Marek; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Huerre, Michel; Popoff, Michel R

    2007-03-01

    When intraperitoneally injected into Swiss mice, Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin reproduces the fatal toxic shock syndrome observed in humans and animals after natural infection. This animal model was used to study the mechanism of lethal toxin-induced death. Histopathological and biochemical analyses identified lung and heart as preferential organs targeted by lethal toxin. Massive extravasation of blood fluid in the thoracic cage, resulting from an increase in lung vascular permeability, generated profound modifications such as animal dehydration, increase in hematocrit, hypoxia, and finally, cardiorespiratory failure. Vascular permeability increase induced by lethal toxin resulted from modifications of lung endothelial cells as evidenced by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that VE-cadherin, a protein participating in intercellular adherens junctions, was redistributed from membrane to cytosol in lung endothelial cells. No major sign of lethal toxin-induced inflammation was observed that could participate in the toxic shock syndrome. The main effect of the lethal toxin is the glucosylation-dependent inactivation of small GTPases, in particular Rac, which is involved in actin polymerization occurring in vivo in lungs leading to E-cadherin junction destabilization. We conclude that the cells most susceptible to lethal toxin are lung vascular endothelial cells, the adherens junctions of which were altered after intoxication.

  6. Diabetes but not insulin increases the risk of lung cancer: a Taiwanese population-based study.

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    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trend of lung cancer incidence in Taiwan is unknown, and the association between type 2 diabetes/insulin use and lung cancer is rarely studied. METHODS: The trends of lung cancer incidence in 1979-2007 in the Taiwanese general population were calculated. A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance in 2005 was recruited. A total of 494,002 men and 502,948 women and without lung cancer were followed for the annual cumulative incidence of lung cancer in 2005, with calculation of the risk ratios between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds ratios for risk factors. RESULTS: The trends increased significantly in both sexes (P<0.0001. The sex-specific annual cumulative incidence increased with age in either the diabetic or non-diabetic subjects, but the risk ratios attenuated with age. In logistic regressions, diabetes was associated with a significantly higher risk, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval for diabetes duration <1, 1-3, 3-5 and ≥5 years versus non-diabetes of 2.189 (1.498-3.200, 1.420 (1.014-1.988, 1.545 (1.132-2.109, and 1.329 (1.063-1.660, respectively. Such an association was not related to a higher detection with chest X-ray examination. Insulin use and medications including oral anti-diabetic drugs, statin, fibrate, and anti-hypertensive agents were not significantly associated with lung cancer. Age, male sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positively; but dyslipidemia, stroke and higher socioeconomic status were negatively associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is significantly associated with a higher risk of lung cancer, but insulin use does not increase the risk.

  7. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

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    Manning, Casey M. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Johnston, Carl J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Reed, Christina K. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Lawrence, B. Paige [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Finkelstein, Jacob N., E-mail: Jacob_Finkelstein@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  8. Increased lung neutrophil apoptosis and inflammation resolution in nonresponding pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, I; Lorenzo, M J; Sarria, B; Cases, E; Morcillo, E; Perpiñá, M; Molina, J M; Menéndez, R

    2011-11-01

    Neutrophil activation state and its relationship with an inflammatory environment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain insufficiently elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the neutrophil apoptosis and cytokine pattern in CAP patients after 72 h of treatment, and their impact on infection resolution. Apoptosis of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils was measured in nonresponding CAP (NCAP), in responding CAP (blood only) and in patients without infection (control). Pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were measured. Main outcomes were clinical stability and days of hospitalisation. Basal neutrophil apoptosis was higher in the BAL and blood of NCAP, whereas spontaneous apoptosis (after 24 h culture) was lower. Cytokines in NCAP were higher than in responding CAP and control: IL-6 was increased in BAL and blood, IL-8 in BAL and IL-10 in blood. An increased basal apoptosis (≥20%) in BAL of NCAP was associated with lower systemic IL-10 (p<0.01), earlier clinical stability (p=0.05) and shorter hospital stay (p=0.02). A significant correlation was found for systemic IL-6 and IL-10 with days to reach stability and length of stay. After 72 h of treatment, an increased basal alveolar neutrophil apoptosis might contribute to downregulation of inflammation and to faster clinical stability.

  9. Low-frequency ultrasound increases non-viral gene transfer to the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenariou, Stefania; Liang, Hai-Dong; Griesenbach, Uta; Zhu, Jie; Farley, Raymond; Somerton, Lucinda; Singh, Charanjit; Jeffery, Peter K; Scheule, Ronald K; Cheng, Seng H; Geddes, Duncan M; Blomley, Martin; Alton, Eric W F W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess if low-frequency ultrasound (US), in the range of 30-35 kHz, increases non-viral gene transfer to the mouse lung. US is greatly attenuated in the lung due to large energy losses at the air/tissue interfaces. The advantages of low-frequency US, compared with high-frequency US are: (i) increased cavitation (responsible for the formation of transient pores in the cell membrane) and (ii) reduced energy losses during lung penetration. Cationic lipid GL67/plasmid DNA (pDNA), polyethylenimine (PEI)/pDNA and naked pDNA were delivered via intranasal instillation and the animals were then exposed to US (sonoporation) at 0.07 or 0.1 MPa for 10 min. Under these conditions, US did not enhance GL67 or PEI-mediated transfection. It did, however, increase naked pDNA gene transfer by approximately 4 folds. Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of microbubbles, which are crucial for the commonly used high-frequency (1 MHz) sonoporation but may not be able to withstand nebulization in a clinically relevant setup. Lung hemorrhage was also assessed and shown to increase with US pressure in a dose-dependent manner. We have thus, established that low-frequency US can enhance lung gene transfer with naked pDNA and this enhancement is more effective than the previously reported 1 MHz US.

  10. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

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    Karl J Staples

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  11. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kareem D; Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dunne, W Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Karl, Irene E; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Randomized, controlled study. University research laboratory. Genetically inbred mice. Following induction of acute lung injury, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild-type and C3H/HeJ mice, which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (n = 17); b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha or control antibody (n = 22); and c) C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n = 21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n = 24) as well as in a time course analysis following a fixed injury (n = 18). Acute lung injury caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe acute lung injury. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hrs, but proliferation was decreased 36 hrs following acute lung injury while apoptosis returned to normal. Acute lung injury causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving Toll-like receptor 4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the

  12. Post-inhaled corticosteroid pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia increases lung cancer in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Jing-Yang; Jan, Cheng-Feng; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Wu, Min-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-10-10

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been associated with decreased lung cancer risk. However, they have been associated with pulmonary infections (tuberculosis [TB] and pneumonia) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TB and pneumonia have increased lung cancer risk. The association between post-ICS pulmonary infections and lung cancer remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2003 to 2010 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Among the 1,089,955 patients with COPD, we identified 8813 new users of ICS prescribed for a period of 3 months or more and 35,252 non-ICS users who were randomly matched for sex, age and date of ICS use from 2003 to 2005. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of pulmonary infections in patients with/without ICS use. The HRs for lung cancer in ICS users with sequential lung infections were as follows; 2.42 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.28-4.58) for individuals with TB, 2.37 (95 % CI, 1.01-5.54) for TB and pneumonia, and 1.17(95 % CI, 0.69-1.98) for those with pneumonia. For non-ICS users with pulmonary infections, the HRs were 1.68 (95 % CI, 0.78-3.65) for individual with TB and pneumonia, 1.42 (95 % CI, 0.89-2.26) for TB, and 0.95 (95 % CI, 0.62-1.46) for individuals with pneumonia. COPD patients with TB /or pneumonia who used ICS had increased risk of lung cancer. Because the overall prognosis of lung cancer remains poor, screening tests are recommended for patients with these conditions.

  13. Increased AAA-TOB3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Bu, Lina; Li, Wei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Shengyu; Diao, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Guoan; Yang, Shuanying

    2017-07-24

    This study was to investigate the differential mitochondrial protein expressions in human lung adenocarcinoma and provide preliminary data for further exploration of the carcinogenic mechanism. Total proteins of A549 and 16HBE mitochondria were extracted through 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differential mitochondria proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were further confirmed by Western blot, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in A549 cells as well as lung adenocarcinoma tissues. A total of 41 differentially expressed protein spots were found in A549 mitochondria. Of them, 15 proteins were highly expressed and 26 proteins were lowly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 (by more than 1.5 times). Among the 15 more highly expressed proteins, AAA-TOB3 (by more than 3 times) was highly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 compared with the 16HBE, by LC-MS/MS identification. High electron density and clear circular colloidal gold-marked AAA-TOB3 particles were observed in the A549 cells via immunoelectron microscopy. Besides, AAA-TOB3 was confirmed to be elevated in lung adenocarcinoma by Western blot and IHC. Moreover, increased AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma (pAAA-TOB3 was highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and the up-regulation of AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma, which suggested that it could serve as a potential molecular marker for lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  15. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  16. Bronchoscopic Lung Cryobiopsy Increases Diagnostic Confidence in the Multidisciplinary Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Sara; Wells, Athol U; Costabel, Ulrich; Cavazza, Alberto; Colby, Thomas V; Rossi, Giulio; Sverzellati, Nicola; Carloni, Angelo; Carretta, Elisa; Buccioli, Matteo; Tantalocco, Paola; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Christian; Dubini, Alessandra; Piciucchi, Sara; Ryu, Jay H; Poletti, Venerino

    2016-04-01

    Surgical lung biopsy is often required for a confident multidisciplinary diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Alternative, less-invasive biopsy methods, such as bronchoscopic lung cryobiopsy (BLC), are highly desirable. To address the impact of BLC on diagnostic confidence in the multidisciplinary diagnosis of IPF. In this cross-sectional study we selected 117 patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease without a typical usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on high-resolution computed tomography. All cases underwent lung biopsies: 58 were BLC, and 59 were surgical lung biopsy (SLB). Two clinicians, two radiologists, and two pathologists sequentially reviewed clinical-radiologic findings and biopsy results, recording at each step in the process their diagnostic impressions and confidence levels. We observed a major increase in diagnostic confidence after the addition of BLC, similar to SLB (from 29 to 63%, P = 0.0003 and from 30 to 65%, P = 0.0016 of high confidence IPF diagnosis, in the BLC group and SLB group, respectively). The overall interobserver agreement in IPF diagnosis was similar for both approaches (BLC overall kappa, 0.96; SLB overall kappa, 0.93). IPF was the most frequent diagnosis (50 and 39% in the BLC and SLB group, respectively; P = 0.23). After the addition of histopathologic information, 17% of cases in the BLC group and 19% of cases in the SLB group, mostly idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, were reclassified as IPF. BLC is a new biopsy method that has a meaningful impact on diagnostic confidence in the multidisciplinary diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and may prove useful in the diagnosis of IPF. This study provides a robust rationale for future studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of BLC compared with SLB.

  17. Intermittent hypoxia increases melanoma metastasis to the lung in a mouse model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Isaac; Montserrat, Josep M; Torres, Marta; Dalmases, Mireia; Cabañas, Maria L; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has recently been associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality in humans. Experimental data in mice have also shown that intermittent hypoxia similar to that observed in OSA patients enhances tumor growth. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA enhances lung metastasis. A total of 75 C57BL/6J male mice (10-week-old) were subjected to either spontaneous or induced melanoma lung metastasis. Normoxic animals breathed room air and intermittent hypoxic animals were subjected to cycles of 20s of 5% O2 followed by 40s of room air for 6h/day. Spontaneous and induced lung metastases were studied after subcutaneous and intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, respectively. Compared with normoxia, intermittent hypoxia induced a significant increase in melanoma lung metastasis. These animal model results suggest that intermittent hypoxia could contribute to cancer metastasis in patients with OSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was 239 PuO 2 heat-treated at 850 degrees C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of 239 Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods 5 . These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of 239 and the amount of 239 Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was 85 Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of 85 Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for 85 Sr activity

  19. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  20. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  1. Isoproterenol attenuates high vascular pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L

    1997-12-01

    To separate the contributions of cellular and basement membrane components of the alveolar capillary barrier to the increased microvascular permeability induced by high pulmonary venous pressures (Ppv), we subjected isolated rat lungs to increases in Ppv, which increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) without significant hemorrhage (31 cmH2O) and with obvious extravasation of red blood cells (43 cmH2O). Isoproterenol (20 microM) was infused in one group (Iso) to identify a reversible cellular component of injury, and residual blood volumes were measured to assess extravasation of red blood cells through ruptured basement membranes. In untreated lungs (High Ppv group), Kfc increased 6.2 +/- 1.3 and 38.3 +/- 15.2 times baseline during the 31 and 43 cmH2O Ppv states. In Iso lungs, Kfc was 36.2% (P Kfc increases at moderate Ppv, possibly because of an endothelial effect, but it did not affect red cell extravasation at higher vascular pressures.

  2. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  3. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  4. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product

  5. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  6. Post-Inhaled Corticosteroid Pulmonary Tuberculosis Increases Lung Cancer in Patients with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Wu, Min-Chen; Wu, Ming-Fang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between post-inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia and lung cancer in patients with asthma. Methods The study samples were collected from the National Health Insurance Database. Asthmatic patients who were first-time users of ICS between 2003 and 2005 were identified as cases. For each case, 4 control individuals were randomly matched for sex, age and date of ICS use. Cases and matched controls were followed up until the end of 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the hazard ratio for pulmonary infections and lung cancer risk in the ICS users and non-users. Results A total of 10,904 first-time users of ICS were matched with 43,616 controls. The hazard ratios for lung cancer were: 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–5.22; p = 0.012) for individuals with post-ICS TB, 1.28 (95%CI, 0.73–2.26; p = 0.389) for post-ICS pneumonia, 2.31(95%CI, 0.84–6.38; p = 0.105) for post-ICS pneumonia+TB, 1.08 (95%CI, 0.57–2.03; p = 0.815) for TB, 0.99 (95%CI, 0.63–1.55; p = 0.970) for pneumonia, and 0.32 (95%CI, 0.05–2.32; p = 0.261) for pneumonia+ TB, respectively. Conclusions Post-ICS TB increased lung cancer risk in patients with asthma. Because of the high mortality associated with lung cancer, screening tests are recommended for patients with post-ICS TB. PMID:27448321

  7. Post-Inhaled Corticosteroid Pulmonary Tuberculosis Increases Lung Cancer in Patients with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Jing-Yang; Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Wu, Min-Chen; Wu, Ming-Fang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between post-inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia and lung cancer in patients with asthma. The study samples were collected from the National Health Insurance Database. Asthmatic patients who were first-time users of ICS between 2003 and 2005 were identified as cases. For each case, 4 control individuals were randomly matched for sex, age and date of ICS use. Cases and matched controls were followed up until the end of 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the hazard ratio for pulmonary infections and lung cancer risk in the ICS users and non-users. A total of 10,904 first-time users of ICS were matched with 43,616 controls. The hazard ratios for lung cancer were: 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-5.22; p = 0.012) for individuals with post-ICS TB, 1.28 (95%CI, 0.73-2.26; p = 0.389) for post-ICS pneumonia, 2.31(95%CI, 0.84-6.38; p = 0.105) for post-ICS pneumonia+TB, 1.08 (95%CI, 0.57-2.03; p = 0.815) for TB, 0.99 (95%CI, 0.63-1.55; p = 0.970) for pneumonia, and 0.32 (95%CI, 0.05-2.32; p = 0.261) for pneumonia+ TB, respectively. Post-ICS TB increased lung cancer risk in patients with asthma. Because of the high mortality associated with lung cancer, screening tests are recommended for patients with post-ICS TB.

  8. Lung surfactant microbubbles increase lipophilic drug payload for ultrasound-targeted delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsi, Shashank R; Fung, Chinpong; Garg, Sumit; Tianning, Mary Y; Mountford, Paul A; Borden, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The cavitation response of circulating microbubbles to targeted ultrasound can be used for noninvasive, site-specific delivery of shell-loaded materials. One challenge for microbubble-mediated delivery of lipophilic compounds is the limitation of drug loading into the microbubble shell, which is commonly a single phospholipid monolayer. In this study, we investigated the use of natural lung surfactant extract (Survanta(®), Abbott Nutrition) as a microbubble shell material in order to improve drug payload and delivery. Pulmonary surfactant extracts such as Survanta contain hydrophobic surfactant proteins (SP-B and SP-C) that facilitate lipid folding and retention on lipid monolayers. Here, we show that Survanta-based microbubbles exhibit wrinkles in bright-field microscopy and increased lipid retention on the microbubble surface in the form of surface-associated aggregates observed with fluorescence microscopy. The payload of a model lipophilic drug (DiO), measured by flow cytometry, increased by over 2-fold compared to lipid-coated microbubbles lacking SP-B and SP-C. Lung surfactant microbubbles were highly echogenic to contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging at low acoustic intensities. At higher ultrasound intensity, excess lipid was observed to be acoustically cleaved for localized release. To demonstrate targeting, a biotinylated lipopolymer was incorporated into the shell, and the microbubbles were subjected to a sequence of radiation force and fragmentation pulses as they passed through an avidinated hollow fiber. Lung surfactant microbubbles showed a 3-fold increase in targeted deposition of the model fluorescent drug compared to lipid-only microbubbles. Our results demonstrate that lung surfactant microbubbles maintain the acoustic responsiveness of lipid-coated microbubbles with the added benefit of increased lipophilic drug payload.

  9. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). © 2014 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Measurement of the filtration coefficient (Kfc) in the lung of Gallus domesticus and the effects of increased microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, W Jeffrey; Waddell, David S; Furlow, J David

    2006-08-01

    The filtration coefficient (Kfc) is a sensitive measure of microvascular hydraulic conductivity and has been reported for the alveolar lungs of many mammalian species, but not for the parabronchial avian lung. This study reports the Kfc in the isolated lungs of normal chickens and in the lungs of chickens given the edemogenic agents oleic acid (OA) or dimethyl amiloride (DMA). The control Kfc =0.04+/-0.01 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1). This parameter increased significantly following the administration of both OA (0.12+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1)) and DMA (0.07+/-0.01 ml min kPa(-1) g(-1)). As endothelial cadherins are thought to play a role in the dynamic response to acute lung injury, we utilized Western blot analysis to assess lung cadherin content and Northern blot analysis to assess pulmonary vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin expression following drug administration. Lung cadherin content decreases markedly following DMA, but not OA administration. VE cadherin expression increases as a result of DMA treatment, but is unchanged following OA. Our results suggest that the permeability characteristics of the avian lung are more closely consistent with those of the mammalian rather than the reptilian lung, and, that cadherins may play a significant role in the response to acute increases in avian pulmonary microvascular permeability.

  11. Increased Expression of FoxM1 Transcription Factor in Respiratory Epithelium Inhibits Lung Sacculation and Causes Clara Cell Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ching; Zhang, Yufang; Snyder, Jonathan; Sutherland, Mardi J.; Burhans, Michael S.; Shannon, John M.; Park, Hyun Jung; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Foxm1 is a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors. Foxm1 (previously called Foxm1b, HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is expressed in multiple cell types and plays important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of Foxm1 from mouse respiratory epithelium during initial stages of lung development inhibits lung maturation and causes respiratory failure after birth. However, the role of Foxm1 during postnatal lung morphogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, Foxm1 expression was detected in epithelial cells of conducting and peripheral airways and changing dynamically with lung maturation. To discern the biological role of Foxm1 in the prenatal and postnatal lung, a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a constitutively active form of FoxM1 (FoxM1 N-terminal deletion mutant or FoxM1-ΔN) under the control of lung epithelial-specific SPC promoter was produced. Expression of the FoxM1-ΔN transgene during embryogenesis caused epithelial hyperplasia, inhibited lung sacculation and expression of the type II epithelial marker, pro-SPC. Expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant during the postnatal period did not influence alveologenesis but caused focal airway hyperplasia and increased proliferation of Clara cells. Likewise, expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant in conducting airways with Scgb1a1 promoter was sufficient to induce Clara cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, FoxM1-ΔN cooperated with activated K-Ras to induce lung tumor growth in vivo. Increased activity of Foxm1 altered lung sacculation, induced proliferation in the respiratory epithelium and accelerated lung tumor growth, indicating that precise regulation of Foxm1 is critical for normal lung morphogenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:20816795

  12. Gadolinium prevents high airway pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, J A

    1998-04-01

    To determine the initial signaling event in the vascular permeability increase after high airway pressure injury, we compared groups of lungs ventilated at different peak inflation pressures (PIPs) with (gadolinium group) and without (control group) infusion of 20 microM gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of endothelial stretch-activated cation channels. Microvascular permeability was assessed by using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a measure of capillary hydraulic conductivity. Kfc was measured after ventilation for 30-min periods with 7, 20, and 30 cmH2O PIP with 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure and with 35 cmH2O PIP with 8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure. In control lungs, Kfc increased significantly to 1.8 and 3.7 times baseline after 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP, respectively. In the gadolinium group, Kfc was unchanged from baseline (0.060 +/- 0.010 ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g-1) after any PIP ventilation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly from baseline in both groups before the last Kfc measurement but was not different between groups. These results suggest that microvascular permeability is actively modulated by a cellular response to mechanical injury and that stretch-activated cation channels may initiate this response through increases in intracellular calcium concentration.

  13. Increased proximal acid reflux is associated with early readmission following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2016-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. However, the association between pretransplant reflux and post-transplant readmission, an indicator of early clinical outcome, has not been previously assessed. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients undergoing pretransplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) study off acid suppression at a tertiary care center since 2007. Subjects with pretransplant fundoplication were excluded. Time to readmission was defined as duration from post-transplant discharge to next hospital admission for any reason. Subgroup analysis was performed to exclude elective readmissions. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model, with appropriate censoring. Forty-three subjects (60% men, mean age: 57, median follow-up: 1.7 years) met inclusion criteria for the study. Patient demographics and pretransplant cardiopulmonary function were similar between readmission cohorts. Time to all-cause readmission was associated with increased distal acid episodes (HR: 3.15, p = 0.04) and proximal acid episodes (HR: 3.61, p = 0.008) on impedance, increased acid exposure on pH (HR: 2.22, p = 0.04), and elevated Demeester score (HR: 2.26, p = 0.03). When elective readmissions were excluded, early readmission remained significantly associated with increased proximal acid reflux episodes (HR: 2.49, p = 0.04). All findings were confirmed on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Elevated proximal acid reflux on pretransplant MII-pH testing was associated with early readmission following lung transplantation, even after excluding elective readmissions. Exposure to severe acid reflux has measurable effects on early postoperative outcomes such as readmission, and aggressive early antireflux therapy should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CT-Screening for lung cancer does not increase the use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Iachina, Maria; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer has recently been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, but screening may have adverse mental health effects. We calculated risk ratios for prescription of anti-depressive (AD) or anxiolytic (AX) medication redeemed at Danish pharmacies for participants in The Danish...... Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)....

  15. antiEGFR conjugated gold nanoparticles for increasing radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the set back that lies in lung cancer treatment is the over expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). EGFR is a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed in lung cancer that leads to cell survival, proliferation and spread of the disease. Over the years, EGFR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are being used in combination with radiotherapy in lung cancer patients so as to achieve better results. In the recent time, application of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in diagnosis and treatment of cancer has been extensively used in biomedical research. Among various applications, there is considerable use of AuNPs seen on the dose enhancement effect (radiosensitization) in radiation therapy of cancer. The conjugation of AuNP with monoclonal antibody antiEGFR (antiEGFR-AuNP) may provide excellent agent to sensitize the cells to heavy ion radiation. We synthesized AuNPs by citrate reduction method. Most of AuNPs were in the size range of 6-8 nm as studies by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). These AuNPs were found to be non toxic in A549 cells and thus biocompatible. Further, we conjugated AuNPs with antiEGFR (antiEGFR-AuNP). The conjugation was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. A549 cells were treated with antiEGFR-AuNP. TEM was carried out of ultrathin cross sections of antiEGFR-AuNP treated A549 cells to check the attachment internalization of AuNPs. We observed that the AuNPs are attached on the cell membrane as well as internalized in cytoplasm. Upon exposure of antiEGFR-AuNP treated cells to heavy ion 12 C beam, showed increase in radiosensitization as studied by survival assay and MTT assay. We will also explain the EGFR expression and cell cycle proliferation in A549 cells upon heavy ion beam irradiation of these. The study aims to overcome the current limitations of cancer-targeted therapies and improve the treatment modality of lung cancer. (author)

  16. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  17. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  18. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  19. Does Bleomycin Lung Toxicity Increase the Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Yehia, Zeinab [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mikhaeel, George N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s & St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Smith, Grace; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Tang, Chad; Jiang, Wen [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fanale, Michelle A.; Oki, Yasuhiro [Department of Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shank, JoAnn H.; Horace, Trisha; Reddy, Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Akhtari, Mani [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch Hospitals, Galveston, Texas (United States); Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Suki, Tina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Turner, Shryll [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) is a well-known complication of treatment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We undertook the present study to investigate the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in the setting of BPT and to determine the need for delay or omission of radiation therapy (RT) in these patients. Methods and Materials: We identified 123 HL patients treated with ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) followed by RT to the chest from January 2009 to December 2014. The medical records were reviewed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment information and toxicities. Our primary outcome was RP of any grade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of BPT, baseline patient characteristics, and treatment variables with the incidence of RP. Results: A total of 123 patients were included, of whom 99 (80%) received consolidation intensity modulated RT after ABVD treatment. We identified 31 patients (25.2%) with BPT after frontline ABVD. Seventeen patients (13.8%) developed RP a median of 8 weeks (range 1-39) after RT completion. BPT did not correlate with the risk of developing RP (P=.36). We evaluated the RP outcomes with respect to the bleomycin to RT interval (≤6 weeks vs >6 weeks), and we found that this interval did not predict for RP risk (P=.60). Dosimetric parameters such as the volume covered by 5 Gy and the mean lung dose were analyzed. A volume covered by 5 Gy of >55% and mean lung dose >13.5 Gy increased the risk of RP by 1.14-fold (P=.002) and 4.24-fold (P=.007), respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BPT does not increase the risk of developing RP. Furthermore, RT initiation does not need to be delayed after chemotherapy, except to allow for the completion of steroid therapy or clinical recovery from BPT.

  20. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  1. Does Bleomycin Lung Toxicity Increase the Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Yehia, Zeinab; Mikhaeel, George N.; Smith, Grace; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Tang, Chad; Jiang, Wen; Fanale, Michelle A.; Oki, Yasuhiro; Shank, JoAnn H.; Horace, Trisha; Reddy, Jay; Akhtari, Mani; Gunther, Jillian R.; Suki, Tina; Allen, Pamela K.; Turner, Shryll; Mawlawi, Osama; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) is a well-known complication of treatment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We undertook the present study to investigate the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in the setting of BPT and to determine the need for delay or omission of radiation therapy (RT) in these patients. Methods and Materials: We identified 123 HL patients treated with ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) followed by RT to the chest from January 2009 to December 2014. The medical records were reviewed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment information and toxicities. Our primary outcome was RP of any grade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of BPT, baseline patient characteristics, and treatment variables with the incidence of RP. Results: A total of 123 patients were included, of whom 99 (80%) received consolidation intensity modulated RT after ABVD treatment. We identified 31 patients (25.2%) with BPT after frontline ABVD. Seventeen patients (13.8%) developed RP a median of 8 weeks (range 1-39) after RT completion. BPT did not correlate with the risk of developing RP (P=.36). We evaluated the RP outcomes with respect to the bleomycin to RT interval (≤6 weeks vs >6 weeks), and we found that this interval did not predict for RP risk (P=.60). Dosimetric parameters such as the volume covered by 5 Gy and the mean lung dose were analyzed. A volume covered by 5 Gy of >55% and mean lung dose >13.5 Gy increased the risk of RP by 1.14-fold (P=.002) and 4.24-fold (P=.007), respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BPT does not increase the risk of developing RP. Furthermore, RT initiation does not need to be delayed after chemotherapy, except to allow for the completion of steroid therapy or clinical recovery from BPT.

  2. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  3. MAPK inhibitors, particularly the JNK inhibitor, increase cell death effects in H2O2-treated lung cancer cells via increased superoxide anion and glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induce apoptosis in cancer cells by regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell growth and death as well as changes in ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. H2O2 inhibited growth and induced death of Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. All MAPK inhibitors appeared to enhance growth inhibition in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells and increased the percentage of Annexin V-FITC-positive cells in these cancer cells. Among the MAPK inhibitors, a JNK inhibitor significantly augmented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm) in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. Intracellular ROS levels were significantly increased in the H2O2-treated cells at 1 and 24 h. Only the JNK inhibitor increased ROS levels in the H2O2-treated cells at 1 h and all MAPK inhibitors raised superoxide anion levels in these cells at 24 h. In addition, H2O2 induced GSH depletion in Calu-6 and A549 cells and the JNK inhibitor significantly enhanced GSH depletion in H2O2‑treated cells. Each of the MAPK inhibitors altered ROS and GSH levels differently in the Calu-6 and A549 control cells. In conclusion, H2O2 induced growth inhibition and death in lung cancer cells through oxidative stress and depletion of GSH. The enhanced effect of MAPK inhibitors, especially the JNK inhibitor, on cell death in H2O2-treated lung cancer cells was correlated with increased O2•- levels and GSH depletion.

  4. EGFR inhibitor C225 increases the radiosensitivity of human lung squamous cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruijie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study is to investigate the direct biological effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor C225 on the radiosensitivity of human lung squamous cancer cell-H520. H520 cells were treated with different dosage of 60Co γ ray irradiation (1.953 Gy/min in the presence or absence of C225. The cellular proliferation, colony forming capacity, apoptosis, the cell cycle distribution as well as caspase-3 were analyzed in vitro. Results We found that C225 treatment significantly increased radiosensitivity of H-520 cells to irradiation, and led to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, whereas 60Co γ ray irradiation mainly caused G2 phase arrest. H-520 cells thus displayed both the G1 and G2 phase arrest upon treatment with C225 in combination with 60Co γ ray irradiation. Moreover, C225 treatment significantly increased the apoptosis percentage of H-520 cells (13.91% ± 1.88% compared with the control group (5.75% ± 0.64%, P Conclusion In this regard, C225 treatment may make H-520 cells more sensitive to irradiation through the enhancement of caspase-3 mediated tumor cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

  5. Increasing the inspiratory time and I:E ratio during mechanical ventilation aggravates ventilator-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; Felten, Matthias; Hellwig, Katharina; Wienhold, Sandra-Maria; Naujoks, Jan; Opitz, Bastian; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Lung-protective ventilation reduced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality. To minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), tidal volume is limited, high plateau pressures are avoided, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is applied. However, the impact of specific ventilatory patterns on VILI is not well defined. Increasing inspiratory time and thereby the inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E ratio) may improve oxygenation, but may also be harmful as the absolute stress and strain over time increase. We thus hypothesized that increasing inspiratory time and I:E ratio aggravates VILI. VILI was induced in mice by high tidal-volume ventilation (HVT 34 ml/kg). Low tidal-volume ventilation (LVT 9 ml/kg) was used in control groups. PEEP was set to 2 cm H2O, FiO2 was 0.5 in all groups. HVT and LVT mice were ventilated with either I:E of 1:2 (LVT 1:2, HVT 1:2) or 1:1 (LVT 1:1, HVT 1:1) for 4 hours or until an alternative end point, defined as mean arterial blood pressure below 40 mm Hg. Dynamic hyperinflation due to the increased I:E ratio was excluded in a separate group of animals. Survival, lung compliance, oxygenation, pulmonary permeability, markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation (leukocyte differentiation in lung and blood, analyses of pulmonary interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and histopathologic pulmonary changes were analyzed. LVT 1:2 or LVT 1:1 did not result in VILI, and all individuals survived the ventilation period. HVT 1:2 decreased lung compliance, increased pulmonary neutrophils and cytokine expression, and evoked marked histologic signs of lung injury. All animals survived. HVT 1:1 caused further significant worsening of oxygenation, compliance and increased pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine expression, and pulmonary and blood neutrophils. In the HVT 1:1 group, significant mortality during mechanical ventilation was observed. According to the "baby lung

  6. Increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in lung following 12 Gy local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kunyu; Liu Li; Zhang Tao; Wu Gang; Hu Yu; Ruebe, C.; Ruebe, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure expressions of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in the lung following thoracic irradiation of 12 Gy, and explore its possible role in the development of radiation-induced lung damage. Methods: C57BL/6J mice at age of 8 weeks were thoracically irradiated with 12 Gy X-rays (10 MV, 2.4 Gy/min, single exposure), and the control mice were sham-irradiated. The mice were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation by decapitation. Lung tissues samples were collected. Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in lung samples were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in expressions of MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1 TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in the lung between the two groups at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation (or sham-irradiation). However, the expressions of MMP-2 were enhanced by 1.7 and 1.9 folds, and MMP-9 by 2.7 and 2.6 folds at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the lung were involved in the development of acute lung injury after thoracic irradiation, leading to a disruption of the structure and fibrosis. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  8. Donor Smoking and Older Age Increases Morbidity and Mortality After Lung Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, H H; Møller, C H; Zemtsovski, M

    2017-01-01

    survival as well as CLAD-free survival was significantly lower with donors ≥55 years. CONCLUSIONS: Donor smoking history and older donor age impact lung function, mortality, and CLAD-free survival after transplantation. Because of a shortage of organs, extended donor criteria may be considered while taking......BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free...... of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors. Donors were divided into three groups: group 1 included smokers, group 2 nonsmokers, and group 3 had unknown smoking...

  9. Potential for Interfraction Motion to Increase Esophageal Toxicity in Lung SBRT

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anthony Hoai-Nam; Yorke, Ellen; Rimner, Andreas; Wu, Abraham Jing-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of the relative motion of esophagus and tumor on radiation doses to the esophagus in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for central lung tumors. Methods and Materials: Fifty fractions of stereotactic body radiation therapy in 10 patients with lung tumors within 2.5 cm of the esophagus were reviewed. The esophagus was delineated on each treatment’s cone-beam computed tomography scan and compared to its position on the planning scan. Do...

  10. Low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure mechanical ventilation results in increased inflammation and ventilator-associated lung injury in normal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Caron M; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Cheng, Yunhui; Pisarenko, Vadim; Doucet, Danielle; Brown, Margaret; Aisner, Seena; Zhang, Chunxiang; Deitch, Edwin A; Delphin, Ellise

    2010-06-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (Vt) and low plateau pressure reduces mortality and decreases the length of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation that will protect normal lungs during major surgical procedures of long duration may improve postoperative outcomes. We performed an animal study comparing 3 ventilation strategies used in the operating room in normal lungs. We compared the effects on pulmonary mechanics, inflammatory mediators, and lung tissue injury. Female pigs were randomized into 3 groups. Group H-Vt/3 (n = 6) was ventilated with a Vt of 15 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 3 cm H(2)O, group L-Vt/3 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 3 cm H(2)O, and group L-Vt/10 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 10 cm H(2)O, for 8 hours. Hemodynamics, airway mechanics, arterial blood gases, and inflammatory markers were monitored. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for inflammatory markers and protein concentration. The right lower lobe was assayed for mRNA of specific cytokines. The right lower lobe and right upper lobe were evaluated histologically. In contrast to groups H-Vt/3 and L-Vt/3, group L-Vt/10 exhibited a 6-fold increase in inflammatory mediators in BAL (P ventilation with high PEEP resulted in increased production of inflammatory markers. Low PEEP resulted in lower levels of inflammatory markers. High Vt/low PEEP resulted in less histologic lung injury.

  11. Increased expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 in rat lungs ventilated with low tidal volume is time dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabregat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND GOALS: Mechanical ventilation (MV can induce or worsen pulmonary oedema. Aquaporins (AQPs facilitate the selective and rapid bi-directional movement of water. Their role in the development and resolution of pulmonary oedema is controversial. Our objectives are to determine if prolonged MV causes lung oedema and changes in the expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 in rats. METHODS: 25 male Wistar rats were subjected to MV with a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg, during 2 hours (n = 12 and 4 hours (n = 13. Degree of oedema was compared with a group of non-ventilated rats (n = 5. The expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 were determined by western immunoblotting, measuring the amount of mRNA (previously amplified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining of AQPs 1 and 5 in lung samples from all groups. RESULTS: Lung oedema and alveolar-capillary membrane permeability did not change during MV. AQP-5 steady state levels in the western blot were increased (p<0.01 at 2 h and 4 h of MV. But in AQP-1 expression these differences were not found. However, the amount of mRNA for AQP-1 was increased at 2 h and 4 h of MV; and for AQP 5 at 4 h of MV. These findings were corroborated by representative immunohistochemical lung samples. CONCLUSION: In lungs from rats ventilated with a low tidal volume the expression of AQP 5 increases gradually with MV duration, but does not cause pulmonary oedema or changes in lung permeability. AQPs may have a protective effect against the oedema induced by MV.

  12. Differential expression patterns of housekeeping genes increase diagnostic and prognostic value in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Using DNA microarrays, we previously identified 451 genes expressed in 19 different human tissues. Although ubiquitously expressed, the variable expression patterns of these “housekeeping genes” (HKGs could separate one normal human tissue type from another. Current focus on identifying “specific disease markers” is problematic as single gene expression in a given sample represents the specific cellular states of the sample at the time of collection. In this study, we examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of the variable expressions of HKGs in lung cancers. Methods Microarray and RNA-seq data for normal lungs, lung adenocarcinomas (AD, squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (SQCLC, and small cell carcinomas of the lung (SCLC were collected from online databases. Using 374 of 451 HKGs, differentially expressed genes between pairs of sample types were determined via two-sided, homoscedastic t-test. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering classified normal lung and lung cancers subtypes according to relative gene expression variations. We used uni- and multi-variate cox-regressions to identify significant predictors of overall survival in AD patients. Classifying genes were selected using a set of training samples and then validated using an independent test set. Gene Ontology was examined by PANTHER. Results This study showed that the differential expression patterns of 242, 245, and 99 HKGs were able to distinguish normal lung from AD, SCLC, and SQCLC, respectively. From these, 70 HKGs were common across the three lung cancer subtypes. These HKGs have low expression variation compared to current lung cancer markers (e.g., EGFR, KRAS and were involved in the most common biological processes (e.g., metabolism, stress response. In addition, the expression pattern of 106 HKGs alone was a significant classifier of AD versus SQCLC. We further highlighted that a panel of 13 HKGs was an independent predictor of

  13. Murine Lung Cancer Increases CD4+ T Cell Apoptosis and Decreases Gut Proliferative Capacity in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D; Mittal, Rohit; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Liang, Zhe; Margoles, Lindsay M; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Mortality is significantly higher in septic patients with cancer than in septic patients without a history of cancer. We have previously described a model of pancreatic cancer followed by sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in which cancer septic mice have higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice, associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis and decreased T cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response by creating a new model in which both the type of cancer and the model of sepsis are altered. C57Bl/6 mice received an injection of 250,000 cells of the lung cancer line LLC-1 into their right thigh and were followed three weeks for development of palpable tumors. Mice with cancer and mice without cancer were then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and sacrificed 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed 7 days for survival. Cancer septic mice had a higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice (60% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Cancer septic mice had decreased number and frequency of splenic CD4+ lymphocytes secondary to increased apoptosis without changes in splenic CD8+ numbers. Intestinal proliferation was also decreased in cancer septic mice. Cancer septic mice had a higher bacterial burden in the peritoneal cavity, but this was not associated with alterations in local cytokine, neutrophil or dendritic cell responses. Cancer septic mice had biochemical evidence of worsened renal function, but there was no histologic evidence of renal injury. Animals with cancer have a significantly higher mortality than previously healthy animals following sepsis. The potential mechanisms associated with this elevated mortality differ significantly based upon the model of cancer and sepsis utilized. While lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity are both altered by the combination of cancer and sepsis, the patterns of these alterations vary greatly depending on the models used.

  14. Murine Lung Cancer Increases CD4+ T Cell Apoptosis and Decreases Gut Proliferative Capacity in Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Lyons

    Full Text Available Mortality is significantly higher in septic patients with cancer than in septic patients without a history of cancer. We have previously described a model of pancreatic cancer followed by sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in which cancer septic mice have higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice, associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis and decreased T cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response by creating a new model in which both the type of cancer and the model of sepsis are altered.C57Bl/6 mice received an injection of 250,000 cells of the lung cancer line LLC-1 into their right thigh and were followed three weeks for development of palpable tumors. Mice with cancer and mice without cancer were then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and sacrificed 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed 7 days for survival.Cancer septic mice had a higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice (60% vs. 18%, p = 0.003. Cancer septic mice had decreased number and frequency of splenic CD4+ lymphocytes secondary to increased apoptosis without changes in splenic CD8+ numbers. Intestinal proliferation was also decreased in cancer septic mice. Cancer septic mice had a higher bacterial burden in the peritoneal cavity, but this was not associated with alterations in local cytokine, neutrophil or dendritic cell responses. Cancer septic mice had biochemical evidence of worsened renal function, but there was no histologic evidence of renal injury.Animals with cancer have a significantly higher mortality than previously healthy animals following sepsis. The potential mechanisms associated with this elevated mortality differ significantly based upon the model of cancer and sepsis utilized. While lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity are both altered by the combination of cancer and sepsis, the patterns of these alterations vary greatly depending on

  15. Apoptosis and Bax expression are increased by coal dust in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, M.M.; Battelli, L.A.; Mercer, R.R.; Scabilloni, J.F.; Kashon, M.L.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Nath, J.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-09-15

    Miners inhaling respirable coal dust (CD) frequently develop coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Many coal miners are also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of diesel engine exhaust and cigarette smoke, which may contribute to lung disease in these workers. Recently, apoptosis was reported to play a critical role in the development of another pneumoconiosis of miners, silicosis. In addition, CID was reported to suppress cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) induction by PAHs. We exposed rats intratracheally to 0.0, 2.5, 10.0, 20.0, or 40.0 mg/rat CD and, 11 days later, to intraperitoneal P-naphthoflavone (BNF), a PAH. In another group of rats exposed to CD and BNF, caspase activity was inhibited by injection of the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH (quinoline-Val-Asp (OMe)-CH{sub 2}-OPH). In rats exposed to BNF, CD exposure increased alveolar expression of the proapoptotic mediator Bax but decreased CYP1A1 induction relative to BNF exposure alone. Pan-caspase inhibition decreased CD-associated Bax expression and apoptosis but did not restore CYP1A1 activity. Further, CD-induced lung inflammation and alveolar epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were not suppressed by caspase inhibition. It is concluded that combined BNF and CD exposure increased Bax expression and apoptosis in the lung, but Bax and apoptosis were not the major determinants of early lung injury in this model.

  16. Breast Cancer-Derived Lung Metastases Show Increased Pyruvate Carboxylase-Dependent Anaplerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Christen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis. The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis in breast-cancer-derived lung metastases compared to their primary cancers using in vivo 13C tracer analysis. We discovered that lung metastases have higher PC-dependent anaplerosis compared to primary breast cancers. Based on in vitro analysis and a mathematical model for the determination of compartment-specific metabolite concentrations, we found that mitochondrial pyruvate concentrations can promote PC-dependent anaplerosis via enzyme kinetics. In conclusion, we show that breast cancer cells proliferating as lung metastases activate PC-dependent anaplerosis in response to the lung microenvironment.

  17. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  18. Irradiation induces increased production of haemopoietic and proinflammatory cytokines in the mouse lung

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedoročko, P.; Agyed, A.; Vacek, Antonín

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2002), s. 305-313 ISSN 0955-3002 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 1/6026/99 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : colony-stimulating activity (CSA) * lung-conditioned media (LCM) * mice Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.119, year: 2002

  19. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  20. Permissive tolerance of the patent ductus arteriosus may increase the risk of Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaempf JW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph W Kaempf,1 Robert Huston,2 YingXing Wu,1 Andrew J Kaempf,1 Lian Wang,1 Gary Grunkemeier,1 Rebecca Mischel,2 Howard Cohen,3 Bret Freitag41Providence St Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Randall Children’s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Portland, OR, 3Salem Hospital, Salem, OR, 4Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital, Vancouver, WA, USAPurpose: Because early closure therapies of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA have not been shown to confer benefit to premature infants, the authors’ four neonatal intensive care units adopted a less aggressive PDA management protocol.Study design: A before–after investigation in infants with PDAs born 501–1500 g. Era 1 (January 2005 to December 2007 featured traditional management with indomethacin and/or surgical ligation used early to close PDAs; Era 2 (January 2008 to June 2009 featured fluid restriction and watchful waiting for PDA closure, limiting indomethacin or surgical ligation to only those infants with large PDAs needing significant respiratory support.Results: Era 2 infants (n = 129, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks received less and later indomethacin and less Day 1–28 total fluids as compared to Era 1 infants (n = 240, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks. The Chronic Lung Disease (CLD rate was higher in Era 2 (48% versus 34%, P < 0.01 as was the combined outcome of Death after Day 7 or CLD (57% versus 42%, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed Era 2 birth was a predictor of CLD. However, Poisson regression analysis determined the predictors of all seven major Vermont Oxford Network morbidities were earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and male gender, not the era of birth. Significantly more infants were discharged home with PDAs in Era 2.Conclusion: Permissive tolerance of PDAs may increase the risk of CLD and Death after Day 7 or CLD but is not associated with significant changes in other Vermont Oxford Network morbidities.Keywords: premature infant

  1. Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Human NCI-H292 Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Increasing FOXA2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is a common histological lung cancer subtype, but unlike lung adenocarcinoma, limited therapeutic options are available for treatment. Curcumin, a natural compound, may have anticancer effects in various cancer cells, but how it may be used to treat LSCC has not been well studied. Here, we applied curcumin to a human NCI-H292 LSCC cell line to test anticancer effects and explored underlying potential mechanisms of action. Curcumin treatment inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth and increased FOXA2 expression in a time-dependent manner. FOXA2 expression was decreased in LSCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and knockdown of FOXA2 increased NCI-H292 cells proliferation. Inhibition of cell proliferation by curcumin was attenuated by FOXA2 knockdown. Moreover inhibition of STAT3 pathways by curcumin increased FOXA2 expression in NCI-H292 cells whereas a STAT3 activator (IL-6 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced FOXA2 expression. Also, SOCS1 and SOCS3, negative regulators of STAT3 activity, were upregulated by curcumin treatment. Thus, curcumin inhibited human NCI-H292 cells growth by increasing FOXA2 expression via regulation of STAT3 signaling pathways.

  2. Lung Surfactant Microbubbles Increase Lipophilic Drug Payload for Ultrasound-Targeted Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sirsi, Shashank R.; Fung, Chinpong; Garg, Sumit; Tianning, Mary Y.; Mountford, Paul A.; Borden, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The cavitation response of circulating microbubbles to targeted ultrasound can be used for noninvasive, site-specific delivery of shell-loaded materials. One challenge for microbubble-mediated delivery of lipophilic compounds is the limitation of drug loading into the microbubble shell, which is commonly a single phospholipid monolayer. In this study, we investigated the use of natural lung surfactant extract (Survanta?, Abbott Nutrition) as a microbubble shell material in order to improve dr...

  3. A Decade of Never-smokers Among Lung Cancer Patients-Increasing Trend and Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Keong; Ong, Whee-Sze; Lim, Wan-Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Ng, Quan-Sing; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Seow, Wei-Jie; Ang, Mei-Kim; Tan, Eng-Huat

    2018-03-17

    It is not known whether clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and survival of never-smokers among lung cancer incident cases have changed over time. We assessed the trend and overall survival (OS) of these patients within our institution during a 10-year period. We reviewed 2 cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with a diagnosis from 1999 to 2002 and from 2008 to 2011. The patient characteristics and OS were compared by smoking status within each cohort and between the 2 cohorts over time. Of the 992 patients in the 1999-2002 cohort and the 1318 patients in the 2008-2011 cohort, 902 and 1272 had a known smoking status, respectively. The proportion of never-smokers increased from 31% in 1999-2002 to 48% in 2008-2011 (P never-, former-, and current-smokers have remained largely constant over time. A greater proportion of never-smokers had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 and adenocarcinoma. The median OS increased from 15.5 months in 1999-2002 to 24.9 months in 2008-2011 (P = .001) for never-smokers, 12.3 to 15.9 months (P = .150) for former-smokers, and 10.5 to 13.9 months (P = .011) for current-smokers. The larger survival improvement among never-smokers was likely accounted for by the larger increase in never-smokers who were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pemetrexed over time. We found an increasing trend of never-smokers among incident lung cancer cases and improved survival for these patients during a 10-year period. The documentation of smoking status in any national cancer registry is vital to estimate the true incidence of lung cancer among never-smokers over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased Circulating Endothelial Microparticles Associated with PAK4 Play a Key Role in Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate mechanical ventilation (MV can result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Probing mechanisms of VILI and searching for effective methods are current areas of research focus on VILI. The present study aimed to probe into mechanisms of endothelial microparticles (EMPs in VILI and the protective effects of Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP against VILI. In this study, C57BL/6 and TLR4KO mouse MV models were used to explore the function of EMPs associated with p21 activated kinases-4 (PAK-4 in VILI. Both the C57BL/6 and TLR4 KO groups were subdivided into a mechanical ventilation (MV group, a TMP + MV group, and a control group. After four hours of high tidal volume (20 ml/kg MV, the degree of lung injury and the protective effects of TMP were assessed. VILI inhibited the cytoskeleton-regulating protein of PAK4 and was accompanied by an increased circulating EMP level. The intercellular junction protein of β-catenin was also decreased accompanied by a thickening alveolar wall, increased lung W/D values, and neutrophil infiltration. TMP alleviated VILI via decreasing circulating EMPs, stabilizing intercellular junctions, and alleviating neutrophil infiltration.

  5. Vorinostat increases carboplatin and paclitaxel activity in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Balius, Trent; Belani, Chandra P.; Hershberger, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a 53% response rate in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with vorinostat plus paclitaxel/carboplatin in a Phase I trial. Studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism (s) underlying this activity. Growth inhibition was assessed in NSCLC cells by MTT assay after 72 h of continuous drug exposure. Vorinostat (1 µM) inhibited growth by: 17±7% in A549, 28±6% in 128-88T, 39±8% in Calu1, and 41±7% in 201T cells. Vorinostat addition to carboplatin or paclitaxel le...

  6. Clinical implications of increased lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise scintigraphy 2 weeks after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.; Carabello, B.A.; Holt, N.D.; Beller, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of increased lung 201 Tl uptake during submaximal exercise myocardial scintigraphy performed 2 weeks after acute myocardial infarction, 61 patients underwent submaximal exercise testing (target heart rate, 120 beats/min), multigated blood pool imaging at rest and coronary angiography before hospital discharge. Thallium lung uptake on the initial anterior projection image was graded qualitatively by comparing the intensity of 201 Tl activity in the lungs with that in the mediastinum. In 39 patients (64 percent), it was normal (equal to mediastinal activity) and in 22 (36 percent), it was increased (greater than mediastinal activity). Compared with patients with normal lung uptake, those with increased uptake had a greater prevalence of prior infarction (13 versus 36 percent, probability [p] less than 0.05), less global cardiac reserve as assessed by the four level New York Heart Association classification (p less than 0.05), more advanced Killip class in the coronary care unit (p less than 0.05), a higher Norris coronary prognostic index (2.6 +/- 1.9 versus 4.6 +/- 2.3 [mean +/- standard deviation], p less than 0.01), failure to achieve the target heart rate because of dyspnea, fatigue or angina (36 versus 86 percent, p less than 0.01), a greater prevalence of exercise-induced S-T segment depression (18 versus 45 percent, p less than 0.05), a greater number of anterior 201 Tl myocardial defects (p less than 0.05); a lower radionuclide ejection fraction at rest (50.4 +/- 6.1 versus 39.6 +/- 9.3 percent, p less than 0.01) and a greater number of asynergic left ventricular segments (p less than 0.05). Thus, the occurrence of increased lung 201 Tl uptake during submaximal exercise scintigraphy in the early postinfarction period is frequent and appears to be a marker of severe and functionally more important coronary artery disease associated with left ventricular dysfunction

  7. Interaction between Pseudomonas and CXC Chemokines Increases Risk of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Death in Lung Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Weigt, S. Sam; Palchevskiy, Vyacheslav; Lynch, Joseph P.; Ross, David J.; Kubak, Bernard M.; Saggar, Rajan; Fishbein, Michael C.; Ardehali, Abbas; Li, Gang; Elashoff, Robert; Belperio, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly isolated gram-negative bacterium after lung transplantation and has been shown to up-regulate glutamic acid–leucine–arginine–positive (ELR+) CXC chemokines associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), but the effect of pseudomonas on BOS and death has not been well defined. Objectives: To determine if the influence of pseudomonas isolation and ELR+ CXC chemokines on the subsequent development of BOS and the occurrence of death is time dependent. Methods: A three-state model was developed to assess the likelihood of transitioning from lung transplant (state 1) to BOS (state 2), from transplant (state 1) to death (state 3), and from BOS (state 2) to death (state 3). This Cox semi-Markovian approach determines state survival rates and cause-specific hazards for movement from one state to another. Measurements and Main Results: The likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS was increased by acute rejection, CXCL5, and the interaction between pseudomonas and CXCL1. The pseudomonas effect in this transition was due to infection rather than colonization. Movement from transplant to death was facilitated by pseudomonas infection and single lung transplant. Transition from BOS to death was affected by the length of time in state 1 and by the interactions between any pseudomonas isolation and CXCL5 and aspergillus, either independently or in combination. Conclusions: Our model demonstrates that common post-transplantation events drive movement from one post-transplantation state to another and influence outcomes differently depending upon when after transplantation they occur. Pseudomonas and the ELR+ CXC chemokines may interact to negatively influence lung transplant outcomes. PMID:23328531

  8. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases anti-cancer effect of tumor necrosis factor-α through up-regulation of TNF receptor 1 in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo Ra; Han, Bo Ram; Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-03-14

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-cancer effect. Here, we evaluated the effect of SAHA on HDAC activity and cell growth in many normal lung and cancer cells. We observed that the HDAC activities of lung cancer cells were higher than that of normal lung cells. SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells regardless of the inhibitory effect on HDAC. This agent induced a G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP: ΔΨm) loss in lung cancer cells. However, SAHA did not induce cell death in normal lung cells. All tested caspase inhibitors prevented apoptotic cell death in SAHA-treated A549 and Calu-6 lung cancer cells. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) enhanced apoptosis in SAHA-treated lung cancer cells through caspase-8 and caspase-9 activations. Especially, SAHA increased the expression level of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), especially acetylation of the region of TNFR1 promoter -223/-29 in lung cancer cells. The down-regulation of TNFR1 suppressed apoptosis in TNF-α and SAHA-treated lung cancer cells. In conclusion, SAHA inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells via a G2/M phase arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. SAHA also enhanced apoptotic effect of TNF-α in human lung cancer cells through up-regulation of TNFR1. TNF-α may be a key to improve anti-cancer effect of HDAC inhibitors.

  9. MTH1 deficiency selectively increases non-cytotoxic oxidative DNA damage in lung cancer cells: more bad news than good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hussein H K; Alhamoudi, Kheloud M H; Evans, Mark D; Jones, George D D; Foster, Steven S

    2018-04-16

    Targeted therapies are based on exploiting cancer-cell-specific genetic features or phenotypic traits to selectively kill cancer cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. Oxidative stress is a cancer hallmark phenotype. Given that free nucleotide pools are particularly vulnerable to oxidation, the nucleotide pool sanitising enzyme, MTH1, is potentially conditionally essential in cancer cells. However, findings from previous MTH1 studies have been contradictory, meaning the relevance of MTH1 in cancer is still to be determined. Here we ascertained the role of MTH1 specifically in lung cancer cell maintenance, and the potential of MTH1 inhibition as a targeted therapy strategy to improve lung cancer treatments. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown or small-molecule inhibition, we tested the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of MTH1 deficiency on H23 (p53-mutated), H522 (p53-mutated) and A549 (wildtype p53) non-small cell lung cancer cell lines relative to normal MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. We also assessed if MTH1 inhibition augments current therapies. MTH1 knockdown increased levels of oxidatively damaged DNA and DNA damage signaling alterations in all lung cancer cell lines but not normal fibroblasts, despite no detectable differences in reactive oxygen species levels between any cell lines. Furthermore, MTH1 knockdown reduced H23 cell proliferation. However, unexpectedly, it did not induce apoptosis in any cell line or enhance the effects of gemcitabine, cisplatin or radiation in combination treatments. Contrastingly, TH287 and TH588 MTH1 inhibitors induced apoptosis in H23 and H522 cells, but only increased oxidative DNA damage levels in H23, indicating that they kill cells independently of DNA oxidation and seemingly via MTH1-distinct mechanisms. MTH1 has a NSCLC-specific p53-independent role for suppressing DNA oxidation and genomic instability, though surprisingly the basis of this may not be reactive-oxygen-species-associated oxidative stress. Despite this, overall

  10. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to 99mTc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of 113m In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy

  11. Comparison of extravascular lung water volume with radiographic findings in dogs with experimentally increased permeability pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okumura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Hagio, M.; Fujinaga, T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between extravascular lung water volume (ELWV) and chest radiographical findings was studied in general-anesthetized beagles. The dogs were experimentally injected with oleic acid to increase pulmonary vascular permeability. When the ELWV value in the dogs increased more than approximately 37% from the control value, their chest radiographs began to show signs of pulmonary edema. At this time, the chest X-ray density increased to 10% above the control level. PaO2 decreased, and PaCO2 increased after the administration of oleic acid. This clearly showed that the pulmonary gas exchange function was reduced following increasing ELWV. This comparison showed that probably the thermal-sodium double indicator dilution measurement of ELWV can detect slight hyperpermeability pulmonary edema that does not show on chest radiographs. The chest radiograph was therefore not suitable for the detection of slight pulmonary edema, because it did not show any changes in the early stages in hyperpermeability pulmonary edema

  12. Inhomogeneous dose escalation increases expected local control for NSCLC patients with lymph node involvement without increased mean lung dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine B; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2014-01-01

    in mediastinum, and the thorax wall. The dose was escalated using a TCP model implemented into the planning system. The difference in TCP values between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous plans were evaluated using two different TCP models. RESULTS: Dose escalation was possible for all patients. TCP values based...... to the mediastinum were observed: 2.5 Gy for aorta, 4.4 Gy for the connective tissue, 1.6 Gy for the heart, and 2.6 Gy for trachea + bronchi. CONCLUSION: Increased target doses and TCP values using inhomogeneous dose distributions could be achieved for all patients, regardless of lymph node involvement, tumour stage...

  13. Increased radiolucency of the lungs in infancy: iconographic essay; Aumento da transparencia pulmonar na infancia: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Daniel Lahan; Pereira Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Nanni, Livio; Baracat, Jamal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: daniel_lahan@hotmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Thoracic asymmetries characterized by increased radiolucency of the lungs are important causes of morbidity in infants and children. Evaluation of affected patients frequently requires multiple imaging methods to diagnose the abnormality and to plan the surgical correction. The authors review and illustrate the characteristics of both common and rare thoracic asymmetries with emphasis on the radiological findings. The usefulness of different imaging methods in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions is evaluated. The differential diagnosis as well the pitfalls and diagnostic difficulties are also discussed. (author)

  14. Cytotoxic potential of lung CD8(+) T cells increases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and with in vitro stimulation by IL-18 or IL-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christine M; Han, MeiLan K; Martinez, Fernando J; Murray, Susan; Liu, Lyrica X; Chensue, Stephen W; Polak, Timothy J; Sonstein, Joanne; Todt, Jill C; Ames, Theresa M; Arenberg, Douglas A; Meldrum, Catherine A; Getty, Christi; McCloskey, Lisa; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Lung CD8(+) T cells might contribute to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) indirectly via IFN-gamma production or directly via cytolysis, but evidence for either mechanism is largely circumstantial. To gain insights into these potential mechanisms, we analyzed clinically indicated lung resections from three human cohorts, correlating findings with spirometrically defined disease severity. Expression by lung CD8(+) T cells of IL-18R and CD69 correlated with severity, as did mRNA transcripts for perforin and granzyme B, but not Fas ligand. These correlations persisted after correction for age, smoking history, presence of lung cancer, recent respiratory infection, or inhaled corticosteroid use. Analysis of transcripts for killer cell lectin-like receptor G1, IL-7R, and CD57 implied that lung CD8(+) T cells in COPD do not belong to the terminally differentiated effector populations associated with chronic infections or extreme age. In vitro stimulation of lung CD8(+) T cells with IL-18 plus IL-12 markedly increased production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, whereas IL-15 stimulation induced increased intracellular perforin expression. Both IL-15 and IL-18 protein expression could be measured in whole lung tissue homogenates, but neither correlated in concentration with spirometric severity. Although lung CD8(+) T cell expression of mRNA for both T-box transcription factor expressed in T cells and GATA-binding protein 3 (but not retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma or alpha) increased with spirometric severity, stimulation of lung CD8(+) T cells via CD3epsilon-induced secretion of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF, but not IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A. These findings suggest that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules by lung-resident CD8(+) T cells contributes to COPD pathogenesis.

  15. Increasing the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT interpretation of "mildly positive" mediastinal nodes in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify radiological factors that may reduce false-positive results and increase diagnostic accuracy when staging the mediastinum of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).

  16. Increase of CTGF mRNA expression by respiratory syncytial virus infection is abrogated by caffeine in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Steffen; Krempl, Christine; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Fehrholz, Markus

    2018-04-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA. RSV may be involved in airway remodeling processes by increasing CTGF mRNA expression. Caffeine might abrogate these negative effects and thereby help to restore lung homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased cytosine DNA-methyltransferase activity in A/J mouse lung cells following carcinogen exposure and during tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Issa, J.-P.J.; Baylin, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable evidence has accumulated that 5-methylcytosine modification of mammalian DNA, both in exons and CpG rich islands located in promoter regions, is important in gene regulation. For example, a decrease of 5-methylcytosine in 5' flanking regions or exons of genes has been associated with increased gene transcription. In addition, hypermethylation at specific regions of chromosomes 17p and 3p have also been observed in lung and colon cancer. During colon cancer development, these hypermethylation changes precede allelic loss. In addition, the activity of the enzyme which maintains the methylation status at CpG dinucleotides, DNA methyltransferase (MT), has been shown to increase during colon cancer progression. These observations suggest changes in methylation patterns within specific genes could result in either inappropriate gene expression or gene deletion, both of which would contribute to the establishment of the malignant phenotype. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if DNA MT activity is elevated in target (alveolar type II), but not in nontarget (Clara, endothelial, macrophage) lung cells isolated from the A/J mouse following exposure to nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In addition, the activity of this enzyme during tumor progression was examined

  18. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, F E; Blasina, M F; Vaamonde, L; Tellechea, S; Godoy, C; Zabala, S; Mañana, G; Martell, M; Olivera, W

    2011-08-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration) on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica) aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g) received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  19. Colorectal Histology Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Local Failure in Lung Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jacobs, Lisa Rose; Eyben, Rie von; Le, Quynh-Thu; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shultz, David Benjamin, E-mail: DavidS4@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat lung oligometastases. We set out to determine the safety and efficacy of this approach and to identify factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with SABR for metastatic lung tumors at our institution from 2003 to 2014. We assessed the association between various patient and treatment factors with local failure (LF), progression, subsequent treatment, systemic treatment, and overall survival (OS), using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: We identified 122 tumors in 77 patients meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Median follow-up was 22 months. The 12- and 24-month cumulative incidence rates of LF were 8.7% and 16.2%, respectively; the 24-month cumulative incidence rates of progression, subsequent treatment, and subsequent systemic treatment were 75.2%, 64.5%, and 35.1%, respectively. Twenty-four-month OS was 74.6%, and median OS was 36 months. Colorectal metastases had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of LF at 12 and 24 months (25.5% and 42.2%, respectively), than all other histologies (4.4% and 9.9%, respectively; P<.0004). The 24-month cumulative incidences of LF for colorectal metastases treated with a biologically effective dose at α/β = 10 (BED{sub 10}) of <100 Gy versus BED{sub 10} of ≥100 Gy were 62.5% and 16.7%, respectively (P=.08). Toxicity was minimal, with only a single grade 3 or higher event observed. Conclusions: SABR for metastatic lung tumors appears to be safe and effective with excellent local control, treatment-free intervals, and OS. An exception is metastases from colorectal cancer, which have a high LF rate consistent with a radioresistant phenotype, suggesting a potential role for dose escalation.

  20. Short-term exposure of mice to gasoline vapor increases the metallothionein expression in the brain, lungs and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebić, D; Jakovac, H; Mrakovcić-Sutić, I; Tomac, J; Bulog, A; Micović, V; Radosević-Stasić, B

    2007-06-01

    Environmental airborne pollution has been repeatedly shown to affect multiple aspects of brain and cardiopulmonary function, leading to cognitive and behavioral changes and to the pronounced inflammatory response in the respiratory airways. Since in the cellular defense system the important role might have stress proteins-metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II, which are involved in sequestration and dispersal of metal ions, regulation of the biosynthesis and activities of zinc-dependent transcription factors, as well as in cellular protection from reactive oxygen species, genotoxicity and apoptosis, in this study we investigated their expression in the brain, lungs and kidney, following intermittent exposure of mice to gasoline vapor. Control groups consisted of intact mice and of those closed in the metabolic chamber and ventilated with fresh air. The data obtained by immunohistochemistry showed that gasoline inhalation markedly upregulated the MTs expression in tissues which were directly or indirectly exposed to toxic components, significantly increasing the number of MT I+II positive cells in CNS (the entorhinal cortex, ependymal cells, astroglial cells in subventricular zone and inside the brain parenchyma, subgranular and CA1-CA3 zone of the dentate gyrus in hippocampus and macrophages-like cells in perivascular spaces), in the lungs (pneumocytes type I and type II) and in the kidneys (parietal wall of Bowman capsule, proximal and distal tubules). The data point to the protective and growth-regulatory effects of MT I + II on places of injuries, induced by inhalation of gasoline vapor.

  1. [Possible cause of the increased incidence of lung cancer in 1987 in the 10th District of Budapest (1975-1989)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahám, E; Karácsonyi, L; Dinya, E

    1990-12-30

    In 1975 in one of the major industrial districts of Budapest some longitudinal epidemiological examinations were carried out with the aim of, among others, determination of connection between environmental injuries and lung cancer incidence in connection with determination of lung cancer risk groups. Between 1975-1989 out of the environmental injuries the most important was the radioactive contamination observed due to the atomic power station catastrophe in Chernobil (1986). In 1987 the incidence of lung cancer increased. The increase was significant among the 50-69-year-old women, and expressly among the heavy smokers. In 1987, especially among women, but also in both sexes, the ratio among the major cell types of lung cancer shifted towards micro-cellular ones. In 1988 and 1989 lung cancer incidence has decreased. In view of the above a hypothesis was raised: patients who have previously suffered immunobiological hurt, could not prevent the increased radioactive burden and got ill with lung cancer earlier, than it should have been happened without this increased burden. For clarification this question further examinations are considered to be necessary.

  2. The increase of microRNA-21 during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ota, Chiharu; Takahashi, Toru; Tando, Yukiko; Suzuki, Takaya; Fujino, Naoya; Makiguchi, Tomonori; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-09-24

    The excess and persistent accumulation of fibroblasts due to aberrant tissue repair results in fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent reports have revealed significant changes in microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and evidence in support of a role for microRNAs in myofibroblast differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the context of fibrosis. It has been reported that microRNA-21 is up-regulated in myofibroblasts during fibrosis and promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad7. However, expression changes in microRNA-21 and the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung fibrosis have not yet been defined. Lungs from saline- or bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 J mice and lung specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were analyzed. Enzymatic digestions were performed to isolate single lung cells. Lung epithelial cells were isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting. The expression of microRNA-21 was analyzed using both quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. To induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in culture, isolated mouse lung alveolar type II cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides in the presence of transforming growth factor-β, thus generating conditions that enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To investigate the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we transfected cells with a microRNA-21 inhibitor. Total RNA was isolated from the freshly isolated and cultured cells. MicroRNA-21, as well as mRNAs of genes that are markers of alveolar epithelial or mesenchymal cell differentiation, were quantified using quantitative PCR. The lung epithelial cells isolated from the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model system had decreased expression of epithelial marker genes, whereas the expression of mesenchymal marker genes was increased. MicroRNA-21 was significantly upregulated in isolated lung epithelial

  3. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling in lung cancer results in increased CDK4 activity that can be rescued by ELF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Sang Soo; Silva, Fabio May da; Volpe, Eugene A.; Evans, Stephen; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa; Blair Marshall, M.

    2006-01-01

    Escape from TGF-β inhibition of proliferation is a hallmark of multiple cancers including lung cancer. We explored the role of ELF, crucial TGF-β adaptor protein identified from endodermal progenitor cells, in lung carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation. Interestingly, elf -/- mice develop multiple defects that include lung, liver, and cardiac abnormalities. Four out of 6 lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines displayed deficiency of ELF expression with increased CDK4 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of primary human lung cancers also showed decreased ELF expression and overexpression of CDK4. Moreover, rescue of ELF in ELF-deficient cell lines decreased the expression of CDK4 and resulted in accumulation of G1/S checkpoint arrested cells. These results suggest that disruption in TGF-β signaling mediated by loss of ELF in lung cancer leads to cell-cycle deregulation by modulating CDK4 and ELF highlights a key role of TGF-β adaptor protein in suppressing early lung cancer

  4. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Silvera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  5. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, COPD or coronary heart disease mor- tality, and all-cause mortality were estimated from com- bined effects of level and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Risks were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models for individuals grouped...... by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI......) for individuals with FEV1 at or above the lower limit of normal (LLN) but below 100 % predicted, reaching 5.11 (2.58–10.13) for males, 11.63 (4.75–28.46) for females, and 3.09 (0.88–10.86) for never smokers in the quartile of steepest decline. Signi¿cant increasing trends were also observed for mortality...

  6. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C

    2007-01-01

    .0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P ...Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...... tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full...

  7. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This open-quotes field cancerizationclose quotes theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in open-quotes normalclose quotes bronchial epithelial cells

  8. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  9. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26582240

  10. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Islas-Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  11. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole; Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Held, Kathryn D.; Willers, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and 137 Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to 60 Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation

  12. Simultaneous targeting of ATM and Mcl-1 increases cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuquan; Shen, Mingjing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaodong; Tsai, Ying; Keng, Peter C; Chen, Yongbing; Lee, Soo Ok; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2017-08-03

    Development of cisplatin-resistance is an obstacle in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutics. To investigate which molecules are associated with cisplatin-resistance, we analyzed expression profiles of several DNA repair and anti-apoptosis associated molecules in parental (A549P and H157P) and cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H157CisR) NSCLC cells. We detected constitutively upregulated nuclear ATM and cytosolic Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells compared with parental cells. Increased levels of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) and its downstream molecules, CHK2, p-CHK2, p-53, and p-p53 were also detected in cisplatin-resistant cells, suggesting an activation of ATM signaling in these cells. Upon inhibition of ATM and Mcl-1 expression/activity using specific inhibitors of ATM and/or Mcl-1, we found significantly enhanced cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis of A549CisR cells after cisplatin treatment. Several A549CisR-derived cell lines, including ATM knocked down (A549CisR-siATM), Mcl-1 knocked down (A549CisR-shMcl1), ATM/Mcl-1 double knocked down (A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1) as well as scramble control (A549CisR-sc), were then developed. Higher cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis were observed in A549CisR-siATM, A549CisR-shMcl1, and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells compared with A549CisR-sc cells, and the most significant effect was shown in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells. In in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenograft mouse models developed with A549CisR-sc and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells, significant tumor regression in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells-derived xenografts was observed after cisplatin injection, but not in A549CisR-sc cells-derived xenografts. Finally, inhibitor studies revealed activation of Erk signaling pathway was most important in upregulation of ATM and Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells. These studies suggest that simultaneous blocking of ATM/Mcl-1 molcules or downstream Erk signaling may recover the

  13. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gheorghiu, Liliana [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and {sup 137}Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to {sup 60}Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation.

  14. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia : a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by

  15. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedan, J.S.; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10 -7 M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Oxo-Nitrative Stress and Asthma-Like Changes in Lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pal Singh

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown an increased obesity-related risk of asthma. In support, obese mice develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. However, it remains unclear whether the increased risk is a consequence of obesity, adipogenic diet, or the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Altered L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO metabolism is a common feature between asthma and metabolic syndrome that appears independent of body mass. Increased asthma risk resulting from such metabolic changes would have important consequences in global health. Since high-sugar diets can induce MetS, without necessarily causing obesity, studies of their effect on arginine/NO metabolism and airway function could clarify this aspect. We investigated whether normal-weight mice with MetS, due to high-fructose diet, had dysfunctional arginine/NO metabolism and features of asthma. Mice were fed chow-diet, high-fat-diet, or high-fructose-diet for 18 weeks. Only the high-fat-diet group developed obesity or adiposity. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia were common to both high-fat-diet and high-fructose-diet groups and the high-fructose-diet group additionally developed hypertension. At 18 weeks, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR could be seen in obese high-fat-diet mice as well as non-obese high-fructose-diet mice, when compared to standard chow-diet mice. No inflammatory cell infiltrate or goblet cell metaplasia was seen in either high-fat-diet or high-fructose-diet mice. Exhaled NO was reduced in both these groups. This reduction in exhaled NO correlated with reduced arginine bioavailability in lungs. In summary, mice with normal weight but metabolic obesity show reduced arginine bioavailability, reduced NO production, and asthma-like features. Reduced NO related bronchodilation and increased oxo-nitrosative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis.

  17. Mild hypothermia increases pulmonary anti-inflammatory response during protective mechanical ventilation in a piglet model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, Pablo; Erranz, Benjamín; Donoso, Alejandro; Carvajal, Cristóbal; Salomón, Tatiana; Torres, María Fernanda; Díaz, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment. Subjects were randomized to HT (33.5°C) or normothermia (37°C) groups over 4 h. Plasma and tissue cytokines, tissue apoptosis, lung mechanics, pulmonary vascular permeability, hemodynamic, and coagulation were evaluated. Lung interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in subjects that underwent HT after ALI induction than in those that maintained normothermia. No difference was found in other systemic and tissue cytokines. HT did not induce lung or kidney tissue apoptosis or influence lung mechanics or markers of pulmonary vascular permeability. Heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen uptake, and delivery were significantly lower in subjects that underwent HT, but no difference in arterial lactate, central venous oxygen saturation, and coagulation test was observed. Mild hypothermia induced a local anti-inflammatory response in the lungs, without affecting lung function or coagulation, in this piglet model of ALI. The HT group had lower cardiac output without signs of global dysoxia, suggesting an adaptation to the decrease in oxygen uptake and delivery. Studies are needed to determine the therapeutic role of HT in ALI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Flurbiprofen axetil increases arterial oxygen partial pressure by decreasing intrapulmonary shunt in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Jun; Xie, Yan-Hu; Wang, Di; Chen, Kun-Zhou

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether flurbiprofen axetil (FA) alleviates hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) by reducing the pulmonary shunt/total perfusion (Q s/Q t) ratio, and examined the relationship between the Q s/Q t ratio and the thromboxane B2 (TXB2)/6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α) ratio. Sixty patients undergoing esophageal resection for carcinoma were randomly assigned to groups F and C (n = 30 for each group). FA and placebo were administered i.v. 15 min before skin incision in groups F and C, respectively. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) was measured and the Q s/Q t ratio was calculated. Serum TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, and endothelin (ET) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The relationship between TXB2/6-K-PGF1α and Q s/Q t was investigated. Compared with group C, PaO2 was higher and the Q s/Q t ratio was lower during OLV in group F (P < 0.05). After treatment with FA, both serum TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but the TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio increased significantly (P < 0.01). Increases in the TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio were correlated with reductions in the Q s/Q t ratio during OLV in group F (r = -0.766, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in serum ET between groups F and C. Treatment with FA reduced the Q s/Q t ratio and further increased the PaO2 level during OLV, possibly due to upregulation of the vasoactive agent TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio.

  19. Alterations of tumor suppressor genes (Rb, p16, p27 and p53) and an increased FDG uptake in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayuki; Sugio, Kenji; Kuwabara, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The FDG uptake in lung cancer is considered to reflect the degree of malignancy, while alterations of some tumor suppressor genes are considered to be related to the malignant biological behavior of tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between FDG-PET and alterations in the tumor suppression genes of lung cancer. We examined 28 patients with primary lung cancer who underwent FDG-PET before surgery consisting of 17 patients with adenocarcinoma, 10 with squamous cell carcinoma and 1 with large cell carcinoma. The FDG-PET findings were evaluated based on the standardized uptake value (SUV). Alterations in the tumor suppressor genes, Rb, p16, p27 and p53, were evaluated immunohistochemically. The FDG uptake in lung cancer with alteration in each tumor suppressor gene tended to be higher than in those genes without alterations, although the differences were not significant. In 15 tumors with alterations in either tumor suppressor genes, the FDG uptake was 6.83±3.21. On the other hand, the mean FDG uptake was 1.95 in 2 tumors without alterations in any genes. The difference in the FDG uptake between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). In conclusion, the presence of abnormalities in the tumor suppressor genes, which results in an accelerated cell proliferation, is thus considered to increase the FDG uptake in lung cancer. (author)

  20. Cancer stem cell marker Musashi-1 rs2522137 genotype is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

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    Xu Wang

    Full Text Available Gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been extensively studied in association with development and prognosis of various malignancies. However, the potential role of genetic polymorphisms of cancer stem cell (CSC marker genes with respect to cancer risk has not been examined. We conducted a case-control study involving a total of 1000 subjects (500 lung cancer patients and 500 age-matched cancer-free controls from northeastern China. Lung cancer risk was analyzed in a logistic regression model in association with genotypes of four lung CSC marker genes (CD133, ALDH1, Musashi-1, and EpCAM. Using univariate analysis, the Musashi-1 rs2522137 GG genotype was found to be associated with a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with the TT genotype. No significant associations were observed for gene variants of CD133, ALDH1, or EpCAM. In multivariate analysis, Musashi-1 rs2522137 was still significantly associated with lung cancer when environmental and lifestyle factors were incorporated in the model, including lower BMI; family history of cancer; prior diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, or pulmonary tuberculosis; occupational exposure to pesticide; occupational exposure to gasoline or diesel fuel; heavier smoking; and exposure to heavy cooking emissions. The value of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC was 0.7686. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show an association between a Musashi-1 genotype and lung cancer risk. Further, the prediction model in this study may be useful in determining individuals with high risk of lung cancer.

  1. Extracting the normal lung dose–response curve from clinical DVH data: a possible role for low dose hyper-radiosensitivity, increased radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Barton, K; Sun, Z; Chetty, I J; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R K

    2015-01-01

    In conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis’ (RP) dependence on the normal lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) is not well understood. Complication models alternatively make RP a function of a summary statistic, such as mean lung dose (MLD). This work searches over damage profiles, which quantify sub-volume damage as a function of dose. Profiles that achieve best RP predictive accuracy on a clinical dataset are hypothesized to approximate DVH dependence.Step function damage rate profiles R(D) are generated, having discrete steps at several dose points. A range of profiles is sampled by varying the step heights and dose point locations. Normal lung damage is the integral of R(D) with the cumulative DVH. Each profile is used in conjunction with a damage cutoff to predict grade 2 plus (G2+) RP for DVHs from a University of Michigan clinical trial dataset consisting of 89 CFRT patients, of which 17 were diagnosed with G2+ RP.Optimal profiles achieve a modest increase in predictive accuracy—erroneous RP predictions are reduced from 11 (using MLD) to 8. A novel result is that optimal profiles have a similar distinctive shape: enhanced damage contribution from low doses (<20 Gy), a flat contribution from doses in the range ∼20–40 Gy, then a further enhanced contribution from doses above 40 Gy. These features resemble the hyper-radiosensitivity / increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR) observed in some cell survival curves, which can be modeled using Joiner’s induced repair model.A novel search strategy is employed, which has the potential to estimate RP dependence on the normal lung DVH. When applied to a clinical dataset, identified profiles share a characteristic shape, which resembles HRS/IRR. This suggests that normal lung may have enhanced sensitivity to low doses, and that this sensitivity can affect RP risk. (paper)

  2. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Sato, Shuntaro; Tanaka, Tomonori; Hashisako, Mikiko; Kashima, Yukio; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU). We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of pores of Kohn had a significant effect on an increase in residual capacity. A breakdown in the lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn are associated with a decrease in DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume with/without emphysema.

  3. Low levels of the AhR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-derived lung cells increases COX-2 protein by altering mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A; Traboulsi, Hussein; Hecht, Emelia; Zhang, Yelu; Guerrina, Necola; Matthews, Jason; Nair, Parameswaran; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2017-01-01

    Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, by destabilizing the Cox-2 transcript by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). Whether reduced AhR expression is responsible for heightened COX-2 in COPD is not known. Here, we investigated the expression of COX-2 as well as the expression of miR-146a, a miRNA known to regulate COX-2 levels, in primary lung fibroblasts derived from non-smokers (Normal) and smokers (At Risk) with and without COPD. To confirm the involvement of the AhR, AhR knock-down via siRNA in Normal lung fibroblasts and MLE-12 cells was employed as were A549-AhRko cells. Basal expression of COX-2 protein was higher in COPD lung fibroblasts compared to Normal or Smoker fibroblasts but there was no difference in Cox-2 mRNA. Knockdown of AhR in lung structural cells increased COX-2 protein by stabilizing the Cox-2 transcript. There was less induction of miR-146a in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts but this was not due to the AhR. Instead, we found that RelB, an NF-κB protein, was required for transcriptional induction of both Cox-2 and miR-146a. Therefore, we conclude that the AhR controls COX-2 protein via mRNA stability by a mechanism independent of miR-146a. Low levels of the AhR may therefore contribute to the heightened inflammation common in COPD patients.

  4. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  5. Increased red blood cell distribution width associates with cancer stage and prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Koma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW, one of many routinely examined parameters, shows the heterogeneity in erythrocyte size. We investigated the association of RDW levels with clinical parameters and prognosis of lung cancer patients. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data from 332 patients with lung cancer in a single institution were retrospectively studied by univariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of RDW on survival. RESULTS: THE RDW LEVELS WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: high RDW (>=15%, n=73 vs. low RDW, n=259 (<15%. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations of high RDW values with cancer stage, performance status, presence of other disease, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, albumin level, C-reactive protein level, and cytokeratin 19 fragment level. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed an association of RDW values with cancer stage in patients irrespective of comorbidity (patient with/without comorbidity: p<0.0001, patient without comorbidity: p<0.0001. Stages I-IV lung cancer patients with higher RDW values had poorer prognoses than those with lower RDW values (Wilcoxon test: p=0.002. In particular, the survival rates of stage I and II patients (n=141 were lower in the high RDW group (n=19 than in the low RDW group (n=122 (Wilcoxon test: p<0.001. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed higher RDW is a significant prognostic factor (p=0.040. CONCLUSION: RDW is associated with several factors that reflect inflammation and malnutrition in lung cancer patients. Moreover, high levels of RDW are associated with poor survival. RDW might be used as a new and convenient marker to determine a patient's general condition and to predict the mortality risk of lung cancer patients.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  7. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  8. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  9. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  10. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

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    Anja Kafka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1, Dishevelled-3 (DVL3, E-cadherin (CDH1 and beta-catenin (CTNNB1. Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR/loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001. Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001. Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased impedance measures of reflux compared to non-fibrotic disease among pre-lung transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2015-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although the mechanism remains unclear. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration may lead to lung fibrosis, while increased pulmonary workload may also worsen GER. Comparing the GER profile of IPF patients to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with similar lung function may help delineate the role of GER in IPF pathogenesis. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF and COPD patients undergoing pre-lung transplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) off acid suppression at a tertiary center in 2008-2014. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Baseline demographics, pulmonary function test, and MII-pH results were recorded. Univariate analyses were performed using Fisher's exact (binary variables) and Student's t (continuous variables) tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 90 subjects (54 IPF, 36 COPD) met inclusion criteria. Compared to COPD, IPF patients had increased total reflux episodes (65.9 vs 46.1, p = 0.02), proximal reflux episodes (30.3 vs 20.3, p = 0.04), and prevalence of abnormal total reflux episodes (38.9% vs 16.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analyses, abnormal total reflux episodes (OR: 4.9, p = 0.05) and bolus reflux exposure time (OR: 4, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with IPF. Abnormal reflux was significantly more prevalent among IPF patients after controlling for lung disease severity. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration likely plays a role in fibrosis in IPF. A significant portion of IPF patients had increased non-acid reflux. Therapies aiming to prevent reflux of gastric contents may be more beneficial than antisecretory medications alone in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Correlation of Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin Level in Cotton Dust with the Increase of TNFα Level and the Decline of Lung Function in Cotton Spinning Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilatus Sukma Ika Noviarmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin contained in cotton dust may cause airway inflammation and decline of lung function when inhaled, which eventually leads to respiratory symptoms. The objective of this research is to analyze the correlation of the exposure of LPS endotoxin in cotton dust with the increase of TNFα level and the decline of lung function after one day’s work. This study applies analytical observation method and prospective cohort approach. Main participants of this study were the workers of a cotton spinning factory located in Tulangan District, Sidoarjo Regency, East Java Province. Sixteen samples from cotton factory were taken as study group, and twenty three samples from village administrators were taken as control group. Data collection involves several techniques: spirometry, laboratory test, and interview. Results showed that concentration of personal dust has a significant relationship with the decline of FVC, %FVC, FEV1, and %FEV1, with Pearson correlation test showing p0.05. The research concludes that the level of LPS endotoxin was strongly related to the increase of blood serum TNFα and the decline of lung function. Development of more effective preventive measures such as stronger enforcement of worker’s health maintenance regulations and use of personal protective equipment is needed to ensure the best protection of cotton workers’ health.

  13. An Online Learning Module to Increase Self-Efficacy and Involvement in Care for Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Nagrial, Adnan; Pene, Christopher; Rabbets, Melanie; Carlino, Matteo; Zachulski, Clare; Phillips, Jane; Birnbaum, Robert; Gandhi, Tejal; Harnett, Paul

    2016-08-08

    Improving patient care for individuals with lung cancer is a priority due to the increasing burden of the disease globally. One way this can be done is by improving patient self-management capabilities through increasing their self-efficacy. This can improve positive outcomes for patients with chronic conditions and increase their ability to manage the challenges of such illnesses. Unfortunately, patients with chronic conditions often struggle to travel far from home to engage with patient education events, a common means of improving self-efficacy. The development of more accessible tools for improving patient self-efficacy is required to increase quality of life for patients with chronic conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of delivering symptom identification and management information to patients with advanced lung cancer using an online program. This article describes a pre-post test study to evaluate a Qstream online learning platform to improve patient self-efficacy for managing advanced lung cancer symptoms. Undertaking this program should increase participant knowledge about the side-effects they may experience as a result of their treatment and in turn increase help-seeking behavior and self-efficacy for the participant cohort. Quantitative data collected by the Qstream platform on the completion rates of participants will be used as a tool to evaluate the intervention. Additionally, validated scales will be used to collect data on patient self-efficacy. Qualitative data will also be collected via an exit survey and thematic content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The research is in the preliminary stages but thus far a protocol has been approved in support of the project. Additionally, advisory committee members have been identified and initial meetings have been undertaken. Development of new approaches for increasing patient understanding of their care is important to ensure high quality care continues to be delivered in the clinical setting.

  14. Small interfering RNA against transcription factor STAT6 leads to increased cholesterol synthesis in lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Dubey

    Full Text Available STAT6 transcription factor has become a potential molecule for therapeutic intervention because it regulates broad range of cellular processes in a large variety of cell types. Although some target genes and interacting partners of STAT6 have been identified, its exact mechanism of action needs to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to further characterize the molecular interactions, networks, and functions of STAT6 by profiling the mRNA expression of STAT6 silenced human lung cells (NCI-H460 using microarrays. Our analysis revealed 273 differentially expressed genes after STAT6 silencing. Analysis of the gene expression data with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software revealed Gene expression, Cell death, Lipid metabolism as the functions associated with highest rated network. Cholesterol biosynthesis was among the most enriched pathways in IPA as well as in PANTHER analysis. These results have been validated by real-time PCR and cholesterol assay using scrambled siRNA as a negative control. Similar findings were also observed with human type II pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells, A549. In the present study we have, for the first time, shown the inverse relationship of STAT6 with the cholesterol biosynthesis in lung cancer cells. The present findings are potentially significant to advance the understanding and design of therapeutics for the pathological conditions where both STAT6 and cholesterol biosynthesis are implicated viz. asthma, atherosclerosis etc.

  15. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yoshikawa,1 Shuntaro Sato,2,3 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Mikiko Hashisako,1,4 Yukio Kashima,5,6 Tomoshi Tsuchiya,7 Naoya Yamasaki,7 Takeshi Nagayasu,7 Hiroshi Yamamoto,2 Junya Fukuoka1,6 1Nagasaki Educational and Diagnostic Center of Pathology (NEDCP, Department of Pathology, 2Clinical Research Center, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, 3Division of Biostatistics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 4Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 5Department of Pathology, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Medical Center, Sumoto, 6Department of Pathology, 7Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Purpose: Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. Patients and methods: We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU. We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. Results: In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of

  16. Asthma Is a Risk Factor for Respiratory Exacerbations Without Increased Rate of Lung Function Decline: Five-Year Follow-up in Adult Smokers From the COPDGene Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lystra P; Hardin, Megan E; Qiu, Weiliang; Lynch, David A; Strand, Matthew J; van Beek, Edwin J; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2018-02-01

    Previous investigations in adult smokers from the COPDGene Study have shown that early-life respiratory disease is associated with reduced lung function, COPD, and airway thickening. Using 5-year follow-up data, we assessed disease progression in subjects who had experienced early-life respiratory disease. We hypothesized that there are alternative pathways to reaching reduced FEV 1 and that subjects who had childhood pneumonia, childhood asthma, or asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) would have less lung function decline than subjects without these conditions. Subjects returning for 5-year follow-up were assessed. Childhood pneumonia was defined by self-reported pneumonia at < 16 years. Childhood asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a health professional at < 16 years. ACO was defined as subjects with COPD who self-reported asthma diagnosed by a health-professional at ≤ 40 years. Smokers with and those without these early-life respiratory diseases were compared on measures of disease progression. Follow-up data from 4,915 subjects were examined, including 407 subjects who had childhood pneumonia, 323 subjects who had childhood asthma, and 242 subjects with ACO. History of childhood asthma or ACO was associated with an increased exacerbation frequency (childhood asthma, P < .001; ACO, P = .006) and odds of severe exacerbations (childhood asthma, OR, 1.41; ACO, OR, 1.42). History of childhood pneumonia was associated with increased exacerbations in subjects with COPD (absolute difference [β], 0.17; P = .04). None of these early-life respiratory diseases were associated with an increased rate of lung function decline or progression on CT scans. Subjects who had early-life asthma are at increased risk of developing COPD and of having more active disease with more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations without an increased rate of lung function decline over a 5-year period. ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT00608764; https

  17. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  18. Extravascular Lung Water Does Not Increase in Hypovolemic Patients after a Fluid-Loading Protocol Guided by the Stroke Volume Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Circulatory failure secondary to hypovolemia is a common situation in critical care patients. Volume replacement is the first option for the treatment of hypovolemia. A possible complication of volume loading is pulmonary edema, quantified at the bedside by the measurement of extravascular lung water index (ELWI. ELWI predicts progression to acute lung injury (ALI in patients with risk factors for developing it. The aim of this study was to assess whether fluid loading guided by the stroke volume variation (SVV, in patients presumed to be hypovolemic, increased ELWI or not. Methods. Prospective study of 17 consecutive postoperative, fully mechanically ventilated patients diagnosed with circulatory failure secondary to presumed hypovolemia were included. Cardiac index (CI, ELWI, SVV, and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI were determined using the transpulmonary thermodilution technique during the first 12 hours after fluid loading. Volume replacement was done with a strict hemodynamic protocol. Results. Fluid loading produced a significant increase in CI and a decrease in SVV. ELWI did not increase. No correlation was found between the amount of fluids administered and the change in ELWI. Conclusion. Fluid loading guided by SVV in hypovolemic and fully mechanically ventilated patients in sinus rhythm does not increase ELWI.

  19. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is toxic to human colonic, lung and monocytic cell lines, but does not increase the IgE response in a mouse model for allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instanes, Christine; Hetland, Geir

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether the common crop mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from Fusarium species is toxic to human colonic (Caco-2), lung (A549) and monocytic (U937) cell lines. Moreover, since DON reportedly induces increased levels of Th2 cytokines and total IgE, and we have observed that mould extracts adjuvated allergy development in mice, possible adjuvant effect of DON on allergy was studied in a mouse model. For all the cells, exposure to DON for 24 h reduced cellular protein synthesis, proliferation and survival rate dose-dependently. In addition, production of IL-8 in the U937 cell line increased up to eight-fold at levels of DON just lower than the most toxic one, suggesting that IL-8 can be used as an additional index for cytotoxicity in mononuclear phagocytes. However, DON did not increase levels of allergen-specific IgE or IgG1 in the mouse model for allergy. These results suggest that DON, when inhaled or ingested, may have toxic effect on human alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells in lungs and colon, but does not increase the allergic response to allergens

  20. Increased NQO1 but Not c-MET and Survivin Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with KRAS Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is one of the most significant public health issues and the most common environmental cause of preventable cancer deaths worldwide. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted therapy has been used in the treatment of LC (lung cancer, mainly caused by the carcinogens in cigarette smoke, with variable success. Presence of mutations in the KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog driver oncogene may confer worse prognosis and resistance to treatment for reasons not fully understood. NQO1 (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase, also known as DT-diaphorase, is a major regulator of oxidative stress and activator of mitomycins, compounds that have been targeted in over 600 pre-clinical trials for treatment of LC. We sequenced KRAS and investigated expression of NQO1 and five clinically relevant proteins (DNMT1, DNMT3a, ERK1/2, c-MET, and survivin in 108 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. NQO1, ERK1/2, DNMT1, and DNMT3a but not c-MET and survivin expression was significantly more frequent in patients with KRAS mutations than those without, suggesting the following: (1 oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis, worse prognosis, and resistance to treatment reported in NSCLC patients with KRAS mutations, (2 selecting patients based on their KRAS mutational status for future clinical trials may increase success rate, and (3 since oxidation of nucleotides also specifically induces transversion mutations, the high rate of KRAS transversions in lung cancer patients may partly be due to the increased oxidative stress in addition to the known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.

  1. Effect of Increased Radiotoxicity on Survival of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Curatively Intended Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergström, Stefan; Liv, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Edlund, Per; Blomberg, Carl; Nyman, Jan; Friesland, Signe; Ekman, Simon; Asklund, Thomas; Henriksson, Roger; Bergqvist, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To elucidate the impact of different forms of radiation toxicities (esophagitis, radiation pneumonitis, mucositis and hoarseness), on the survival of patients treated with curatively intended radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Data were individually collected retrospectively for all patients diagnosed with NSCLC subjected to curatively intended radiotherapy (≥50 Gy) in Sweden during the time period 1990 to 2000. Esophagitis was the only radiation-induced toxicity with an impact on survival (hazard ratio=0.83, p=0.016). However, in a multivariate model, with clinical- and treatment-related factors taken into consideration, the impact of esophagitis on survival was no longer statistically significant (hazard ratio=0.88, p=0.17). The effect on survival seen in univariate analysis may be related to higher radiation dose and to the higher prevalence of chemotherapy in this group. The results do not suggest that the toxicities examined have any detrimental effect on overall survival. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  3. Does the Addition of M-Mode to B-Mode Ultrasound Increase the Accuracy of Identification of Lung Sliding in Traumatic Pneumothoraces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jacob; Smith, Ben; Mead, Therese; Jurma, Duane; Dawson, Matthew; Mallin, Michael; Dugan, Adam

    2018-04-24

    It is unknown whether the addition of M-mode to B-mode ultrasound (US) has any effect on the overall accuracy of interpretation of lung sliding in the evaluation of a pneumothorax by emergency physicians. This study aimed to determine what effect, if any, this addition has on US interpretation by emergency physicians of varying training levels. One hundred forty emergency physicians were randomized via online software to receive a quiz with B-mode clips alone or B-mode with corresponding M-mode images and asked to identify the presence or absence of lung sliding. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnosis of lung sliding with and without M-mode US were compared. Overall, the sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies of B-mode + M-mode US versus B-mode US alone were 93.1% and 93.2% (P = .8), 96.0% and 89.8% (P < .0001), and 91.5% and 94.5% (P = .0091), respectively. A subgroup analysis showed that in those providers with fewer than 250 total US scans done previously, M-mode US increased accuracy from 88.2% (95% confidence interval, 86.2%-90.2%) to 94.4% (92.8%-96.0%; P = .001) and increased the specificity from 87.0% (84.5%-89.5%) to 97.2% (95.4%-99.0%; P < .0001) compared with B-mode US alone. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of B-mode + M-mode US compared with B-mode US alone in those with more than 250 scans. The addition of M-mode images to B-mode clips aids in the accurate diagnosis of lung sliding by emergency physicians. The subgroup analysis showed that the benefit of M-mode US disappears after emergency physicians have performed more than 250 US examinations. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Modelling and analyses do not support the hypothesis that charging by power-line corona increases lung deposition of airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation has recommended further study on the effects of electric charge on the deposition of 0.005-1 μm particles in the lung. Estimates have been made regarding the integrated ion exposure within the corona plume generated by a power line and by ionizers in an intensive care unit. Changes in the charge state of particles with sizes in the range 0.02-13 μm have been calculated for these exposures. The corona plume increases the charge per particle of 0.02 and 0.1 μm particles by the order of 0.1. The ionizers in the intensive care unit produced negative ions-as do power lines under most conditions. Bacteria can carry in the order of 1000 charges (of either sign) and it is shown that the repulsion between such a negatively charged bacterium and negative ions prevents further ion deposition by diffusion charging. Positively charged bacteria can, however, be discharged by the ions which are attracted to them. The data provide no support for the hypothesis that ion exposure, at the levels considered, can increase deposition in the lung. (authors)

  5. Absence of the common gamma chain (γ(c)), a critical component of the Type I IL-4 receptor, increases the severity of allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Preeta; Qi, Xiulan; Smith, Elizabeth P; Keegan, Achsah D

    2013-01-01

    The T(H)2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, play critical roles in inducing allergic lung inflammation and drive the alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). Although both cytokines share receptor subunits, IL-4 and IL-13 have differential roles in asthma pathogenesis: IL-4 regulates T(H)2 cell differentiation, while IL-13 regulates airway hyperreactivity and mucus production. Aside from controlling T(H)2 differentiation, the unique contribution of IL-4 signaling via the Type I receptor in airway inflammation remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed responses in mice deficient in gamma c (γ(c)) to elucidate the role of the Type I IL-4 receptor. OVA primed CD4⁺ OT-II T cells were adoptively transferred into RAG2⁻/⁻ and γ(c)⁻/⁻ mice and allergic lung disease was induced. Both γ(c)⁻/⁻ and γcxRAG2⁻/⁻ mice developed increased pulmonary inflammation and eosinophilia upon OVA challenge, compared to RAG2⁻/⁻ mice. Characteristic AAM proteins FIZZ1 and YM1 were expressed in lung epithelial cells in both mouse strains, but greater numbers of FIZZ1+ or YM1+ airways were present in γ(c)⁻/⁻ mice. Absence of γc in macrophages, however, resulted in reduced YM1 expression. We observed higher T(H)2 cytokine levels in the BAL and an altered DC phenotype in the γ(c)⁻/⁻ recipient mice suggesting the potential for dysregulated T cell and dendritic cell (DC) activation in the γ(c)-deficient environment. These results demonstrate that in absence of the Type I IL-4R, the Type II R can mediate allergic responses in the presence of T(H)2 effectors. However, the Type I R regulates AAM protein expression in macrophages.

  6. Diesel exhaust particles increase IL-1β-induced human β-defensin expression via NF-κB-mediated pathway in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensin (hBD-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. Results IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional level. In addition, DEP further induced the NF-κB activation in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells more rapidly than in unstimulated control cells, which was showed by nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and degradation of IκB-α. The experiment using two NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC and MG132, confirmed that this increase of hBD-2 expression following DEP exposure was regulated through NF-κB-mediated pathway. Conclusion These results demonstrated that DEP exposure increases the expression of antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory cytokine at the transcriptional level in IL-1β-primed A549 epithelial cells and suggested that the increase is mediated at least partially through NF-κB activation. Therefore, DEP exposure may contribute to enhance the airway-responsiveness especially on the patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease.

  7. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases treatment efficacy in stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer without increasing adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Su, Yanjun; You, Jian; Gong, Liqun; Zhang, Zhenfa; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Changli

    2016-09-20

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining Endostar antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC, we conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study of 30 NSCLC patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the test or control groups, which received either two cycles of an NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combined with Endostar or the NP regimen alone, respectively, at a 2:1 ratio. Efficacy was assessed after 3 weeks, and surgical resection occurred within 4 weeks, in the 26 patients who successfully completed treatment. While total response rates (RR) and clinical benefit rates (CBR) did not differ between the experimental groups, total tumor regression rates (TRR) were higher in the test group than in the control group. Median DFS and OS also did not differ between the test and control groups. Clinical perioperative indicators, including intraoperative blood loss, number of dissected lymph node groups, duration of postoperative indwelling catheter use, and time to postoperative discharge, were comparable in the test and control groups. Finally, hematological and non-hematological toxicities and postoperative pathological indicators, including down-staging ratio, complete resection ratio, and metastatic lymph node ratio, also did not differ between the groups. Overall, combining Endostar with NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased therapeutic efficacy without increasing adverse effects in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02497118).

  8. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  9. A 51-Year-Old Woman With an Increasing Chest Wall Mass Years After Resection of an Early Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Ajay; Chen, Hongbin; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a new 14 × 6 mm soft tissue mass under the right serratus muscle on a CT scan of the chest performed for routine surveillance due to her history of stage I lung cancer. A follow-up CT scan performed 4 months later showed that the mass had increased in size to 22 × 8 mm. The patient presents to the oncology clinic to discuss the results of the CT scan. She has no pain or swelling on the right lateral chest and no cough, fever, or shortness of breath. She is at her baseline health with good appetite and functional status. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  11. “Marker of Self” CD47 on lentiviral vectors decreases macrophage-mediated clearance and increases delivery to SIRPA-expressing lung carcinoma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Sosale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses infect many cell types and are now widely used for gene delivery in vitro, but in vivo uptake of these foreign vectors by macrophages is a limitation. Lentivectors are produced here from packaging cells that overexpress “Marker of Self” CD47, which inhibits macrophage uptake of cells when prophagocytic factors are also displayed. Single particle analyses show “hCD47-Lenti” display properly oriented human-CD47 for interactions with the macrophage's inhibitory receptor SIRPA. Macrophages derived from human and NOD/SCID/Il2rg−/− (NSG mice show a SIRPA-dependent decrease in transduction, i.e., transgene expression, by hCD47-Lenti compared to control Lenti. Consistent with known “Self” signaling pathways, macrophage transduction by control Lenti is decreased by drug inhibition of Myosin-II to the same levels as hCD47-Lenti. In contrast, human lung carcinoma cells express SIRPA and use it to enhance transduction by hCD47-Lenti- as illustrated by more efficient gene deletion using CRISPR/Cas9. Intravenous injection of hCD47-Lenti into NSG mice shows hCD47 prolongs circulation, unless a blocking anti-SIRPA is preinjected. In vivo transduction of spleen and liver macrophages also decreases for hCD47-Lenti while transduction of lung carcinoma xenografts increases. hCD47 could be useful when macrophage uptake is limiting on other viral vectors that are emerging in cancer treatments (e.g., Measles glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivectors and also in targeting various SIRPA-expressing tumors such as glioblastomas.

  12. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Does Not Underdose the Microscopic Disease and has the Potential to Increase Tumor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael; Partridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate doses to the microscopic disease (MD) in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for locally advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to model tumor control probability (TCP). Methods and Materials: In a retrospective planning study, three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were adapted to shape and volume changes of the gross tumor volume (GTV) once or twice during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses of 66 Gy; doses in the ART plans were escalated using an iso-mean lung dose (MLD) approach compared to non-adapted treatment. Dose distributions to the volumes of suspect MD were simulated for a scenario with synchronous shrinkage of the MD and GTV and for a scenario of a stationary MD despite GTV shrinkage; simulations were performed using deformable image registration. TCP calculations considering doses to the GTV and MD were performed using three different models. Results: Coverage of the MD at 50 Gy was not compromised by ART. Coverage at 60 Gy in the scenario of a stationary MD was significantly reduced from 92% ± 10% to 73% ± 19% using ART; however, the coverage was restored by iso-MLD dose escalation. Dose distributions in the MD were sufficient to achieve a TCP >80% on average in all simulation experiments, with the clonogenic cell density the major factor influencing TCP. The combined TCP for the GTV and MD was 19.9% averaged over all patients and TCP models in non-adaptive treatment with 66 Gy. Iso-MLD dose escalation achieved by ART increased the overall TCP by absolute 6% (adapting plan once) and by 8.7% (adapting plan twice) on average. Absolute TCP values were significantly different between the TCP models; however, all TCP models suggested very similar TCP increase by using ART. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to the shrinking GTV did not compromise dose coverage of volumes of suspect microscopic disease and has the potential to increase TCP by >40% compared

  13. Favorable prognosis of operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring an increased expression of tumor endothelial markers (TEMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, Andreas; Fiegl, Michael; Untergasser, Gerold; Heidegger, Isabel; Medinger, Michael; Kern, Johann; Hilbe, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Genome analyses of endothelial cells identified genes specifically expressed by tumor endothelial cells, called tumor endothelial markers (TEMs). Currently there are no data available concerning the role of TEMs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of TEMs in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. First we evaluated the expression of various TEMs (Robo4, Clec14 and ECSCR) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses in three NSCLC cell lines (A549, Calu1, Colo699) and compared them to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Next the expression of TEMs was measured in resected tumor tissue of NSCLC patients (n = 63) by qRT-PCR and compared to adjacent non-cancerous lung tissue (n = 52). Further, immunohistochemical analysis of Robo4 expression in tumor tissue (n = 33) and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (n = 27) was performed. We found that NSCLC cell lines and HBEpC did not express TEMs on the mRNA level compared to HUVECs (p = 0.001). In the contrary, a significant up-regulation of Robo4 and Clec14 was found in tumor samples (Robo4 p = 0.03, Clec14 p = 0.002). Both facts clearly indicate that these proteins are allocated to the tumor stromal department. Correlation with clinical data showed that increased TEM expression correlated with prolonged overall survival of operated NSCLC patients (Robo4 high 120.5 vs. Robo4 low 47.6 months, Clec14 high 108.1 vs. Clec14 low 54.5 months and ECSCR high 120.5 vs. ECSCR low 42.2 months). In summary, we found that TEMs are overexpressed in NSCLC stromal tissue and that an increased TEM expression correlated with an increased overall survival in early stage NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impacts of Cellular Senescence in Elderly Pneumonia and in Age-Related Lung Diseases That Increase the Risk of Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigehisa; Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Miura, Ayako; Matsuo, Ayako; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-25

    Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These properties are beneficial if the sequence of senescence-clearance-regeneration is transient in manner. However, persisting senescent cell accumulation and excessive SASP might induce sustained low-grade inflammation and disruption of normal tissue microenvironments in aged tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are known to be age-related and increase the risk of pneumonia. In addition to their structural collapses, COPD and IPF might increase the vulnerability to pathogen insults through SASP. Here, we discuss the current advances in understanding of the impacts of cellular senescence in elderly pneumonia and in these chronic lung disorders that heighten the risk of respiratory infections.

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  16. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  18. The concentration of iron in real-world geogenic PM₁₀ is associated with increased inflammation and deficits in lung function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Zosky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM₁₀ of geogenic (earth derived origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM₁₀. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM₁₀ are associated with adverse lung responses. METHODS: We collected geogenic PM₁₀ from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. CONCLUSIONS: The lung response to geogenic PM₁₀ is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM₁₀.

  19. Fractionated irradiation of H69 small-cell lung cancer cells causes stable radiation and drug resistance with increased MRP1, MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henness, Sheridan; Davey, Mary W.; Harvie, Rozelle M.; Davey, Ross A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: After standard treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) often develops resistance to both treatments. Our aims were to establish if fractionated radiation treatment alone would induce radiation and drug resistance in the H69 SCLC cell line, and to determine the mechanisms of resistance. Methods and Materials: H69 SCLC cells were treated with fractionated X-rays to an accumulated dose of 37.5 Gy over 8 months to produce the H69/R38 subline. Drug and radiation resistance was determined using the MTT (3,-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results: The H69/R38 subline was resistant to radiation (2.0 ± 0.2-fold, p<0.0001), cisplatin (14 ± 7-fold, p < 0.001), daunorubicin (6 ± 3-fold, p<0.05), and navelbine (1.7 ± 0.15-fold, p<0.02). This was associated with increased expression of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins, MRP1 and MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα and decreased expression of glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) and bcl-2 and decreased cisplatin accumulation. Treatment with 4 Gy of X-rays produced a 66% decrease in MRP2 in the H69 cells with no change in the H69/R38 cells. This treatment also caused a 5-fold increase in topoisomerase IIα in the H69/R38 cells compared with a 1.5-fold increase in the H69 cells. Conclusions: Fractionated radiation alone can lead to the development of stable radiation and drug resistance and an altered response to radiation in SCLC cells

  20. Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, guaraná, reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of B16/F10 melanoma lung metastases in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fukumasu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We showed that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis had a chemopreventive effect on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA damage. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of guaraná in an experimental metastasis model. Cultured B16/F10 melanoma cells (5 x 10(5 cells/animal were injected into the tail vein of mice on the 7th day of guaraná treatment (2.0 mg P. cupana/g body weight, per gavage and the animals were treated with guaraná daily up to 14 days until euthanasia (total treatment time: 21 days. Lung sections were obtained for morphometric analysis, apoptotic bodies were counted to calculate the apoptotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were counted to determine the proliferation index. Guaraná-treated (GUA animals presented a 68.6% reduction in tumor burden area compared to control (CO animals which were not treated with guaraná (CO: 0.84 ± 0.26, N = 6; GUA: 0.27 ± 0.24, N = 6; P = 0.0043, a 57.9% reduction in tumor proliferation index (CO: 23.75 ± 20.54, N = 6; GUA: 9.99 ± 3.93, N = 6; P = 0.026 and a 4.85-fold increase in apoptotic index (CO: 66.95 ± 22.95, N = 6; GUA: 324.37 ± 266.74 AB/mm², N = 6; P = 0.0152. In this mouse model, guaraná treatment decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells, consequently reducing the tumor burden area. We are currently investigating the molecular pathways of the effects of guaraná in cultured melanoma cells, regarding principally the cell cycle inhibitors and cyclins.

  1. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) elicits increased VEGF and decreased IL-6 production in type II lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; Nagel, Christian; Weiss, Christel

    2015-01-01

    between VEGF and IL-6 levels to DMBT1 expression in the lungs of preterm and term infants and in lung epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We examined by ELISA VEGF levels in 120 tracheal aspirates of 57 preterm and term infants and tested for correlation with different perinatal factors as well...... as with DMBT1 levels. To examine the effect of DMBT1 on VEGF and IL-6 expression we compared type II lung epithelial A549 cells stably transfected with a DMBT1 expression plasmid (DMBT1+ cells) to A549 cells stably transfected with an empty expression plasmid (DMBT1- cells). The concentrations of VEGF and IL-6...... that DMBT1 promotes VEGF and suppresses IL-6 production in alveolar tissues, which could point to DMBT1 having a possible role in the transition from inflammation to regeneration and being a potentially useful clinical marker....

  2. Dithiolethione modified valproate and diclofenac increase E-cadherin expression and decrease proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Switzer, Christopher; Santana-Flores, Wilmarie; Ridnour, Lisa A; Berna, Marc; Thill, Michelle; Jensen, Robert T; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Yeh, Grace C; Roberts, David D; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Wink, David A

    2010-05-01

    The effects of dithiolethione modified valproate, diclofenac and sulindac on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were investigated. Sulfur(S)-valproate and S-diclofenac at 1 microg/ml concentrations significantly reduced prostaglandin (PG)E(2) levels in NSCLC cell lines A549 and NCI-H1299 as did the COX-2 inhibitor DuP-697. In vitro, S-valproate, S-diclofenac and S-sulindac half-maximally inhibited the clonal growth of NCI-H1299 cells at 6, 6 and 15 microg/ml, respectively. Using the MTT assay, 10 microg/ml S-valproate, NO-aspirin and Cay10404, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, but not SC-560, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited the growth of A549 cells. In vivo, 18mg/kg i.p. of S-valproate and S-diclofenac, but not S-sulindac, significantly inhibited A549 or NCI-H1299 xenograft proliferation in nude mice, but had no effect on the nude mouse body weight. The mechanism by which S-valproate and S-diclofenac inhibited the growth of NSCLC cells was investigated. Nitric oxide-aspirin but not S-valproate caused apoptosis of NSCLC cells. By Western blot, S-valproate and S-diclofenac increased E-cadherin but reduced vimentin and ZEB1 (a transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin) protein expression in NSCLC cells. Because S-valproate and S-diclofenac inhibit the growth of NSCLC cells and reduce PGE(2) levels, they may prove beneficial in the chemoprevention and/or therapy of NSCLC. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  4. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio in smokers with airway hyperresponsiveness and accelerated lung function decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo CY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Yu Lo,1 Hung-Yu Huang,1 Jung-Ru He,1 Tzu-Ting Huang,1 Chih-Chen Heh,1 Te-Fang Sheng,1 Kian Fan Chung,2 Han-Pin Kuo,1 Chun-Hua Wang1 1Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Medical Foundation, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is associated with airway inflammation and a rapid decline in lung function and is a predictor of future risk of COPD among smokers. Alveolar macrophages (AMs from patients with COPD release a greater amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9. We hypothesized that the imbalance between MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 is related to AHR in smokers.Patients and methods: Healthy smokers with AHR (AHR + S or smokers without AHR (AHR - S; divided according to a methacholine challenge test and nonsmokers without AHR (AHR - NS were enrolled. Spirometry was performed during enrollment and repeated after 5 years. Initially, AMs recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were cultured in the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor (SB203580, MAPK kinase (MEK 1/2 (the MEK of extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor, PD98059, or medium alone for 24 h. The release of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: A greater reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1 (as a percentage of the predicted value [%pred], and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF was observed among AHR + S in the 5-year period. There was a higher proportion of neutrophils and a lower proportion of AMs in BAL fluid recovered from AHR + S. Compared to AMs from AHR - NS and AHR - S, AMs from nonsmokers with AHR (AHR + NS released more MMP-9 and less TIMP-1, with an increase in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. The MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in smokers

  5. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  6. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  7. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  8. Cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell-derived exosomes increase cisplatin resistance of recipient cells in exosomal miR-100-5p-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobing; Yu, Shaorong; Zhou, Leilei; Shi, Meiqi; Hu, Yong; Xu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Bo; Liu, Siwen; Yan, Dali; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes derived from lung cancer cells confer cisplatin (DDP) resistance to other cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. A549 resistance to DDP (A549/DDP) was established. Microarray was used to analyze microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of A549 cells, A549/DDP cells, A549 exosomes, and A549/DDP exosomes. There was a strong correlation of miRNA profiles between exosomes and their maternal cells. A total of 11 miRNAs were significantly upregulated both in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells and in exosomes derived from A549/DDP cells in contrast to exosomes from A549 cells. A total of 31 downregulated miRNAs were also observed. miR-100-5p was the most prominent decreased miRNA in DDP-resistant exosomes compared with the corresponding sensitive ones. Downregulated miR-100-5p was proved to be involved in DDP resistance in A549 cells, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression was reverse regulated by miR-100-5p. Exosomes confer recipient cells' resistance to DDP in an exosomal miR-100-5p-dependent manner with mTOR as its potential target both in vitro and in vivo. Exosomes from DDP-resistant lung cancer cells A549 can alter other lung cancer cells' sensitivity to DDP in exosomal miR-100-5p-dependent manner. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of DDP resistance in lung cancer.

  9. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  10. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  12. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  13. Cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell–derived exosomes increase cisplatin resistance of recipient cells in exosomal miR-100–5p-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaobing Qin,1,2,* Shaorong Yu,1,3,* Leilei Zhou,1,4 Meiqi Shi,3 Yong Hu,1 Xiaoyue Xu,1 Bo Shen,1 Siwen Liu,1 Dali Yan,1 Jifeng Feng1,3 1Research Center for Clinical Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, Nanjing, 2Department of Oncology, Xuzhou First People’s Hospital, Xuzhou, 3Department of Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, Nanjing, 4Department of Oncology, Affiliated Huai’an Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, Jiangsu, China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Exosomes derived from lung cancer cells confer cisplatin (DDP resistance to other cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. A549 resistance to DDP (A549/DDP was established. Microarray was used to analyze microRNA (miRNA expression profiles of A549 cells, A549/DDP cells, A549 exosomes, and A549/DDP exosomes. There was a strong correlation of miRNA profiles between exosomes and their maternal cells. A total of 11 miRNAs were significantly upregulated both in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells and in exosomes derived from A549/DDP cells in contrast to exosomes from A549 cells. A total of 31 downregulated miRNAs were also observed. miR-100–5p was the most prominent decreased miRNA in DDP-resistant exosomes compared with the corresponding sensitive ones. Downregulated miR-100–5p was proved to be involved in DDP resistance in A549 cells, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR expression was reverse regulated by miR-100–5p. Exosomes confer recipient cells’ resistance to DDP in an exosomal miR-100–5p-dependent manner with mTOR as its potential target both in vitro and in vivo. Exosomes from DDP-resistant lung cancer cells A549 can alter other lung cancer cells’ sensitivity to DDP in exosomal miR-100–5p

  14. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  16. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  17. The functional polymorphism of NBS1 p.Glu185Gln is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese populations: Case–control and a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Wenxiang; Qiu, Fuman; Zhang, Lisha [The State Key Lab of Respiratory Disease, The Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Collaborative Innovation Center for Environmental Toxicity, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Deng, Jieqiong [Soochow University Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Genetics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Environmental Toxicity, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Haibo [Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang, Lei [The State Key Lab of Respiratory Disease, The Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Collaborative Innovation Center for Environmental Toxicity, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Zhou, Yifeng [Soochow University Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Genetics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Environmental Toxicity, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lu, Jiachun, E-mail: jcLu@gzhmu.edu.cn [The State Key Lab of Respiratory Disease, The Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Collaborative Innovation Center for Environmental Toxicity, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • NBS1 rs1805794G>C polymorphism conferred an adverse role on lung cancer risk in a two centers case–control study. • Rs1805794C variants had more chromatid breaks and higher DNA damage induced by X-ray radiation. • Meta analysis result confirmed the association between the variant rs1805794G>C and lung cancer risk. - Abstract: NBS1 plays pivotal roles in maintaining genomic stability and cancer development. The exon variant rs1805794G>C (p.Glu185Gln) of NBS1 has been frequently studied in several association studies. However, the results were conflicting. Also, the function of this variant has never been well studied. In the current study, we performed a two centers case–control study and function assays to investigate the effect of the variant rs1805794G>C on lung cancer risk in Chinese, and a meta-analysis to summarize the data on the association between rs1805794G>C and cancer risk. We found that compared with the rs1805794GG genotype, the C genotypes (CG/CC) conferred a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.21–1.62) and interacted with medical ionizing radiation exposure on increasing cancer risk (P{sub interaction} = 0.015). The lymphocyte cells from the C genotype individuals developed more chromatid breaks than those from the GG genotype carriers after the X-ray radiation (P = 0.036). Moreover, the rs1805794C allele encoding p.185Gln attenuated NBS1's ability to repair DNA damage as the cell lines transfected with NBS1 cDNA expression vector carrying rs1805794C allele had significantly higher DNA breaks than those transfected with NBS1 cDNA expression vector carrying rs1805794G allele (P < 0.05). The meta-analysis further confirmed the association between the variant rs1805794G>C and lung cancer risk, that compared with the GG genotype, the carriers of C genotypes had a 1.30-fold risk of cancer (95% CI = 1.14–1.49, P = 8.49 × 10{sup −5}). These findings suggest that the rs1805794G

  18. Dithiolethione modified valproate and diclofenac increase E-cadherin expression and decrease proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Terry W.; Switzer, Christopher; Santana-Flores, Wilmarie; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Berna, Marc; Thill, Michelle; Jensen, Robert T.; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Yeh, Grace C; Roberts, David D.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Wink, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dithiolethione-modified valproate, diclofenac and sulindac on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were investigated. Sulfur(S)-valproate and S-diclofenac at 1 μg/ml concentrations significantly reduced prostaglandin (PG)E2 levels in NSCLC cell lines A549 and NCI-H1299 as did the COX-2 inhibitor DuP-697. In vitro, S-valproate, S-diclofenac and S-sulindac half-maximally inhibited the clonal growth of NCI-H1299 cells at 6, 6 and 15 μg/ml, respectively. Using the MTT assay, 10...

  19. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  20. High Glucose Promotes Tumor Invasion and Increases Metastasis-Associated Protein Expression in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via Reactive Oxygen Species or the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is up-regulated in malignancies and subsequently alters tumor aggressiveness and various cancer-related factors, such as high glucose (HG levels. HO-1 expression can be induced when glucose concentrations are above 25 mM; however, the role of HO-1 in lung cancer patients with diabetes remains unknown. Therefore, in this study we investigated the promotion of tumor cell invasion and the expression of metastasis-associated proteins by inducing the up-regulation of HO-1 expression by HG treatment in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Methods: The expression of HO-1and metastasis-associated protein expression was explored by western blot analysis. HO-1 enzymatic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and TGF-β1 production were examined by ELISA. Invasiveness was analyzed using a Transwell chamber. Results: HG treatment of A549 cells induced an increase in HO-1 expression, which was mediated by the HG-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Following the increase in HO-1 expression, the enzymatic activity of HO-1 also increased in HG-treated cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt inhibitors attenuated the HG-induced increase in HO-1 expression. HG treatment of A549 cells enhanced the invasion potential of these cells, as shown with a Transwell assay, and increased metastasis-associated protein expression. However, HO-1 siRNA transfection significantly decreased these capabilities. Conclusion: this study is the first to demonstrate that HG treatment of A549 human lung epithelial cells promotes tumor cell invasion and increases metastasis-associated protein expression by up-regulating HO-1 expression via ROS or the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  2. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  3. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  4. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, K.; Eenjes, E.; van Riet, S.; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Hiemstra, P.; Rottier, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as

  5. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China); Huang, Liangqian [Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) & Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine -SJTUSM, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China); Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei [Plastic Surgery Institute of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261041 (China); Ren, Chune, E-mail: ren@wfmc.edu.cn [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, 261031 (China)

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  6. Mechanisms of enhanced lung injury during sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Breckwoldt, M; Ravage, Z B

    1999-01-01

    . Enhanced lung injury was associated with increased accumulation of neutrophils in lung, enhanced production of CXC chemokines (but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and increased expression of lung vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Complement depletion...

  7. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  8. Why does the lung hyperinflate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T

    2006-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have some degree of hyperinflation of the lungs. Hyperinflated lungs can produce significant detrimental effects on breathing, as highlighted by improvements in patient symptoms after lung volume reduction surgery. Measures of lung volumes correlate better with impairment of patient functional capabilities than do measures of airflow. Understanding the mechanisms by which hyperinflation occurs in COPD provides better insight into how treatments can improve patients' health. Both static and dynamic processes can contribute to lung hyperinflation in COPD. Static hyperinflation is caused by a decrease in elasticity of the lung due to emphysema. The lungs exert less recoil pressure to counter the recoil pressure of the chest wall, resulting in an equilibrium of recoil forces at a higher resting volume than normal. Dynamic hyperinflation is more common and can occur independent of or in addition to static hyperinflation. It results from air being trapped within the lungs after each breath due to a disequilibrium between the volumes inhaled and exhaled. The ability to fully exhale depends on the degree of airflow limitation and the time available for exhalation. These can both vary, causing greater hyperinflation during exacerbations or increased respiratory demand, such as during exercise. Reversibility of dynamic hyperinflation offers the possibility for intervention. Use of bronchodilators with prolonged durations of action, such as tiotropium, can sustain significant reductions in lung inflation similar in effect to lung volume reduction surgery. How efficacy of bronchodilators is assessed may, therefore, need to be reevaluated.

  9. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  10. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  11. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. A functional polymorphism at microRNA-629-binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of NBS1 gene confers an increased risk of lung cancer in Southern and Eastern Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Yinyan; Cheng, Mei; Huang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Bin; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Li, Qingchu; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Weidong; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2012-02-01

    The genetic variations in NBS1 gene have been reported to be associated with cancer risk. The polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of NBS1 might affect gene's function and thus contribute to cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that these polymorphisms of NBS1 are associated with the lung cancer risk. In two independent case-control studies conducted in Southern and Eastern Chinese, we genotyped three tagSNPs (rs14448, rs13312986 and rs2735383) in Southern Chinese and then validated the discovered association in Eastern Chinese. No significant association was observed for rs13312986 and rs14448; we only found that the rs2735383CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer under a recessive genetic model in the total 1559 cases versus 1679 controls (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.66, P = 0.0001) when compared with GG or GC genotypes; the rs2735383CC genotype carriers had lower messenger RNA and protein expression levels in tumor tissues than those of other genotypes as quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot shown. Luciferase assay revealed that the rs2735383C allele had a lower transcription activity than G allele, and the hsa-miR-629 but not hsa-miR-499-5P had effect on modulation of NBS1 gene in vitro. We further observed that the X-ray radiation induced more chromatid breaks in lymphocyte cells from the carriers of rs2735383CC homozygote than those from the subjects with other genotypes (P = 0.0008). Our data suggested that the rs2735383G>C variation contributes to an increased risk of lung cancer by diminishing gene's expression through binding of microRNA-629 to the polymorphic site in the 3'-UTR of NBS1 gene.

  13. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  14. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  15. [Lung transplantation: supply and demand in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M; Souilamas, R; Tixier, D; Mal, H

    2008-10-01

    For a decade lung transplantation has suffered from a lack of donor organs which aroused a national debate and led to planned action in collaboration with The French National Agency for Transplantation. Analysis of the stages of the process from potential donor to lung transplantation identified lung procurement as the main priority. An increase in the number of potential lung donors and revision of the acceptance criteria led to a doubling of the annual rate of lung transplantation in less than two years. In the near future we may solve the problem of donor family refusals and establish scientifically based criteria for lung acceptance to increase the rate of lung transplantation. Transplantation from non heart-beating donors and the reconditioning of ex vivo non acceptable lungs might supply additional organs to fulfill demand in the long term. The rate of lung transplantation activity in France doubled as the result of a dramatic increase of donor lung proposals. The current improvement in the results of lung transplantation might create new demands and generate future difficulties in the supply of donor lungs. New approaches, such as transplantation from non heart-beating donors and reconditioning ex vivo non acceptable lungs, should be examined in the near future.

  16. Increased prevalence of IgG-induced sensitization and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in nonsmokers exposed to aerosols of a contaminated air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Richter, G; Pethran, A; Czuppon, A B; Schwaiblmair, M

    1992-01-01

    Specific IgG antibodies against antigens of a contaminated air conditioner were estimated in serum of 134 workers of a printing company. Altogether 64% of the workers investigated revealed significantly elevated levels (> 3 U/ml) of IgG antibodies specific to these antigens as compared to a nonexposed control group. The occurrence of IgG antibodies for microbial extracts were 25% for Fusarium, 23% for Penicillium notatum, 13% for Alternaria tenuis, 12% for Aureobasidium pullulans, 9% for Sphaeropsidales species, 3% for Micropolyspora faeni, 2% for Aspergillus fumigatus and 2% for Thermoactionomyces vulgaris. Out of the 86 workers with elevated IgG antibodies for air conditioner antigens, 59 were nonsmokers. Considering a cut-off level of 10 U/ml IgG for high values, the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers becomes even more pronounced (6 to 36 respectively, binominal test p air conditioners are the best choice as antigen source for the diagnosis of humidifier lung in exposed workers. Nonsmokers are shown to have a high risk for immunological sensitization.

  17. [Telomerase in lung cancer. Testing the activity of the "immortaligy enzyme" bronchial biopsies increases the diagnostic yield in cases of suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, L; Litterst, P; Obertrifter, B; Velehorschi, V; Kemmer, H P; Linder, A; Brightman, I

    2000-11-01

    The proliferative capability is time-limited in normal somatic cells by the shortening of their chromosomal ends, the telomeres (Hayflick limit). An important feature of malignant cells is their immortality. The probably most common mechanism of tumour cells to achieve unlimited replicability is the activation of the enzyme telomerase. The reverse transcriptase can compensate the loss of telomeres. Using a PCR-based TRAP assay we found telomerase activity in tumour biopsies, exsudates and bronchial washings in various thoracic malignancies. In 38 of 47 patients with suspected peripheral lung cancer eventually surgery or invasive procedures proved a malignancy. In fluoroscopically guided bronchial brushings from 25 of these 38 patients (66%) the TRAP assay revealed telomerase activity. There was a single false positive case (tuberculosis) and with a single exception, the simultaneously taken brushes of the contralateral lobes were all telomerase negative. In 23 patients (61%) tumour cells were found in the cytological examination. In 33 patients at least one marker was positive. Thus the combination of cytology and telomerase test in bronchial brush biopsies attained a diagnostic yield of 87%.

  18. Bioconjugation of laminin peptide YIGSR with poly(styrene co-maleic acid) increases its antimetastatic effect on lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Y; Kamada, H; Kaneda, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Kodaira, H; Tsunoda, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Maeda, M; Kawasaki, K; Nomizu, M; Yamada, Y; Mayumi, T

    1999-02-05

    A comb-shaped polymeric modifier, SMA [poly(styrene comaleic anhydride)], which binds to plasma albumin in blood was used to modify the synthetic cell-adhesive laminin peptide YIGSR, and its inhibitory effect on experimental lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells was examined. YIGSR was chemically conjugated with SMA via formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group of YIGSR and the carboxyl anhydride of SMA. The antimetastatic effect of SMA-conjugated YIGSR was approximately 50-fold greater than that of native YIGSR. When injected intravenously, SMA-YIGSR showed a 10-fold longer plasma half-life than native YIGSR in vivo. In addition, SMA-YIGSR had the same binding affinity to plasma albumin as SMA, while native YIGSR did not bind to albumin. These findings suggested that the enhanced antimetastatic effect of SMA-YIGSR may be due to its prolonged plasma half-life by binding to plasma albumin, and that bioconjugation of in vivo unstable peptides with SMA may facilitate their therapeutic use. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Reducing barriers to consulting a General Practitioner in patients at increased risk of lung cancer: a qualitative evaluation of the CHEST Australia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sonya R; Kutzer, Yvonne; Habgood, Emily; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Shahid, Shaouli; Emery, Jon D

    2017-11-16

    Lung cancer has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is no longer possible, partly due to later presentation with symptoms to a healthcare provider. To explore the theoretical underpinning of the Scottish CHEST intervention in participants randomized to the intervention group within the CHEST Australia trial. A purposive maximum variation sample of participants who received the intervention in the CHEST trial in Perth, Western Australia (N = 13) and Melbourne, Victoria, (N = 7) were interviewed. Patients were asked about their experience of the CHEST consultation, their recall of the main messages, their symptom appraisal and issues relating to help seeking when they develop symptoms. Thematic analysis was conducted to draw common themes between the participants. We identified themes consistent with the theoretical basis of the CHEST intervention. Barriers to consultation identified in the CHEST Australia trial participants were smoker stigmatization, guilt, fatalism and symptom normalization. We identified a general perceived mistrust of GPs based on previous negative experiences of visiting their GP in relation to their smoking. The intervention tackled barriers around lecturing and feelings of guilt and stigma related to smoking. We identified expected effects on salience and personal relevance of symptoms. Participants reported a clearer understanding of what to look out for and when to take action after the CHEST intervention. These findings suggest that the CHEST Australia intervention is achieving the desired objectives at the qualitative level through the proposed theoretical mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. A high density of tertiary lymphoid structure B cells in lung tumors is associated with increased CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Germain, Claire; Liu, Zheng; Sebastian, Yinong; Devi, Priyanka; Knockaert, Samantha; Brohawn, Philip; Lehmann, Kim; Damotte, Diane; Validire, Pierre; Yao, Yihong; Valge-Archer, Viia; Hammond, Scott A; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Higgs, Brandon W

    2015-12-01

    T and B cell receptor (TCR and BCR, respectively) Vβ or immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 sequencing allows monitoring of repertoire changes through recognition, clonal expansion, affinity maturation, and T or B cell activation in response to antigen. TCR and BCR repertoire analysis can advance understanding of antitumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. TCR and BCR repertoires of sorted CD4 + , CD8 + or CD19 + cells in tumor, non-tumoral distant tissue (NT), and peripheral compartments (blood/draining lymph node [P]) from 47 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (age median = 68 y) were sequenced. The clonotype spectra were assessed among different tissues and correlated with clinical and immunological parameters. In all tissues, CD4 + and CD8 + TCR repertoires had greater clonality relative to CD19 + BCR. CD4 + T cells exhibited greater clonality in NT compared to tumor ( p = 0.002) and P ( p 68). Younger patients exhibited greater CD4 + T cell diversity in P compared to older patients ( p = 0.05), and greater CD4 + T cell clonality in tumor relative to P ( p cell clonality in tumor and P, respectively (both p = 0.05), correlated with high density of tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) B cells, a biomarker of higher overall survival in NSCLC. Results indicate distinct adaptive immune responses in NSCLC, where peripheral T cell diversity is modulated by age, and tumor T cell clonal expansion is favored by the presence of TLSs in the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  2. Computer program modifications for lung microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    A lung model based on statistical studies of beagle dog lung microstructure was incorporated to describe the distributions of tissue, air space, and cell nuclei in pulmonary lung tissue was modified from basic to FORTRAN to shorten time and increase flexibility

  3. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  4. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  5. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  6. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  7. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  8. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  9. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  10. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  12. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  13. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  14. Lysophosphatidic Acid and Apolipoprotein A1 Predict Increased Risk of Developing World Trade Center Lung Injury: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiji, Jun; Cho, Soo Jung; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Kwon, Sophia; Joseph, Phillip; Schenck, Edward J.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and vascular injury markers measured in serum after WTC exposures predict abnormal FEV1. We hypothesized that elevated LPA levels predict FEV1increased the odds by 13% while ApoA1 increased the odds by 29% of an FEV1increased risk of developing an FEV1

  15. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen’s organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against

  16. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-09-05

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen's organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against breast

  17. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  18. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  19. CT-guided core biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung: Can these procedures be combined without an increase in complication rate or decrease in technical success?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Interventional Radiology, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Sheiman, Robert, E-mail: rsheiman@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Brook, Olga R. [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [King' s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, SE1 7EH London (United Kingdom); Mahadevan, Anand [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Radiation Oncology, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Siewert, Bettina [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine if concomitant CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung can be performed in a selective patient population without increased complication or decreased success rates compared to either procedure alone. Materials and methods: An IRB approved retrospective analysis of 285 consecutive patients that underwent CT-guided placement of fiducial seeds in the lung alone (N = 63), with concomitant core biopsy (N = 53) or only core biopsy (N = 169) was performed. Variables compared included: patient demographics, lesion size, depth from pleura, needle size, number of passes through pleura, number and size of core biopsies, number of seeds placed and technical success rates. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate pair-wise comparisons. Results: A pathologic diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed in all cases undergoing seed placement alone and seed placement with concurrent biopsy, and in 144 of the biopsy alone lesions. On univariate analysis, major complication rates were similar for all three groups as were lesion size, depth, number of pleural passes, and technical success. Pair-wise comparisons of the remaining variables demonstrated a significant younger age and smaller needle size in the biopsy only group, and less minor complications in the fiducial only group. Overall there were 80/285 (28.1%) minor and 29/285 (10.2%) major complications. All major complications leading to admission consisted of either pneumothorax or hemothorax, while minor complications included asymptomatic stable or resolving pneumothoraces, transient hemoptysis or small hemothoraces. Conclusions: A combined procedure of percutaneous pulmonary core biopsy and stereotactic seed placement can be performed without additional risk of a major complication when compared to performing these separately.

  20. Increasing the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT interpretation of “mildly positive” mediastinal nodes in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, F.; Ryan, D.; McCarthy, L.; McCarthy, J.; Burke, L.; Henry, M.T.; Kennedy, M.P.; Hinchion, J.; McSweeney, S.; Maher, M.M.; O’Regan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify radiological factors that may reduce false-positive results and increase diagnostic accuracy when staging the mediastinum of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Methods: This was a retrospective, interdisciplinary, per-node analysis study. We included patients with NSCLC and mediastinal nodes with an SUV max in the range of 2.5–4.0 on PET-CT. We hypothesized that the greatest number of false positive cases would occur in this cohort of patients. Results: A total of 92 mediastinal lymph nodes were analyzed in 44 patients. Mediastinal disease (N2/N3) was histologically confirmed in 15 of 44 patients and in 34 of 92 lymph nodes; positive predictive value of 37% and false positive rate of 63%. Lymph node SUV max, tumor size, ratio of node SUV max to tumor SUV max (SUVn/SUVp), and ratio of node SUV max to node size (SUV n/SADn) were significantly higher in true positive cases. Using a threshold of 0.3 for SUV node/tumor and 3 for SUV node/size yielded sensitivities of 91% and 71% and specificities of 71% and 69% respectively for the detection of mediastinal disease. Using both ratios in combination resulted in a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 88%. Concurrent benign lung disease was observed significantly more frequently in false-positive cases. Conclusion: SUVn/SUVpt and SUVn/SADn may be complimentary to conventional visual interpretation and SUV max measurement in the assessment of mediastinal disease in patients with NSCLC

  1. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Woolsey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1 by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3 previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1

  3. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P; Thamsborg, S; Schnyder, Manuela; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, C M O

    2017-12-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1) by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1 excretion.

  4. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  5. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  6. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  7. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  8. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  9. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Treatment with anti-IL-6 receptor antibody prevented increase in serum hepcidin levels and improved anemia in mice inoculated with IL-6–producing lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Mori, Kazushige; Fujimoto-Ouchi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is produced mainly by interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. A mechanism linking cancer-related anemia and IL-6 through hepcidin production is suggested. To clarify the hypothesis that overproduction of IL-6 elevates hepcidin levels and contributes to the development of cancer-related anemia, we evaluated anti-IL-6 receptor antibody treatment of cancer-related anemia in an IL-6–producing human lung cancer xenograft model. Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with cells of the IL-6–producing human lung cancer cell line LC-06-JCK and assessed as a model of cancer-related anemia. Mice bearing LC-06-JCK were administered rat anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody MR16-1 and their serum hepcidin levels and hematological parameters were determined. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice developed anemia according to the production of human IL-6 from xenografts, with decreased values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to non–tumor-bearing (NTB) mice. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed decreased body weight and serum albumin with increased serum amyloid A. MR16-1 treatment showed significant inhibition of decreased body weight and serum albumin levels, and suppressed serum amyloid A level. There was no difference in tumor volume between MR16-1-treated mice and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-treated control mice. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV in LC-06-JCK–bearing mice was significantly relieved by MR16-1 treatment. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed high red blood cell counts and erythropoietin levels as compared to NTB mice, whereas MR16-1 treatment did not affect their levels. Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels were statistically elevated in mice bearing LC-06-JCK. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed lower values of MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and serum iron as compared to NTB mice. Administration of MR16-1 to mice bearing LC-06-JCK significantly suppressed levels of both serum hepcidin and

  11. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  12. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Intermittent cranial lung herniation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Carlo; De Simone, Antonio; Valbonetti, Luca; Diana, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    Two aged dogs with chronic obstructive airway disease were evaluated because of intermittent swelling of the ventral cervical region. Radiographs made at expiration and caudal positioning of the forelimbs allowed identification of intermittent cervical lung herniation of the left and right cranial lung lobe in both dogs. Pulmonary hyperinflation, increased expiratory effort, and chronic coughing were considered responsible for the lung herniation. Cervical lung hernia should be included in the differential diagnoses of intermittent cervical swelling in dogs with chronic respiratory disorders associated with increased expiratory effort and chronic coughing.

  14. Donor Lung Procurement by Surgical Fellow with an Expectation of High Rate of Lung Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Hassiba; Saxena, Pankaj; Wallinder, Andreas; Lin, Enjarn; Snell, Gregory I; Hobson, Jamie; Zimmet, Adam D; Marasco, Silvana F; McGiffin, David C

    2017-12-22

    There is an ever increasing demand for donor lungs in patients waiting for transplantation. Lungs of many potential donors will be rejected if the standard criteria for donor assessment are followed. We have expanded our donor lung pool by accepting marginal donors and establishing a donation after circulatory death program. We have achieved comparable results using marginal donors and accepting donor lungs following donation after circulatory death. We present our assessment and technical guidelines on lung procurement taking into consideration an increasingly complex cohort of lung donors. These guidelines form the basis of the lung procurement training program involving surgical Fellows at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  16. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  17. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  18. Contribution of Neutrophils to Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neut...

  19. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.

    1988-01-01

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  20. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  1. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adopt Lung Cell Phenotype in Normal and Radiation-induced Lung Injury Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Ola M; Maria, Ahmed M; Ybarra, Norma; Jeyaseelan, Krishinima; Lee, Sangkyu; Perez, Jessica; Shalaby, Mostafa Y; Lehnert, Shirley; Faria, Sergio; Serban, Monica; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-04-01

    Lung tissue exposure to ionizing irradiation can invariably occur during the treatment of a variety of cancers leading to increased risk of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells. However, cell culture methods of primary type II pneumocytes are slow and cannot provide a sufficient number of cells to regenerate damaged lungs. Moreover, effects of ablative radiation doses on the ability of MSCs to differentiate in vitro into lung cells have not been investigated yet. Therefore, an in vitro coculture system was used, where MSCs were physically separated from dissociated lung tissue obtained from either healthy or high ablative doses of 16 or 20 Gy whole thorax irradiated rats. Around 10±5% and 20±3% of cocultured MSCs demonstrated a change into lung-specific Clara and type II pneumocyte cells when MSCs were cocultured with healthy lung tissue. Interestingly, in cocultures with irradiated lung biopsies, the percentage of MSCs changed into Clara and type II pneumocytes cells increased to 40±7% and 50±6% at 16 Gy irradiation dose and 30±5% and 40±8% at 20 Gy irradiation dose, respectively. These data suggest that MSCs to lung cell differentiation is possible without cell fusion. In addition, 16 and 20 Gy whole thorax irradiation doses that can cause varying levels of RILD, induced different percentages of MSCs to adopt lung cell phenotype compared with healthy lung tissue, providing encouraging outlook for RILD therapeutic intervention for ablative radiotherapy prescriptions.

  3. Marijuana and lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

  4. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  5. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  6. Effect of dependency versus nondependency on lung lesion visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechman, R.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Paraffin blocks and mineral oil were used as a model to determine the effect of dependency versus nondependency on radiographic visualization of lung lesions in lateral thoracic radiographs. It was concluded that the increased opacity of the material surrounding the lesion, not contact between the heart and the lesion, was responsible for the inability to detect lung disease in the dependent lung. The results were tested in dogs with pneumonia in the right middle lung lobe. When the dog was in right lateral recumbency, the dependent right lung was increased in opacity and decreased in volume and the pulmonary lesion was difficult to detect. When the dog was in left lateral recumbency, the non dependent right lung was increased in volume and decreased in opacity and the pulmonary disease was clearly visible. A single recumbent lateral radiograph must not be used to assess a dog with suspected lung disease because lesions in the dependent lung lobes may not be detected

  7. Planimetric determination of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, M.; Maurer, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The total volume of the lungs was determined by digital planimetry in 102 patients with emphysema and 33 normal controls aged between 30 and 79 years. The results were compared with the findings obtained from spirometric measurements. Mean values showed a significant relationship to age, body size and body surface. Planimetrically determined lung volume did not show a linear relationship with age, but increased after 60 years. Beyong 60 years, spirometric findings were lower because of an increase in the number of patients with emphysema. The results have shown that digital planimetry is a useful addition to spirometry. (orig.) [de

  8. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  9. Lung-protective perioperative mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, S.N.T.

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury and possibly increase risk of pulmonary complications after surgery. Use of large tidal volumes could cause overdistension of lung tissue, which can be aggravated by too high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Too low

  10. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  11. Severe asthma with markedly increased asbestos of 2 types & TXB2, and markedly reduced acetylcholine, DHEA & drug uptake in parts of upper lungs, & similar abnormalities at respiratory & cardiac center of medulla oblongata: complete elimination of this asthma within 15 days using one optimal dose of astragalus & application of strong red light & EMF neutralizer on respiratory centers of abnormal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Henoch, Avraham; Shimotsuura, Yasuhira; Duvvi, Harsha; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ohki, Motomu

    2009-01-01

    When the window of an Asbestos-contaminated room from a broken ceiling was opened wide, A 73 year-old male physician of Oriental origin, who was sitting in the next room, suddenly developed a severe asthma attack, which did not stop by the use of a hand-held Albuterol inhaler. Temporary relief was obtained only by using a Compressor-Nebulizer (Inspiration 626 with Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083%). During the attack, abnormal areas were discovered at the upper lobes of both lungs, where Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was markedly increased to 500 ng (BDORT units) (the rest of the lung had about 2.5 ng), 2 types of Asbestos (Chrysotile and Crocidolite) were abnormally increased to 0.120-0.135 mg, (BDORT units) Acetylcholine was markedly reduced to 0.5 ng (the rest of the lung was low, about 100 ng), DHEA was extremely reduced to 1 ng (the rest of the lung had about 52 ng), and telomere was less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g). Bacterial & viral infections were also present in these abnormal areas, but no antibiotics entered the abnormal parts of the lungs. Therefore, one optimal dose of Astragalus was given once, which resulted in a rapid continuous excretion of large amounts of the above 2 types of Asbestos & TXB2 in urine & sputum, and Asthma symptoms reduced slightly in severity. Additional acupuncture & shiatsu given on all the known acupuncture points for lung disease only created slight, temporary improvement. Then, the respiratory & cardiac center of the Medulla Oblongata was found to have similar abnormalities as the lungs. Therefore, 100 mW output of Light Emitting Diode of red spectra (650 nm center spectrum) was projected on the abnormal area of the medulla oblongata on the back of the head. This resulted drug uptake of on and off and significantly reduced difficulty of breathing. Additional application of the EMF Neutralizer on the abnormal area of the Medulla Oblongata for 3 hours resulted in continuous drug uptake and complete disappearance of asthma. As a

  12. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  13. Lung Focused Resuscitation at a Specialized Donor Care Facility Improves Lung Procurement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie H; Kreisel, Daniel; Marklin, Gary F; Cook, Lindsey; Hachem, Ramsey; Kozower, Benjamin D; Balsara, Keki R; Bell, Jennifer M; Frederiksen, Christine; Meyers, Bryan F; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun

    2018-05-01

    Lung procurement for transplantation occurs in approximately 20% of brain dead donors and is a major impediment to wider application of lung transplantation. We investigated the effect of lung protective management at a specialized donor care facility on lung procurement rates from brain dead donors. Our local organ procurement organization instituted a protocol of lung protective management at a freestanding specialized donor care facility in 2008. Brain dead donors from 2001 to 2007 (early period) were compared with those from 2009 to 2016 (current period) for lung procurement rates and other solid-organ procurement rates using a prospectively maintained database. An overall increase occurred in the number of brain dead donors during the study period (early group, 791; late group, 1,333; p procurement rate (lung donors/all brain dead donors) improved markedly after the introduction of lung protective management (early group, 157 of 791 [19.8%]; current group, 452 of 1,333 [33.9%]; p procurement rate (total number of organs procured/donor) also increased during the study period (early group, 3.5 organs/donor; current group, 3.8 organs/donor; p = 0.006). Lung protective management in brain dead donors at a specialized donor care facility is associated with higher lung utilization rates compared with conventional management. This strategy does not adversely affect the utilization of other organs in a multiorgan donor. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  15. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  16. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  17. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rule out conditions such as asthma , cystic fibrosis , acid reflux, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, and immune deficiency. Various ... a lung infection. Acid-blocking medicines can prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A ...

  18. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab ( ...

  19. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  20. Lung scintigraphy; Centellograma pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenz, Roberto

    1994-12-31

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies.

  1. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  2. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  3. Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary growth phase killing of P. aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr -/--mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, N.; Lee, Bao le ri; Hentzer, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM...... and the complement system. Moreover, we show that AZM may affect the polymerization of P. aeruginosa alginate by the incomplete precipitation of polymerized alginate and high levels of readily dialyzable uronic acids. In addition, we find that mucoid bacteria in the stationary growth phase became sensitive to AZM......, whereas cells in the exponential phase did not. Interestingly, AZM-treated P. aeruginosa lasI mutants appeared to be particularly resistant to serum, whereas bacteria with a functional QS system did not. We show in a CF mouse model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection that AZM treatment results...

  4. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  5. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  6. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Repine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent

  7. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make it hard to breathe. Certain vaccinepreventable diseases can also increase swelling of your airways and lungs. The combination of the two can lead to pneumonia and other serious respiratory illnesses. Vaccines are one of the safest ways ...

  8. The mean lung dose (MLD). Predictive criterion for lung damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Peter; Appold, Steffen [Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Clinic and Polyclinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Carl Gustav Carus Medical Faculty, Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to prove the validity of the mean lung dose (MLD), widely used in clinical practice to estimate the lung toxicity of a treatment plan, by reevaluating experimental data from mini pigs. A total of 43 mini pigs were irradiated in one of four dose groups (25, 29, 33, and 37 Gy). Two regimens were applied: homogeneous irradiation of the right lung or partial irradiation of both lungs - including parts with lower dose - but with similar mean lung doses. The animals were treated with five fractions with a linear accelerator applying a CT-based treatment plan. The clinical lung reaction (breathing frequency) and morphological changes in CT scans were examined frequently during the 48 weeks after irradiation. A clear dose-effect relationship was found for both regimens of the trial. However, a straightforward relationship between the MLD and the relative number of responders with respect to different grades of increased breathing frequency for both regimens was not found. A morphologically based parameter NTCP{sub lung} was found to be more suitable for this purpose. The dependence of this parameter on the MLD is markedly different for the two regimens. In clinical practice, the MLD can be used to predict lung toxicity of a treatment plan, except for dose values that could lead to severe side effects. In the latter mentioned case, limitations to the predictive value of the MLD are possible. Such severe developments of a radiation-induced pneumopathy are better predicted by the NTCP{sub lung} formalism. The predictive advantage of this parameter compared to the MLD seems to remain in the evaluation and comparison of widely differing dose distributions, like in the investigated trial. (orig.) [German] Es soll unter Reevaluation von Tierversuchsdaten am Minischwein geprueft werden, ob die in der klinischen Praxis zur Beurteilung der Lungentoxizitaet eines Bestrahlungsregims regelhaft verwendete mittlere Lungendosis (MLD) eine zuverlaessige

  9. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  10. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: Model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Shi (Lu); H. Tian (Haijun); W.J. McCarthy (William); B. Berman (Barbara); S. Wu (Shinyi); R. Boer (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Mayo Lung Project (MLP), a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer

  11. Lung and oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrah-Davies, E.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses cancer of the lung and oesophagus. The author says lung cancer is increasing and there is no real improvement in the cure rates. It is natural to think of instituting some method of screening the population mostly at risk, in order to detect changes at an earlier stage of development. It seems to be tacitly agreed that screening methods so far known (mass radiography, sputum cytology, and possibly fibre-optic bronchoscopy) are likely to give a poor return, and would certainly be inordinately expensive. The recognition of air pollution as a major problem, and the attempts being made to deal with it, may help. Antismoking propaganda seems to have had little or no value, and it is unlikely that human nature will change and the public will stop smoking en masse. It also seems unlikely that any government will ever attempt to ban cigarettes when the tobacco tax is so lucrative. In short, the outlook at the moment is indeed pessimistic and one can only hope that some unexpected avenue of advance will appear soon

  12. Oxidative lung injury correlates with one-lung ventilation time during pulmonary lobectomy: a study of exhaled breath condensate and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-del-Olmo, Eva; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Martí, Francisco; Galan, Genaro; Morcillo, Alfonso; Wins, Richard; Guijarro, Ricardo; Arnau, Antonio; Sarriá, Benjamín; García-Raimundo, Miguel; Belda, Javier

    2015-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung is collapsed and hypoperfused; oxygen deprivation is accompanied by reactive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. After lung lobectomy, ischaemia present in the collapsed state is followed by expansion-reperfusion and lung injury attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the time course of several markers of oxidative stress simultaneously in exhaled breath condensate and blood and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and one-lung ventilation time in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. This single-centre, observational, prospective study included 28 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung lobectomy. We measured the levels of hydrogen peroxide, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrites plus nitrates and pH in exhaled breath condensate (n = 25). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and nitrites plus nitrates were also measured in blood (n = 28). Blood samples and exhaled breath condensate samples were collected from all patients at five time points: preoperatively; during one-lung ventilation, immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation; immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation; 60 min after resuming two-lung ventilation and 180 min after resuming two-lung ventilation. Both exhaled breath condensate and blood exhibited significant and simultaneous increases in oxidative-stress markers immediately before two-lung ventilation was resumed. However, all these values underwent larger increases immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. In both exhaled breath condensate and blood, marker levels significantly and directly correlated with the duration of one-lung ventilation immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation and immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. Although pH significantly decreased in exhaled breath condensate immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation, these pH values were inversely correlated with the

  13. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  15. Mathematics of Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Ubaidur

    2017-08-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) results from mechanical disruption of blood-gas barrier and consequent edema and releases of inflammatory mediators. A transpulmonary pressure (P L ) of 17 cmH 2 O increases baby lung volume to its anatomical limit, predisposing to VILI. Viscoelastic property of lung makes pulmonary mechanics time dependent so that stress (P L ) increases with respiratory rate. Alveolar inhomogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome acts as a stress riser, multiplying global stress at regional level experienced by baby lung. Limitation of stress (P L ) rather than strain (tidal volume [V T ]) is the safe strategy of mechanical ventilation to prevent VILI. Driving pressure is the noninvasive surrogate of lung strain, but its relations to P L is dependent on the chest wall compliance. Determinants of lung stress (V T , driving pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and inspiratory flow) can be quantified in terms of mechanical power, and a safe threshold can be determined, which can be used in decision-making between safe mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal lung support.

  16. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  18. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of six software packages for evaluation of solid lung nodules using semi-automated volumetry: What is the minimum increase in size to detect growth in repeated CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoop, Bartjan de; Gietema, Hester; Prokop, Mathias; Ginneken, Bram van; Zanen, Pieter; Groenewegen, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    We compared interexamination variability of CT lung nodule volumetry with six currently available semi-automated software packages to determine the minimum change needed to detect the growth of solid lung nodules. We had ethics committee approval. To simulate a follow-up examination with zero growth, we performed two low-dose unenhanced CT scans in 20 patients referred for pulmonary metastases. Between examinations, patients got off and on the table. Volumes of all pulmonary nodules were determined on both examinations using six nodule evaluation software packages. Variability (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the Bland-Altman plot) was calculated for nodules for which segmentation was visually rated as adequate. We evaluated 214 nodules (mean diameter 10.9 mm, range 3.3 mm-30.0 mm). Software packages provided adequate segmentation in 71% to 86% of nodules (p < 0.001). In case of adequate segmentation, variability in volumetry between scans ranged from 16.4% to 22.3% for the various software packages. Variability with five to six software packages was significantly less for nodules ≥8 mm in diameter (range 12.9%-17.1%) than for nodules <8 mm (range 18.5%-25.6%). Segmented volumes of each package were compared to each of the other packages. Systematic volume differences were detected in 11/15 comparisons. This hampers comparison of nodule volumes between software packages. (orig.)

  20. Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou TG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theodore G Liou, Sanjeev M Raman, Barbara C CahillDivision of Respiratory, Critical Care and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAAbstract: Patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD comprise the largest single lung disease group undergoing transplantation. Selection of appropriate candidates requires consideration of specific clinical characteristics, prognosis in the absence of transplantation, and likely outcome of transplantation. Increased availability of alternatives to transplantation for end-stage patients and the many efforts to increase the supply of donor organs have complicated decision making for selecting transplant candidates. Many years of technical and clinical refinements in lung transplantation methods have improved survival and quality of life outcomes. Further advances will probably come from improved selection methods for the procedure. Because no prospective trial has been performed, and because of confounding and informative censoring bias inherent in the transplant selection process in studies of the existing experience, the survival effect of lung transplant in COPD patients remains undefined. There is a lack of conclusive data on the impact of lung transplantation on quality of life. For some patients with end-stage COPD, lung transplantation remains the only option for further treatment with a hope of improved survival and quality of life. A prospective trial of lung transplantation is needed to provide better guidance concerning survival benefit, resource utilization, and quality of life effects for patients with COPD.Keywords: outcomes, emphysema, COPD, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, survival, single lung transplant, bilateral sequential single lung transplant, lung volume reduction, referral, guidelines, health related quality of life

  1. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  2. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  3. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  4. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  5. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rhea; Janssen, William; Altmann, Christopher; Andrés-Hernando, Ana; Okamura, Kayo; Vandivier, R William; Ahuja, Nilesh; Faubel, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury), intraperitoneal (IP) endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury) and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT) endotoxin administration (direct lung injury) with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10), BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration]), and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping), IP endotoxin (10 µg), or IT endotoxin (80 µg) with and without intratracheal (IT) IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng) treatment. Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin. IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of ARDS.

  6. Histoplasmosis lung. Primary pulmonary infection: histoplasmoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaro C Maurizio; Diaz Pacheco, Carlos; Roldan, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a primarily pulmonary originated mycosis which is acquired by inhalation. In the majority of the cases infection goes unnoticed or gets manifested by slight respiratory symptoms. Histoplasmoma is a relatively common form of acute lung histoplasmosis, in form of nodules, which is generally accompanied by calcification that can increase in size and simulate a lung neoplasia. This article describes a case of an immunocompromised patient with this kind of pulmonary mycosis

  7. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  8. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  10. Emphysema Is Common in Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplantation Patients: A Histopathological and Computed Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mets, Onno M.; Roothaan, Suzan M.; Bronsveld, Inez; Luijk, Bart; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Vink, Aryan; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) involves excessive inflammation, repetitive infections and development of bronchiectasis. Recently, literature on emphysema in CF has emerged, which might become an increasingly important disease component due to the increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and extent of emphysema in endstage CF lungs. Methods In explanted lungs of 20 CF patients emphysema was semi-quantitatively assessed on histology speci...

  11. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  12. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica

    2010-12-15

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  13. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2010-01-01

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  15. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......Introduction Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 metabolizes carcinogens from tobacco smoke in the lung. We tested whether genetically altered glutathione S-transferase pi 1 activity affects lung function and risk for tobacco-related cancer and mortality in the general population. Methods We genotyped......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p

  16. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  17. Lung volume recruitment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Srour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. METHODS: We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. RESULTS: There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9-190.3 and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72-311 over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001 and PCF (p = 0.042. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  18. Static inflation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in an isolated rat lung in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Hsu, Kang; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) lung injury is an important clinical issue in lung transplantation. In the present study, we observed the effects of lung static inflation, different perfusates, and ventilatory gas with nitrogen or oxygen on the I/R-induced pulmonary damage. A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The lung was isolated in situ. In an isolated lung, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight (LW)/body weight (BW) ratio, and protein concentration in BAL fluid (PCBAL) were measured or calculated to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Histologic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed. I/R caused lung injury, as reflected by increases in Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, and PCBAL. The histopathologic picture revealed the presence of hyaline membrane formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. These values were significantly attenuated by static lung inflation. The I/R lung damage appeared to be less in the lung perfused with whole blood than in the lung perfused with an isotonic solution. Therapy with ventilatory air (ie, nitrogen or oxygen) did not alter the I/R lung damage. The data suggest that lung inflation is protective to I/R injury, irrespective of the type of ventilatory air used for treatment. The preservation of the lung for transplantation is better kept at a static inflation state and perfused with whole blood instead of an isotonic physiologic solution.

  19. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  20. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  2. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  3. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  4. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  5. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  6. Variable tidal volumes improve lung protective ventilation strategies in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Pelosi, Paolo; Hoehn, Catharina; Meissner, Christoph; Kasper, Michael; Hübler, Matthias; von Neindorff, Matthias; Dassow, Constanze; Barrenschee, Martina; Uhlig, Stefan; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2009-04-15

    Noisy ventilation with variable Vt may improve respiratory function in acute lung injury. To determine the impact of noisy ventilation on respiratory function and its biological effects on lung parenchyma compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation strategies. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, we randomly combined noisy ventilation with the ARDS Network protocol or the open lung approach (n = 9 per group). Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and distribution of pulmonary blood flow were measured at intervals over a 6-hour period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage, mechanical stress, and inflammation. We found that, at comparable minute ventilation, noisy ventilation (1) improved arterial oxygenation and reduced mean inspiratory peak airway pressure and elastance of the respiratory system compared with the ARDS Network protocol and the open lung approach, (2) redistributed pulmonary blood flow to caudal zones compared with the ARDS Network protocol and to peripheral ones compared with the open lung approach, (3) reduced histological damage in comparison to both protective ventilation strategies, and (4) did not increase lung inflammation or mechanical stress. Noisy ventilation with variable Vt and fixed respiratory frequency improves respiratory function and reduces histological damage compared with standard protective ventilation strategies.

  7. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  8. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  9. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  10. Hypercapnic acidosis modulates inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema in the isolated perfused lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hilde R; Bersten, Andrew D; Barr, Heather A; Doyle, Ian R

    2007-12-01

    Low tidal volume (V(T)) ventilation strategies may be associated with permissive hypercapnia, which has been shown by ex vivo and in vivo studies to have protective effects. We hypothesized that hypercapnic acidosis may be synergistic with low V(T) ventilation; therefore, we studied the effects of hypercapnia and V(T) on unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated isolated perfused lungs. Isolated perfused rat lungs were ventilated for 2 hours with low (7 mL/kg) or moderately high (20 mL/kg) V(T) and 5% or 20% CO(2), with lipopolysaccharide or saline added to the perfusate. Hypercapnia resulted in reduced pulmonary edema, lung stiffness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the lavage and perfusate. The moderately high V(T) did not cause lung injury but increased lavage IL-6 and perfusate IL-6 as well as TNF-alpha. Pulmonary edema and respiratory mechanics improved, possibly as a result of a stretch-induced increase in surfactant turnover. Lipopolysaccharide did not induce significant lung injury. We conclude that hypercapnia exerts a protective effect by modulating inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema. The moderately high V(T) used in this study stimulated inflammation but paradoxically improved edema and lung mechanics with an associated increase in surfactant release.

  11. Mechanical ventilation drives pneumococcal pneumonia into lung injury and sepsis in mice: protection by adrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; Will, Daniel; Hellwig, Katharina; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tschernig, Thomas; Pfeil, Uwe; Paddenberg, Renate; Menger, Michael D; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Weissmann, Norbert; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2014-04-14

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) contributes to morbidity and mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Particularly pre-injured lungs are susceptible to VILI despite protective ventilation. In a previous study, the endogenous peptide adrenomedullin (AM) protected murine lungs from VILI. We hypothesized that mechanical ventilation (MV) contributes to lung injury and sepsis in pneumonia, and that AM may reduce lung injury and multiple organ failure in ventilated mice with pneumococcal pneumonia. We analyzed in mice the impact of MV in established pneumonia on lung injury, inflammation, bacterial burden, hemodynamics and extrapulmonary organ injury, and assessed the therapeutic potential of AM by starting treatment at intubation. In pneumococcal pneumonia, MV increased lung permeability, and worsened lung mechanics and oxygenation failure. MV dramatically increased lung and blood cytokines but not lung leukocyte counts in pneumonia. MV induced systemic leukocytopenia and liver, gut and kidney injury in mice with pneumonia. Lung and blood bacterial burden was not affected by MV pneumonia and MV increased lung AM expression, whereas receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1-3 expression was increased in pneumonia and reduced by MV. Infusion of AM protected against MV-induced lung injury (66% reduction of pulmonary permeability p protect against development of lung injury, sepsis and extrapulmonary organ injury in mechanically ventilated individuals with severe pneumonia.

  12. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  13. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  14. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  15. When does the lung die? Kfc, cell viability, and adenine nucleotide changes in the circulation-arrested rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Becker, R M; Hoffmann, S C; Lemasters, J J; Egan, T M

    1997-07-01

    Lungs harvested from cadaveric circulation-arrested donors may increase the donor pool for lung transplantation. To determine the degree and time course of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we evaluated the effect of O2 ventilation on capillary permeability [capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc)], cell viability, and total adenine nucleotide (TAN) levels in in situ circulation-arrested rat lungs. Kfc increased with increasing postmortem ischemic time (r = 0.88). Lungs ventilated with O2 1 h postmortem had similar Kfc and wet-to-dry ratios as controls. Nonventilated lungs had threefold (P Kfc at 30 and 60 min postmortem compared with controls. Cell viability decreased in all groups except for 30-min postmortem O2-ventilated lungs. TAN levels decreased with increasing ischemic time, particularly in nonventilated lungs. Loss of adenine nucleotides correlated with increasing Kfc values (r = 0.76). This study indicates that lungs retrieved 1 h postmortem may have normal Kfc with preharvest O2 ventilation. The relationship between Kfc and TAN suggests that vascular permeability may be related to lung TAN levels.

  16. Pulmonary rehabilitation in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melinda; Mathur, Sunita; Chowdhury, Noori A; Helm, Denise; Singer, Lianne G

    2013-06-01

    While awaiting lung transplantation, candidates may participate in pulmonary rehabilitation to improve their fitness for surgery. However, pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in lung transplant candidates. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study of 345 pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation participants who received a lung transplant between January 2004 and June 2009 and had available pre-transplant exercise data. Data extracted included: 6-minute walk tests at standard intervals; exercise training details; health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures; and early post-transplant outcomes. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes in the 6MW distance (6MWD), exercise training volume and HRQL during the pre-transplant period. We evaluated the association between pre-transplant 6MWD and transplant hospitalization outcomes. The final 6MWD prior to transplantation was only 15 m less than the listing 6MWD (n = 200; p = 0.002). Exercise training volumes increased slightly from the start of the pulmonary rehabilitation program until transplant: treadmill, increase 0.69 ml/kg/min (n = 238; p volumes are well preserved among lung transplant candidates participating in pulmonary rehabilitation, even in the setting of severe, progressive lung disease. Participants with greater exercise capacity prior to transplantation have more favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological study on lung cancer of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Liyun; Gu Juanjuan

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer among 13360 male workers of 5 uranium mines were investigated. During the period of observation (Jan, 1971-Dec. 1985) 35 lung cancers were registered; among them 24 were in exposed group and 11 in control group. Standard mortality of lung cancer for these two groups were 21.42·10 -5 and 15.94·10 -5 , respectively. SMR were 1.83 (exposed group) and 1.44 (control group) (P<0.01). The average latent period of lung cancer in exposed group was 17.5 years, and the average cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters was 168 WLM. The average age of workers dead of lung cancer was 47.83 years. The excess RR coefficient of lung cancer was 1.07%/WLM. SMR increased with increasing cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters. The adjusted mortality of long cancer of smokers in exposed group was obviously higher than that of nonsmokers

  18. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

  19. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  20. First Danish experience with ex vivo lung perfusion of donor lungs before transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ian Sune Iversen; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Christian Holdfold; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Nilsson, Jens Christian; Seidelin, Casper Tobias; Perch, Michael; Iversen, Martin; Steinbrüchel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The number of lung transplantations is limited by a general lack of donor organs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method to optimise and evaluate marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We describe our experiences with EVLP in Denmark during the first year after its introduction. The study was conducted by prospective registration of donor offers and lung transplantations in Denmark from 1 May 2012 to 30 April 2013. Donor lungs without any contraindications were transplanted in the traditional manner. Taken for EVLP were donor lungs that were otherwise considered transplantable, but failed to meet the usual criteria due to possible contusions or because they were from donors with sepsis or unable to pass the oxygenation test. In the study period, seven of 33 Danish lung transplantations were made possible due to EVLP. One patient died of non-EVLP-related causes, but all other recipients were alive with normal graft function at the end of our registration period. All lungs showed an improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio from a median 23.1 kPa (8.8-38.9) within the donor to 58.8 kPa (34.9-76.5) (FiO2 = 1.0) after EVLP, which corresponds to a 155% improved oxygenation. The median time to extubation, time in intensive care unit and the admission period were 1, 7 and 39 days, respectively. In the first year after the introduction of EVLP in Denmark, seven pairs of donor lungs that previously would have been rejected have been transplanted as a result of their improved function. EVLP seems to be a safe way to increase the use of marginal donor lungs. no funding was granted for the present paper. not relevant.

  1. Sampling for stereology in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Nyengaard

    2006-12-01

    of view, and noise due to random positioning of the probes. This can be decreased by increasing the number of units from the element causing the most variance. Overall, stereology provides lung scientists with efficient tools for estimating structural components correctly.

  2. Dissociation of Hexavalent Chromium from Sanded Paint Particles into a Simulated Lung Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lange, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    .... Studies clearly link chromate exposure to human lung cancer. However, the few studies of the painting industry suggest that chromate exposure from paint particles does not increase the risk of lung cancer...

  3. Lung age” - a motivational smoking cessation tool in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Trofor

    2018-03-01

    Lung age” measurement, used together with lung function and exhaled CO testing, adds value to proving impact of tobacco exposure on COPD patients and helps increasing motivation to quit smoking in this difficult to treat category of patients.

  4. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  5. Pulmonary Nodule Management in Lung Cancer Screening: A Pictorial Review of Lung-RADS Version 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Myrna C B; Odisio, Erika G L C; Truong, Mylene T; de Groot, Patricia M; Shroff, Girish S; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2018-05-01

    The number of screening-detected lung nodules is expected to increase as low-dose computed tomography screening is implemented nationally. Standardized guidelines for image acquisition, interpretation, and screen-detected nodule workup are essential to ensure a high standard of medical care and that lung cancer screening is implemented safely and cost effectively. In this article, we review the current guidelines for pulmonary nodule management in the lung cancer screening setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Localization and stretch-dependence of lung elastase activity in development and compensatory growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah Marie; Liu, Sheng; Joshi, Rashika; Batie, Matthew R; Kofron, Matthew; Guo, Jinbang; Woods, Jason C; Varisco, Brian Michael

    2015-04-01

    Synthesis and remodeling of the lung matrix is necessary for primary and compensatory lung growth. Because cyclic negative force is applied to developing lung tissue during the respiratory cycle, we hypothesized that stretch is a critical regulator of lung matrix remodeling. By using quantitative image analysis of whole-lung and whole-lobe elastin in situ zymography images, we demonstrated that elastase activity increased twofold during the alveolar stage of postnatal lung morphogenesis in the mouse. Remodeling was restricted to alveolar walls and ducts and was nearly absent in dense elastin band structures. In the mouse pneumonectomy model of compensatory lung growth, elastase activity increased threefold, peaking at 14 days postpneumonectomy and was higher in the accessory lobe compared with other lobes. Remodeling during normal development and during compensatory lung growth was different with increased major airway and pulmonary arterial remodeling during development but not regeneration, and with homogenous remodeling throughout the parenchyma during development, but increased remodeling only in subpleural regions during compensatory lung growth. Left lung wax plombage prevented increased lung elastin during compensatory lung growth. To test whether the adult lung retains an innate capacity to remodel elastin, we developed a confocal microscope-compatible stretching device. In ex vivo adult mouse lung sections, lung elastase activity increased exponentially with strain and in peripheral regions of lung more than in central regions. Our study demonstrates that lung elastase activity is stretch-dependent and supports a model in which externally applied forces influence the composition, structure, and function of the matrix during periods of alveolar septation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  9. Effect of ghrelin on inflammatory response in lung contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Guven

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin on inflammatory response and tissue damage following trauma-induced acute lung injury. Thirty male wistar albino rats (300–400 g were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (n = 6, lung contusion plus saline (saline-treated, n = 12, and lung contusion plus ghrelin (ghrelin-treated, n = 12. Saline- or ghrelin-treated traumatic rats were sacrificed at two time points (24 and 72 hours after lung contusion. Blood was collected for the analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA. Tissue transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological examination was performed on the lung tissue samples. Our results indicated that ghrelin significantly reduced morphologic damages. Serum ADA activities were significantly decreased after lung contusion and this decline started early with ghrelin treatment. TGF-β1 and MMP-2 levels in lung tissue were elevated at 72 hours after lung contusion and treatment with ghrelin significantly increased TGF-β1 level and reduced MMP-2 level. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that acute lung injury initiated proinflammatory responses and ghrelin administration showed an anti-inflammatory effect in lung contusion.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  11. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  12. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  13. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  14. Lung tissue mechanics as an emergent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of lung parenchymal tissue are both elastic and dissipative, as well as being highly nonlinear. These properties cannot be fully understood, however, in terms of the individual constituents of the tissue. Rather, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue emerges as a macroscopic phenomenon from the interactions of its microscopic components in a way that is neither intuitive nor easily understood. In this review, we first consider the quasi-static mechanical behavior of lung tissue and discuss computational models that show how smooth nonlinear stress-strain behavior can arise through a percolation-like process in which the sequential recruitment of collagen fibers with increasing strain causes them to progressively take over the load-bearing role from elastin. We also show how the concept of percolation can be used to link the pathologic progression of parenchymal disease at the micro scale to physiological symptoms at the macro scale. We then examine the dynamic mechanical behavior of lung tissue, which invokes the notion of tissue resistance. Although usually modeled phenomenologically in terms of collections of springs and dashpots, lung tissue viscoelasticity again can be seen to reflect various types of complex dynamic interactions at the molecular level. Finally, we discuss the inevitability of why lung tissue mechanics need to be complex.

  15. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  16. Haemophilia, AIDS and lung epithelial permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Doherty, M.J.; Page, C.J.; Harrington, C.; Nunan, T.; Savidge, G. (Haemophilia Centre and Coagulation Research Unit, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-01

    Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer was measured in HIV antibodypositive haemophiliacs (11 smokers, 26 nonsmokers, 5 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)). Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer as a marker of lung epithelial permeability was measured as the half time of transfer (from airspace into blood). This half time was faster in smokers compred to nonsmokers and the transfer curve was monoexponential. In nonsmokers no difference was observed between asymptomatic HIV-positive haemophiliacs and normal subjects, with the exception of the lung bases. At the lung basis in HIV-positive haemophiliac nonsmokers the transfer was faster than in normal individuals, implying increased alveolar permeability. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia resulted in a rapid transfer of {sup 99m}Tc DTPA (mean T50 of 2 minutes) and the transfer curve was biphasic, confirming previous observations in homosexual HIV antibody-positive patients with PCP. These changes returned to a monoexponential profile by 6 weeks following successful treatment. The DTPA lung transfer study may enable clinicians to instigate therapy for PCP without the need for initial bronchoscopy and provide a noninvasive method for the reassessment of patients should further respiratory signs or symptoms develop. This method is considered to be highly cost-effective in that it obviates the use of factor VIII concentrates required to cover bronchoscopic procedures and, with its early application and ease of use as a follow-up investigation, permits the evaluation of patients on an outpatient basis, thus reducing hospital costs. (au).

  17. Haemophilia, AIDS and lung epithelial permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Page, C.J.; Harrington, C.; Nunan, T.; Savidge, G.

    1990-01-01

    Lung 99m Tc DTPA transfer was measured in HIV antibodypositive haemophiliacs (11 smokers, 26 nonsmokers, 5 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)). Lung 99m Tc DTPA transfer as a marker of lung epithelial permeability was measured as the half time of transfer (from airspace into blood). This half time was faster in smokers compred to nonsmokers and the transfer curve was monoexponential. In nonsmokers no difference was observed between asymptomatic HIV-positive haemophiliacs and normal subjects, with the exception of the lung bases. At the lung basis in HIV-positive haemophiliac nonsmokers the transfer was faster than in normal individuals, implying increased alveolar permeability. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia resulted in a rapid transfer of 99m Tc DTPA (mean T50 of 2 minutes) and the transfer curve was biphasic, confirming previous observations in homosexual HIV antibody-positive patients with PCP. These changes returned to a monoexponential profile by 6 weeks following successful treatment. The DTPA lung transfer study may enable clinicians to instigate therapy for PCP without the need for initial bronchoscopy and provide a noninvasive method for the reassessment of patients should further respiratory signs or symptoms develop. This method is considered to be highly cost-effective in that it obviates the use of factor VIII concentrates required to cover bronchoscopic procedures and, with its early application and ease of use as a follow-up investigation, permits the evaluation of patients on an outpatient basis, thus reducing hospital costs. (au)

  18. Profile of lung cancer in kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basmy, Amani

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most frequent site in females, worldwide. This study is the first to explore the profile of lung cancer in Kuwait. Cases of primary lung cancer (Kuwaiti) in Kuwait cancer Registry (KCR) were grouped in 4 periods (10 years each) from 1970-2009. Epidemiological measures; age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), Standardized rate ratio (SRR) and Cumulative risk and Forecasting to year 2020-2029 used for analysis. Between years, 2000-2009 lung cancer ranked the 4th and the 9th most frequent cancer in males and females respectively. M:F ratio 1:3. Mean age at diagnosis (95%CI) was 65.2 (63.9-66.4) years. The estimated risk of developing lung cancer before the age of 75 years in males is 1.8% (1/56), and 0.6 (1/167) in females. The ASIR for male cases was 11.7, 17.1, 17.0, 14.0 cases/100,000 population in the seventies, eighties, nineties and in 2000-2009 respectively. Female ASIR was 2.3, 8.4, 5.1, 4.4 cases/100,000 population in the same duration. Lung cancer is the leading cause cancer death in males 168 (14.2%) and the fifth cause of death due to cancer in females accounting for 6.1% of all cancer deaths. The ASMR (95%CI) was 8.1 (6.6-10.0) deaths/100,000 population and 2.8 (1.3-4.3) deaths/100,000 population in males and females respectively. The estimated Mortality to incidence Ratio was 0.6. The incidence of lung cancer between years 2000-2009 is not different from that reported in the seventies. KCR is expecting the number of lung cancer cases to increase.

  19. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  20. Lungs in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be done in the hospital under general anesthesia. In general, lung biopsy is not required to ... be helpful for some LAM patients who have asthma like symptoms of wheezing and intermittent shortness of ...

  1. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  2. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  3. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  4. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  5. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  6. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly γ-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF 1 male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation

  7. Pulmonary Abscess as a Complication of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, Joseph H; Kern, Ryan M; Midthun, David E; Edell, Eric S; Maldonado, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 49-year-old man who developed pulmonary abscess as a complication of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. He had been receiving prednisone therapy, but otherwise had no specific risk factors for lung abscess. Cryobiopsy is a novel technique for obtaining peripheral lung parenchymal tissue for the evaluation of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Cryobiopsy is being increasingly proposed as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy or conventional bronchoscopic transbronchial forceps biopsy, but the safety profile of the procedure has not been fully appreciated. Pulmonary abscess has been rarely reported as a complication of other bronchoscopic procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy, however, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary abscess complicating peripheral lung cryobiopsy.

  8. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in diaphragmatic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.; Taplin, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical, radiological, physiological, and lung imaging findings from a patient with paralysis of the diaphragm are described. Dyspnea, hypoxemia and hypercapnia increased when the patient changed from the upright to the supine positions. Ventilation (V) and perfusion (P) images of the right lung appeared to be relatively normal and remained nearly the same in the upright and supine positions. In contrast, V/P images of the left lung were smaller than those of the right lung in the upright position and decreased further in the supine position. In addition, the size of the ventilation image was much smaller than that of the perfusion

  10. Characteristic patterns in the fibrotic lung. Comparing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isis E; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Verleden, Stijn; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Tissue fibrosis, a major cause of death worldwide, leads to significant organ dysfunction in any organ of the human body. In the lung, fibrosis critically impairs gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and immune function. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most detrimental and lethal fibrotic disease of the lung, with an estimated median survival of 50% after 3-5 years. Lung transplantation currently remains the only therapeutic alternative for IPF and other end-stage pulmonary disorders. Posttransplant lung function, however, is compromised by short- and long-term complications, most importantly chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). CLAD affects up to 50% of all transplanted lungs after 5 years, and is characterized by small airway obstruction with pronounced epithelial injury, aberrant wound healing, and subepithelial and interstitial fibrosis. Intriguingly, the mechanisms leading to the fibrotic processes in the engrafted lung exhibit striking similarities to those in IPF; therefore, antifibrotic therapies may contribute to increased graft function and survival in CLAD. In this review, we focus on these common fibrosis-related mechanisms in IPF and CLAD, comparing and contrasting clinical phenotypes, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis, and biomarkers to monitor, predict, or prognosticate disease status.

  11. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  12. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  13. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    =0.027). Factors related to the initial breast cancer which were not predictive for diagnosis of the lung event included nodal status, prior local or regional recurrence, 2 vs 3 field RT technique and machine energy. Time to lung event appeared fairly constant over two year intervals up to 10 years and beyond for patients with both metastatic breast lesions and primary lung cancers. In particular, there did not appear to be a relative increase in the risk of lung cancer after 10 years. Eleven of the initial cohort of 1865 patients (0.6%) had an ultimate pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer. With respect to the irradiated breast, these lung cancers were located in the ipsilateral lung for 5, the contralateral lung for 5 and the location was unknown for one. Conclusions: 1) Isolated lung events following early stage breast cancer are uncommon. 2) Smoking history and presentation as a solitary pulmonary nodule were more likely to be associated with a diagnosis of lung cancer than a metastatic breast lesion. However, even with a biopsy, it is often impossible to distinguish with certainty between the two diagnoses. In these situations, management must be based on clinical judgment. 3) In this cohort, the development of lung cancer was a rare event. There was no demonstrable evidence of radiation-induced lung cancer through this time of follow-up based on laterality or radiation technique

  15. Murine model of BCG lung infection: Dynamics of lymphocyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    NK cells in lungs declined by 30% but the total number of NK cells (NK1⋅1+) per lung increased by about 50%,. 5–6 weeks ..... to some lymphoid tissues like spleen (NK cells < 5%), .... effector cells of innate resistance and regulatory cells of.

  16. Influence of quartz exposure on lung cancer types in cases of lymph node-only silicosis and lung silicosis in German uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Stefan; Taeger, Dirk; Weitmann, Kerstin; Brüning, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2018-05-04

    Inhaled crystalline quartz is a carcinogen. Analyses show differences in the distribution of lung cancer types depending on the status of silicosis. Using 2,524 lung tumor cases from the WISMUT autopsy repository database, silicosis was differentiated into cases without silicosis in lung parenchyma and its lymph nodes, with lymph node-only silicosis, or with lung silicosis including lymph node silicosis. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma mortality for increasing quartz exposures were estimated in a multinomial logistic regression model. The relative proportions of the lung cancer subtypes in lymph node-only silicosis were more similar to lung silicosis than without any silicosis. The results support the hypothesis that quartz-related carcinogenesis in case of lymph node-only silicosis is more similar to that in lung silicosis than in without silicosis.

  17. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  18. Dutch Lung Surgery Audit: A National Audit Comprising Lung and Thoracic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Martijn Ten; Beck, Naomi; Heineman, David Jonathan; Damhuis, Ronald; Steup, Willem Hans; van Huijstee, Pieter Jan; Eerenberg, Jan Peter; Veen, Eelco; Maat, Alexander; Versteegh, Michel; van Brakel, Thomas; Schreurs, Wilhemina Hendrika; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus

    2018-04-21

    The nationwide Dutch Lung Surgery Audit (DLSA) started in 2012 to monitor and evaluate the quality of lung surgery in the Netherlands as an improvement tool. This outline describes the establishment, structure and organization of the audit by the Dutch Society of Lung Surgeons (NVvL) and the Dutch Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (NVT), in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). In addition, first four-year results are presented. The NVvL and NVT initiated a web-based registration including weekly updated online feedback for participating hospitals. Data verification by external data managers is performed on regular basis. The audit is incorporated in national quality improvement programs and participation in the DLSA is mandatory by health insurance organizations and the National Healthcare Inspectorate. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015, all hospitals performing lung surgery participated and a total of 19,557 patients were registered from which almost half comprised lung cancer patients. Nationwide the guideline adherence increased over the years and 96.5% of lung cancer patients were discussed in preoperative multidisciplinary teams. Overall postoperative complications and mortality after non-small cell lung cancer surgery were 15.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The audit provides reliable benchmarked information for caregivers and hospital management with potential to start local, regional or national improvement initiatives. Currently, the audit is further completed with data from non-surgical lung cancer patients including treatment data from pulmonary oncologists and radiation oncologists. This will ultimately provide a comprehensive overview of lung cancer treatment in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Emphysema Is Common in Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplantation Patients : A Histopathological and Computed Tomography Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, Onno M.; Roothaan, Suzan M.; Bronsveld, Inez; Luijk, Bart; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Vink, Aryan; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) involves excessive inflammation, repetitive infections and development of bronchiectasis. Recently, literature on emphysema in CF has emerged, which might become an increasingly important disease component due to the increased life expectancy. The

  20. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, P.F.; Gomez, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  1. Study of late effects of lung irradiation with telecobalt on lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkewitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of patients, one with malignant chest tumors before radiation and one more than nine months after radiation treatment of their tumors, are examined by assessment of different lung function parameters. In addition, four patients can be examined both before and more than nine months after radiation treatment for chest tumors. It is seen that the patients whose X-rays show signs of localized radiation fibrosis do not have the typical lung function problems noted in diffuse radiation fibroses. In patients with radiographic signs of localized radiation fibrosis, combined ventilation disturbances of obstruction and restriction type are more frequent and accompanied by a slight increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure. These modifications of the lung function cannot solely be attributed to the radiation treatment, as the lung function is also influenced by concomitant pulmonary affections such as chronic bronchitis or renewed growth of the irradiated tumor. (orig.) [de

  2. The possibility of heavy ion radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors in Japan and statisticians predict that the death rate by lung cancer will increase twice or 2.5 times within 10 years. Early detection and early resection are the first task to decrease the death rate, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be improved. In this paper, the present status of surgical treatment for lung cancer was summarized and the possibility of heavy ion therapy for lung cancer was discussed in comparison with surgical result. Overall 5-year survival rates in stages I, II, III and IV were 78%, 42% 29% and 16% respectively. The survival rate in stage I was correlated with tumor size and that in lung cancer of tumor size 2 cm or less was about 90%. If lung cancer is found at early stage, lung cancer can be cured. Limitation of detection of lung cancer is 2.3 mm in hilar squamous cell carcinoma by autofluorescence bronchoscopy and 5-10 mm in peripheral adenocarcinoma by high resolution CT. Less invasive surgery by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was applied to stage I lung cancer and the result was satisfactory. However, most lung cancer patients are heavy smokers with underlying lung diseases including chronic obstructive plumonary disease (COPD) and there are many patients not indicative for less invasive surgery. Preliminary results of heavy ion therapy showed remarkable improvement compared with that with conventional radiation therapy. Three-year survival rate of stage I in Protocol 9802 is 80%, almost the same with that in surgical result, indicating the possibility becoming the established therapeutic modality in stage I lung cancers, in patients with marginal biological function for surgical treatment, in particular. (authors)

  3. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  4. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  5. Multiple image x-radiography for functional lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, G. K.; Mann, A.; Belev, G.; Wiebe, S.; Kuebler, W. M.; Singh, B.; Chapman, D.

    2018-01-01

    Detection and visualization of lung tissue structures is impaired by predominance of air. However, by using synchrotron x-rays, refraction of x-rays at the interface of tissue and air can be utilized to generate contrast which may in turn enable quantification of lung optical properties. We utilized multiple image radiography, a variant of diffraction enhanced imaging, at the Canadian light source to quantify changes in unique x-ray optical properties of lungs, namely attenuation, refraction and ultra small-angle scatter (USAXS or width) contrast ratios as a function of lung orientation in free-breathing or respiratory-gated mice before and after intra-nasal bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) instillation. The lung ultra small-angle scatter and attenuation contrast ratios were significantly higher 9 h post lipopolysaccharide instillation compared to saline treatment whereas the refraction contrast decreased in magnitude. In ventilated mice, end-expiratory pressures result in an increase in ultra small-angle scatter contrast ratio when compared to end-inspiratory pressures. There were no detectable changes in lung attenuation or refraction contrast ratio with change in lung pressure alone. In effect, multiple image radiography can be applied towards following optical properties of lung air-tissue barrier over time during pathologies such as acute lung injury.

  6. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  7. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  8. Lung Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD. Among adverse effects on lung development are transgenerational (grandmaternal smoking), antenatal (exposure to tobacco and pollution), and early childhood (exposure to tobacco and pollution including pesticides) factors. Antenatal adverse events can operate by causing structural changes in the developing lung, causing low birth weight and prematurity and altered immunological responses. Also important are mode of delivery, early microbiological exposures, and multiple early atopic sensitizations. Early bronchial hyperresponsiveness, before any evidence of airway inflammation, is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Overlapping cohort studies established that spirometry tracks from the preschool years to late middle age, and those with COPD in the sixth decade already had the worst spirometry at age 10 years. Alveolar development is now believed to continue throughout somatic growth and is adversely impacted by early tobacco smoke exposure. Genetic factors are also important, with genes important in lung development and early wheezing also being implicated in COPD. The inescapable conclusion is that the roots of COPD are in early life, and COPD is a disease of childhood adverse factors interacting with genetic factors.

  9. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  10. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  11. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  12. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M

    1997-05-01

    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  13. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, L B; Golden, J A; Finkbeiner, W E; Matthay, M A

    1999-03-01

    Reperfusion lung injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of the alveolar epithelium in the setting of reperfusion lung injury. Simultaneous samples of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were collected from eight patients with severe post-transplantation reperfusion edema. The edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was measured, an indicator of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. The initial edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was > 0.75 in six of eight patients, confirming the presence of increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Graft ischemic time was positively correlated with the degree of permeability (r = 0.77, p mean +/- SD). Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated from serial samples in six patients. Intact alveolar fluid clearance correlated with less histologic injury, rapid resolution of hypoxemia, and more rapid resolution of radiographic infiltrates. The two patients with no net alveolar fluid clearance had persistent hypoxemia and more severe histologic injury. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased permeability to protein is the usual cause of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation, with longer ischemic times associated with greater permeability to protein in the transplanted lung. The high rates of alveolar fluid clearance indicate that the fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium may be well preserved in the allograft despite reperfusion lung injury. The ability to reabsorb fluid from the alveolar space was a marker of less severe reperfusion injury, whereas the degree of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability to protein was not. Measurement of alveolar fluid clearance may be useful to assess the severity of reperfusion lung injury and to predict outcome when pulmonary edema develops after lung transplantation.

  14. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  15. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    1999-01-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-α and TGF β and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-α and TGF-β] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation alone group. It

  16. Lung function studies in diagnostics and follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braadvik, I.

    1994-06-01

    In 66 patients the relationship between lung volumes and lung mechanics in pulmonary sarcoidosis was investigated. Lung volumes, static lung mechanics, lung resistance, dynamic lung mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest and during exercise were obtained. Fifteen functionally compromised patients received steroids during one year. They were re-investigated during the treatment and at a follow-up after an average of 7 years. In another 41 patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, the kinetics of the lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA measured over 180 minutes was explored, and compared to kinetics in healthy smokers. The relationship between lung clearance and lung volumes, lung mechanics, arterial blood gases and disease activity assessed with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and 67 Ga scintigraphy was studied. Reducing lung volumes and compliance, increased resistance and arterial oxygen tension were common. Vital capacity (VC), and changes of VC at follow-up, corresponded to the slope of the static elastic pressure/volume curve, and to the variation of it. Other static lung volumes reflected rather the position of the curve along the volume axis. Reduced VC also reflected obstruction. Forced expiratory volume in one second revealed to equal extent lung stiffness and obstruction. Lung mechanics showed abnormalities not always evident from spirometry.In 50% of the patients lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA disclosed an abnormally fast mono-exponential clearance or a bi-exponential clearance, which however differed from that in smokers. Lung clearance more readily detected abnormal function than did spirometry. Clearance did nor correlate with other investigations. 67 Ga lung activity was higher in patients with a pathologic lung clearance

  17. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  18. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  19. Lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.; Beck, W.L.; Shy, C.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Sowder, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the risk of dying from lung cancer among white males who received radiation to the lung as a result of inhaling uranium dust or the dust of uranium compounds. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of workers employed in a uranium processing plant during World War II. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of exposure even after controlling for age and smoking status, but only for those who were over the age of 45 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads of more. These data suggest that older age groups may be more susceptible to radiation-induced lung cancer than younger age groups

  20. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  1. Radiological evaluation of lung volume among Koreans with silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Byung Chull

    1975-01-01

    1. Radiological evaluation of lung volumes was carried out thirty Korean males patients with silicosis, and following results were obtained. 2. The mean radiological lung volume among those patients was 7,587 ml. 3. When compared with the group of normal Korean male adults ranging from 31 to 55 years of age, the mean lung volume was increased by 2,346 ml. 4. The lung volume of these patients was even slightly larger than that of the group of Korean athletes of all ages. 5. On the other hand, the vital capacity in patients with silicosis was markedly diminished, the mean vital capacity being 2,909 ml. 6. The patients with silicosis also revealed emphysematous changes in the lung as well as increased residual volumes. The vital capacity was smallest in the latest stage.

  2. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  3. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  4. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  5. Lung cancer in Lithuania: current situation and new approaches in treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Aleknavicius, E.; Valuckas, K.; Aizenas, M.; Pipiriene, T.; Mamontovas, V.

    1996-01-01

    Incidence and mortality of lung cancer have increased over the past decades; results of lung cancer treatment are insufficient and survival is poor. New methods of combined modality treatment of lung cancer (including new modalities of radiotherapy, new schemes of multi-drug chemotherapy, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy) are effective and can help improve quality of life and survival of patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  6. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  7. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  8. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  9. Advances in lung ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco Neto, Miguel Jose; Rahal Junior, Antonio; Vieira, Fabio Augusto Cardillo; Silva, Paulo Savoia Dias da; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians. (author)

  10. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  11. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  12. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  13. Quantitative CT characterization of pediatric lung development using routine clinical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Jill M.; Brody, Alan S.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Walkup, Laura L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Pulmonary Medicine and Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Pulmonary Medicine and Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The use of quantitative CT analysis in children is limited by lack of normal values of lung parenchymal attenuation. These characteristics are important because normal lung development yields significant parenchymal attenuation changes as children age. To perform quantitative characterization of normal pediatric lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation under routine clinical conditions in order to establish a baseline comparison to that seen in pathological lung conditions. We conducted a retrospective query of normal CT chest examinations in children ages 0-7 years from 2004 to 2014 using standard clinical protocol. During these examinations semi-automated lung parenchymal segmentation was performed to measure lung volume and mean lung attenuation. We analyzed 42 CT examinations in 39 children, ages 3 days to 83 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 42 ± 27 months). Lung volume ranged 0.10-1.72 liters (L). Mean lung attenuation was much higher in children younger than 12 months, with values as high as -380 Hounsfield units (HU) in neonates (lung volume 0.10 L). Lung volume decreased to approximately -650 HU by age 2 years (lung volume 0.47 L), with subsequently slower exponential decrease toward a relatively constant value of -860 HU as age and lung volume increased. Normal lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation decreases with increasing lung volume and age; lung attenuation decreases rapidly in the first 2 years of age and more slowly thereafter. This change in normal lung attenuation should be taken into account as quantitative CT methods are translated to pediatric pulmonary imaging. (orig.)

  14. Quantitative CT characterization of pediatric lung development using routine clinical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Jill M.; Brody, Alan S.; Fleck, Robert J.; Walkup, Laura L.; Woods, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of quantitative CT analysis in children is limited by lack of normal values of lung parenchymal attenuation. These characteristics are important because normal lung development yields significant parenchymal attenuation changes as children age. To perform quantitative characterization of normal pediatric lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation under routine clinical conditions in order to establish a baseline comparison to that seen in pathological lung conditions. We conducted a retrospective query of normal CT chest examinations in children ages 0-7 years from 2004 to 2014 using standard clinical protocol. During these examinations semi-automated lung parenchymal segmentation was performed to measure lung volume and mean lung attenuation. We analyzed 42 CT examinations in 39 children, ages 3 days to 83 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 42 ± 27 months). Lung volume ranged 0.10-1.72 liters (L). Mean lung attenuation was much higher in children younger than 12 months, with values as high as -380 Hounsfield units (HU) in neonates (lung volume 0.10 L). Lung volume decreased to approximately -650 HU by age 2 years (lung volume 0.47 L), with subsequently slower exponential decrease toward a relatively constant value of -860 HU as age and lung volume increased. Normal lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation decreases with increasing lung volume and age; lung attenuation decreases rapidly in the first 2 years of age and more slowly thereafter. This change in normal lung attenuation should be taken into account as quantitative CT methods are translated to pediatric pulmonary imaging. (orig.)

  15. [Management of Lung Abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Ukena, D

    2015-10-01

    A lung abscess is an infectious pulmonary disease characterised by the presence of a pus-filled cavity within the lung parenchyma. The content of an abscess often drains into the airways spontaneously, leading to an air-fluid level visible on chest X-rays and CT scans. Primary lung abscesses occur in patients who are prone to aspiration or in otherwise healthy individuals; secondary lung abscesses typically develop in association with a stenosing lung neoplasm or a systemic disease that compromises immune defences, such as AIDS, or after organ transplantation. The organisms found in abscesses caused by aspiration pneumonia reflect the resident flora of the oropharynx. The most commonly isolated organisms are anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus) or streptococci; in alcoholics with poor oral hygiene, the spectrum of pathogens includes Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Actinomyces. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are mandatory procedures in the diagnostic algorithm. Standard treatment for a lung abscess consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, which is based on the anticipated or proven bacterial spectrum of the abscess. In most cases, primary abscesses are successfully treated by calculated empiric antibiotic therapy, with an estimated lethality rate of less than 10 %. Secondary abscesses, despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, are associated with a poor prognosis, which depends on the patient's general condition and underlying disease; lethality is as high as 75 %. Negative prognostic factors are old age, severe comorbidities, immunosuppression, bronchial obstruction, and neoplasms. Surgical intervention due to failure of conservative treatment is required in only 10 % of patients, with a success rate of up to 90 % and postoperative mortality rates ranging between 0 and 33 %. Treatment success after endoscopic or percutaneous drainage is achieved in 73 to 100 % of cases, with an

  16. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  17. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  18. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  19. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  20. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  1. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung radiopharmaceuticals; Radioformacos pulmonares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, B M [Instituto Nacional de Pediatroa (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP.

  3. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  5. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  6. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  7. Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2013-06-01

    Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.

  8. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that in...

  9. Tumors of the lungs and bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    There has been an absolute as well as a relative increase in the incidence of carcinoma of the lung in the past 40 years, reflected in the mortality rate. In white male smokers, the reported incidence of cancer of the lung is 15 to 30 times higher than in nonsmokers. Of all carcinomas, bronchogenic carcinoma carries the highest mortality rate, but it may have reached a plateau in males. The incidence and mortality rate in females is now rising, with one study showing a drop in male:female ratio from 15 to 1 in the years 1955 to 1959 to 6 to 1 in the years 1968 to 1971 - a trend that appears to be related to an increase in female smokers. An increase in all cell types of lung cancer occurs in cigarette smoker. There also appears to be an increase in lung cancer in workers exposed to asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, chromate, nickel, vinyl chloride, radon gas, atomic radiation, and bis-chloromethyl ether (BCME). The number of workers studied does not allow a final conclusion about the cell type predominance in these groups

  10. Closed-loop mechanical ventilation for lung injury: a novel physiological-feedback mode following the principles of the open lung concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiberger, David; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Pomprapa, Anake; Tjarks, Onno; Kork, Felix; Boemke, Willehad; Francis, Roland C E; Leonhardt, Steffen; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2018-06-01

    Adherence to low tidal volume (V T ) ventilation and selected positive end-expiratory pressures are low during mechanical ventilation for treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using a pig model of severe lung injury, we tested the feasibility and physiological responses to a novel fully closed-loop mechanical ventilation algorithm based on the "open lung" concept. Lung injury was induced by surfactant washout in pigs (n = 8). Animals were ventilated following the principles of the "open lung approach" (OLA) using a fully closed-loop physiological feedback algorithm for mechanical ventilation. Standard gas exchange, respiratory- and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Electrical impedance tomography was used to quantify regional ventilation distribution during mechanical ventilation. Automatized mechanical ventilation provided strict adherence to low V T -ventilation for 6 h in severely lung injured pigs. Using the "open lung" approach, tidal volume delivery required low lung distending pressures, increased recruitment and ventilation of dorsal lung regions and improved arterial blood oxygenation. Physiological feedback closed-loop mechanical ventilation according to the principles of the open lung concept is feasible and provides low tidal volume ventilation without human intervention. Of importance, the "open lung approach"-ventilation improved gas exchange and reduced lung driving pressures by opening atelectasis and shifting of ventilation to dorsal lung regions.

  11. Evaluation of Neonatal Lung Volume Growth by Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Melissa A; Walkup, Laura L; Tkach, Jean A; Higano, Nara S; Lim, Foong Yen; Haberman, Beth; Woods, Jason C; Kingma, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate postnatal lung volume in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and determine if a compensatory increase in lung volume occurs during the postnatal period. Using a novel pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging method for imaging neonatal lungs, the postnatal lung volumes in infants with CDH were determined and compared with prenatal lung volumes obtained via late gestation magnetic resonance imaging. Infants with left-sided CDH (2 mild, 9 moderate, and 1 severe) were evaluated. The total lung volume increased in all infants, with the contralateral lung increasing faster than the ipsilateral lung (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 3.0 mL/week vs 3.4 ± 2.1 mL/week, P = .005). In contrast to prenatal studies, the volume of lungs of infants with more severe CDH grew faster than the lungs of infants with more mild CDH (Spearman's ρ=-0.086, P = .01). Although the contralateral lung volume grew faster in both mild and moderate groups, the majority of total lung volume growth in moderate CDH came from increased volume of the ipsilateral lung (42% of total lung volume increase in the moderate group vs 32% of total lung volume increase in the mild group, P = .09). Analysis of multiple clinical variables suggests that increased weight gain was associated with increased compensatory ipsilateral lung volume growth (ρ = 0.57, P = .05). These results suggest a potential for postnatal catch-up growth in infants with pulmonary hypoplasia and suggest that weight gain may increase the volume growth of the more severely affected lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung Fibroblasts, Aging, and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an aging-associated, progressive, and irreversible lung disease of unknown etiology, elusive pathogenesis, and very limited therapeutic options. The hallmarks of IPF are aberrant activation of alveolar epithelial cells and accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts along with excessive production of extracellular matrix. The linkage of aging with this disorder is uncertain, but a number of changes associated with aging, including telomere attrition, cell senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction, have been revealed in IPF lungs. Also, aging seems to confer a profibrotic phenotype upon fibroblasts and to increase the severity of the fibrogenic response in non-IPF fibrotic lung disorders. Better knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking aging to IPF will advance understanding of its pathogenesis and may provide new therapeutic windows to treatment of this devastating disease.

  13. Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Primary Lung Cancer Mimicking Benign Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Annemie; Dendooven, Amélie; Carp, Laurens; Desbuquoit, Damien; Spinhoven, Maarten J; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive. Whereas 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography is the cornerstone in staging of lung cancer, its role in diagnosis of these uncommon manifestations is less straightforward since benign entities can present with increased 18 F-FDG-uptake and, on the other hand, a number of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations do not exhibit increased uptake. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for both lesion detection and characterization. In this pictorial review we present the wide imaging spectrum of CT-findings as well as radiologic-pathologic correlation of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations. Knowledge of the many faces of lung cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary approach in these cases is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation for emphysema using three-dimensional computed tomography volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, H; Chen, F; Ohsumi, A; Hijiya, K; Takahashi, M; Ohata, K; Yamada, T; Sato, M; Aoyama, A; Bando, T; Date, H

    2014-04-01

    Although double lung transplantation is performed more frequently for emphysema, single lung transplantation (SLT) continues to be performed owing to limited donor organ availability. Native lung hyperinflation (NLH) is a unique complication following SLT for emphysema. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of lung transplantation, which we used to assess NLH in emphysema patients undergoing SLT. The primary purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of 3D-CT volumetry in the evaluation of NLH following SLT for emphysema. In 5 emphysema patients undergoing SLT at Kyoto University Hospital, 3D-CT volumetry data, pulmonary function test results, and clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Three patients did not develop a significant mediastinal shift, whereas the other 2 patients developed a mediastinal shift. In the 3 patients without a mediastinal shift, 3D-CT volumetry did not show a significant increase in native lung volume. These patients had a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation and firm adhesion on the mediastinal side was detected during lung transplantation. One of 2 patients with a mediastinal shift developed severe dyspnea with significantly decreased pulmonary function, and 3D-CT volumetry showed a significant increase in the native lung volume. However, the other patient did not show any dyspnea and his native lung volume decreased postoperatively (preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively: +981 mL and -348 mL, respectively). Although bilateral lung transplantation has become preferable for emphysema patients owing to postoperative NLH with SLT, patients with a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation might be good candidates for SLT. 3D-CT volumetry may be a useful method for detection of NLH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Respiratory-haemodynamic reactions in patients with lung cancer complicated by atelectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnosel'skij, N.V.; Krut'ko, E.N.; Pilipenko, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    The article contains published research materials confirming paradoxical respiratory-haemodynamic reactions in patients with lung atelectasis. The physiopathology mechanisms of these reactions were estimated by means of non-invasive arterial pressure, blood saturation and pulse values. The outcomes obtained are indicative of two pathophysiologic compensation mechanisms in patients with lung atelectasis. After pressing carotid artery branch - increased tonicity of the arteries in this lung area decreases blood flow resulting in ventilation/blood flow rate balancing that corresponds to Euler-Liljestrand mechanism. Resection of atelectized lung area leads to increased thoraco-pulmonary pressure, which has been reduced through atelectasis, that aids in higher lung tissue compliance.

  17. Lung cancer and inhaled uranium ore dust in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Jackson, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    increment for both exposed groups individually and combined. The data suggested that, in spite of the above result, lung tumor frequency does not increase with dose even though a risk that doubled with dose could have been detected. However, when malignant lung tumor frequency was calculated as a function of dose rate (as measured by the lung burden at the end of dust inhalation) a positive correlation was seen, suggesting dose rate may be a more important determinant of risk than dose. No strong lobe-to-lobe biases in tumor frequency were found. For the same absolute tumor incidence, lung tumor latency was longer in the group exposed to the low dust aerosol concentration, as compared to the group exposed to the high concentration but on a relative basis there was no latency change. Uranium particulates in lung were rapidly transferred to bronchial lymph nodes. Lymph node specific burdens were variable, ranging for 1 to 60 fold greater than the specific lung burden in the same animal. No lymph node tumors were observed. We conclude that chronic inhalation of natural uranium ore dust alone in rats creates a risk of primary malignant and non-malignant lung tumor formation. The evidence suggests that risk is not directly proportional to dose and certainly does not double as dose doubles in the range below 1.5 Gy. (author)

  18. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  19. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  20. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Ayyadurai, Puvanalingam; Thanha, Luong; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple primary lung cancer may present in synchronous or metachronous form. Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer is defined as multiple lung lesions that develop at the same time, whereas metachronous multiple primary lung cancer describes multiple lung lesions that develop at different times, typically following treatment of the primary lung cancer. Patients with previously treated lung cancer are at risk for developing metachronous lung cancer, but with the success of computed tomography and positron emission tomography, the ability to detect both synchronous and metachronous lung cancer has increased. We present a case of a 63-year-old Hispanic man who came to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain, dry cough, and weight loss. He had recently been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe, with a poorly differentiated carcinoma favoring squamous cell cancer based on bronchoalveolar lavage of the right lower lobe for which treatment was started. Later, bronchoscopy incidentally revealed the patient to have an endobronchial lesion that turned out to be mixed small and large cell neuroendocrine lung cancer. Our patient had triple synchronous primary lung cancers that histologically were variant primary cancers. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer management continues to be a challenge. Our patient's case suggests that multiple primary lung cancers may still occur at a greater rate than can be detected by high-resolution computed tomography.

  1. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to

  3. Creation of lung-targeted dexamethasone immunoliposome and its therapeutic effect on bleomycin-induced lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute lung injury (ALI, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which is routinely treated with the administration of systemic glucocorticoids. The current study investigated the distribution and therapeutic effect of a dexamethasone(DXM-loaded immunoliposome (NLP functionalized with pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A antibody (SPA-DXM-NLP in an animal model. METHODS: DXM-NLP was prepared using film dispersion combined with extrusion techniques. SP-A antibody was used as the lung targeting agent. Tissue distribution of SPA-DXM-NLP was investigated in liver, spleen, kidney and lung tissue. The efficacy of SPA-DXM-NLP against lung injury was assessed in a rat model of bleomycin-induced acute lung injury. RESULTS: The SPA-DXM-NLP complex was successfully synthesized and the particles were stable at 4°C. Pulmonary dexamethasone levels were 40 times higher with SPA-DXM-NLP than conventional dexamethasone injection. Administration of SPA-DXM-NLP significantly attenuated lung injury and inflammation, decreased incidence of infection, and increased survival in animal models. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of SPA-DXM-NLP to animal models resulted in increased levels of DXM in the lungs, indicating active targeting. The efficacy against ALI of the immunoliposomes was shown to be superior to conventional dexamethasone administration. These results demonstrate the potential of actively targeted glucocorticoid therapy in the treatment of lung disease in clinical practice.

  4. Dependent lung opacity at thin-section CT: evaluation by spirometrically-gated CT of the influence of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Sohn, Choon Hee; Choi, Pil Jo; Webb, W. Richard

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lung volume on dependent lung opacity seen at thin-section CT. In thirteen healthy volunteers, thin-section CT scans were performed at three levels (upper, mid, and lower portion of the lung) and at different lung volumes (10, 30, 50, and 100% vital capacity), using spirometric gated CT. Using a three-point scale, two radiologists determined whether dependent opacity was present, and estimated its degree. Regional lung attenuation at a level 2 cm above the diaphragm was determined using semiautomatic segmentation, and the diameter of a branch of the right lower posterior basal segmental artery was measured at each different vital capacity. At all three anatomic levels, dependent opacity occurred significantly more often at lower vital capacities (10, 30%) than at 100% vital capacity (p = 0.001). Visually estimated dependent opacity was significantly related to regional lung attenuation (p < 0.0001), which in dependent areas progressively increased as vital capacity decreased (p < 0.0001). The presence of dependent opacity and regional lung attenuation of a dependent area correlated significantly with increased diameter of a segmental arterial branch (r = 0.493 and p = 0.0002; r = 0.486 and p 0.0003, respectively). Visual estimation and CT measurements of dependent opacity obtained by semiautomatic segmentation are significantly influenced by lung volume and are related to vascular diameter

  5. Prediction of residual lung function after lung surgery, and examination of blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung using three-dimensional SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Shinji [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery, preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Spirometry was also performed before and 4-6 months after surgery in 40 patients. In addition, changes in blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung were examined by postoperative lung perfusion scans in 18 of the 40 patients. We measured the three-dimensional (3-D) imaging volume of the operative and contralateral lungs using the volumes rendering method at blood perfusion thresholds of 20, 50 and 75%, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc-MAA lung perfusion, and predicted pulmonary function by means of the measured volumes. We examined the correlation between predicted and the measured values of postoperative pulmonary function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV{sub 1.0}). The correlation between FEV{sub 1.0} predicted by SPECT (threshold 50%) and measured postoperative lung function resembled that between lung function predicted by the standard planar method and measured FEV{sub 1.0} in the lobectomy group. We then examined the ratios of both pre- and postoperative blood perfusion volumes obtained using 3-D imaging at lung perfusion threshold ranges of 10% each (PV20-29, PV30-39) to pre- and postoperative total perfusion (PV20-100). In the lobectomy group, the postoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value was significantly higher for the operative side lung than the preoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value, and the postoperative PV50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-100/PV20-100 values were significantly lower than the respective preoperative values. However, in the contralateral lung, the respective pre- and postoperative PV/PV20-100 values were almost identical. These findings suggest that the rate of low blood perfusion increased while the rate of middle to high perfusion decreased in the lobectomy group in the operative

  6. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  7. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  8. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  9. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  10. What Are the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ... buildup in the lung tissues. These sensors are thought to trigger rapid, shallow breathing. Sensors in your ... is a complex process. If injury, disease, or other factors affect any ...

  11. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  12. Efficacy and safety of lung recruitment in pediatric patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriosi, Juan P; Sapru, Anil; Hanson, James H; Asselin, Jeanette; Gildengorin, Ginny; Newman, Vivienne; Sabato, Katie; Flori, Heidi R

    2011-07-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a recruitment maneuver, the Open Lung Tool, in pediatric patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prospective cohort study using a repeated-measures design. Pediatric intensive care unit at an urban tertiary children's hospital. Twenty-one ventilated pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Recruitment maneuver using incremental positive end-expiratory pressure. The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen over fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2 ratio) increased 53% immediately after the recruitment maneuver. The median Pao2/Fio2 ratio increased from 111 (interquartile range, 73-266) prerecruitment maneuver to 170 (interquartile range, 102-341) immediately postrecruitment maneuver (p interquartile range, 116-257) 4 hrs postrecruitment maneuver (p interquartile range, 127-236) 12 hrs postrecruitment maneuver (p interquartile range, 44-60) prerecruitment maneuver compared with 48 torr (interquartile range, 43-50) immediately postrecruitment maneuver (p = .69), 45 torr (interquartile range, 41-50) at 4 hrs postrecruitment maneuver (p interquartile range, 38-51) at 12 hrs postrecruitment maneuver. Recruitment maneuvers were well tolerated except for significant increase in Paco2 in three patients. There were no serious adverse events related to the recruitment maneuver. Using the modified open lung tool recruitment maneuver, pediatric patients with acute lung injury may safely achieve improved oxygenation and ventilation with these benefits potentially lasting up to 12 hrs postrecruitment maneuver.

  13. Nuclear techniques in the diagnosis of lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Lung studies by nuclear techniques have been mostly neglected so far in the developing countries because ''total lung imaging'' was not possible. The availability of radioaerosols had now provided means to do complete lung studies in these countries. IAEA's effort to make radioaerosol techniques more widely available in the Asian countries has been most noteworthy. Pulmonary tuberculosis is still prevalent in the developing countries, scourge of smoking is becoming increasingly wide spread and atmospheric pollution is on the rise as these countries race towards industrialisation with insufficient technical and financial resources. These conditions would provide a fascinating backdrop of infective, cancerous and pollution-induced conditions of lungs where lung imaging techniques would have a large scope of providing useful service

  14. Nuclear techniques in the diagnosis of lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, T

    1993-12-31

    Lung studies by nuclear techniques have been mostly neglected so far in the developing countries because ``total lung imaging`` was not possible. The availability of radioaerosols had now provided means to do complete lung studies in these countries. IAEA`s effort to make radioaerosol techniques more widely available in the Asian countries has been most noteworthy. Pulmonary tuberculosis is still prevalent in the developing countries, scourge of smoking is becoming increasingly wide spread and atmospheric pollution is on the rise as these countries race towards industrialisation with insufficient technical and financial resources. These conditions would provide a fascinating backdrop of infective, cancerous and pollution-induced conditions of lungs where lung imaging techniques would have a large scope of providing useful service 11 figs, 1 tab

  15. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  16. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  17. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A Short Period of Ventilation without Perfusion Seems to Reduce Atelectasis without Harming the Lungs during Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindstedt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the lung function of donors after circulatory deaths (DCDs, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been shown to be a valuable method. We present modified EVLP where lung atelectasis is removed, while the lung perfusion is temporarily shut down. Twelve pigs were randomized into two groups: modified EVLP and conventional EVLP. When the lungs had reached 37°C in the EVLP circuit, lung perfusion was temporarily shut down in the modified EVLP group, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes. In the conventional EVLP group, PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes with unchanged lung perfusion. In the modified EVLP group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 was 18.5 ± 7.0 kPa before and 64.5 ± 6.0 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.001. In the conventional EVLP group, the PaO2 was 16.8 ± 3.1 kPa and 46.8 ± 2.7 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.01; P<0.01. In the modified EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was unchanged, while in the conventional EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was significantly increased. Modified EVLP with normoventilation of the lungs without ongoing lung perfusion for 10 minutes may eliminate atelectasis almost completely without harming the lungs.

  19. Pulmonary thromboembolism as a complication of lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anna Warncke; Mortensen, Jann; Berg, Ronan M G

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplantation mortality after lung transplantation (LTX) is higher than for other solid organ transplantations. Thoracic surgery is associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications, and as LTX recipients lack the collateral bronchial circulation, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE...

  20. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)

  1. Pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function as predictors of mortality in the Lung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Guzman Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is supposed to be classified on the basis of post-bronchodilator lung function. Most longitudinal studies of COPD, though, do not have post-bronchodilator lung function available. We used pre-and post bronchodilator lung function data from the Lung Health Study to determine whether these measures differ in their ability to predict mortality. Methods We limited our analysis to subjects who were of black or white race, on whom we had complete data, and who participated at either the 1 year or the 5 year follow-up visit. We classified subjects based on their baseline lung function, according to COPD Classification criteria using both pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function. We conducted a survival analysis and logistic regression predicting death and controlling for age, sex, race, treatment group, smoking status, and measures of lung function (either pre- or post-bronchodilator. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI and also calculated area under the curve for the logistic regression models. Results By year 15 of the study, 721 of the original 5,887 study subjects had died. In the year 1 sample survival models, a higher FEV1 % predicted lower mortality in both the pre-bronchodilator (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81, 0.94 per 10% increase and post-bronchodilator (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90 models. The area under the curve for the respective models was 69.2% and 69.4%. Similarly, using categories, when compared to people with "normal" lung function, subjects with Stage 3 or 4 disease had similar mortality in both the pre- (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75, 3.03 and post-bronchodilator (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.41, 5.15 models. In the year 5 sample, when a larger proportion of subjects had Stage 3 or 4 disease (6.4% in the pre-bronchodilator group, mortality was significantly increased in both the pre- (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.51, 4.75 and post-bronchodilator (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.63, 3

  2. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Bhargava

    Full Text Available Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury, intraperitoneal (IP endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT endotoxin administration (direct lung injury with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation.Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10, BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration], and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping, IP endotoxin (10 µg, or IT endotoxin (80 µg with and without intratracheal (IT IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng treatment.Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin.IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of

  3. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical lung model for microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    To calculate the microdosimetry of plutonium in the lung, a mathematical description is needed of lung tissue microstructure that defines source-site parameters. Beagle lungs were expanded using a glutaraldehyde fixative at 30 cm water pressure. Tissue specimens, five microns thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin then studied using an image analyzer. Measurements were made along horizontal lines through the magnified tissue image. The distribution of air space and tissue chord lengths and locations of epithelial cell nuclei were recorded from about 10,000 line scans. The distribution parameters constituted a model of lung microstructure for predicting the paths of random alpha particle tracks in the lung and the probability of traversing biologically sensitive sites. This lung model may be used in conjunction with established deposition and retention models for determining the microdosimetry in the pulmonary lung for a wide variety of inhaled radioactive materials

  5. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  6. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  7. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  10. Thioredoxin priming prolongs lung allograft survival by promoting immune tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Hu

    Full Text Available Tolerance to allograft antigen is the major challenge and final goal of transplant medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx priming of donor lung significantly protected allogeneic lung graft. To determine whether Trx priming of donor lung inhibits allograft rejection, extends allograft survival and induces immune tolerance, orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed from Lewis to Sprague-Dawley rats without immunosuppression. Donor lungs were primed with Trx at 4°C for 4 hr prior to transplantation. After up to 37 days post-transplantation, allograft lung morphology, recipient T cell and humoral alloantigen-specific immune responses were examined. We found that Trx-primed lungs exhibited much reduced acute rejection and associated lung injuries resulting in loss of graft functional area at 5-37 days post-transplant in contrast to the control groups. CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts responded to the stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs of donor origin, in contrast to DCs from the third party, with significantly reduced proliferation. Consistent with above findings, we observed that CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleen cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts were significantly increased compared to controls, and CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts produced much higher levels of immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10 when stimulated with allogeneic donor DCs. In addition, humoral immune tolerance was also induced as there was no significant increase levels of serum antibodies against donor antigens in Trx-lung recipients when re-challenged with allogeneic donor antigens. Our results demonstrate that one-time Trx-priming of donor lung grafts prior to transplantation significantly prolongs the survival of the grafts through inducing or promoting cellular and humoral alloantigen-specific immune tolerance, which might be associated with the induction of

  11. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  12. Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützer, K M; Larsson, A; Risberg, B; Falk, A

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore lung microvascular leakage of protein and water in a feline model of septic shock, using a double isotope technique with external gamma camera detection and gravimetric lung water measurements. The experiments were performed on artificially ventilated cats. One group of cats (n = 8) was given an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria, and another group (n = 5) served as a control group receiving saline. Plasma transferrin was radiolabeled in vivo with indium-113m-chloride, and erythrocytes were labeled with technetium-99m. The distribution of these isotopes in the lungs was continuously measured with a gamma camera. A normalized slope index (NSI) was calculated, indicative of the transferrin accumulation corrected for changes in local blood volume that reflect protein leakage. In the septic group there was a protein leakage after bacterial infusion, with a NSI of 39 x 10(-4) +/- 5 x 10(-4) min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and the PaO2 diminished from 21 +/- 1 to 9.5 +/- 1 kPa. In control cats a slight protein leakage with a NSI of 9 +/- 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-4) min-1 was detected, probably caused by the operative procedure, but PaO2 did not change. Wet-to-dry-weight ratios of postmortem lungs were not significantly different between the groups. It was concluded that an intravenous infusion of live E. coli bacteria induces a lung capillary protein leakage without increased lung water and a concomitantly disturbed gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  14. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  15. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  16. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  17. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment planning of radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, B.J.; Levitt, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinomas of the lung is the most common form of cancer in men in the United States and many other countries. In the American Cancer Society Survey 1986, cancer of the lung made up 22% of all cancer in men and 11% of all cancer in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 70.6 and 14.4 for white men and women, respectively, and 89.6 and 14.4 for black men and women/100,000 population. The disease is more common in older individuals, particularly in the 5th and 6th decade, but rises to its highest incidence in the 7th decade. The proportion of women with carcinoma of the lung has been increasing steadily, while that of the males has been decreasing somewhat. Pathologic classification of carcinoma of the lung includes squamous cell, small-cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Most of the patients, practically 48%, have squamous cell carcinoma, 16% adenocarcinoma and 15% large-cell and 19.9% small-cell carcinoma. Recent studies have shown an increase in incidence of adenocarcinoma so that it may be the most common histologic type

  19. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  20. Protein misfolding and obstructive lung disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has evolved a number of mechanisms to manage the accumulation of incorrectly folded proteins. This results in loss of function of these proteins, but occasionally, in conditions such as α-1 antitrpysin (A1AT) deficiency, the misfolded protein can acquire a toxic gain of function promoting exaggerated ER stress responses and inflammation. Mutations leading to deficiency in a second serine proteinase inhibitor, α-1 antichymotrpysin (ACT), can induce potentially similar consequences. A1AT and ACT deficiencies are associated with chronic obstructive lung disease. Until recently, it was thought that the lung diseases associated with these conditions were entirely due to loss of antiprotease protection in the lung (i.e., loss of function), whereas gain of function was the major cause of the liver disease associated with A1AT deficiency. This paradigm is being increasingly challenged because ER stress is being recognized in bronchial epithelial cells and inflammatory cells normally resident in the lung, giving rise to an inflammatory phenotype that adds to the proteolytic burden associated with these conditions. In this article, we describe the cellular mechanisms that are activated to cope with an increasing burden of misfolded proteins within the ER in A1AT and ACT deficiency, show how these events are linked to inflammation, and outline the therapeutic strategies that can potentially interfere with production of misfolded proteins.

  1. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich

    2000-01-01

    The lung has long been neglected by MR imaging. This is due to unique intrinsic difficulties: (1) signal loss due to cardiac pulsation and respiration; (2) susceptibility artifacts caused by multiple air-tissue interfaces; (3) low proton density. There are many MR strategies to overcome these problems. They consist of breath-hold imaging, respiratory and cardiac gating procedures, use of short repetition and echo times, increase of the relaxivity of existing spins by administration of intravenous contrast agents, and enrichment of spin density by hyperpolarized noble gases or oxygen. Improvements in scanner performance and frequent use of contrast media have increased the interest in MR imaging and MR angiography of the lung. They can be used on a routine basis for the following indications: characterization of pulmonary nodules, staging of bronchogenic carcinoma, in particular assessment of chest wall invasion; evaluation of inflammatory activity in interstitial lung disease; acute pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, vascular involvement in malignant disease; vascular abnormalities. Future perspectives include perfusion imaging using extracellular or intravascular (blood pool) contrast agents and ventilation imaging using inhalation of hyperpolarized noble gases, of paramagnetic oxygen or of aerosolized contrast agents. These techniques represent new approaches to functional lung imaging. The combination of visualization of morphology and functional assessment of ventilation and perfusion is unequalled by any other technique

  2. [Expression of various matrix metalloproteinases in mice with hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Ding, Shao-fang; Gao, Yuan-ming; Liang, Ying; Foda, Hussein D

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hyperoxia. Fifty four mice were exposed in sealed cages to >98% oxygen (for 24-72 hours), and another 18 mice to room air. The severity of lung injury was assessed, and the expression of mRNA and protein of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in lung tissue, after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Hyperoxia caused acute lung injury; this was accompanied by increased expression of an upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in lung tissues. Hyperoxia causes acute lung injury in mice; increases in MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN may play an important role in the development of hyperoxia induced lung injury in mice.

  3. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Ceramide synthases expression and role of ceramide synthase-2 in the lung: insight from human lung cells and mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrache

    Full Text Available Increases in ceramide levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both acute or chronic lung injury models. However, the role of individual ceramide species, or of the enzymes that are responsible for their synthesis, in lung health and disease has not been clarified. We now show that C24- and C16-ceramides are the most abundant lung ceramide species, paralleled by high expression of their synthetic enzymes, ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2 and CerS5, respectively. Furthermore, the ceramide species synthesis in the lung is homeostatically regulated, since mice lacking very long acyl chain C24-ceramides due to genetic deficiency of CerS2 displayed a ten-fold increase in C16-ceramides and C16-dihydroceramides along with elevation of acid sphingomyelinase and CerS5 activities. Despite relatively preserved total lung ceramide levels, inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis at the level of CerS2 was associated with significant airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, and increased lung volumes. Our results suggest that ceramide species homeostasis is crucial for lung health and that CerS2 dysfunction may predispose to inflammatory airway and airspace diseases.

  5. Soluble ICAM-1 activates lung macrophages and enhances lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B

    1998-01-01

    production of TNF-alpha and the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Alveolar macrophages exhibited cytokine responses to both sICAM-1 and immobilized sICAM-1, while rat PBMCs failed to demonstrate similar responses. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to sICAM-1 resulted in NFkappa......B activation (which was blocked by the presence of the aldehyde peptide inhibitor of 28S proteosome and by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). As expected, cross-linking of CD18 on macrophages with Ab resulted in generation of TNF-alpha and MIP-2. This response was also inhibited in the presence...... of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 and increased neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, through engagement of beta2 integrins, sICAM-1 enhances alveolar macrophage production of MIP-2 and TNF-alpha, the result of which is intensified lung injury after intrapulmonary disposition of immune complexes....

  6. Transpulmonary pressures and lung mechanics with glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation beyond normal lung volumes in competitive breath-hold divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, Stephen H; O'Donnell, Carl R; Butler, James P; Lindholm, Peter; Jacobson, Francine; Ferrigno, Massimo

    2007-03-01

    Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent dangerous chest compression at depths recently greater than 100 m) and glossopharyngeal exsufflation (GE) during descent to draw air from compressed lungs into the pharynx for middle ear pressure equalization. To explore the mechanical effects of these maneuvers on the respiratory system, we measured lung volumes by helium dilution with spirometry and computed tomography and estimated transpulmonary pressures using an esophageal balloon after GI and GE in four competitive breath-hold divers. Maximal lung volume was increased after GI by 0.13-2.84 liters, resulting in volumes 1.5-7.9 SD above predicted values. The amount of gas in the lungs after GI increased by 0.59-4.16 liters, largely due to elevated intrapulmonary pressures of 52-109 cmH(2)O. The transpulmonary pressures increased after GI to values ranging from 43 to 80 cmH(2)O, 1.6-2.9 times the expected values at total lung capacity. After GE, lung volumes were reduced by 0.09-0.44 liters, and the corresponding transpulmonary pressures decreased to -15 to -31 cmH(2)O, suggesting closure of intrapulmonary airways. We conclude that the lungs of some healthy individuals are able to withstand repeated inflation to transpulmonary pressures far greater than those to which they would normally be exposed.

  7. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  8. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  9. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  10. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

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    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  11. Angiosarcoma of the lung

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    Grafino, Monica; Alves, Paula; Almeida, Margarida Mendes de; Garrido, Patricia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnacao; Sotto-Mayor, Renato, E-mail: mgrafino@gmail.com [Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-06-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. (author)

  12. Lung physiology and how aerosol deposits in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    Weibel's morphologic data has been referred to not only for predicting aerosol deposition in the lungs but also lung physiology. During breathing the volume of air passes all through the mouth, the larynx, the trachea and the conductive airways into the alveolar space. When the airflow is not laminar and disturbed at the bifurcation or the irregular airway surface, eddies and turbulence occur there to result in deposition of aerosol by impaction or sedimentation. At high flow rates, there are more chances for turbulence to occur at these sites. Because the cross-section and volume of the subsequent airways increase, the flow rate decreases. It is worthwhile to remember that the pressure drop and resistance do not necessarily follow Poiseuille's law even in the large airways, and that with the turbulent flow the density of a gas plays an important role. If Poiseuille's law is applied, the resistance becomes sixteenfold when the radius of the airway segment is halved. When we breathe quietly, the flow in the trachea and the intermediate conductive airways is laminar and in very small conductive airways including the terminal bronchioles the airflow becomes so slow in velocity that the axial diffusion becomes more prominent, especially distal to the terminal bronchioles the cross-sectional area increases so much that molecular diffusion becomes more important. For gas transfer to occur, molecules of oxygen should pass through the surfactant layer, the alveolar epithelium, the basement membrane, the endothelium of the capillaries, and the plasma to get to the red blood cell to combine with hemoglobin

  13. Lung cells support osteosarcoma cell migration and survival.

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    Yu, Shibing; Fourman, Mitchell Stephen; Mahjoub, Adel; Mandell, Jonathan Brendan; Crasto, Jared Anthony; Greco, Nicholas Giuseppe; Weiss, Kurt Richard

    2017-01-25

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Five-year survival for metastatic OS is below 30%, and has not improved for several decades despite the introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy. Understanding OS cell migration to the lungs requires an evaluation of the lung microenvironment. Here we utilized an in vitro lung cell and OS cell co-culture model to explore the interactions between OS and lung cells, hypothesizing that lung cells would promote OS cell migration and survival. The impact of a novel anti-OS chemotherapy on OS migration and survival in the lung microenvironment was also examined. Three human OS cell lines (SJSA-1, Saos-2, U-2) and two human lung cell lines (HULEC-5a, MRC-5) were cultured according to American Type Culture Collection recommendations. Human lung cell lines were cultured in growth medium for 72 h to create conditioned media. OS proliferation was evaluated in lung co-culture and conditioned media microenvironment, with a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3 T3) in fresh growth medium as controls. Migration and invasion were measured using a real-time cell analysis system. Real-time PCR was utilized to probe for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1) expression. Osteosarcoma cells were also transduced with a lentivirus encoding for GFP to permit morphologic analysis with fluorescence microscopy. The anti-OS efficacy of Disulfiram, an ALDH-inhibitor previously shown to inhibit OS cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro, was evaluated in each microenvironment. Lung-cell conditioned medium promoted osteosarcoma cell migration, with a significantly higher attractive effect on all three osteosarcoma cell lines compared to basic growth medium, 10% serum containing medium, and NIH-3 T3 conditioned medium (p cell conditioned medium induced cell morphologic changes, as demonstrated with GFP-labeled cells. OS cells cultured in lung cell conditioned medium had increased alkaline

  14. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

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    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  15. Inflammation and angiogenesis in fibrotic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael P; Strieter, Robert M; Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A

    2006-12-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is poorly understood. Although inflammation has been presumed to have an important role in the development of fibrosis this has been questioned recently, particularly with regard to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It is, however, increasingly recognized that the polarization of the inflammatory response toward a type 2 phenotype supports fibroproliferation. Increased attention has been on the role of noninflammatory structural cells such as the fibroblast, myofibroblast, epithelial cell, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the origin of these cells appears to be multifactorial and includes resident cells, bone marrow-derived cells, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Increasing evidence supports the presence of vascular remodeling in fibrotic lung disease, although the precise role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis remains to be determined. Therefore, the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is complex and involves the interaction of multiple cell types and compartments within the lung.

  16. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  17. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  18. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and