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Sample records for measuring tru nuclide

  1. Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanfield, Sean B [CCP; Wachter, Joe [CCP; Ceo, Bob [CCP

    2009-01-01

    Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are

  2. Radioactivity Measurement of Short Life Nuclide 89Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The radioactivity of short life nuclide 89Rb produced by fast radiochemical separation was measured by the digital coincidence counting (DCC) system. In this experiment, there were a large quantity of impurities

  3. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  4. Mass Measurements on Short-Lived Nuclides with ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, G. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (United States); Ames, F. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Audi, G. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France); Beck, D.; Dilling, J. [GSI (Germany); Engels, O. [LMU (Germany); Henry, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France); Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; Lamour, E. [GSI (Germany); Lunney, D. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France); Moore, R. B. [LMU (Germany); Oinonen, M. [CERN, EP Division (Switzerland); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI (Germany); Schwarz, S. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (United States); Sikler, G. [GSI (Germany); Szerypo, J. [JYFL (Finland); Weber, C. [GSI (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    Penning trap mass spectrometry has reached a state that allows its application to very short-lived nuclides available from various sources of radioactive beams. Mass values with outstanding accuracy are achieved even far from stability. This paper illustrates the state of the art by summarizing the status of the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN. Furthermore, results of mass measurements on unstable rare earth isotopes will be given.

  5. Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements of Neutron Rich Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, A.; Matos, M.; Amthor, A. M.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Lorusso, G.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Portillo, M.; Stolz, A.; Galaviz, D.; Pereira, J.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Wallace, M.

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear masses of neutron rich isotopes in the region of Z ˜ 20-30 have been measured using the time-of-flight technique at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The masses of 5 isotopes have been measured for the first time, and the precision of several other masses has been improved. The time-of-flight technique has shown the potential to access nuclear masses very far from stability when applied at radioactive beam facilities like the NSCL. Such measurements are important for understanding nuclear structure far from the valley of β-stability, and provide valuable information for astrophysical model calculations of processes involving very unstable nuclides.

  6. New mass measurements of neutron rich nuclides at the NSCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Alfredo; Matos, Milan; Amthor, Matthew; Bazin, Daniel; Becerril, Ana; Elliot, Thom; Gade, Alexandra; Galaviz, Daniel; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorge; Portillo, Mauricio; Rogers, Andrew; Schatz, Hendrik; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Ed; Stolz, Andreas; Wallace, Mark

    2007-10-01

    A mass measurement of exotic isotopes in the region of 68Fe has been performed at the NSCL using the time-of-flight technique recently established. Experimental knowledge of the mass of very neutron rich nuclides is an important input for astrophysical applications, such as nucleosynthesis during the r-process and the evolution of matter in the crust of an accreting neutron star, where present calculations are mostly limited to using theoretical mass extrapolations. We present the details of the experimental set up, as well as preliminary results.

  7. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  8. Characterization methodology for Difficult To Measure nuclides in the Type B rad waste from the ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youngyong; Hong, Kwonpyo; Oh, Wanho; Kang, Munja; Na, Byungchan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In general, it is not possible to directly detect beta rays from the rad waste in the field measurement due to their extremely low penetration through the materials. Only lab-scale measurements with proper shield and detecting system are available for the nondestructive assay. However, the disposal sites in many countries require the determination of inventories of the difficult to-measure (DTM) nuclides in the waste before their acceptance for disposal. Many sites that generate rad wastes thus are adapting the indirect method to characterize the DTM nuclides in the rad waste to be disposed. The rad waste from the operation of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) will be sent to the hot cell building (HCB) after packing it to the basket and they are then treated into the disposal form as well as characterized through the nondestructive assay. The rad waste properties from the ITER are that high density material such as a steel, a copper, and a tungsten accounts for the main substance and many nuclides due to the neutron irradiation including the DTM nuclides exists in that waste. Therefore, the ITER is also facing with the problem for the characterization of DTM nuclides. The scaling factor for the radiological relationship between the gamma and the beta nuclides is one of the indirect measurements to characterize the DTM nuclides in the waste. The methodology of the scaling factor to apply this method to the characterization the Type B rad waste from the ITER are presented in this paper. There are several types of the in-vessel components (IVCs) in a Tokamak which will be activated by neutron and they will be divided into different types of the rad waste such as the divertor cassette, blanket module, and port plugs. In this paper, the characterization of DTM nuclides will be focused on the rad waste from a blanket module out of IVCs.

  9. An Advanced Option for Sodium Cooled TRU Burner Loaded with Uranium-Free Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, WuSeung; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The sodium cooled fast reactors of this kind that are called burners are designed to have low conversion ratio by reducing fuel volume fraction or reducing neutron leakage or increasing neutron absorption. However, the typical SFR burners have a limited ability of TRU burning rate due to the fact that they use metallic or oxide fuels containing fertile nuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th and these fertile nuclides generate fissile nuclides through neutron capture even if they are designed to have low conversion ratio (e.g., 0.6). To further enhance the TRU burning rate, the removal of the fertile nuclides from the initial fuels is required and it will accelerate the reduction of TRUs that are accumulated in storages of LWR spent fuels. However, it has been well-known 4 that the removals of the fertile nuclides from the fuel degrade the inherent safety of the SFR burner cores through the significant decrease of the fuel Doppler effect, the increase of sodium void reactivity worth, and reduction of delayed neutron fraction. In this work, new option for the sodium cooled fast TRU burner cores loaded with fertile-free metallic fuels was proposed and the new cores were designed by using the suggested option. The cores were designed to enhance the inherent safety characteristics by using axially central absorber region and 6 or 12 ZrH1.8 moderator rods per fuel assembly. For each option, we considered two different types of fertile-free ternary metallic fuel (i.e., TRU-W-10Zr and TRU-Ni-10Zr). Also, we performed the BOR (Balance of Reactivity) analyses to show the self-controllability under ATWS as a measure of inherent safety. The core performance analysis showed that the new cores using axially central absorber region substantially improve the core performance parameters such as burnup reactivity swing and sodium void reactivity worth.

  10. TOF-Brho Mass Measurements of Very Exotic Nuclides for Astrophysical Calculations at the NSCL

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, M; Amthor, M; Aprahamian, A; Bazin, D; Becerril, A; Elliot, T; Galaviz, D; Gade, A; Gupta, S; Lorusso, G; Montes, F; Pereira, J; Portillo, M; Rogers, A M; Schatz, H; Shapira, D; Smith, E; Stolz, A; Wallace, M

    2008-01-01

    Atomic masses play a crucial role in many nuclear astrophysics calculations. The lack of experimental values for relevant exotic nuclides triggered a rapid development of new mass measurement devices around the world. The Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass measurements offer a complementary technique to the most precise one, Penning trap measurements, the latter being limited by the rate and half-lives of the ions of interest. The NSCL facility provides a well-suited infrastructure for TOF mass measurements of very exotic nuclei. At this facility, we have recently implemented a TOF-Brho technique and performed mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclides in the Fe region, important for r-process calculations and for calculations of processes occurring in the crust of accreting neutron stars.

  11. TOF-Bρ mass measurements of very exotic nuclides for astrophysical calculations at the NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoš, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, M.; Aprahamian, A.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Galaviz, D.; Gade, A.; Gupta, S.; Lorusso, G.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Schatz, H.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Wallace, M.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic masses play a crucial role in many nuclear astrophysics calculations. The lack of experimental values for relevant exotic nuclides triggered a rapid development of new mass measurement devices around the world. The time-of-flight (TOF) mass measurements offer a complementary technique to the most precise one, Penning trap measurements (Blaum 2006 Phys. Rep. 425 1), the latter being limited by the rate and half-lives of the ions of interest. The NSCL facility provides a well-suited infrastructure for the TOF mass measurements of very exotic nuclei. At this facility, we have recently implemented a TOF-Bρ technique and performed mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclides in the Fe region, important for r-process calculations and for calculations of processes occurring in the crust of accreting neutron stars.

  12. Precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides for nuclear structure studies at TITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available TITAN (TRIUMF’s Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science at TRIUMF’s rare isotope beam facility ISAC is an advanced Penning trap based mass spectrometer dedicated to precise and accurate mass determinations. An overview of TITAN, the measurement technique and a highlight of recent mass measurements of the short-lived nuclides important to the nuclear structure program at TITAN are presented.

  13. ISOLTRAP mass measurements of exotic nuclides at $\\delta$m/m=10$^{-8}$

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, K; Beck, D; Bollen, G; Delahaye, P; George, S; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, S; Herlert, Alexander; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Mukherjee, M; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2005-01-01

    The ISOLTRAP experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN is a Penning trap mass spectrometer for on-line mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It allows the determination of atomic masses of exotic nuclides with a relative uncertainty of only 10$^{-8}$. The results provide important information for, for example, weak interaction studies and nuclear models. Recent ISOLTRAP investigations and applications of high-precision mass measurements are discussed.

  14. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  15. Highly sensitive measurements of radioactive noble gas nuclides in the BOREXINO solar neutrino experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simgen, H; Heusser, G; Zuzel, G

    2004-01-01

    Low background miniaturized proportional counters as developed for the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment can be applied to the detection of radioactive noble gas nuclides at very low activities. We have developed an apparatus that allows the activity of trace amounts of isotopes of the four noble gases Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn to be measured. The technique includes contamination-free chromatographic purification of raw gas samples and subsequent low-level counting. Minimum detectable activities of 100 microBq and below have been attained. The developed techniques can be used to determine the 222Rn and 85Kr concentration in nitrogen for the solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO. By applying efficient techniques to concentrate noble gases from nitrogen, minimum detectable activity concentrations below 1 microBq/m3 of nitrogen (STP) have been reached for both nuclides.

  16. Mass measurements of neutron-deficient nuclides close to A=80 with a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Ronkanen, P.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (Finland); Batist, L.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Popov, A.V.; Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eliseev, S.A.; Vorobjev, G.K. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The masses of {sup 80,} {sup 81,} {sup 82,} {sup 83}Y, {sup 83,} {sup 84,} {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 88}Zr and {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 87,} {sup 88}Nb have been measured with a typical precision of 7keV by using the Penning trap setup at IGISOL. The mass of {sup 84}Zr has been measured for the first time. These precise mass measurements have improved S{sub p} and Q{sub EC} values for astrophysically important nuclides. (orig.)

  17. TOF Mass Measurements of Very Exotic Nuclides: an Input for Astrophysical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoš, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, M.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Galaviz, D.; Gade, A.; Lorusso, G.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Schatz, H.; Stolz, A.; Aprahamian, A.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Gupta, S.; Wallace, M.

    2007-10-01

    Atomic masses play a crucial role in many nuclear astrophysics calculations. Very exotic nuclei can be accessed by time-of- flight techniques at radioactive beam facilities. The NSCL facility provides a well-suited infrastructure for TOF mass measurements of very exotic nuclei. At this facility, we have recently implemented a TOF-Bρ technique and performed mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclides in the Fe region, important for calculations of the r-process and processes occurring in the crust of accreting neutron stars. Description of the TOF technique, results and future plans related to nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  18. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K.; Yuhara, J.; Ishigami, R. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  19. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  20. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  1. Towards a magnetic field stabilization at ISOLTRAP for high-accuracy mass measurements on exotic nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Marie-Jeanne, M; Blaum, K; Djekic, S; Dworschak, M; Hager, U; Herlert, A; Nagy, S; Savreux, R; Schweikhard, L; Stahl, S; Yazidjian, C

    2008-01-01

    The field stability of a mass spectrometer plays a crucial role in the accuracy of mass measurements. In the case of mass determination of short-lived nuclides with a Penning trap, major causes of fluctuations are temperature variations in the vicinity of the trap and pressure changes in the liquid helium cryostat of the superconducting magnet. Thus systems for the temperature and pressure stabilization of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN have been installed. A reduction of the temperature and pressure fluctuations by at least an order of magnitude down to and has been achieved, which corresponds to a relative magnetic field change of ΔB/B=2.7×10-9 and 1.1×10-10, respectively.

  2. High Accuracy Mass Measurement of the Dripline Nuclides $^{12,14}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    State-of-the art, three-body nuclear models that describe halo nuclides require the binding energy of the halo neutron(s) as a critical input parameter. In the case of $^{14}$Be, the uncertainty of this quantity is currently far too large (130 keV), inhibiting efforts at detailed theoretical description. A high accuracy, direct mass deterlnination of $^{14}$Be (as well as $^{12}$Be to obtain the two-neutron separation energy) is therefore required. The measurement can be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer, which is presently the only possible solution due to required accuracy (10 keV) and short half-life (4.5 ms). Having achieved a 5 keV uncertainty for the mass of $^{11}$Li (8.6 ms), MISTRAL has proved the feasibility of such measurements. Since the current ISOLDE production rate of $^{14}$Be is only about 10/s, the installation of a beam cooler is underway in order to improve MISTRAL transmission. The projected improvement of an order of magnitude (in each transverse direction) will make this measureme...

  3. Magnetic field stabilization for high-accuracy mass measurements on exotic nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Marie-Jeanne, M; Blaum, K; Djekic, S; Dworschak, M; Hager, U; Herlert, Alexander; Nagy, S; Savreux, R; Schweikhard, L; Stahl, S; Yazidjian, C; Nagy, Sz.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic-field stability of a mass spectrometer plays a crucial role in precision mass measurements. In the case of mass determination of short-lived nuclides with a Penning trap, major causes of instabilities are temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the trap and pressure fluctuations in the liquid helium cryostat of the superconducting magnet. Thus systems for the temperature and pressure stabilization of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN have been installed. A reduction of the fluctuations by at least one order of magnitude downto dT=+/-5mK and dp=+/-50mtorr has been achieved, which corresponds to a relative frequency change of 2.7x10^{-9} and 1.5x10^{-10}, respectively. With this stabilization the frequency determination with the Penning trap only shows a linear temporal drift over several hours on the 10 ppb level due to the finite resistance of the superconducting magnet coils.

  4. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H -J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S

    2008-01-01

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of $^{145,147}$Cs, $^{181,183}$Tl, $^{186}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{187}$Tl, $^{196}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{205}$Tl, $^{197}$Pb$^{m}$, $^{208}$Pb, $^{190-197}$Bi, $^{209,215,216}$Bi, $^{203,205,229}$Fr, and $^{214,229,230}$Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$ to $2 \\times 10^{-8}$ is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  5. The Gas-Filled-Magnet at PRIME Lab: Increased Sensitivity of Cosmogenic Nuclide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffee, M. W.; Granger, D. E.; Woodruff, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), radionuclides produced either by cosmic-ray interactions or by nucleogenic means can be measured. Typical isotopic abundance ratios range from 1 x 10-10 to 1 x 10-15. The routinely measured radionuclides are 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 129I. Be-10, 26Al, and 36Cl have isobaric interferences that cannot be eliminated mass through mass analysis, but dE/dx techniques suppresses these isobars enough to allow successful measurements. There are compromises, the isobar for 26Al, 26Mg, precludes successful measurement of 26Al if AlO- is injected into the accelerator. Mg- doesn't form a stable negative ion so a 26Al measurement requires injection of 26Al-. But the Al- ion is formed inefficiently; secondary ion currents using Al- are ~ 10 times less than an AlO- secondary ion beam. Precision scales with count rate so precise measurement of the 26Al/Al for all but higher ratio samples is difficult. It has long been recognized that a gas-filled-magnet (GFM) could potentially improve the measurement of those radionuclides with intractable isobar interferences. A GFM works on the principle that each element of an isobar pair, e.g. 26Mg and 26Al, has a different average charge state as it traverses a gas (3-4 Torr of N2) contained within the vacuum jacket of a magnet. The magnet steers each species with its own momentum-to-charge ratio on its own distinct radius of curvature. The magnet can be tuned to allow the isotope of interest into a dE/dx detector; most of the isobar doesn't make it into the detector. Using the PRIME Lab GFM we are now able to routinely run 26Al with a precision that is comparable to that obtained with 10Be. We are also using the GFM for routine measurements of 10Be and 36Cl. Although the improvement for these nuclides is not as pronounced as it is for 26Al, the GFM has improved the detection sensitivity for both. Our 10Be background is now ~ 5 x 10-16 and for 36Cl we can now run the source more

  6. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Simon, V V; Brodeur, M; Chaudhuri, A; Mané, E; Andreoiu, C; Audi, G; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Lapierre, A; Lunney, D; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Ullrich, J; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  7. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  8. Development of new and accurate measurement devices (TruSlice and TruSlice Digital) for use in histological dissection: an attempt to improve specimen dissection precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, G E; Shams, M; Nwokie, T; Bulut, C; D'Amico, C; Gabriel, J; Ramji, Z; Georgaki, A; Neichcial, A; Shams, F; Neesam, H; Haine, N; Brewer, C

    2015-01-01

    Histological dissection of human tissue has relied on conventional procedures, which have largely remained unchanged for decades. Practices to determine measurement parameters employed in these procedures have largely relied on the use of rulers and weighing scales. It is well documented in the scientific literature that both fixation and processing of tissue can significantly affect the viability of the of tissue sections both for tinctorial and immunocytochemical investigations. Both of these factors can be compounded in their negative effects by inappropriate sampling of tissue at histological cut up. There are five key factors to ensure good surgical grossing technique, flat uniformly perpendicular specimen cutting face, appropriate immobilisation of the tissue specimen during grossing, good visualisation of the cutting tissue face, sharp cutting knives and the grossing knife action. Meeting these factors implies the devices are fit for purpose. Here we describe an innovative approach to designing cut up devices to improve accuracy and precision, which take these five key requirements into consideration. The devices showed accuracy and precision, enabling tissue slices to be produced in a uniformly perpendicular fashion to within 2 mm in thickness and to enable consistency and reproducibility of performance across a series of tissue types. The application of a digital rule on one of these devices ensures accuracy and also enables quality control issues to be clearly assessed. As cellular pathology laboratories conform to ever increasing standards of compliance and performance in practice, the advent of assured precision and accuracy at cut up is awaited. Recommendations from accreditation bodies such as the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) continue to push for improvements in this area of histological investigation. These newly designed devices may give the answers to these requirements and provide the impetus for a new generation of innovative

  9. Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Blank, B; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, M; Hager, U; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Kretzschmar, M; Lunney, D; Savreux, R; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2008-01-01

    High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide $^{27}$Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides $^{26}$Al and $^{38,39}$Ca have been performed by use of radio-frequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of $^{26,27}$Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed $\\beta$-emitter $^{38}$Ca as well as of the groundstate of the $\\beta$-emitter $^{26}$Al$^{m}$ confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

  10. Enzymatic characterization and mutational studies of TruD--the fifth family of pseudouridine synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chio Mui; Huang, Raven H

    2009-09-01

    Pseudouridine (Psi) is formed through isomerization of uridine (U) catalyzed by a class of enzymes called pseudouridine synthases (PsiS). TruD is the fifth family of PsiS. Studies of the first four families (TruA, TruB, RsuA, and RluA) of PsiS reveal a conserved Asp and Tyr are critical for catalysis. However, in TruD family, the tyrosine is not conserved. In this study, we measured the enzymatic parameters for TruD in Escherichia coli, and carried out enzymatic assays for a series of single, double, and triple TruD mutants. Our studies indicate that a Glu, strictly conserved in only TruD family is likely to be the general base in TruD. We also proposed a possible distinct mechanism of TruD-catalyzed Psi formation compared to the first four families.

  11. Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF mandated by the US Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties in opening and safeguarding such a repository have led to investigations of alternative waste management strategies. One potential strategy for the US fuel cycle would be to make use of fuel loadings containing high concentrations of transuranic (TRU nuclides in the next-generation reactors. The use of such fuels would not only increase fuel supply but could also potentially facilitate prolonged operation modes (via fertile additives on a single fuel loading. The idea is to approach autonomous operation on a single fuel loading that would allow marketing power units as nuclear batteries for worldwide deployment. Studies have already shown that high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs and their Generation IV (GEN IV extensions, very-high-temperature reactors (VHTRs, have encouraging performance characteristics. This paper is focused on possible physics features of TRU-fueled VHTRs. One of the objectives of a 3-year U.S. DOE NERI project was to show that TRU-fueled VHTRs have the possibility of prolonged operation on a single fuel loading. A 3D temperature distribution was developed based on conceivable operation conditions of the 600 MWth VHTR design. Results of extensive criticality and depletion calculations with varying fuel loadings showed that VHTRs are capable for autonomous operation and HLW waste reduction when loaded with TRU fuel.

  12. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  13. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; TIAN Ming-Li; SONG Yue-Li; LAN Chang-Lin; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes,the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed.It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples.At the same time,the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given.The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right.

  14. Measurement of nuclides of uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 李静; 叶林

    2002-01-01

    The decay dynamic equations of two daughters were resolved as initial activities of daughters are not zero, and gave calculation formula of activities for measuring uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy. 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 222Rn, 228Ra, 228Th, 224Ra, 212pb, 210pb and 40K in two sediment samples were determined as application.

  15. Cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Rugel, Georg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Cartwright, Julia A.; Ott, Ulrich [MPI fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    After successful installation of the Dresden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (DREAMS) facility, determinations of the lighter radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca are now easily attainable in Germany. Accompanied by data for the heavier radionuclides (i.e. {sup 53}Mn and {sup 60}Fe) that can be measured at the 14 MV tandem at Munich and stable nuclides such as {sup 21,22}Ne and {sup 38}Ar from noble gas mass spectrometry at MPI Mainz, complete and unique exposure histories of extraterrestrial material can be reconstructed. For example, recent analyses of the 100{sup th} Martian meteorite Ksar Ghilane 002 and four samples from the nickel-rich ataxite Gebel Kamil show interesting features revealing amazing stories.

  16. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-11-02

    The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  17. First results using a new technology for measuring masses of very short-lived nuclides with very high accuracy the MISTRAL program at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Monsanglant, C; Audi, G; Bollen, G; Borcea, C; Conreur, G; Cousin, R; Doubre, H; Duma, M; Jacotin, M; Henry, S; Képinski, J F; Kluge, H J; Lebée, G; Le Scornet, G; Lunney, S; De Saint-Simon, M; Scheidenberger, C; Thibault, C

    1999-01-01

    MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very short- lived nuclides (T$_{1/2}$ down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10$^{-7}$). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na*, Mg, Al*, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8$\\TIMES10^{-7}$, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced $^{30}$Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7$\\TIMES10^{-7}$. (15 refs).

  18. Total Cross Sections as a Surrogate for Neutron Capture: An Opportunity to Accurately Constrain (n,γ) Cross Sections for Nuclides Beyond the Reach of Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-05

    There are many (n,γ) cross sections of great interest to radiochemical diagnostics and to nuclear astrophysics which are beyond the reach of current measurement techniques, and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In contrast, total neutron cross sections currently are feasible for many of these nuclides and provide almost all the information needed to accurately calculate the (n,γ) cross sections via the nuclear statistical model (NSM). I demonstrate this for the case of 151Sm; NSM calculations constrained using average resonance parameters obtained from total cross section measurements made in 1975, are in excellent agreement with recent 151Sm (n,γ) measurements across a wide range of energy. Furthermore, I demonstrate through simulations that total cross section measurements can be made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for samples as small as 10μg. Samples of this size should be attainable for many nuclides of interest. Finally, I estimate that over half of the radionuclides identified ~20 years ago as having (n,γ) cross sections of importance to s-process nucleosynthesis studies (24/43) and radiochemical diagnostics (11/19), almost none of which have been measured, can be constrained using this technique.

  19. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral; Mesure de masse de noyaux a halo et refroidissement de faisceaux avec l'experience MISTRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, C

    2004-12-01

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li{sup 11}, a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be{sup 11} was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be{sup 14}, an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  20. ISOLTRAP pins down masses of exotic nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, Klaus; Beck, D; Bollen, G; Brodeur, M; Delahaye, P; George, S; Guenaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, Alexander; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Mukherjee, M; Rodríguez, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2005-01-01

    The mass of radionuclides contribute to a variety of fundamental studies including tests of the weak interaction and the standard model. The limits of mass measurements on exotic nuclides have been extended considerably by the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Recent ISOLTRAP measurements are summarized and current technical improvements are outlined.

  1. Nuclide Guide and International Chart of Nuclides - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golashvili, T.

    2009-08-01

    New versions of Nuclide Guide and Chart of the Nuclides were developed as a result of Russian-Chinese collaboration. The Nuclide Guide contains the basic information on more than 3000 radioactive and stable nuclides. The characteristics of isomers with half-lives more than 1 ms are included. For each nuclide spin, parity, mass of nuclide, magnetic moment (if available), mass excess, half-life or abundance, decay modes, branching ratios, emitted particles, energies of most intense gamma-rays and their intensities, decay energies and mean values of radiation energy per decay are given. For stable and natural long-lived nuclides cross-sections of thermal neutron induced activation are indicated. The information presented in the Guide was compiled from 5 sources: 1) ENSDF-2008, 2) atomic mass evaluation-2005 by Audi and Wapstra, 3) interactive data bases at web-sites , , 4) original evaluations of authors, 5) recent publications. The International Chart ot Nuclides was developed on the basis of information presented in Nuclide Guide.

  2. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of 9,10Be and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, R.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Smith, M.; Lapierre, A.; Ryjkov, V. L.; Delheij, P.; Drake, G. W. F.; Lassen, J.; Lunney, D.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of 9Be, 10Be (t1 / 2 = 1.51 My), and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be (t1 / 2 = 13.8 s) have been performed using TITAN at TRIUMF. The resulting 11Be mass excess (ME = 20 177.60 (58) keV) is in agreement with the current Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME03) [G. Audi, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 729 (2003) 337] value, but is over an order of magnitude more precise. The precision of the mass values of 9,10Be have been improved by about a factor of four and reveal a ≈ 2 σ deviation from the AME mass values. Results of new atomic physics calculations are presented for the isotope shift of 11Be relative to 9Be, and it is shown that the new mass values essentially remove atomic mass uncertainties as a contributing factor in determining the relative nuclear charge radius from the isotope shift. The new mass values of 10,11Be also allow for a more precise determination of the single-neutron binding energy of the halo neutron in 11Be.

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  4. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  5. Re-measurement of the 33S(α ,p )36Cl cross section for early solar system nuclide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Clark, Adam; Nelson, Austin; Ostdiek, Karen; Collon, Philippe; Chmiel, Greg; Woodruff, Tom; Caffee, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) with half-lives less than 100 Myr are known to have existed around the time of the formation of the solar system around 4.5 billion years ago. Understanding the production sources for SLRs is important for improving our understanding of processes taking place just after solar system formation as well as their timescales. Early solar system models rely heavily on calculations from nuclear theory due to a lack of experimental data for the nuclear reactions taking place. In 2013, Bowers et al. measured 36Cl production cross sections via the 33S(α ,p ) reaction and reported cross sections that were systematically higher than predicted by Hauser-Feshbach codes. Soon after, a paper by Peter Mohr highlighted the challenges the new data would pose to current nuclear theory if verified. The 33S(α ,p )36Cl reaction was re-measured at five energies between 0.78 MeV/nucleon and 1.52 MeV/nucleon, in the same range as measured by Bowers et al., and found systematically lower cross sections than originally reported, with the new results in good agreement with the Hauser-Feshbach code talys. Loss of Cl carrier in chemical extraction and errors in determination of reaction energy ranges are both possible explanations for artificially inflated cross sections measured in the previous work.

  6. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  7. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  8. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  9. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  10. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  11. Application of different nuclides in retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konheiser, J.; Mittag, S.; Viehrig, H.W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. HZDR, PF 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gleisberg, B. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. VKTA, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The activities of nuclides produced via the neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel are used to validate respective fluence calculations. Niobium, nickel, and technetium isotopes from RPV trepans of the decommissioned NPP Greifswald (VVER-440) have been analyzed. The activities were determined by TRAMO (Monte-Carlo) fluence calculations, newly applying 640 neutron-energy groups and ENDF/B7 data. Relative to earlier results, fluences up to 20% higher have been computed, leading to somewhat better agreement between measurement and calculation, particularly in the case of Tc-99. (authors)

  12. A multicentre study of the precision and accuracy of the TruSlice and TruSlice Digital histological dissection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, G E; Shams, M; Nwokie, T; Fernando, P; Bulut, C; Quaye, C J; Gabriel, J; Ramji, Z; Georgaki, A; Watt, M; Cole, Z; Stewart, K; McTaggart, V; Padayachy, S; Long, A M; Ogden, A; Andrews, C; Birchall, A; Shams, F; Neesam, H; Haine, N

    2016-10-01

    Five key factors enabling a good surgical grossing technique include a flat uniformly perpendicular specimen cutting face, appropriate immobilisation of the tissue specimen during grossing, good visualisation of the cutting tissue face, sharp cutting knives and the grossing knife action. TruSlice and TruSlice Digital are new innovative tools based on a guillotine configuration. The TruSlice has plastic inserts whilst the TruSlice Digital has an electronic micrometre attached: both features enable these dissection factors to be controlled. The devices were assessed in five hospitals in the UK. A total of 267 fixed tissue samples from 23 tissue types were analysed, principally the breast (n = 32) skin (30), rectum (28), colon (27) and cervix (17). Precision and accuracy were evaluated by measuring the defined thickness, and the consistency of achieving the defined thickness of tissue samples taken respectively. Both parameters were expressed as a total percentage of compliance for the cohort of samples accessed. Overall, the mean (standard deviation) score for precision was 81 (11) % whilst the accuracy score was 82 (11) % (both p Digital devices offer an assured precision and accuracy performance which is reproducible across an assortment of tissue types. The use of a micrometre to set tissue slice thickness is innovative and should comply with laboratory accreditation requirements, alleviating concerns of how to tackle issues such as the 'measurement of uncertainty' at the grossing bench.

  13. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  14. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  15. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  16. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  18. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  19. Optimization of hybrid-type instrumentation for Pu accountancy of U/TRU ingot in pyroprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Seung Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Park, Geun-Il; Menlove, Spencer H

    2016-02-01

    One of the final products of pyroprocessing for spent nuclear fuel recycling is a U/TRU ingot consisting of rare earth (RE), uranium (U), and transuranic (TRU) elements. The amounts of nuclear materials in a U/TRU ingot must be measured as precisely as possible in order to secure the safeguardability of a pyroprocessing facility, as it contains the most amount of Pu among spent nuclear fuels. In this paper, we propose a new nuclear material accountancy method for measurement of Pu mass in a U/TRU ingot. This is a hybrid system combining two techniques, based on measurement of neutrons from both (1) fast- and (2) thermal-neutron-induced fission events. In technique #1, the change in the average neutron energy is a signature that is determined using the so-called ring ratio method, according to which two detector rings are positioned close to and far from the sample, respectively, to measure the increase of the average neutron energy due to the increased number of fast-neutron-induced fission events and, in turn, the Pu mass in the ingot. We call this technique, fast-neutron energy multiplication (FNEM). In technique #2, which is well known as Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR), a neutron population's changes resulting from thermal-neutron-induced fission events due to the presence or absence of a cadmium (Cd) liner in the sample's cavity wall, and reflected in the Cd ratio, is the signature that is measured. In the present study, it was considered that the use of a hybrid, FNEM×PNAR technique would significantly enhance the signature of a Pu mass. Therefore, the performance of such a system was investigated for different detector parameters in order to determine the optimal geometry. The performance was additionally evaluated by MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulations for different U/TRU compositions reflecting different burnups (BU), initial enrichments (IE), and cooling times (CT) to estimate its performance in real situations.

  20. Existence of the fifth unstable nuclide series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家骅

    1996-01-01

    The production of derived nuclides by the reaction of 238U with constant nuclear reactor neutron flux for long time is theoretically described.The concentration of each derived nuclide is zero at the beginning.then increases gradually and approaches a saturated value at a certain irradiation time.The whole system(including the parent nuclide 238U and all its derived nuclides)will be in a state of equilibrium.Upon the reaction with neutron flux,the whole system decreases its concentration at the same rate as 238U.It constitutes actually a new type of unstable nuclide series which is in owrk only in the presence of reactor neutron flux.It has been found that the amount of materials consumed by neutron flux reaction is almost converted entrely to fission product.This peculiar property is quite different from the well known four radioactive series,so that it is named the fifth unstable nuclide series.

  1. Regular Cosmogenic Nuclide Dosing of Sediment Moving Down Desert Piedmonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Hooke, R. L.; Eppes, M. C.; Persico, L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-gradient alluvial piedmonts are common in desert areas throughout the world; however, long-term rates of processes that modify these landscapes are poorly understood. Using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al, we attempt to quantify the long-term (>103 y) behavior of desert piedmonts in Southern California. We measured the activity of 10Be and 26Al in three samples of drainage basin alluvium and six amalgamated samples from transects spaced at 1-km intervals down a piedmont in Fort Irwin, Mojave Desert, California. Each transect sample consists of sediment from 21 collection sites spaced at 150 m intervals. Such sampling averages the variability of nuclide activity between sub-sample locations and thus gives a long-term dosing history of sediment as it is transported from uplands to the distal piedmont. The piedmont is heavily used during military training exercises during which hundreds of wheeled and tracked vehicles traverse the surface. The piedmont surface is planar, and fan-head incision is minimal at the rangefront decreasing to zero between the first and second transects, 1.5 km from the rangefront. 10Be activity increases steadily from 5.87 X 105 atoms g-1 at the rangefront to 1.02 X 6 atoms g-1 at the piedmont bottom. Nuclide activity and distance are well correlated (r2 = 0.95) suggesting that sediment is dosed uniformly as it is transported down piedmont. We have measured similar increases in nuclide activity in transect samples collected from two other Mojave Desert piedmonts, those fringing the Iron and Granite Mountains (Nichols et al, in press, Geomorphology). These piedmonts have nuclide activities that also correlate well with distance (r2 = 0.98 and 0.96, respectively) from their rangefronts, but nuclides increase at a lower rate down piedmont. Modeled sediment transport speeds for the Iron and Granite Mountain piedmonts are decimeters per year. The regular increase in nuclide activities down three different Mojave Desert piedmonts suggests that

  2. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  3. Charge and frequency resolved isochronous mass spectrometry in storage rings: First direct mass measurement of the short-lived neutron-deficient $^{51}$Co nuclide

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, P; Tu, X L; Zhang, Y H; Sun, B H; Litvinov, Yu A; Yan, X L; Blaum, K; Wang, M; Zhou, X H; He, J J; Sun, Y; Kaneko, K; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Yang, J C; Audi, G; Chen, X C; Jia, G B; Hu, Z G; Ma, X W; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Sun, Z Y; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, W; Zhan, W L

    2014-01-01

    Revolution frequency measurements of individual ions in storage rings require sophisticated timing detectors. One of common approaches for such detectors is the detection of secondary electrons released from a thin foil due to penetration of the stored ions. A new method based on the analysis of intensities of secondary electrons was developed which enables determination of the charge of each ion simultaneously with the measurement of its revolution frequency. Although the mass-over-charge ratios of $^{51}$Co$^{27+}$ and $^{34}$Ar$^{18+}$ ions are almost identical, and therefore, the ions can not be resolved in a storage ring, by applying the new method the mass excess of the short-lived $^{51}$Co is determined for the first time to be ME($^{51}$Co)=-27342(48) keV. Shell-model calculations in the $fp$-shell nuclei compared to the new data indicate the need to include isospin-nonconserving forces.

  4. Schottky mass measurements of heavy neutron-rich nuclides in the element range $70\\leq Z\\leq 79$ at the ESR

    CERN Document Server

    Shubina, D; Litvinov, Yu A; Blaum, K; Brandau, C; Bosch, F; Carroll, J J; Casten, R F; Cullen, D M; Cullen, I J; Deo, A Y; Detwiler, B; Dimopoulou, C; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Haettner, E; Heil, M; Kempley, R S; Kozhuharov, C; Knobel, R; Kurcewicz, J; Kuzminchuk, N; Litvinov, S A; Liu, Z; Mao, R; Nociforo, C; Nolden, F; Patyk, Z; Plass, W R; Prochazka, A; Reed, M W; Sanjari, M S; Scheidenberger, C; Steck, M; Stohlker, Th; Sun, B; Swan, T P D; Trees, G; Walker, P M; Weick, H; Winckler, N; Winkler, M; Woods, P J; Yamaguchi, T; Zhou, C

    2013-01-01

    Storage-ring mass spectrometry was applied to neutron-rich $^{197}$Au projectile fragments. Masses of $^{181,183}$Lu, $^{185,186}$Hf, $^{187,188}$Ta, $^{191}$W, and $^{192,193}$Re nuclei were measured for the first time. The uncertainty of previously known masses of $^{189,190}$W and $^{195}$Os nuclei was improved. Observed irregularities on the smooth two-neutron separation energies for Hf and W isotopes are linked to the collectivity phenomena in the corresponding nuclei.

  5. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides due to the Fukushima reactors accident in air particulate in Milan (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sala, Elena

    2011-01-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on 11th March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that had been diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in air particulate due to this accident has been detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 \\mu Bq/m3 of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radionuclides were determined and some correlations with the original reactor releases were found. Radioactive contaminations ranging from a few to 400 \\mu Bq/m3 for the 131I and of a few tens of \\mu Bq/m3 for the 137Cs and 134Cs have been detected

  6. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  7. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  8. A facility for fast-neutron irradiations at Jyväskylä and its use for nuclide cross-section measurements in fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhersonneau, G.; Malkiewicz, T.; Jones, P.; Karvonen, P.; Ketelhut, S.; Bajeat, O.; Fadil, M.; Gaudu, S.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient and reliable transport system for fast-neutron irradiations has been built at the Physics Department, Jyväskylä, Finland. It is constructed from commercial bicycle components and is driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor. It can be operated in single or cyclic mode. The neutron irradiated targets are moved within 1.2 s (full stop to full stop) to a well-shielded position 3 m away where they can be removed or directly investigated by γ spectroscopy. The system has been built with the aim to experimentally verify the calculated production rates of neutron-rich nuclei in the SPIRAL2 uranium target. However, the facility can be used for various kinds of fast-neutron irradiations, with a neutron spectrum up to 60 MeV produced by stopping a deuteron beam of several μA in a thick target. Examples of applications are activation and integral cross-section measurements, evaluation of damages in materials and biological cells.

  9. A hybrid neural network structure for application to nondestructive TRU waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component. of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks.

  10. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  11. Simulations of terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic-nuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lal, D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Englert, P.A.J. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Facility; Klein, J.; Middleton, R. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). NSF Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Analysis

    1993-12-31

    Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure {sup 7}Be and {sup 22}Na, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al. The measured ratios of these nuclides are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.

  12. Research on Nuclear Reaction Network Equation for Fission Product Nuclides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Reaction Network Equation calculation system for fission product nuclides was developed. With the system, the number of the fission product nuclides at different time can be calculated in the different neutron field intensity and neutron energy spectra

  13. Production Rates of Cosmogenic Nuclides Deep in the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    1995-09-01

    Measurements of radionuclide activities in Apollo samples extend to depths of only about 400 g/cm2 in the Moon. Some Apollo samples and lunar meteorites probably have significant concentrations of cosmogenic nuclides made while they were buried at depths greater than 400 g/cm2. We report here initial calculations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides for depths in the Moon down to 1500 g/cm2. The LAHET Code System (LCS) [1] was used to numerically simulate the irradiation of the Moon by galactic-cosmic-ray particles and to calculate particle fluxes and production rates of various cosmogenic nuclides. The advantage of these calculations is that the LCS physical model used for the production and transport of particles in the Moon has no free parameters. Some previous models, such as Reedy and Arnold (1972) [2], had semi-empirical or adopted parameters that never were tested below about 400 g/cm2. Our simulations started by selecting the energy and direction of the primary particle that starts a particle cascade and following all particles until they are removed by nuclear interactions or escape from the Moon. The calculations were validated by modeling production of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 53Mn in the Apollo 15 drill core and getting good agreement with measurements to depths of about 400 g/cm2 [3]. We used the composition of the Apollo 15 deep drill core for these calculations, assumed a density of 1.5 g/cm3, and did calculations to a depth of 1000 cm (1500 g/cm2). We ran 5 million incident particles to try to get good statistics at great depths. Statistical uncertainties for depths below about 1000 g/cm2 were about 10%, so we splined the results for depths below 750 g/cm2. We reproduced our original results [3] down to 500 g/cm2, extended the calculated production rates of those four radionuclides to 1500 g/cm2, and also calculated production rates of 14C, 21Ne, 22Ne, and 38Ar from 0 to 1500 g/cm2. As reported earlier [3], production rates for various

  14. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  15. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  16. 居室墙体中天然γ核素就地测量技术研究%Study on In-situ Measurement Technique of Natural γNuclide in Indoor Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫杰; 陈凌; 殷经鹏; 郭金森

    2015-01-01

    本文通过理论计算和实验测量的方法,研究墙体中天然γ核素比活度就地测量问题。理论分析了不平衡状态下226 Ra、232 T h、40 K的测量方法,由实验室测量238 U的第1代子体234 T h及通过235 U和238 U的天然同位素丰度比值关系,获得典型居室墙体中235 U对226 Ra就地测量的干扰系数;利用ISOCS无源效率模拟研究了测量时墙体之间的干扰;并研究了砖块形状和墙材原料配比等因素对无源效率刻度的影响。结果表明,235 U对226 Ra就地测量的干扰系数约为0.46;Falcon 5000在居室几何条件下测量单面墙体时,经8 mm钨屏蔽后,40 K的干扰扣除系数为0.33;最后分析获得居室墙体中226 Ra、232 Th和40 K就地测量时总不确定度分别为26%、17%和15%,可用于室内环境调查。%The in‐situ measurement of natural γ nuclide specific activity in walls was studied through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement .The method for measuring 226 Ra ,232 Th and 40 K in non‐equilibrium state was analyzed theoretically ,and the interference coefficient from 235 U when measuring 226 Ra in‐situ was estimated by laboratory measuring 234 Th which is the first generation daughter of 238 U and according to the natural isotope abundance ratio between 235 U and 238 U .The interference in meas‐urement between the walls in the same room was studied using ISOCS passive efficiency simulation .And the effects on the passive efficiency calibration from the brick shape and raw material ratio were also studied .The results show that the interference coefficient from 235 U when measuring 226 Ra in‐situ is about 0.46 ,and the deduction coefficient of 40 K when measuring the single wall by Falcon 5000 is about 0.33 under the indoor geo‐metrical condition with 8 mm tungsten shield .The total uncertainties of in‐situ meas‐urement were analyzed ,which are respectively 26% ,17% and 15% for 226 Ra ,232 Th

  17. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-03-11

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  18. A model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1985-02-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions and energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g/cm (2). Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurments of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth.

  19. Production profiles of nuclides by galactic-cosmic-ray particles in small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    Many of the meteorites found in cold and hot deserts are small, and many were small bodies in space. Production of cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides in small meteoroids is expected to be different than that in the larger meteoroids typically studied, with lower levels of nuclide production by galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles and possibly significant production by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) protons. Motivated by the cosmogenic-nuclide measurements for the very small Salem meteorite and for cosmic spherules, which show high levels of SCR production, we have reported earlier nuclide production rates by SCR protons in small objects in space. The GCR production rates reported for small meteoroids have not been tested and were expected to be poor for meteoroids with radii less than 40 g/cm2 because of the very simple nature of that semi-empirical model (only one free parameter) and because the mix of neutrons and protons is different (relatively more protons) than that in the model, which was based on larger objects. Thus we have calculated produciton rates for nuclides mad by GCR particles in small objects with a physical model that is much better suited for unusual targets.

  20. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  1. Forbush decreases geomagnetic and atmospheric effects cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, E. O.

    1986-01-01

    An overview and synthesis is given of recent developments that have occurred in the areas of Forbush decreases, geomagnetic and atmospheric effects, and cosmogenic nuclides. Experimental evidence has been found for substantial differences in the effects of the various types of interplanetary perturbations on cosmic rays, and for a dependence of these effects on the three-dimensional configuration of the interplanetary medium. In order to fully understand and to be able to simulate the solar cosmic ray particle access to the polar regions of the earth we need accurate models of the magnetospheric magnetic field. These models must include all major magnetospheric current systems (in particular the field aligned currents), and they should represent magnetically quiet time periods as well as different levels of geomagnetic activity. In the evolution of magnetospheric magnetic field models, cosmic ray and magnetospheric physicists should work closely together since cosmic ray measurements are a powerful additional tool in the study of the perturbed magnetosphere. In the field of cosmogenic nuclides, finally, exciting new results and developments follow in rapid succession. Thanks to new techniques and new isotopes the analysis of cosmic ray history has entered into a new dimension.

  2. Density-functional study of U-TRU-Zr and U-TRU-Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Alexander; Soderlind, Per; Turchi, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    The U-Zr and U-Mo alloys proved to be very promising fuels for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The optimal composition of these alloys is determined from the condition that the fuel could remain stable in the bcc phase (γ-U) in the temperature range of stability of α-U phase. In other words, both Zr and Mo play a role of `` γ-stabilizers'' helping to keep U in the metastable bcc phase upon cooling. In the present study we perform KKR-ASA-CPA and EMTO-CPA calculations of the ground state properties of γ-U-Zr and γ-U-Mo alloys and compare their heats of formation with CALPHAD assessments. Though the U-Zr and U-Mo alloys can be used as nuclear fuels, a fast rector operation on a closed fuel cycle will, due to the nuclear reactions, contain significant amount of TRU elements (Np, Pu, and Am). Above mentioned density-functional theory techniques are extended to study ground-state properties of the bcc-based X-Zr and X-Mo (X = Np, Pu, Am) solid solutions. We discuss how the heat of formation correlates with the charge transfer between the alloy components, and how magnetism influences the deviation from Vegard's law for the equilibrium atomic volume. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Work at LLNL was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under project tracking code 12-SI-008.

  3. Assessment of Hanford burial grounds and interim TRU storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.F.; Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-08-01

    A review and assessment is made of the Hanford low level solid radioactive waste management sites and facilities. Site factors considered favorable for waste storage and disposal are (1) limited precipitation, (2) a high deficiency of moisture in the underlying sediments (3) great depth to water table, all of which minimize radionuclide migration by water transport, and (4) high sorbtive capacity of the sediments. Facilities are in place for 20 year retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes and for disposal of nontransuranic radioactive wastes. Auxiliary facilities and services (utilities, roads, fire protection, shops, etc.) are considered adequate. Support staffs such as engineering, radiation monitoring, personnel services, etc., are available and are shared with other operational programs. The site and associated facilities are considered well suited for solid radioactive waste storage operations. However, recommendations are made for study programs to improve containment, waste package storage life, land use economy, retrievability and security of TRU wastes.

  4. Cosmogenic nuclide dating of glaciofluvial deposits: insights from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Rahn, Meinert; Dehnert, Andreas; Schlüchter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al can be employed to reconstruct the chronology of sediment layers. Accumulation of these can be used to exposure date the sediment layer as the variation of cosmogenic nuclide concentration with depth can be modeled. Decay of 10Be and 26Al in the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the depth-profile and isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we studied two Deckenschotter outcrops in abandoned gravel pits in Mandach (507 m a.s.l.) and Siglistorf (530 m a.s.l.) in canton Zurich. We collected four samples from Mandach for 10Be analysis and more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in Siglistorf among which we processed 19 clasts for 10Be and 26Al analysis. 10Be concentrations of the Mandach samples vary between 10000 and 30000 at/g. Based on these, we calculated a modal depth-profile age of around 1.0 Ma. Among Siglistorf samples, four did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low nuclide concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. The 26Al/10Be ratio of eight samples was above the surface ratio of 6

  5. Lessons learned in TRU waste process improvement at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, J. C.; Huchton, J. (Judith); Martin, B. (Beverly); Lindahl, P. (Peter); Miller, S. (Scott); Hartwell, W. B. (Ware B.)

    2004-01-01

    Typical papers that discuss lessons learned or quality improvement focus on the challenge for a production facility reaching six sigma (3.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities) from five sigma. This paper discusses lessons learned when the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) transuranic (TRU) waste management project was challenged to establish a production system to meet the customer's expectations. The target for FY 2003 was set as two shipments of TRU waste per week leaving the site. The average for the four previous years (FY99-02) was about one shipment every two months. LANL recognized that, despite its success in 1999 as the first site to ship TRU waste to open the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), significant changes to the way business was being done were required to move to a production mode. Process improvements began in earnest in April 2002. This paper discusses several of the initiatives LANL took to achieve forty-five shipments in FY03. The paper is organized by topic into five major areas that LANL worked to get the job done.

  6. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  7. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A. [Politecnico di Milano: Via La Masa 34, 20136 Milan (Italy); Franceschini, F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LL: 1000 Westinghouse Dr., Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Krepel, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI WEST, 5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  9. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codesand corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-30

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  16. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-12-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  17. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  18. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-11-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  19. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-10-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  20. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-06-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  1. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  2. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-02-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  3. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-09-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  4. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-05-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  5. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-12-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  6. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-01-18

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  7. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  8. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  9. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-10-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  10. Determination of (99)Tc in fresh water using TRU resin by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; de Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack; Dai, Xiongxin

    2017-10-02

    Technetium-99 ((99)Tc) determination at trace level by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging because there is no readily available appropriate Tc isotopic tracer. A new method using Re as a recovery tracer to determine (99)Tc in fresh water samples, which does not require any evaporation step, was developed. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were pre-concentrated on a small anion exchange resin (AER) cartridge from one litre of water sample. They were then efficiently eluted from the AER using a potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution. After the reduction of KMnO4 in 2 M sulfuric acid solution, the sample was passed through a small TRU resin cartridge. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) retained on the TRU resin were eluted using near boiling water, which can be directly used for the ICP-MS measurement. The results for method optimisation, validation and application were reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TRU waste inventory collection and work-off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [CBFO

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage ofTransuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization ofthis TRU waste will avoid the cost ofbuilding treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each ofthe small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all ofthe small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number ofwaste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume ofmuch of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  12. Bayesian estimation of a source term of radiation release with approximately known nuclide ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

    2016-04-01

    We are concerned with estimation of a source term in case of an accidental release from a known location, e.g. a power plant. Usually, the source term of an accidental release of radiation comprises of a mixture of nuclide. The gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition. However, physical properties of respective nuclide (deposition properties, decay half-life) can be used when uncertain information on nuclide ratios is available, e.g. from known reactor inventory. The proposed method is based on linear inverse model where the observation vector y arise as a linear combination y = Mx of a source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the source term x. The task is to estimate the unknown source term x. The problem is ill-conditioned and further regularization is needed to obtain a reasonable solution. In this contribution, we assume that nuclide ratios of the release is known with some degree of uncertainty. This knowledge is used to form the prior covariance matrix of the source term x. Due to uncertainty in the ratios the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix are considered to be unknown. Positivity of the source term estimate is guaranteed by using multivariate truncated Gaussian distribution. Following Bayesian approach, we estimate all parameters of the model from the data so that y, M, and known ratios are the only inputs of the method. Since the inference of the model is intractable, we follow the Variational Bayes method yielding an iterative algorithm for estimation of all model parameters. Performance of the method is studied on simulated 6 hour power plant release where 3 nuclide are released and 2 nuclide ratios are approximately known. The comparison with method with unknown nuclide ratios will be given to prove the usefulness of the proposed approach. This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases

  13. Optimal reactions for synthesis of nuclides of element 108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zu-Hua; Zhou Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    The cross sections for the production of nuclides of element 108 via hot fusion evaporation reactions are studied using a two-parameter Smoluchowski equation. The optimal reactions for the synthesis of new nuclides of element 108 with mass numbers from 266 to 271 are suggested. The macroscopic-microscopic approach predicts a strong deformed shell closure at Z ≈ 108 and N = 162. The synthesis of more nuclides of element 108 is meaningful to the confirmation of the existence of this deformed shell closure.

  14. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  15. TruStore: Implementing a Trusted Store for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Yury, Zhauniarovich; Olga, Gadyatskaya; Bruno, Crispo

    2013-01-01

    In the Android ecosystem, the process of verifying the integrity of downloaded apps is left to the user. Different from other systems, e.g., Apple, App Store, Google does not provide any certified vetting process for the Android apps. This choice has a lot of advantages but it is also the open door to possible attacks as the recent one shown by Bluebox. To address this issue, we present how to enable the deployment of application certification service, we called TruStores, for the Android pla...

  16. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  17. Removal of radioactive nuclides by alginate microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Oritani, T.; Akiba, K. [Tohoku Univ., Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The K{sub d} values of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Y{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}, for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were estimated to be 1.1x10{sup 4}, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x10{sup 4}, 1.4x10{sup 4}, 3.4x10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into the gelling salt solutions. The alginate microcapsules have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions. (author)

  18. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  19. Gaseous decontamination for major cp, fp and tru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatenuma, K.; Hishinuma, T.; Isoyama, N.; Noguchi, T. [Kaken Co. Mito-Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    As an effective decontamination based on dry-base treatment, we have developed two types practical gaseous decontamination technologies, one is based on carbonylation and fluorination reactions using several types of chemically reactive plasmas which have the performances and high efficiencies to decontaminate simultaneously the contaminants of major CP, FP and TRU, and another is based on fluorination reaction using fluoric reagent (i e., ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 5}, IF{sub 7}, etc.) to decontaminate the contaminants of major F P and TRU. In this study, it was verified that all of the chemically reactive plasmas of five types, which are electron cyclotron resonance, direct current, radio frequency, down stream micro wave and corona discharge, have high decontamination efficiencies of {sup 60}Co and uranium, and on the other hand the result of highly reactive gas decontamination using ClF{sub 3} as fluoric reagent showed that the contaminants of UF{sub 6} centrifugal concentrator were mostly cleaned up to non-radioactive materials under the treatment conditions of ambient temperature, short time and reduced pressure. The developed gas-phase decontamination technology based on volumes of waste created each year or non-incinerable radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  1. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  2. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  3. A comparison of McCoy, TruView, and Macintosh laryngoscopes for tracheal intubation in patients with immobilized cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical spine immobilization results in a poor laryngeal view on direct laryngoscopy leading to difficulty in intubation. This randomized prospective study was designed to compare the laryngeal view and ease of intubation with the Macintosh, McCoy, and TruView laryngoscopes in patients with immobilized cervical spine. Materials and Methods: 60 adult patients of ASA grade I-II with immobilized cervical spine undergoing elective cervical spine surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium and maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups to achieve tracheal intubation with Macintosh, McCoy, or TruView laryngoscopes. When the best possible view of the glottis was obtained, the Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopy grade and the percentage of glottic opening (POGO score were assessed. Other measurements included the intubation time, the intubation difficulty score, and the intubation success rate. Hemodynamic parameters and any airway complications were also recorded. Results: TruView reduced the intubation difficulty score, improved the Cormack and Lehane glottic view, and the POGO score compared with the McCoy and Macintosh laryngoscopes. The first attempt intubation success rate was also high in the TruView laryngoscope group. However, there were no differences in the time required for successful intubation and the overall success rates between the devices tested. No dental injury or hypoxia occurred with either device. Conclusion: The use of a TruView laryngoscope resulted in better glottis visualization, easier tracheal intubation, and higher first attempt success rate as compared to Macintosh and McCoy laryngoscopes in immobilized cervical spine patients.

  4. The puzzle of the synthesis of the rare nuclide 138La

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Borzov, I.; Rayet, M.

    2001-08-01

    The calculations of the p-process in the O/Ne layers of Type II supernovae are quite successful in reproducing the solar system content of p-nuclides. They predict, however, a significant underproduction of the rare odd-odd nuclide \\chem{138}{La}. A model for the explosion of a 25 Msun star with solar metallicity is used to suggest that nu_e -captures on \\chem{138}{Ba} may well be its most efficient production mechanism. The responsibility of an inadequate prediction of the \\chem{138}{La} and \\chem{139}{La} photodisintegration rates in the too low production of \\chem{138}{La} is also examined quantitatively. A detailed discussion of the theoretical uncertainties in these rates suggest that the required rate changes are probably too high to be fully plausible. Their measurement would be most welcome. They would help disentangling the relative contributions of thermonuclear and neutrino processes to the \\chem{138}{La} production.

  5. The puzzle of the synthesis of the rare nuclide 138La

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, S; Borzov, I N; Rayet, M

    2001-01-01

    The calculations of the p-process in the O/Ne layers of Type II supernovae are quite successful in reproducung the solar system content of p-nuclides. They predict, however, a significant underproduction of the rare odd-odd nuclide 138La. A model for the explosion of a 25 Mo star with solar metallicity is used to suggest that electron neutrino captures on 138Ba may well be its most efficient production mechanism. The responsibility of an inadequate prediction of the 138La and 139La photodisintegration rates in the too low production of 138La is also examined quantitatively. A detailed discussion of the theoretical uncertainties in these rates suggest that the required rate changes are probably too high to be fully plausible. Their measurement would be most welcome. They would help disentangling the relative contributions of thermonuclear and neutrino processes to the 138La production.

  6. Mass mapping of a new area of neutron-deficient suburanium nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, Y N; Bosch, F; Falch, M; Geissel, H; Hausmann, M; Kerscher, T; Klepper, O; Kluge, H J; Kozhuharov, C; Litvinov, Y A; Löbner, K E G; Münzenberg, G; Patyk, Z; Radon, T; Scheidenberger, C; Wapstra, A H; Wollnik, H

    2002-01-01

    The masses of 64 short-lived neutron-deficient nuclides covering the element range from tungsten to uranium have been obtained for the first time. They have been evaluated by combining directly measured masses from Schottky mass spectrometry with linked experimental Q-values in alpha-decay chains. Based on these new mass data we have determined the one-proton and two-proton drip-lines as well as the size of the 'littoral shallow' of the sea of instability. No evidence of a Thomas-Ehrman shift has been found in the region of the investigated heavy nuclides. A peculiar behavior of two-proton separation energies has been observed in the lead region. The predictive power of various mass models is investigated.

  7. Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mitsui, Takaya; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of 40K, 151Eu, and 174Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three nuclides, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of 61Ni, 73Ge, 119Sn, 125Te, 127I, 149Sm, and 189Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available nuclides and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.

  8. Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Resarch and Utilization Division (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Condensed Matter Science Division, Sector of Nuclear Science Research (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 40}K, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 174}Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three nuclides, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 61}Ni, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 119}Sn, {sup 125}Te, {sup 127}I, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 189}Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available nuclides and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.

  9. Systematics of alpha decay half-life: new evaluations for alpha-emitter nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, E.L.; Rodrigues, M.M.N.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. E-mail: emil.cbpf.br

    2006-06-15

    A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been used to systematize the alpha decay half-lives of a set of 336 nuclides, comprising all the alpha-emitter nuclides whose T{sub 1/2} {sup a}lpha-data for ground-state to ground-state transitions of mutual angular momentum l = 0 are known. With a minimum of data rejection (only {approx} 5% of cases), the procedure has been successful in reproducing quite satisfactorily (within a factor {approx} 2) most of the cases ({approx} 80%) investigated. The few significant discrepancies found between measured and calculated results are analysed and discussed. Also reported is the prediction from the model for possible new alpha-emitter nuclides, namely {sup 180} W, {sup 184} Os, and {sup 228} Ra for which cases the calculated partial alpha decay half-lives fall within the range of half-lives measurable by the current techniques. (author)

  10. Applicability of Various Fuel Forms with TRU for Small SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Tae-Yang; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The metallic fuel has been used commonly in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR). It is known as a well-suited fuel form for SFR because of high theoretical density, high thermal conductivity and harder neutron spectrum. These advantages make metal fuel be used for EBR-II from the early R-D ages even though its own limits including reprocessing problems. On the other hand the oxide fuel developed for LWRs has benefits of huge operational experiences and database. The core performance and safety features of small sized reactor are different with larger sized reactor because of larger neutron leakage. Especially, it is expected to reduce positive sodium void effect or make negative due to larger effect of neutron leakage than spectral hardening effect. However, the importance of each control rod is very high because of a few control rods. Detail calculation for rod worth should be cared for the safety against rod withdrawal accidents. The prototype SFR which is named PGSFR has been planned to be constructed in the Rep. of Korea. The effective cross sections, weighted region-wise flux, are made by TRANSX and DANTSYS (with TWODANT module) and burnup calculation of core is done by REBUS (with DIF3D module). MCNPX code is partially used such as calculation of effective delayed neutron fraction. The code validation for small SFR with TRANSXDANTSYS- REBUS code system was done at the previous studies. The core performance characteristics and safety analysis for small sized SFR with metallic, oxide and nitride fuel with TRU are performed by calculation of reactivity coefficient, shutdown margin and quasi-static analysis. The theoretical density of oxide fuel is relatively low therefore its TRU fraction in heavy metal is relatively higher than others. For nitride fuel, the TRU fraction in heavy metal is relatively lower than others due to higher theoretical density and higher smear density. In the aspect of core performance, all of the fuel options are shown similar power peaking

  11. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  12. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  13. Production and Recoil Loss of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3He, 6,7Li, and 21,22Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3He and 21Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  14. Can Morasko and Mundrabilla help Reconstructing Production Rates and Nuclear Reaction Cross-Sections for Light Cosmogenic Nuclides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchel, S.; Smith, T.; Leya, I.; Pavetich, S.; Rugel, G.; Scharf, A.; Muszynski, A.

    2016-08-01

    Lighter nuclides of He, Ne, and Ar, and radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36 and Ca-41 are measured in troilite, schreibersite and bulk metal of Mundrabilla and Morasko. Traces of S largely enhance Al-26 production. Cl-36-Ar-36 CRE ages are undisturbed.

  15. Activities of the {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs nuclides in mushrooms from Southern and Western Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennroth, T.; Bjoerkholm, A.; Haavisto, T.; Slotte, J.M.K. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lill, J.O. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Turku PET Centre and Accelerator Lab.

    2011-07-01

    We report the results from activity measurements of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs nuclides in mushrooms in Southern and Western Finland. Fifty-three samples were studied, and they showed large variations especially in the {sup 137}Cs activity both regionally and between mushroom species. (orig.)

  16. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  17. Effects of bulk composition on nuclide production processes in meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masarik, J.; Reedy, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The bulk chemical composition of meteorites is a major factor influencing the production of cosmogenic nuclides. Numerical simulations using Monte Carlo particle production and transport codes were used to investigate particle fluxes, {sup 38}Ar elemental production ratios, and {sup 21}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios in meteorites with a wide range of compositions. The calculations show that enhanced fluxes of low-energy secondary particles in metal-rich phases explain certain experimentally observed differences in nuclide production in various meteorite classes.

  18. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and /sup 252/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs. (LEW)

  19. IMPROVEMENTS IN HANFORD TRANSURANIC (TRU) PROGRAM UTILIZING SYSTEMS MODELING AND ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-11-12

    Hanford's Transuranic (TRU) Program is responsible for certifying contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and shipping the certified waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Hanford's CH TRU waste includes material that is in retrievable storage as well as above ground storage, and newly generated waste. Certifying a typical container entails retrieving and then characterizing it (Real-Time Radiography, Non-Destructive Assay, and Head Space Gas Sampling), validating records (data review and reconciliation), and designating the container for a payload. The certified payload is then shipped to WIPP. Systems modeling and analysis techniques were applied to Hanford's TRU Program to help streamline the certification process and increase shipping rates.

  20. IN SITU TRUING/DRESSING OF DIAMOND WHEEL FOR PRECISION GRINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Daping; WANG Yan; HU Dejin

    2008-01-01

    An application for achieving on-machine truing/dressing and monitoring of diamond wheel is dealt with in dry grinding. A dry electrical discharge (ED) assisted truing and dressing method is adopted in preparation of diamond grinding wheels. Effective and precise truing/dressing of a diamond wheel is carried out on a CNC curve grinding machine by utilizing an ED assisted diamond dresser. The dressed wheel is monitored online by a CCD vision system. It detects the topography changes of a wheel surface. The wear condition is evaluated by analyzing the edge deviation of a wheel image. The benefits of the proposed methods are confirmed by the grinding experiments. The designed truing/dressing device has high material removal rate, low dresser wear, and hence guarantees a desired wheel surface. Real-time monitoring of the wheel profile facilitates determining the optimum dressing amount, dressing interval, and the compensation error.

  1. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  2. Analisis Penerapan Metode Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU Upgrading Untuk Mengatasi Traffic Congestion Jaringan GSM Pada BTS Area Purwokerto Kota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Semakin banyaknya pengguna selular maka akan semakin banyak trafik yang akan tertampung. Trafik yang melebihi kapasitas kanal yang disediakan dapat menyebabkan kondisi Traffic Congestion. Untuk menanganinya diperlukan metode penambahan kapasitas kanal agar semua trafik dapat tertampung dengan baik. Metode ini disebut dengan TRU Upgrading. Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU adalah hardware yang terletak pada Radio Base Station dalam BTS yang berisi slot-slot kanal sedangkan metode TRU Upgrading adalah metode dengan menambahkan/upgrade kapasitas kanal yang tersedia dari konfigurasi TRU yang telah ada sebelumnya, misalkan pada BTS Pabuaran memiliki konfigurasi 3x2x3 karena terjadi kejenuhan pelanggan maka konfigurasi TRU diupgrade menjadi 3x4x3. Perubahan konfigurasi TRU maka merubah konfigurasi BTS-nya serta menambah kapasitas kanalnya. Key Performance Indicator (KPI yang baik pada Indosat adalah menggunakan batas GoS 2%. Nilai GoS ini dikaitkan dengan tabel Erlang untuk mendapatkan sebuah nilai intensitas trafik. Jika nilai intensitas trafik konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan kurang dari nilai intensitas trafik pelanggan maka disebut traffic congestion. Sebagai akibat dari traffic congestion adalah kondisi blocking. TRU Upgrading ini dilakukan dengan harapan nilai blocking panggilan menjadi 0 %. Pada Purwokerto kota, diterapkan  TRU Upgrading untuk cell Grendeng 3, Pabuaran 2, dan Unsoed 1 karena trafik pelanggan yang terjadi melebihi nilai intensitas trafik dari konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan.   Untuk cell Unsoed 1 dan Grendeng 3 meski telah dilakukan TRU Upgrading menjadi 4 buah TRU tetap terjadi traffic congestion sebesar 8 sampai dengan 15 Erlang dikarenakan pada cell-cell ini mengcover area yang padat penduduk. Sedang untuk Pabuaran 2 penerapan TRU upgrading mencapai keefektifan sebesar 100%.

  3. Shielding and activity estimator for template-based nuclide identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-04-09

    According to one embodiment, a method for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides includes receiving one or more templates, the one or more templates corresponding to one or more radio-nuclides which contribute to a probable solution, receiving one or more weighting factors, each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radio-nuclide to the probable solution, computing an effective areal density for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective atomic number (Z) for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective metric for each of the one or more radio-nuclides, and computing an estimated activity for each of the one or more radio-nuclides. In other embodiments, computer program products, systems, and other methods are presented for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides.

  4. Quantifying nuclide contributions to reactor behaviour over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christie, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of adjoint techniques to fuel cycle analysis, in order to provide a more accurate description of the effects of nuclides on reactor behaviour. Transmutation and decay processes change the composition of the fuel. Allowing for these changes makes it possible to c

  5. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste ho

  6. Quantifying nuclide contributions to reactor behaviour over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christie, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of adjoint techniques to fuel cycle analysis, in order to provide a more accurate description of the effects of nuclides on reactor behaviour. Transmutation and decay processes change the composition of the fuel. Allowing for these changes makes it possible to c

  7. Electro-Discharge Fine Truing of Metal-Bonded Fine-Grain Diamond Wheel Based on Real-Time Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weidong; REN Chengzu; HUA Jinhai; WANG Taiyong

    2005-01-01

    A data acquisition system based on LabVIEW is designed and implemented, and electro-discharge(ED) fine truing of metal-bonded fine-grain diamond wheel based on real-time monitoring is researched. Real-time monitoring not only makes efficient impulse specification of ED truing easily obtained, but also is good for timely identifying no-load, avoiding short circuit and arc discharge phenomena and then for obtaining normal machining state. ED fine truing of the fine-grain wheel includes two steps: rough truing for high efficiency and fine truing for high precision. Final ED truing precision and efficiency not only depend on electric process specification, but also is concerned with electrode shape, insulated performance of operating fluid and vertical feed quantity value and frequency. Experiments indicate that ED fine truing based on real-time monitoring can improve the truing precision and efficiency. Average machining efficiency of W10 wheel is about 0.95 μm/min; the final run-out by ED truing is less than 2 μm.

  8. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko, E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Matsubara, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Hanaki, Tatsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) mainly for {sup 14}C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA’s research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of {sup 14}C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 ({sup 10}Be) and aluminum-26 ({sup 26}Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The {sup 10}Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the {sup 26}Al-AMS system.

  9. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  10. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  11. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guay, K.P. [S. M. Stroller Corp. (United States); Smith, L.C. [United Energy Services Corp. (United States)

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  12. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant.

  13. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste hoofdstuk wil ik proberen om op beknopte, ook voor de niet gespecialiseerde lezer, de inhoud en achtergrond van het onderzoek samen te vatten. Aan het eind van de vorige eeuw werd het verschijnsel ra...

  14. Extraction of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) on TRU resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL), Chalk River, ON (Canada). Radiobiology and Health Branch; De Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Dai, Xiongxin [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-01

    TRU resin can be used to rapidly and selectively extract Tc(VII) and Re(VII). The retention capacity curves of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) for HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solutions were studied and prepared. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were simultaneously extracted in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and were effectively separated from Mo(VI) and Ru(III). Tc(VII) and Re(VII) remained strongly bonded to the resin even after washing using a large volume of 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a relatively high flow rate. Also, they were both completely eluted from the resin using 15 mL of near boiling water, an eluent directly compatible for ICP-MS instrument measurements.

  15. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  16. Impact of vegetation change on the mobility of uranium- and thorium-series nuclides in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, A.; Rihs, S.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of land cover change on chemical mobility and soil response was investigated using short- and long-lived nuclides from the U- and Th series. Indeed, the matching of these nuclides half-live to the pedogenic processes rates make these nuclides especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. This study was carried out from the experimental Breuil-Chenue site (Morvan mountains, France). The native forest (150 year-old) was partially clear-felled and replaced in 1976 by mono-specific plantations distributed in different stands. Following this cover-change, some mineralogical changes in the acid brown soil were recognized (Mareschal, 2008). Three soil sections were sampled under the native forest and the replanted oak and Douglas spruce stands respectively. The (238U), (234U), (230Th), (226Ra), (232Th) and (228Ra) activities were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and gamma spectrometry. Significant differences in U, Th, and Ra activities were observed between the soils located under the native forest or the replanted-trees stands, mostly dominated by a large uranium mobilization from the replanted soils. Moreover, all the investigated U and Th-series activity ratios show a contrasted trend between the shallowest horizons (0-50cm) and the deepest one (below 50cm), demonstrating the chemical effect of the vegetation change on the shallow soil layers. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the coupled radioactive disequilibria measured in the different soil layers permit to quantify the rate of the radionuclides mobilities. Reference: Mareschal, L., 2008. Effet des substitutions d'essences forestières sur l'évolution des sols et de leur minéralogie : bilan après 28 ans dans le site expérimental de Breuil (Morvan) Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy-I.

  17. MANAGING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GADD, R.R.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2006-01-19

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective role in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  18. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  19. Determination of nuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, R.; Argentini, M.; Schumann, D. [Lab. of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In switzerland, the location of two of the largest accelerator facilities, CERN and PSI, the authorities requested for a valuation of the radionuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste. In the first phase, model calculations should be verified by radioanalytical analyses. At PSI, the radioactive contents were measured after a careful chemical separation, by {gamma}-spectrometry, {alpha}-spectrometry, low-level counting and accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Examples: (i) The copper beam dump of target E was analyzed; its activities were in the range between 1.10{sup 7} Bq/g for {sup 60}Co and 1.10{sup -5} Bq/g for {sup 60}Fe. (ii) In shielding concrete, more than 30 mBq/g {sup 239,240}Pu were found which is higher than the exemption limit. (iii) In graphite targets, at end of bombardment 2.10{sup 11} Bq/g {sup 7}Be were detected. (iv) In an Eu project, the know-how of the radiochemical separation procedures was used for determination of transmutation-relevant nuclear reaction cross sections. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of activated nuclides for Fugen Nuclear Power Station's decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiratori, Yoshitake; Kawagoe, Shinji; Matsui, Yuji; Higashiura, Norikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Iwasaki, Seiji [Nuclear Energy System Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The density and amount of radioactive nuclides in equipment or concrete including the reactor core need to be evaluated for the decommissioning of the Fugen Nuclear Power Station. To prepare for decommissioning, measurement and evaluation of the neutron flux density have been executed mainly during the reactor operation, because neutron flux density is measured under that condition. Activation evaluation is mainly executed by the calculation method, and the results are checked by the sampling measurements. All of the equipments is divided into three parts, inner core part, shielding part, outer shielding part. The neutron flux distribution of two former parts can be evaluated by calculation, but the last part cannot; it is evaluated by measuring the activation foil for many points. These evaluation methods are checked by a small number of sampling measurements. (author)

  1. Crystal structure of TruD, a novel pseudouridine synthase with a new protein fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Del Campo, Mark; Ofengand, James; Malhotra, Arun

    2004-04-30

    TruD, a recently discovered novel pseudouridine synthase in Escherichia coli, is responsible for modifying uridine13 in tRNA(Glu) to pseudouridine. It has little sequence homology with the other 10 pseudouridine synthases in E. coli which themselves have been grouped into four related protein families. Crystal structure determination of TruD revealed a two domain structure consisting of a catalytic domain that differs in sequence but is structurally very similar to the catalytic domain of other pseudouridine synthases and a second large domain (149 amino acids, 43% of total) with a novel alpha/beta fold that up to now has not been found in any other protein.

  2. Uncertainties in evaluated total cross-section data for 14 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masahiro; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-10-01

    Variances and covariances of total cross sections have been estimated for 14 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. Least-squares analyses using the GMA code were performed to obtain them. Information on the uncertainties of those measurements, which the JENDL-3.2 evaluation was based on, was derived from the associated references and fed into the GMA code system. The results obtained from the present analysis are illustrated. (author).

  3. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the three Escherichia coli pseudouridine synthases TruB, TruA, and RluA reveals uniformly slow catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jaden R; Keffer-Wilkes, Laura C; Dobing, Selina R; Kothe, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Pseudouridine synthases catalyze formation of the most abundant modification of functional RNAs by site-specifically isomerizing uridines to pseudouridines. While the structure and substrate specificity of these enzymes have been studied in detail, the kinetic and the catalytic mechanism of pseudouridine synthases remain unknown. Here, the first pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of three Escherichia coli pseudouridine synthases is presented. A novel stopped-flow absorbance assay revealed that substrate tRNA binding by TruB takes place in two steps with an overall rate of 6 sec(-1). In order to observe catalysis of pseudouridine formation directly, the traditional tritium release assay was adapted for the quench-flow technique, allowing, for the first time, observation of a single round of pseudouridine formation. Thereby, the single-round rate constant of pseudouridylation (k(Ψ)) by TruB was determined to be 0.5 sec(-1). This rate constant is similar to the k(cat) obtained under multiple-turnover conditions in steady-state experiments, indicating that catalysis is the rate-limiting step for TruB. In order to investigate if pseudouridine synthases are characterized by slow catalysis in general, the rapid kinetic quench-flow analysis was also performed with two other E. coli enzymes, RluA and TruA, which displayed rate constants of pseudouridine formation of 0.7 and 0.35 sec(-1), respectively. Hence, uniformly slow catalysis might be a general feature of pseudouridine synthases that share a conserved catalytic domain and supposedly use the same catalytic mechanism.

  4. Cosmogenic nuclides in core samples of the Chico L6 chondrite - Evidence for irradiation under high shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of core samples obtained from different depths of the Chico (New Mexico) L6 chondrite for various cosmogenic nuclides (Be-10, Al-26, and stable isotopes of He, Ne, and Ar). The relationships between the measured abundances of cosmogenic nuclides and cosmogenic Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio were compared with predictions of recent semiempirical models of Graf et al. (1990) and Reedy (1991), and it was found that both models closely reproduce the observed trends and absolute values of the data obtained. Noble gas data indicate that Chico experienced shielding similar to that of Jilin and greater than those of the Knyahinya or the Keyes chondrites. The exposure history for Chico is discussed.

  5. Comparison of two selective separation method for {sup 93}Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: tco@cdtn.b, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The zirconium isotope {sup 93}Zr is a long-lived pure {beta}-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724.19 keV {gamma}-ray measurements by {gamma} - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of {sup 55}Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup -1} was obtained for {sup 55}Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  6. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept [ ] focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor (LWR) fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into tri-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400) [ ]. Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (FY) (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking, and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. Regarding the coated particle performance, the FY 2009 investigations showed that no

  7. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  8. Experimental Study on Production of 126Sn Negative Ions for AMS Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Many isobaric nuclides of radionuclides can not form negative ions or stable negative ions, which can be helpful to effectively eliminate the interference from the isobaric nuclides. In AMS measurements,

  9. Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the%Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丰群; 宋月丽; 拓飞; 孔祥忠

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, according to the regulation of growth and decay of radioactive nuclides produced in reactions, a formula used to calculate the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element is

  10. Miocene to recent ice elevation variations from the interior of the West Antarctic ice sheet: Constraints from geologic observations, cosmogenic nuclides and ice sheet modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Ackert, Robert P.; Pope, Allen E.; Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert M.

    2012-07-01

    Observations of long-term West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) behavior can be used to test and constrain dynamic ice sheet models. Long-term observational constraints are however, rare. Here we present the first constraints on long-term (Miocene-Holocene) WAIS elevation from the interior of the ice sheet near the WAIS divide. We use geologic observations and measurements of cosmogenic 21Ne and 10Be in bedrock surfaces to constrain WAIS elevation variations to WAIS elevations to have been similar to, or lower than present, since the beginning of the Pliocene warm period. We use a continental ice sheet model to simulate the history of ice cover at our sampling sites and thereby compute the expected concentration of the cosmogenic nuclides. The ice sheet model indicates that during the past 5 Ma interior WAIS elevations of >65 m above present-day ice levels at the Ohio Range occur only rarely during brief ice sheet highstands, consistent with the observed cosmogenic nuclide data. Furthermore, the model's prediction that highstand elevations have increased on average since the Pliocene is in good agreement with the cosmogenic nuclide data that indicate the highest ice elevation over the past 5 Ma was reached during the highstand at 11 ka. Since the simulated cosmogenic nuclide concentrations derived from the model's ice elevation history are in good agreement with our measurements, we suggest that the model's prediction of more frequent collapsed-WAIS states and smaller WAIS volumes during the Pliocene are also correct.

  11. A Study of the r-Process Path Nuclides,$^{137,138,139}$Sb using the Enhanced Selectivity of Resonance Ionization Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    Walters, W

    2002-01-01

    The particular features of the r-process abundances with 100 < A < 150 have demonstrated the close connection between knowledge of nuclear structure and decay along the r-process path and the astrophysical environement in which these elements are produced. Key to this connection has been the measurement of data for nuclides (mostly even-N nuclides) that lie in the actual r-process path. Such data are of direct use in r-process calculations and they also serve to refine and test the predictive power of nuclear models where little or no data now exist. In this experiment we seek to use the newly developed ionization scheme for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) to achieve selective ionization of neutron-rich antimony isotopes in order to measure the decay properties of r-process path nuclides $^{137,138,139}$Sb. These properties include the half-lives, delayed neutron branches, and daughter $\\gamma$-rays. The new nuclear structure data for the daughter Te nuclides is also of considerable in...

  12. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  13. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, Alexander R.; Thurn, Jan; Zuber, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  14. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Young, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Beams of radioactive nuclides can be produced in a variety of ways. Effcient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for a number of applications. It is particularly interesting when the isotope is only a few nucleons away from stable isotopes. The production via charge exchange and stripping reactions has been explored at the TRI{mu}P magnetic double separator at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen. The balance between separator transmission efficiency and production yield and the corresponding choice for the beam energy has been investigated. The results of some exploratory experiments at the new TRI{mu}P facility will be presented. (orig.)

  15. Cosmogenic nuclide evidence on ages, sizes and orbits of meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, V.A.; Ustinova, G.K. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1995-12-01

    Meteorites, being the most ancient objects in the solar system, retain evidence of many events and processes which have played, perhaps, a crucial role in its formation. To derive and interpret correctly the available information, the history and evolution of the meteorites themselves must be studied thoroughly. Due to radiogenic and cosmogenic nuclides the chronology of meteorites can be retraced from the moment of solidification to their fall to Earth. A consideration of the properties and features of meteorites with different radiogenic and cosmic-ray ages of exposure makes it possible to locate key events in their evolution on a long term scale. Peculiarities in the formation mechanism of H- and L-chondrites have emerged. (author).

  16. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  17. Gas generation from radiolytic attack of TRU-contaminated hydrogenous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerwekh, A.

    1979-06-01

    In 1970, the Waste Management and Transportation Division of the Atomic Energy Commission ordered a segregation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated solid wastes. Those below a contamination level of 10 nCi/g could still be buried; those above had to be stored retrievably for 20 y. The possibility that alpha-radiolysis of hydrogenous materials might produce toxic, corrosive, and flammable gases in retrievably stored waste prompted an investigation of gas identities and generation rates in the laboratory and field. Typical waste mixtures were synthesized and contaminated for laboratory experiments, and drums of actual TRU-contaminated waste were instrumented for field testing. Several levels of contamination were studied, as well as pressure, temperature, and moisture effects. G (gas) values were determined for various waste matrices, and degradation products were examined.

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, B. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Jurgensen, M. C.; Seagren, R. D.; Box, W. D.

    1978-04-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  19. TruSeq Stranded mRNA and Total RNA Sample Preparation Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total RNA-Seq enabled by ribosomal RNA (rRNA) reduction is compatible with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples, which contain potentially critical biological information. The family of TruSeq Stranded Total RNA sample preparation kits provides a unique combination of unmatched data quality for both mRNA and whole-transcriptome analyses, robust interrogation of both standard and low-quality samples and workflows compatible with a wide range of study designs.

  20. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  1. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS & CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m{sup 3} outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m{sup 3} indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  4. Nuclide identification algorithm based on K-L transform and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)], E-mail: cliang00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wei Yixiang [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2009-01-11

    Traditional spectrum analysis algorithm based on peak search is hard to deal with complex overlapped peaks, especially in bad resolution and high background conditions. This paper described a new nuclide identification method based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (K-L transform) and artificial neural networks. By the K-L transform and feature extraction, the nuclide gamma spectrum was compacted. The K-L transform coefficients were used as the neural network's input. The linear associative memory and ADALINE were discussed. Lots of experiments and tests showed that the method was credible and practical, especially suitable for fast nuclide identification.

  5. Nuclide identification algorithm based on K-L transform and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Wei, Yi-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Traditional spectrum analysis algorithm based on peak search is hard to deal with complex overlapped peaks, especially in bad resolution and high background conditions. This paper described a new nuclide identification method based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (K-L transform) and artificial neural networks. By the K-L transform and feature extraction, the nuclide gamma spectrum was compacted. The K-L transform coefficients were used as the neural network's input. The linear associative memory and ADALINE were discussed. Lots of experiments and tests showed that the method was credible and practical, especially suitable for fast nuclide identification.

  6. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from stability

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Barzakh, A.E; Fedorov, D.V; Ionan, A.M; Ivanov, V.S; Mezilev, K.A; Molkanov, P.L; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M; Alyakrinskiy, O; Lanchais, A; Lau, C; Lhersonneau, G; Rizzi, V; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L.B; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Saint Laurent, M.G; Villari, A.C.C; Essabaa, S; O. Bajeat; Mhamed, C; Leroy, R; 10.1140/epjst/e2007-00328-y

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient nuclides have been investigated. The yields of Cs and Fr produced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron and release properties of different targets have been measured. The comparison of the yields and release efficiencies of Cs and Fr produced from a high density UC target material and from low density UCx prepared by the ISOLDE method at IRIS in the collaboration with PARRNe group from Orsay are presented. The yields from ISOLDE original target are presented for comparison as well.

  7. Nuclear medical imaging using β+γ coincidences from 44Sc radio-nuclide with liquid xenon as detection medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, C.; Barbet, J.; Bardiès, M.; Carlier, T.; Chatal, J. F.; Couturier, O.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Faivre, A.; Ferrer, L.; Girault, S.; Haruyama, T.; Le Ray, P.; Luquin, L.; Lupone, S.; Métivier, V.; Morteau, E.; Servagent, N.; Thers, D.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new nuclear medical imaging technique based on the measurement of the emitter location in the three dimensions with a few mm spatial resolution using β+γ emitters. Such measurement could be realized thanks to a new kind of radio-nuclides which emit a γ-ray quasi-simultaneously with the β+ decay. The most interesting radio-nuclide candidate, namely 44Sc, will be potentially produced at the Nantes cyclotron ARRONAX. The principle is to reconstruct the intersection of the classical line of response (obtained with a standard PET camera) with the direction cone defined by the third γ-ray. The emission angle measurement of this additional γ-ray involves the use of a Compton telescope for which a new generation of camera based on a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber is considered. GEANT3 simulations of a large acceptance LXe Compton telescope combined with a commercial micro-PET (LSO crystals) have been performed and the obtained results will be presented. They demonstrate that a good image can be obtained from the accumulation of each three-dimensional measured position. A spatial resolution of 2.3 mm has been reached with an injected activity of 0.5 MBq for a 44Sc point source emitter.

  8. Detection of landscape transience using cosmogenic nuclides and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Upland landscapes are frequently perturbed by changing tectonics and climate, which can lead to temporally and spatially varying erosion rates. Hillslopes and channels respond to these changes with different rates, and the dissonance between hillslope and channel response times can be exploited to gain information about the nature and timing of landscape transience. I explore the limits to which differences between channel and hillslope processes can be used to detect transience. Slowing channel erosion rates are difficult to detect, whereas increased erosion rates can be detected if erosion rates more than double. Signals of transient erosion driven by upslope propagation of channel incision can persist for thousands to tens of thousands of years; the time perturbations can be detected is proportional to the square of the hillslope length and the inverse of the hillslope sediment transport coefficient. Climate driven ("top down") and tectonic driven ("bottom up") have different responses to transient perturbation, and lead to different sediment flux responses that are reflected in basinwide cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. Climate driven perturbations are mirrored in cosmogenic concentrations leaving basins whereas tectonic perturbations tend to be averaged when estimated from basinwide cosmogenics.

  9. Recommended Partition Coefficient (Kd) Values for Nuclide Partitioning in the Presence of Cellulose Degradation Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2001-02-23

    This report documents the data analysis of the results of the described laboratory studies in order to recommend Kd values for use in Performance Assessment modeling of nuclide transport in the presence of CDP.

  10. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-10-04

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established.

  11. An arginine-aspartate network in the active site of bacterial TruB is critical for catalyzing pseudouridine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, Jenna; Leavens, Fern M V; Mercier, Evan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Kothe, Ute

    2014-04-01

    Pseudouridine synthases introduce the most common RNA modification and likely use the same catalytic mechanism. Besides a catalytic aspartate residue, the contributions of other residues for catalysis of pseudouridine formation are poorly understood. Here, we have tested the role of a conserved basic residue in the active site for catalysis using the bacterial pseudouridine synthase TruB targeting U55 in tRNAs. Substitution of arginine 181 with lysine results in a 2500-fold reduction of TruB's catalytic rate without affecting tRNA binding. Furthermore, we analyzed the function of a second-shell aspartate residue (D90) that is conserved in all TruB enzymes and interacts with C56 of tRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical and kinetic studies reveal that this residue is not critical for substrate binding but influences catalysis significantly as replacement of D90 with glutamate or asparagine reduces the catalytic rate 30- and 50-fold, respectively. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of TruB wild type and TruB D90N, we propose an electrostatic network composed of the catalytic aspartate (D48), R181 and D90 that is important for catalysis by fine-tuning the D48-R181 interaction. Conserved, negatively charged residues similar to D90 are found in a number of pseudouridine synthases, suggesting that this might be a general mechanism.

  12. Ultrasound-guided synovial Tru-cut biopsy: indications, technique, and outcome in 111 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Griffith, James F; Lai, Fernand M; Hui, Mamie; Chiu, K H; Lee, Ryan K L; Ng, Alex W H; Leung, Jason

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered. One hundred and seven (96 %) of the 111 biopsies yielded synovium histologically. Pathology ± microbiology findings for these 107 conclusive biopsies comprised synovial tumour (n = 30, 28 %), synovial infection (n = 18, 17 %), synovial inflammation (n = 45, 42 %), including gouty arthritis (n = 3), and no abnormality (n = 14, 13 %). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial biopsy was 99 %, 97 %, and 100 % for synovial tumour; 100 %, 100 %, and 100 % for native joint infection; and 78 %, 45 %, and 100 % for prosthetic joint infection. False-negative synovial biopsy did not seem to be related to antibiotic therapy. Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and reliable technique with a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing synovial tumour and also, most likely, for joint infection. Regarding joint infection, synovial biopsy of native joints seems to have a higher diagnostic yield than that for infected prosthetic joints. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy has high accuracy (99 %) for diagnosing synovial tumour. • It has good accuracy, sensitivity, and high specificity for diagnosis of joint infection. • Synovial biopsy of native joints works better than biopsy of prosthetic joints. • A negative synovial biopsy culture from a native joint largely excludes septic arthritis. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  13. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  14. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  15. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  16. Cosmogenic isotopes and neo-tectonics. Active tectonics and cosmic radiations: in situ generated cosmogenic nuclides; Isotopes cosmogeniques et neotectonique. Tectonique active et rayons cosmiques: les nucleides cosmogeniques produits in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siame, L.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.; Derrieux, F

    2009-06-15

    In situ generated cosmogenic nuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl) allow to analyse and determine the velocity in landscape changes. The build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in surface rocks submitted to cosmic radiations is proportional to the geomorphological stability of the exposed surfaces. Thus the concentration of in situ generated cosmogenic nuclides depends on the duration of the exposure and on the denudation rate. In some favorable circumstances the method allows to estimate the age of surface exposure. For a given sample at a given depth, an infinity of time-denudation solutions can be calculated to explained the measured concentration. The use of multiple samples taken at different depths allows to solve this mathematical problem and to obtain a unique solution. (J.S.)

  17. Investigation on the movements and the distributions of radon, thoron and their decay nuclides on the life circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    2001-03-01

    UNSCEAR (2000) reported that the effective doses due to the inhalation of radon and its decay nuclides account on average of the all world for about one-half of all natural sources of radiation. These have great influences on various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon on our life circumstances. Radon and thoron, which are natural gaseous radioactive nuclides released out of rocks and soil etc. are chemical inert and electrically uncharged, but they in the air can spontaneously decay to other metal atoms. And they made a wide fluctuation seasonally and spatially on the environment, but these are not uniformly. We have selected and observed on Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Masutomi spa, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon, thoron and their decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using a small pico-rad detector and many sampling points and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Mean radon concentrations of get briefly for 24 hours are measured to be available on draw of the concentration distribution map. (2) We continued time cource variation of mean radon concentrations on same private house of Misasa spa district. Mean radon concentrations in air for 6 years were fluctuated 6.7-50 Bq/m{sup 3} and 23-170 Bq/m{sup 3} indoor. The mean concentrations on summer and rain season is low level at open-door situation and that on winter is high, as same as these on Kawanishi Hyogo pref.. It was shown that radon outdoor concentrations variation in time course almost have a similar tendency with indoor and the life situation of air ventilation and conditioning are more influenced than variation on area condition. (3) Radon concentrations on Masutomi spa

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the tRNA pseudouridine synthase TruD from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Ulrika B; Andersson, Martin E; Engvall, Benita; Nordlund, Pär; Hallberg, B Martin

    2004-04-01

    Pseudouridine, the 5-ribosyl isomer of uridine, is the most common modification of structural RNA. The recently identified pseudouridine synthase TruD belongs to a widespread class of pseudouridine synthases without significant sequence homology to previously known families. TruD from Escherichia coli was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract to a minimum Bragg spacing of 2.4 A and belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 108.6, c = 111.7 A.

  19. Dynamic rod worth simulation study for a sodium-cooled TRU burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Ha, Pham Nhu Viet, E-mail: phamha@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Min Jae; Kang, Chang Mu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic rod worth calculation methodology for a sodium-cooled TRU burner was developed. • The spatial weighting functions were relatively insensitive to control rods position. • The simulated pseudo detector response agreed well with the calculated core power. • The simulated dynamic rod worths compared well against the simulated static values. • Impact of individual detector on the simulated dynamic worth was evaluated. - Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary dynamic rod worth simulation study for a TRU burner core mockup of the PGSFR (Korean Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) named BFS-76-1A so as to establish a calculation methodology for evaluating the rod worth of the PGSFR. The simulation method was mainly based on a three-dimensional multi-group nodal diffusion transient code for fast reactors in which the rod drop simulation for the BFS-76-1A was performed and all the fuel assemblies were taken into account for the detector response calculation. Then the dynamic rod worths were inferred from the simulated detector responses using an inverse point kinetics model and compared against the simulated static worths. The results show good agreement between the simulated pseudo detector response and the calculated core power as well as between the simulated dynamic and static rod worths, and thus indicate that the dynamic rod worth simulation method developed in this work can be applied to the rod worth estimation and validation for the PGSFR.

  20. U-series nuclides migration from the vadose zone to a chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Bourdon, B.; Pili, E.

    2003-04-01

    We have studied the uranium-series disequilibria in chalk aquifer and the vadose zone above it in order to characterise the time scales of radionuclides migration from the water recharge zone of the aquifer to the river. Our field area is located in Champagne (France). The aquifer is characterized by a double porosity: matrix and fracture, providing both a fast and a slow pathways for water flow. We have collected both carbonate rocks and groundwater samples from boreholes and spring and river water from the same area. The boreholes have been drilled along a flow line. Rock/water interaction inside the aquifer induces dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates, together with a mobilisation of uranium, and additionally the decay of radionuclides results in a-recoil effect particularly for the 234U--238U pair. We have measured uranium and thorium isotopes for carbonates samples from the aquifer by TIMS and multi-collection ICP-MS. The fractionation of uranium and thorium nuclides is distinctive in the various parts of the aquifer. Rock samples from the saturated zone show a depletion in 234U with a (234U/238U) ratio ranging from 0.945 to 0.993 (± 0.005). This indicates that uranium 234U has been released by rock/water interaction over the last million year. Nevertheless, rock samples from the vadose zone display an activity ratio 234U/238U above 1 and range from 1.002 to 1.052 (± 0.005), suggesting uranium reprecipitation possibly by a redox front. (230Th/238U) ratio range from 1.25 to 1.59 (± 0.03) in both saturated and vadose zone, whilst (230Th/232Th) ratio vary from 1.89 to 5.68 (± 0.05) with the highest values for the vadose zone. The 234U--230Th system shows a significant mobility of uranium less than 300 000 years ago within the aquifer. We are curently analysing water samples which will provide us further insights on the migration timescale of uranium-series nuclides in groundwater and will document the processes of groundwater/carbonate interaction.

  1. Method for net decrease of hazardous radioactive nuclear waste materials. [Thermal neutron irradiation of long-lived radionuclides to produce stable nuclides and short-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.; Henyey, F.S.; Hochstim, A.R.

    1988-01-26

    A method of decreasing the amount of relatively long lived fission products in radioactive waste materials in excess of that due to their natural radioactive decay by producing relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the relatively long lived fission products is described comprising the steps of: (a) separating the fission products into at least (1) physically separate groups, and (2) relatively short lived fission product radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (b) storing the relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (c) exposing at least the groups containing Kr/sup 85/, Sr/sup 90/, Zr/sup 93/, Tc/sup 99/, Pd/sup 107/, I/sup 129/, Cs/sup 135/, Sm/sup 151/ + Eu, and actinides, to a high thermal neutron flux for separate, different predetermined periods of time selected in accordance with the long lived fission product nuclide in the corresponding group for inducing predetermined transformations of the relatively long lived fission product nuclides to produce relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (d) removing each exposed group containing the produced relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the high thermal neutron flux; (e) separating the removed group into (1) the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides, and (2) a plurality of further groups having long lived fission product nuclides respectively corresponding to at least some of the long lived fission product nuclides or the groups of step (a); (f) storing the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (g) joining at least one of the further groups to at least one of the groups of step (a) having a corresponding long lived fission product nuclide.

  2. Application effect of TruScreen system in cervical cancer screening%TruScreen系统在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩; 王金声; 康媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of TruScreen (TS) system as applied in cervical cancer screening. Method 368 patients were included in the retrospective analysis, and were randomized into TS group or TCT group, with 184 cases in each. The TS group was tested with TS detection, while the TCT group was administered with Thin Prep cytology test (TCT), and the effect of the two tests were compared with histopathology as the diagnostic standard. Result The detection sensitivity, specificity and the positive rate of the TS and TCT group were 93.2%and 100%, 76.0%and 75.0%, 64.7% and 55.7%, respectively. Conclusion TS detection is as good as TCT detection in cervical cancer screening, which is clinically applicable.%目的:探讨宫颈癌筛查系统TruScreen(TS)在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果。方法回顾性分析368例检查者,分为TS检测组和TCT检测组,每组184例,TS检测组行TS检测,TCT检测组行液基薄层细胞学(TCT)检测,以组织病理学为诊断标准,比较TS与TCT检查在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果。结果 TS检测组与TCT检测组检测敏感度分别为93.2%、100%,特异度分别为76.0%、75.0%,阳性符合率分别为64.7%、55.7%。结论 TS检测与TCT检测在宫颈癌筛查中具有相似的检测效果,值得临床推广和运用。

  3. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  4. Alpha and gamma spectrometry for natural radioactive nuclides around uranium mines and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.M.; Tome, F.V.; Bejarano, J.D.; Aparicio, A.G. (Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Concentration of uranium and [sup 234]U/[sup 238]U and [sup 235]U/[sup 238]U activity ratios were studied in water samples taken in the neighbourhood of two uranium mines ('El Lobo' and 'El Pedregal', Badajoz, Spain), and around two nuclear power plants and their cooling reservoirs (the Central Nuclear de Almaraz, which is working today, and the Central Nuclear de Valdecaballeros, which is in the construction phase), using alpha spectrometry with semiconductor detectors. The Valdecaballeros data were taken to check for comparison with those of the Central Nuclear de Almaraz and with future values after the start of operation. Measurements were also made of all soluble gamma emitting nuclides using a shielded coaxial high purity germanium detector. The data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the changes in the concentrations and in the [sup 234]U/[sup 238]U activity ratios in surface waters are principally dilution and leaching. (author).

  5. CosmoCalc: An Excel add-in for cosmogenic nuclide calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2007-08-01

    As dating methods using Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides (TCN) become more popular, the need arises for a general-purpose and easy-to-use data reduction software. The CosmoCalc Excel add-in calculates TCN production rate scaling factors (using Lal, Stone, Dunai, and Desilets methods); topographic, snow, and self-shielding factors; and exposure ages, erosion rates, and burial ages and visualizes the results on banana-style plots. It uses an internally consistent TCN production equation that is based on the quadruple exponential approach of Granger and Smith (2000). CosmoCalc was designed to be as user-friendly as possible. Although the user interface is extremely simple, the program is also very flexible, and nearly all default parameter values can be changed. To facilitate the comparison of different scaling factors, a set of converter tools is provided, allowing the user to easily convert cut-off rigidities to magnetic inclinations, elevations to atmospheric depths, and so forth. Because it is important to use a consistent set of scaling factors for the sample measurements and the production rate calibration sites, CosmoCalc defines the production rates implicitly, as a function of the original TCN concentrations of the calibration site. The program is best suited for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 21Ne calculations, although basic functionality for 36Cl and 14C is also provided. CosmoCalc can be downloaded along with a set of test data from http://cosmocalc.googlepages.com.

  6. β-decay studies of nuclides in the ^100Sn region at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Giuseppe; Amthor, Alan; Baumann, Thomas; Bazin, Daniel; Becerril, Ana; Crawford, Heather; Estrade, Alfredo; Gade, Alexandra; Ginter, Thomas; Guess, Carol; Hausmann, Mark; Hitt, Wes; Mantica, Paul; Matos, Milan; Meharchand, Rianon; Minamisono, Kei; Montes, Fernando; Perdikakis, Giorgios; Pereira, Jorque; Pinter, Jill; Portillo, Mauritio; Schatz, Hendrik

    2008-10-01

    β-decay nuclides in the immediate neighborhood of ^100Sn, were studied at NSCL using the β-Counting system (BCS) and the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA). The nuclei of interest were implanted into the BCS double-sided silicon strip detector and properties from both implantations and the subsequent β-decays were recorded on an event-by-event basis, allowing for the direct observation of the half-lives and the β-delayed proton emission branching ratios. The BCS also contains a stack of Si detectors and a Ge planar detector downstream of the implantation detector to measure the total energy of the emitted beta particles, and hence the β-decay end-point energy. The properties of those nuclei are not only relevant for rp-process calculations but also are essential to understand the structure of the single particle states far from the line of stability, providing stringent tests of nuclear models in this region.

  7. Boiling water reactors with Uranium-Plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 1: Accuracy of the nuclide concentrations calculated by CASMO-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). The tools that are available to perform a modeling in the Department of Reactor Physics in Chalmers are CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik of America. These CMS (Core Management System) programs have been extensively compared with both measurements and reference codes. Nevertheless some data are proprietary in particular the comparison of the calculated nuclide concentrations versus experiments (because of the cost of this kind of experimental study). This is why this report describes such a comparative investigation carried out with a General Electric 7x7 BWR bundle. Unfortunately, since some core history parameters were unknown, a lot of hypotheses have been adopted. This invokes sometimes a significant discrepancy in the results without being able to determine the origin of the differences between calculations and experiments. Yet one can assess that, except for four nuclides - Plutonium-238, Curium-243, Curium-244 and Cesium-135 - for which the approximate power history (history effect) can be invoked, the accuracy of the calculated nuclide concentrations is rather good if one takes the numerous approximations into account.

  8. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  9. Development of continuous monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, G. I.; Kong, G. N.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Continuous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides was designed conceptually while keeping the optimization and the automation in mind. The conincidence MCA was designed to maintain, repair and upgrade with ease. DSP was adopted to realize hardware function using software and to miniaturize the coincidence Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The MCA system showed 99% background rejection rate, and was applied well to gamma-ray system using {sup 60}C0. An algorithm using least square method was developed for simultaneous radioassay of multiple beta-ray nuclides. The algorithm was tested using the simulation and was applied to experimental data. The results show that the algorithm is suitable to continous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides.

  10. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian meteorites ALHA 77005, Lafayette and Zagami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, T.; Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie; Kubik, P.W. [PSI c/o Institute of Particle Physics, HPK, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Knie, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.; Ott, U. [MPI fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie

    2004-07-01

    The availability of effective physical models for the calculation of production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites allows an exact analysis of the irradiation history of meteorites. The relative errors of calculated production rates lay below 10%. At present, concentration ratios of cosmogenic nuclides can be calculated even with errors of less than 3%. The model used in this work calculates the part of the nuclide production which comes from the interaction of the galactic cosmic radiation with the meteoroid matter. For this reason any other additional production is easily identifiable. Such overproductions are basically caused by two phenomena: complex irradiation histories and the solar cosmic radiation (SCR-effect). In this work the SCR-effect for the cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 53}Mn is demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Global sediment production from in-situ cosmogenic nuclides in large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedke, H.; Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Gaillardet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The worlds 30 largest rivers represent half of the total runoff to the ocean and thus integrate the fluxes of Earth surface weathering and erosion over a large portion of global tectonic, geomorphic, and climatic zones. In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 26Al) in detrital quartz sand can be used to constrain the mean millennial-scale denudation of these large basins. Yet cosmogenic nuclides have mostly been applied to small and intermediate size basins of significant relief. One reason is that in these settings, lowland sediment storage and burial are short compared to the half life of the nuclide (e.g. 1.4 Myr for 10Be). However, if sediment storage is long compared to the half-life, paired nuclides (e.g. 26Al/10Be), through their differential decay, allow to assess the duration of sediment transfer and burial ages from source to sink[1]. Here we present a new dataset of cosmogenic nuclides from 60 large rivers that integrate over 30% of Earth's terrestrial surface. 26Al/10Be ratios of around 6 to 7.5 for most rivers reveal burial durations shorter than the nuclides' decay time scales, indicating high source-sink connectivity. In slowly-eroding basins such as the tectonically quiescent Australian Murray-Darling or the central African Okavango and Congo rivers, 26Al/10Be ratios of millennial-scale sediment fluxes to global source areas provides an estimate of the global sediment flux. The comparison with estimates of modern sediment fluxes from river load gauging offers to deciphering the controls of sediment generation versus sediment transport across large basins. [1] Wittmann and von Blanckenburg (2016), Earth Science Reviews, 159,118-141.

  12. Muscle activity during endotracheal intubation using 4 laryngoscopes (Macintosh laryngoscope, Intubrite, TruView Evo2 and King Vision – A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gaszyński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endotracheal intubation requires mental activity and no less important physical activity from the anesthesiologist, so ergonomics of used devices is important. The aim of our study has been to compare 4 laryngoscopes regarding an operator’s activity of selected muscles of the upper limb, an operator’s satisfaction with used devices and an operator’s fatigue during intubation attempts. Material and Methods: The study included 13 anesthesiologists of similar seniority. To measure muscle activity MyoPlus 2 with 2-channel surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG test device was used. Participant’s satisfaction with studied devices was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. An operator’s fatigue during intubation efforts was evaluated by means of the modified Borg’s scale. Results: The highest activity of all the studied muscles was observed for the Intubrite laryngoscope, followed by the Mackintosh, TruView Evo2 and the lowest one – for the King Vision video laryngoscope. A significant statistical difference was observed for the King Vision and the rest of laryngoscopes (p 0.05. The shortest time of intubation was achieved using the standard Macintosh blade laryngoscope. The highest satisfaction was noted for the King Vision video laryngoscope, and the lowest for – the TruView Evo2. The Intubrite was the most demanding in terms of workload, in the opinion of the participants’, and the least demanding was the King Vision video laryngoscope. Conclusions: Muscle activity, namely the force used for intubation, is the smallest when the King Vision video laryngoscope is used with the highest satisfaction and lowest workload, and the highest muscle activity was proven for the Intubrite laryngoscope with the highest workload. Med Pr 2016;67(2:155–162

  13. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  14. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, H.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. (Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems)

    1993-01-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  15. Vitamin D receptor gene Tru9T polymorphism and risk for incidental sporadic colorectal adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ling Gong; Da-Wen Xie; Zong-Lin Deng; Roberd M Bostick; Xi-Jiang Miao; Jin-Hui Zhang; Zhi-Hong Gong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recent laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D is a potential agent for colorectal cancer prevention. Its function is partially mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was polymorphism (Tru9I) in the VDR intron 8 region is associated with risk for colorectal adenoma in a colonoscopy-based case-control study.METHODS: Genotyping for a total of 391 subjects was carried out through PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism.were associated with decreased risk for adenoma (OR,0.71; 95%CI, 0.40-1.25). The inverse association was more pronounced for multiple adenomas and adenomas that were larger had moderate or greater dysplasia, or were sessile: the odds ratios (ORs) were, 0.51 (95%CI,0.21-1.24), 0.37 (95%CI, 0.11-1.28), 0.68 (95%CI, 0.33-1.41), and 0.36 (95%CI, 0.13-0.97) respectively. In joint/combined analyses, inverse associations were more obvious were younger (OR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.26-1.37), women (OR,0.38; 95%CI, 0.17-0.88), did not smoke (OR, 0.39; 95%CI,0.13-1.23), or took NSAID (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.12-1.25),but no evidence existed for interactions with calcium or vitamin D intake.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the VDR Tru9Ipolymorphism may be associated with lower risk for colorectal adenoma, particularly in interaction with various risk factors, but not with calcium or vitamin D.

  16. Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in Neogene rivers of the Great Plains reveal the evolution of fluvial storage and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Hugh; Stuart, Fin; McCann, Louise; Tao, Zui

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of the duration of near surface residence of sediment grains from the stratigraphic record has the potential to quantitatively reconstruct processes such as stratal condensation, sediment recycling and the exposure histories of unconformities. Geomorphological measurements of dates and rates of surfaces and erosion respectively has enabled significant advances in understanding, however, the radiogenic half life of typical cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be and 26Al means they are not suitable for the stratigraphic record. Instead, we have applied the stable cosmogenic nuclide of 21Ne to quartz-rich sediment to quantify the routing history of the river systems that have drained the southern Rockies of Wyoming and Colorado during Neogene times. The Neogene sediments of Nebraska record fluvial systems of the Great Plains that flow from the Rockies towards the east and into the Mississippi catchment. This succession is climate change. As part of an evaluation of the application of 21Ne to the stratigraphic record, we sampled quartzite pebbles from an Upper Miocene, Pliocene and modern river channel of the North Platte approximately 400 km from their mountainous source. The quartzite is derived from a single exposure of the Medicine Bow quartzites in Wyoming, therefore all three intervals recorded the same travel distance from source. Additionally, we know the erosion rate of the Medicine Bow quartzites from detrital 10Be analyses, and we also sampled shielded bedrock samples from the quartzite to evaluate for any non-cosmogenic 21Ne. This means that the concentrations of 21Ne in detrital pebbles >400 km from their source could be corrected for both inherited non-cosmogenic and erosion induced accumulation at source. Therefore, any additional amounts of 21Ne must record storage and exposure during transport down the river systems. Based on 40 analyses of pebbles from these intervals, we are able to demonstrate that approximately half of the pebbles record

  17. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  18. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  19. Isotopic hysteresis in detrital cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rate studies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Crosby, B. T.; Brocard, G. Y.; Belmont, P.

    2013-12-01

    In equilibrium landscapes, the concentration of beryllium-10 (10Be) from fluvially transported material is expected to quantitatively reflect basin-wide denudation rates. No isotopic time-dependent path is considered because the concentrations reflect an integrated measurement over a sufficiently long period of time to be static. However, the responses of landscapes to changing conditions are often addressed with cosmogenic nuclides in transient landscapes to identify and quantify the primary topographic and climatic controls on erosion. With the advent of techniques that allow event-scale measurement of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations over the course of a flood wave, in the case of meteoric 10Be, or over the course of an uplift wave, in the case of in situ-produced 10Be, we can now evaluate the how the isotope changes and what the 'mean' denudation rate from a single time means. Meteoric 10Be concentrations can be extracted from, and measured in, milligram-sized sediment samples. This attribute enables us to measure suspended sediment through a hydrograph. Here, we give a case study in an agricultural setting. The meteoric 10Be concentration in river sediment changes with the source areas of the fine sediment and fluxes of material supplied to the stream. The average concentration from the couplet of the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph can differ from the concentration of the sediment that is preserved in depo-centers. Using traditional in situ-produced 10Be, the timescale of the perturbation must be sufficiently long to change the isotopic composition of the bedload, but also for the landscape to respond to the forcing factor. Here, we give an example from a transient landscape where a wave of uplift moves through the basin and a wave of incision follows in its wake. In this setting, 10Be from detrital quartz is derived from both the incising, adjusting lowland and the unadjusted, relict upland, and the integrated 10Be concentrations still provide a

  20. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-06-10

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  1. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed.

  2. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1981-09-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed.

  3. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  4. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  5. Calculation of Generation Rate of Electron Ion Pairs Ionized by Radioactive Nuclide in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiu-feng; ZHANG; Li-feng; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2015-01-01

    Alpha and beta nuclides are widely employed in industrial production and life for the ability of ionization.Static eliminator,ionization smoke detector,electron capture detector and radioactive lightning rod are some typical examples.Alpha/beta rays produce electrons by ionizing the air,and then the charge is transferred during

  6. Neutron Halo and Nuclear Shell Structure in New Nuclide 31Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ZhongZhou; CHEN BaoQiu; MA ZhongYu; XU GongOu

    2001-01-01

    The ground state properties of new nuclide 31Ne are investigated within the framework of the densitydependent relativistic mean-field theory. One-neutron halo in 31Ne is predicted. Calculations also show that the ground state of31Ne is (3/2)- and it can be used for the testing of the nuclear shell structure near the neutron-drip line.``

  7. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  8. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many

  9. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred [WAI, TRU Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); McMillan, Bill [DOE, Oak Ridge Operations, Bldg. 2714, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated

  10. Numeric determination and validation of neutron induced radioactive nuclide inventories for decommissioning and dismantling of light water reactors; Rechnerische Bestimmung und Validierung von Aktivierungsaktivitaeten fuer die Rueckbau- und Entsorgungsplanung von Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phlippen, Peter W.; Schloemer, Luc; Vallentin, Roger [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany); Palm, Stefan [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The deconstruction of nuclear power plants requires project planning and budgeting both during the project and in advance, as well as the secured provision of financial and human resources. When a facility is free from irradiated fuel, the reactor pressure vessel with the nuclear components as well as the biological shield determine the activity inventory of the facility, which almost exclusively consists of activated radionuclides located in the respective structures. Knowledge of the activity distribution and nuclide vectors of the involved components is of vital importance for deconstruction planning. In this context, the development of a computation procedure is described coupling the Monte Carlo method for the determination of neutron flux densities with a procedure to perform activation calculations for the determination of nuclide vectors. For this purpose, detailed knowledge of the material composition, particularly the trace-element concentrations of nitrogen and cobalt in steel and additionally of europium and caesium in concrete structures, considerably impacts the accuracy of the calculated activities. Extensive validation using data collected from various reactor facilities, such as nuclide activities, neutron flux densities, and neutron and gamma dose rates, demonstrates the reliability of the computed nuclide distributions showing ratios of computed over measured values of typically between 0.9 and 3. The practicality of the developed method as well as the convenient use of the results have already been demonstrated analysing several German BWR and PWR facilities and developing packaging strategies based on the produced results.

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  12. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  14. W-026, transuranic waste restricted waste management (TRU RWM) glovebox operational test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-18

    The TRU Waste/Restricted Waste Management (LLW/PWNP) Glovebox 401 is designed to accept and process waste from the Transuranic Process Glovebox 302. Waste is transferred to the glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagless Transfer Port (DO-07401) on a transfer stand. The stand is removed with a hoist and the operator inspects the waste (with the aid of the Sampling and Treatment Director) to determine a course of action for each item. The waste is separated into compliant and non compliant. One Trip Port DO-07402A is designated as ``Compliant``and One Trip Port DO-07402B is designated as ``Non Compliant``. As the processing (inspection, bar coding, sampling and treatment) of the transferred items takes place, residue is placed in the appropriate One Trip port. The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved for sampling or storage or it`s state altered by treatment, the Operator will track an items location using a portable barcode reader and entry any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolutions (described here) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  15. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  16. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, V.S. E-mail: vlkondra@cdrewu.edu; Rothenberg, S.J.; Petersone, I

    2001-09-11

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP.

  17. A systematization of the half-lives for proton emitter nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Martha M.N.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Medeiros, Emil de L.; Tavares, Odilon A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: nicke@cbpf.br; sbd@cbpf.br; emil@cbpf.br; oaptavares@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been extended to systematize the proton decay half-lives of all existing proton emitter nuclides. These nuclei are far from the beta stability line, near the proton drip line, and only a few experimental data are available. This semiempirical model has been well succeeded for the systematization of alpha decay half-lives, and has predicted for new candidates to alpha emission not yet detected. The purpose of the present extended systematization is to offer a useful tool capable to predict new proton emitter nuclides as well as determine their partial proton emission half-lives with good accuracy. (author)

  18. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  19. The History of Nuclidic Masses and of their Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Audi, G

    2006-01-01

    This paper is centered on some historical aspects of nuclear masses, and their relations to major discoveries. Besides nuclear reactions and decays, the heart of mass measurements lies in mass spectrometry, the early history of which will be reviewed first. I shall then give a short history of the mass unit which has not always been defined as one twelfth of the carbon-12 mass. When combining inertial masses from mass spectrometry with energy differences obtained in reactions and decays, the conversion factor between the two is essential. The history of the evaluation of the nuclear masses (actually atomic masses) is only slightly younger than that of the mass measurements themselves. In their modern form, mass evaluations can be traced back to 1955. Prior to 1955, several tables were established, the oldest one in 1935.

  20. The roles of the essential Asp-48 and highly conserved His-43 elucidated by the pH dependence of the pseudouridine synthase TruB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher S; Spedaliere, Christopher J; Ginter, Joy M; Johnston, Murray V; Mueller, Eugene G

    2005-01-01

    All known pseudouridine synthases have a conserved aspartic acid residue that is essential for catalysis, Asp-48 in Escherichia coli TruB. To probe the role of this residue, inactive D48C TruB was oxidized to generate the sulfinic acid cognate of aspartic acid. The oxidation restored significant but reduced catalytic activity, consistent with the proposed roles of Asp-48 as a nucleophile and general base. The family of pseudouridine synthases including TruB also has a nearly invariant histidine residue, His-43 in the E. coli enzyme. To examine the role of this conserved residue, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate H43Q, H43N, H43A, H43G, and H43F TruB. Except for phenylalanine, the substitutions seriously impaired the enzyme, but all of the altered TruB retained significant activity. To examine the roles of Asp-48 and His-43 more fully, the pH dependences of wild-type, oxidized D48C, and H43A TruB were determined. The wild-type enzyme displays a typical bell-shaped profile. With oxidized D48C TruB, logk(cat) varies linearly with pH, suggesting the participation of specific rather than general base catalysis. Substitution of His-43 perturbs the pH profile, but it remains bell-shaped. The ascending limb of the pH profile is assigned to Asp-48, and the descending limb is tentatively ascribed to an active site tyrosine residue, the bound substrate uridine, or the bound product pseudouridine.

  1. Unusual nuclide concentrations in air after the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of 1.0-year {sup 106}Ru, 2.8-year {sup 125}Sb, 2.1-year {sup 134}Cs, and 30-year {sup 137}Cs were measured for a total of 39 air filter samples collected at Chico, California, and Reno, Nevada, during the month of May 1986. Radioactive debris in which {sup 106}Ru, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 134}Cs were enriched relative to {sup 137}Cs reached the west coast of the United States during the first week of May 1986. The air mass that carried this debris seems to have circled the world and reached the west coast for the second time 3 weeks later during the last week of May 1986. Results obtained in this study indicate that the initial release of nuclear debris from the Chernobyl reactor took place in a manner similar to the atmospheric injection of radionuclides from a nuclear weapon's test. (orig.).

  2. 肾移植术后Tru-cut针活检、多谱勒超声检查和同位素肾血流动态观察的应用价值%Surveillance of renal allograft by combined use of Tru-cut needle, CDFI and SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓鸣; 薛武军; 田普训; 丁小明; 燕航; 侯军; 冯新顺

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of Tru-cut needle examination (Tru-cut), colour Dopple flow image (CDFI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the combined use of them in the surveillane of 30 renal allognaft.Methods Thirty patients with renal transplantation were randomly selected. The diagnostic results from Tru-cut biopsy, CDFI, SPECT and the combined use of them respectively were compared with each other in 30 renal transplantation recipients. Results The diagnostic accuracy was 82% for Tru-cut, 73% for CDFI, 79% for SPECT and 91% for the combined use of them (P<0.05).Conclusions The combined use of Tru-cut, CDFI and SPECT could be used as a routine detecting means.%目的评估Tru-cut针活检、多谱勒超声检查(CDFI)、同位素肾血流动态观察(SPECT)在肾移植术后的应用价值。方法随机选择30例肾移植患者,将单纯Tru-cut针活检、CDFI以及SPECT检测所得结论作对比。结果三种方式诊断准确率依次分别是82%、73%、79%。结论 Tru-cut针活检、CDFI和SPECT检查,均可作为肾移植术后的常规检测手段,三种方法联合使用,在临床上有较高的应用价值。

  3. Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-reads empower de novo assembly and resolve complex, highly-repetitive transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Rajiv C; Taylor, Ryan W; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Kelley, Joanna L; Kertesz, Michael; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Petrov, Dmitri A; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized genomic analysis, including the de novo assembly of whole genomes. Nevertheless, assembly of complex genomes remains challenging, in part due to the presence of dispersed repeats which introduce ambiguity during genome reconstruction. Transposable elements (TEs) can be particularly problematic, especially for TE families exhibiting high sequence identity, high copy number, or complex genomic arrangements. While TEs strongly affect genome function and evolution, most current de novo assembly approaches cannot resolve long, identical, and abundant families of TEs. Here, we applied a novel Illumina technology called TruSeq synthetic long-reads, which are generated through highly-parallel library preparation and local assembly of short read data and which achieve lengths of 1.5-18.5 Kbp with an extremely low error rate ([Formula: see text]0.03% per base). To test the utility of this technology, we sequenced and assembled the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (reference genome strain y; cn, bw, sp) achieving an N50 contig size of 69.7 Kbp and covering 96.9% of the euchromatic chromosome arms of the current reference genome. TruSeq synthetic long-read technology enables placement of individual TE copies in their proper genomic locations as well as accurate reconstruction of TE sequences. We entirely recovered and accurately placed 4,229 (77.8%) of the 5,434 annotated transposable elements with perfect identity to the current reference genome. As TEs are ubiquitous features of genomes of many species, TruSeq synthetic long-reads, and likely other methods that generate long-reads, offer a powerful approach to improve de novo assemblies of whole genomes.

  4. The handling of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine by the pseudouridine synthase TruA and its consistency with the handling of the same probe by the pseudouridine synthases TruB and RluA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Marguerite K; Miracco, Edward J; Chen, Junjun; Xie, Yizhou; Mueller, Eugene G

    2011-01-25

    RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (F(5)U) had previously been used to examine the mechanism of the pseudouridine synthase TruA, formerly known as pseudouridine synthase I [Gu et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 14270-14275]. From that work, it was reasonably concluded that the pseudouridine synthases proceed via a mechanism involving a Michael addition by an active site aspartic acid residue to the pyrimidine ring of uridine or F(5)U. Those conclusions rested on the assumption that the hydrate of F(5)U was obtained after digestion of the product RNA and that hydration resulted from hydrolysis of the ester intermediate between the aspartic acid residue and F(5)U. As reported here, (18)O labeling definitively demonstrates that ester hydrolysis does not give rise to the observed hydrated product and that digestion generates not the expected mononucleoside product but rather a dinucleotide between a hydrated isomer of F(5)U and the following nucleoside in RNA. The discovery that digestion products are dinucleotides accounts for the previously puzzling differences in the isolated products obtained following the action of the pseudouridine synthases TruB and RluA on F(5)U in RNA.

  5. Study on immobilization and migration of nuclide u in superficial soil of uranium tailings pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Zhou, Shukui

    2017-05-01

    The uranium tailings in southern China was used as the object of study to study the fixation and migration characteristics of nuclide U in shallow tailings. The results showed that the precipitation of tailings in the tailings soil was not linearly related to the depth during the acid rain leaching process. Tailings soil in the role of fixatives, when the lime as a fixative, the tailings of different soil uranium in 20 days after the re-precipitation. However, when lime and ammonium phosphate were used as fixing agents, the cumulative precipitation of U had a significant effect, and the migration of uranium was inhibited.

  6. Electron capture of nuclides 52,53,54,55,56Fe in magnetars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of relativity in superstrong magnetic fields (SMFs),we have carried out an estimation on electron capture (EC) rates of nuclides 52,53,54,55,56Fe in the SMFs in magnetars.The rates of change of electronic fraction (RCEF) in the EC process are also discussed.The results show that the EC rates increase greatly and even exceeds by 4 orders of magnitude (e.g.54Fe,55Fe and 56Fe) in SMF.On the contrary,the RCEF decreases largely and even exceeds by 5 orders of magnitude in the SMF.

  7. Comparison of the use of McCoy and TruView EVO2 laryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiju Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The cervical spine has to be stabilized in patients with suspected cervical spine injury during laryngoscopy and intubation by manual in-line axial stabilization. This has the propensity to increase the difficulty of intubation. An attempt has been made to compare TruView EVO2 and McCoy with cervical spine immobilization, which will aid the clinician in choosing an appropriate device for securing the airway with an endotracheal tube (ETT in the clinical scenario of trauma. Aims: To compare the effectiveness of TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilization using manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilization. Settings and design: K. M. C. Hospital, Mangalore, This was a randomized control clinical trial. Methods: Sixty adult patients of either sex of ASA physical status 1 and 2 who were scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were studied. Comparison of intubation difficulty score (IDS, hemodynamic response, Cormack and Lehane grade, duration of the tracheal intubation and rate of successful placement of the ETT in the trachea between TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes was performed. Results: The results demonstrated that TruView has a statistically significant less IDS of 0.33 compared with an IDS of 1.2 for McCoy. TruView also had a better Cormack and Lehane glottic view (CL 1 of 77% versus 40% and less hemodynamic response. Conclusions: The TruView blade is a useful option for tracheal intubation in patients with suspected cervical spine injury.

  8. X-ray structure of tRNA pseudouridine synthase TruD reveals an inserted domain with a novel fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Ulrika B; Nordlund, Pär; Hallberg, B Martin

    2004-05-01

    Pseudouridine synthases catalyse the isomerisation of uridine to pseudouridine in structural RNA. The pseudouridine synthase TruD, that modifies U13 in tRNA, belongs to a recently identified and large family of pseudouridine synthases present in all kingdoms of life. We report here the crystal structure of Escherichia coli TruD at 2.0 A resolution. The structure reveals an overall V-shaped molecule with an RNA-binding cleft formed between two domains: a catalytic domain and an insertion domain. The catalytic domain has a fold similar to that of the catalytic domains of previously characterised pseudouridine synthases, whereas the insertion domain displays a novel fold.

  9. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  10. Transmutation technology development; a comparative study on the fuel loading flexibility between critical and subcritical reactors for TRU transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyung; Lee, J. K.; Han, C. Y.; Shin, C. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, K. H. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the nuclear characteristics between the critical and the subcritical cores was performed, focused on the fuel loading flexibility as a preliminary study to set up the optimal concept for TRU transmutation. This study made efforts to compare the variation tendency of neutron spectrum and dynamics parameters against various recovery factors of uranium and lanthanides such as the fuel temperature coefficient, the coolant temperature coefficient, the effective delayed neutron fraction, and the effective neutron generation time. The intrinsic differences in nuclear characteristics due to the different fuel loading concentration between both cores were analyzed. At the same time, effects of external neutron source on the subcritical core characteristics and the role of neutron absorber in critical reactors were evaluated. From the analyses of results, some useful information were generated, which can be employed to design optimization study aiming at the more flexibility through minimization of the nuclear characteristics sensitivity to fuel composition of TRU transmutation reactor. Finally, comparative conclusions in the fuel loading flexibility were derived from the analysis results performed in this study, based on the difference in the nuclear characteristics sensitivity to the fuel composition between both concepts. 19 refs., 39 figs., 45 tabs. (Author)

  11. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A; Rondena, M; Bertolini, G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US) guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses.

  12. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A.; Rondena, M.; Bertolini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US) guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses. PMID:27540512

  13. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cirla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses.

  14. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. Preliminary scenarios and nuclide transport models for low-and intermediate-level repository system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Kyong Won; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-02-01

    Through the study 11 scenarios with which nuclide release from the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste could be simulated and assessed are selected, based upon FEPs identified. For each scenario, some practical methodologies as well as mathematical models involved in modling of nuclide transport in various media are also proposed. It is considered that such methodologies can play a great role when real repository system is constructed and operated in very near future. Real repository system is anticipated not to be quite different with the repository system postulated through this study. Even though there shows very complicated features for relevant parameters associated with various phisical-, geohydrological-, and geochemical situation and even human society as well, it is very necessary to propose the methodologies for a quantitative assessment of the performance of the repository in order to use them as a template on the practical point of view of preliminary safety assessment. Mathematical models proposed could be easily adopted by such common computer codes as, for example, MIMOSA and MASCOT-K.

  16. Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2014-01-01

    We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results ...

  17. Cosmogenic nuclide age constraints on Middle Stone Age lithics from Niassa, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Gosse, John C.; Bennett, Tim; Hidy, Alan J.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2012-07-01

    The late phases of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in the East African Rift System (EARS) are known for their evolutionary shifts and association with bottlenecks, transcontinental expansion, and climatic fluctuations. The chronology of MSA sites contemporaneous with these eco-demographic upheavals is uncertain because of the scarcity of datable sites and the poor understanding of their depositional and erosional histories. We apply terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating in a stratigraphic section with a complex exposure history to the study of the Luchamange Beds, a widespread sedimentological unit underlying MSA sites from the shores of Lake Niassa (Mozambican EARS). We use an innovative approach, which may be applicable elsewhere, to calculate their age using a Monte Carlo-based Bayesian model that links depth profiles of 26Al and 10Be, and uses other geomorphic and cosmogenic nuclide age constraints on episodic erosion and burial. The age of the basal Luchamange Beds is 42 + 77/-15 ka, and the MSA occupation on top is 29 + 3/-11 ka. These dates suggest temporal overlap between MSA and the earliest Later Stone Age and diversity in cultural manifestations at the end of the MSA.

  18. HALF-LIVES OF LONG-LIVED A-DECAY, B-DECAY, BB-DECAY AND SPONTANEOUS FISSION NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    In his review of radionuclides for dating purposes, Roth noted that there were a large number of nuclides, normally considered ''stable'' but which are radioactive with a very long half-life. Roth suggested that I review the data on the half-life values of these long-lived nuclides for a discussion session at the next meeting. These half-life values for long-lived nuclides include those due to various decay modes, {alpha}-decay, {beta}-decay, electron capture decay, {beta}{beta}-decay and spontaneous fission decay. This report is preliminary but will provide a quick overview of the extensive table of data on the recommendations from that review.

  19. Decay Study for the very Neutron-Rich Sn Nuclides, $^{135-140}$Sn Separated by Selective Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS378 %title\\\\ \\\\ In this investigation, we wish to take advantage of chemically selective laser ionization to separate the very-neutron-rich Sn nuclides and determine their half-lives and delayed-neutron branches (P$_{n}$) using the Mainz $^{3}$He-delayed neutron spectrometer and close-geometry $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy system. The $\\beta$-decay rates are dependent on a number of nuclear structure factors that may not be well described by models of nuclear structure developed for nuclides near stability. Determination of these decay properties will provide direct experimental data for r-process calculations and test the large number of models of nuclear structure for very-neutron rich Sn nuclides now in print.

  20. Measuring the noble metal and iodine composition of extracted noble metal phase from spent nuclear fuel using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R I; Dayman, K J; Landsberger, S; Biegalski, S R; Soderquist, C Z; Casella, A J; Brady Raap, M C; Schwantes, J M

    2015-04-01

    Masses of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and radionuclides are identified and the masses quantified using neutron activation analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared.

  1. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al....... The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i...... simulates numerous different landscape scenarios based on these four parameters and zooms in on the most plausible combination of model parameters. We apply the MCMC-model to the concentrations of 10Be and 26Al measured in previously published studies from Upernavik, Uummannaq and Sisimiut and quantify...

  2. Recent results from the MISTRAL mass measurement program at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, M D; Audi, G; Bollen, G; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Gaulard, C; Henry, S; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C; Toader, C F; Vieira, N

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment (Mass measurements at ISOLDE with a Transmission and Radiofrequency spectrometer on-Line), conceived for very short-lived nuclides, has reached the end of its commissioning phase. Installed in 1997, results have been obtained consistent with all aspects of the projected spectrometer performance: nuclides with half-lives as short as 30 ms have been measured and accuracies of $\\pm$0.4 have been achieved, despite the presence of a systematic shift and difficulties with isobaric contamination. Masses of several nuclides, including $^{25-26}\\!$Ne and $^{32}$Mg that forms the famous island of inversion around N=20, have been significantly improved.

  3. Akonni TruTip(®) and Qiagen(®) methods for extraction of fetal circulating DNA--evaluation by real-time and digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca C; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Stokes, Tinsley; Lopez, David; Hyman, Lynn; Freed, Michelle; Belgrader, Phil; Harvey, Jeanne; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA present in maternal plasma (extraction processes are required for successful downstream detection applications in non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing. In this study, two extraction methods using similar chemistries but different workflows were compared for isolation efficiency and percent fetal DNA recovery. The Akonni Biosystems TruTip technology uses a binding matrix embedded in a pipette tip; the Circulating Nucleic Acids Kit from Qiagen employs a spin column approach. The TruTip method adds an extra step to decrease the recovery of DNA fragments larger than 600 bp from the sample to yield an overall higher percentage of smaller molecular weight DNA, effectively enriching for fetal DNA. In this evaluation, three separate extraction comparison studies were performed--a dilution series of fragmented DNA in plasma, a set of clinical maternal samples, and a blood collection tube time point study of maternal samples. Both extraction methods were found to efficiently extract small fragment DNA from large volumes of plasma. In the amended samples, the TruTip extraction method was ~15% less efficient with overall DNA recovery, but yielded an 87% increase in % fetal DNA relative to the Qiagen method. The average percent increase of fetal DNA of TruTip extracted samples compared to the Qiagen method was 55% for all sets of blinded clinical samples. A study comparing extraction efficiencies from whole blood samples incubated up to 48 hours prior to processing into plasma resulted in more consistent % fetal DNA recoveries using TruTip. The extracted products were tested on two detection platforms, quantitative real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, and yielded similar results for both extraction methods.

  4. Akonni TruTip® and Qiagen® Methods for Extraction of Fetal Circulating DNA - Evaluation by Real-Time and Digital PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca C.; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Stokes, Tinsley; Lopez, David; Hyman, Lynn; Freed, Michelle; Belgrader, Phil; Harvey, Jeanne; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA present in maternal plasma (extraction processes are required for successful downstream detection applications in non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing. In this study, two extraction methods using similar chemistries but different workflows were compared for isolation efficiency and percent fetal DNA recovery. The Akonni Biosystems TruTip technology uses a binding matrix embedded in a pipette tip; the Circulating Nucleic Acids Kit from Qiagen employs a spin column approach. The TruTip method adds an extra step to decrease the recovery of DNA fragments larger than 600 bp from the sample to yield an overall higher percentage of smaller molecular weight DNA, effectively enriching for fetal DNA. In this evaluation, three separate extraction comparison studies were performed - a dilution series of fragmented DNA in plasma, a set of clinical maternal samples, and a blood collection tube time point study of maternal samples. Both extraction methods were found to efficiently extract small fragment DNA from large volumes of plasma. In the amended samples, the TruTip extraction method was ~15% less efficient with overall DNA recovery, but yielded an 87% increase in % fetal DNA relative to the Qiagen method. The average percent increase of fetal DNA of TruTip extracted samples compared to the Qiagen method was 55% for all sets of blinded clinical samples. A study comparing extraction efficiencies from whole blood samples incubated up to 48 hours prior to processing into plasma resulted in more consistent % fetal DNA recoveries using TruTip. The extracted products were tested on two detection platforms, quantitative real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, and yielded similar results for both extraction methods. PMID:23936545

  5. Study of CdMoO4 crystal for a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with 116Cd and 100Mo nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming-Xuan; Zhang, Yun-Long; Peng, Hai-Ping; Xu, Zi-Zong; Wang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-04-01

    The scintillation properties of a CdMoO4 crystal have been investigated experimentally. The fluorescence yields and decay times measured from 22 K to 300 K demonstrate that CdMoO4 crystal is a good candidate for an absorber for a bolometer readout, for both heat and scintillation signals. The results from Monte Carlo studies, taking the backgrounds from 2ν2β of and internal trace nuclides 214Bi and 208Tl into account, show that the expected sensitivity of a CdMoO4 bolometer for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments with an exposure of 100 kg·years is one order of magnitude higher than those of the current sets of the of and Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275199)

  6. Fast-track, ambulatory ultrasound-guided Tru-Cut liver biopsy is feasible and cost-efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Lorentzen, Torben; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most institutions perform percutaneous liver biopsy with a post-biopsy patient observation period lasting up to eight hours, which is resource-demanding. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of liver biopsy performed in a fast-track set-up with an only one-hour post-biopsy...... observation time. METHODS: Patients referred to our institution underwent fast-track ultrasound-guided 18-gauge Tru-Cut liver biopsy procedures. Each single biopsy procedure was followed by a post-procedure observational period of one hour and an additional focused assessment with sonography for trauma before...... patient discharge. All patients underwent a clinical follow-up programme at revisit in order to register any delayed onset of major complications. RESULTS: Out of 200 completed biopsy procedures, two major complications were registered post biopsy and they were treated appropriately. All patients were...

  7. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, H.M. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. [Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems

    1993-04-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  8. Precipitation Results for AN-102: A Statistically Designed Approach to Evaluate Filterability and Sr/TRU Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosencrance, S.W.; Dewberry, R.A.; DiPrete, D.P.; Edwards, T.B.; Emory, S.J.; Nash, C.A.; Smith, S.C.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-01-04

    The work reported in this document is a series of statistically designed tests to examine the relationship between the four responses of interest and five precipitation parameters affiliated with the new precipitation scheme. The four responses are precipitate filterability, strontium decontamination, americium decontamination, and plutonium decontamination. The precipitation parameters were the initial sodium concentration of the waste, the initial hydroxide level of the waste, and the amounts of calcium, strontium, and permanganate introduced. Experiments were also performed to evaluate the impact of other process parameters such as temperature, timing of permanganate addition, and presence of entrained solids on the proposed precipitation scheme. The objective of these experiments was to determine the primary variables that influence filterability, Sr-90 decontamination, and TRU decontamination using actual 241-AN-102 waste.

  9. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code.

  10. Early Acheulean technology in the Rietputs Formation, South Africa, dated with cosmogenic nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Ryan J; Granger, Darryl E; Kuman, Kathleen; Partridge, Timothy C

    2009-02-01

    An absolute dating technique based on the build-up and decay of (26)Al and (10)Be in the mineral quartz provides crucial evidence regarding early Acheulean hominid distribution in South Africa. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of an ancient alluvial deposit of the Vaal River (Rietputs Formation) in the western interior of South Africa shows that coarse gravel and sand aggradation there occurred ca 1.57+/-0.22Ma, with individual ages of samples ranging from 1.89+/-0.19 to 1.34+/-0.22Ma. This was followed by aggradation of laminated and cross-bedded fine alluvium at ca 1.26+/-0.10Ma. The Rietputs Formation provides an ideal situation for the use of the cosmogenic nuclide burial dating method, as samples could be obtained from deep mining pits at depths ranging from 7 to 16 meters. Individual dates provide only a minimum age for the stone tool technology preserved within the deposits. Each assemblage represents a time averaged collection. Bifacial tools distributed throughout the coarse gravel and sand unit can be assigned to an early phase of the Acheulean. This is the first absolute radiometric dated evidence for early Acheulean artefacts in South Africa that have been found outside of the early hominid sites of the Gauteng Province. These absolute dates also indicate that handaxe-using hominids inhabited southern Africa as early as their counterparts in East Africa. The simultaneous appearance of the Acheulean in different parts of the continent implies relatively rapid technology development and the widespread use of large cutting tools in the African continent by ca 1.6Ma.

  11. Progress of Radioactive Waste Treatment Technology:Migration Research Progress of Key Nuclides under Simulated Disposal Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Duo; LONG; Hao-qi; JIANG; Tao; SONG; Zhi-xin; CHEN; Xi; BAO; Liang-jin; WANG; Bo

    2015-01-01

    Important parameters used in safety evaluation of HLW disposal repository could be provided through migration study of key nuclides under the simulated disposal conditions which is one of the key contents of deep geological disposal research of HLW.In order to clarify migration mechanism and calculate migration

  12. Preparation of composites immobilizing highly selective adsorbents and their application to the separation of nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Onodera, Yoshio

    2001-03-01

    Radionuclides in high-level liquid waste are classified into four groups such as transuranic elements (TRU) group, technetium - platinum group, strontium - cesium group, and others group. Cesium showed high adsorption selectivity to AMP [(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}12MoO{sub 3}3H{sub 2}O], AWP [(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}12WO{sub 3}3H{sub 2}O], and KNiFC(K{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}]nH{sub 2}O). These inorganic ion exchangers with selectivity of cesium are possible to be supported by porous materials and to be immobilized by polymer. Some examples (AMP/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AMP/alginate, and KNiFC/zeolite) are shown in this paper. KCuFC/alginate can adsorb Pd into KCuFC, Ru into alginate, but can not adsorb Rh. Accordingly, platinum metals (Pd, Ru and Rh) are separated by it. Pd, Ru and Rh in their mixed solution are mutually separated by using Cyanex 302/alginate and chromatography. Eu and Am adsorbed by Cyanex 301-alginate acid gel microcapsule were separated by gradient elution. Then, 98.8% of Eu and 91.3% of Am were eluted at pH 2 and pH 1, respectively. (S.Y.)

  13. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  14. A Physics Case for SHIPTRAP: Measuring the Masses of Transuranium Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, J., E-mail: J.Dilling@gsi.de; Ackermann, D.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Muenzenberg, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Patyk, Z. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (Poland); Quint, W.; Rodriguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiczewski, A. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (Poland); Toader, C.; Weber, C. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    SHIPTRAP will allow direct measurement of masses of transuranium nuclides. The method of choice is a Penning trap spectrometer coupled to the SHIP (Separator for Heavy Ion Products) facility at GSI, Darmstadt. In this paper the impact of the SHIPTRAP facility, with its capability of systematic mass measurements with high precision, is explored. Rather few masses of nuclides above uranium are presently known experimentally. In the region of nuclides above Z=100 no ground state masses were measured directly. SHIPTRAP will play an important role in systematically mapping out this area. Possible candidates for direct mass measurements, even with small or very small production cross sections, are presented.

  15. Transfer time and source tracing in the soil - water- -plant system deciphered by the U-and Th-series short-lived nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.; Chabaux, F.

    2011-12-01

    Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) and (228Th), as well as the long-lived (232Th), were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section, i.e.: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. However, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. Both primary and secondary phases show to contribute to the dissolved radium. However, depending on the season, the tree leaves degradation also produces up to 70% of dissolved radium. Immobilization of a large part of this radium occurs

  16. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Maarten; Lavé, Jérôme; France-Lanord, Christian; Christl, Marcus; Bourlès, Didier; Carcaillet, Julien; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer; Rahman, Mustafizur; Bezbaruah, Devojit; Xiaohan, Liu

    2017-08-01

    The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr-1) and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs ˜ 150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa-Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm), an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo-Brahmaputra sediments, provides constraints on the

  17. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  18. Erosion of mountain plateaus along Sognefjord, Norway, constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Linge, Henriette; Jansen, John D.

    2016-04-01

    Norway is famous for its deeply incised, steep-sided fjords, carved out by glacial erosion. The high relief of the fjords stands in contrast to the extensive areas of relatively low relief found between the fjords. The origin and development of these low-relief areas remain debated. The classical interpretation relates them to a Mesozoic peneplanation surface, uplifted to the current high elevation in the early Cenozoic (e.g. Nesje, 1994). The validity of this interpretation has, however, been repeatedly questioned in recent times (e.g. Nielsen et al. 2009, Steer et al. 2012). Recent studies point instead to a significant impact of glacial and periglacial erosion processes on the long-term development of the low-relief surfaces (Egholm et al. 2015). Here, we present a large new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from the high, flat summit surfaces along a transect from the coast to the inner parts of Sognefjorden in Norway. Our results indicate substantial glacial modification of the sampled low-relief surfaces within the last 50 ka. Close to the coast, at an elevation of around 700 meters, the cosmogenic nuclide signal was reset around the Younger Dryas due to extensive glacial erosion. Regarding the higher surfaces further inland, our results indicate a maximum cosmogenic nuclide inheritance of 20-30 ka prior to the last deglaciation. We do not find any signs of exceptional longevity of the low-relief landscape. In contrast, our results indicate that the low-relief areas were continuously eroded by glacial and periglacial processes in the Quaternary. Nesje & Whillans. Erosion of Sognefjord, Norway. Geomorphology 9(1), 33-45, 1994. Nielsen et al. The evolution of western Scandinavian topography: a review of Neogene uplift versus the ICE (isostasy-climate-erosion) hypothesis. Journal of Geodynamics 47(2), 72-95, 2009. Steer et al. Bimodal Plio-Quaternary glacial erosion of fjords and low-relief surfaces in Scandinavia

  19. Timing of European fluvial terrace formation and incision rates constrained by cosmogenic nuclide dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mirjam; Ehlers, Todd A.; Stor, Tomas; Torrent, Jose; Lobato, Leonardo; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-10-01

    Age constraints of late Cenozoic fluvial terraces are important for addressing surface process questions related to the incision rates of rivers, or tectonic and climate controls on denudation and sedimentation. Unfortunately, absolute age constraints of fluvial terraces are not always possible, and many previous studies have often dated terraces with relative age constraints that do not allow for robust interpretations of incision rates and timing of terrace formation. However, in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides allow absolute age determination, and hence incision rates, of fluvial deposits back to 5 Ma. Here we present, cosmogenic depth profile dating and isochron burial dating of four different river systems in Europe spanning 12° of latitude. We do this to determine river incision rates and spatial variations in the timing of terrace formation. Isochron burial age constraints of four selected terraces from the Vltava river (Czech Republic) range between 1.00 ± 0.21 to 1.99 ± 0.45Ma. An isochron burial age derived for the Allier river (Central France) is 2.00 ± 0.17Ma. Five terrace levels from the Esla river (NW Spain) were dated between 0.08 + 0.04 / - 0.01Ma and 0.59 + 0.13 / - 0.20Ma with depth profile dating. The latter age agrees with an isochron burial age of 0.52 ± 0.20Ma. Two terrace levels from the Guadalquivir river (SW Spain) were dated by depth profile dating to 0.09 + 0.03 / - 0.02Ma and 0.09 + 0.04 / - 0.03Ma. The one terrace level from the Guadalquivir river dated by isochron burial dating resulted in an age of 1.79 ± 0.18Ma. Results indicate that the cosmogenic nuclide-based ages are generally older than ages derived from previous relative age constraints leading to a factor 2-3 lower incision rates than previous work. Furthermore, the timing of terrace formation over this latitudinal range is somewhat obscured by uncertainties associated with dating older terraces and not clearly synchronous with global climate variations.

  20. A Neutronic Analysis of TRU Recycling in PWRs Loaded with MOX-UE Fuel (MOX with U-235 Enriched U Support)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Youinou; S. Bays

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study dealing with the homogeneous recycling of either Pu or Pu+Np or Pu+Np+Am or Pu+Np+Am+Cm in PWRs using MOX-UE fuel, i.e. standard MOX fuel with a U235 enriched uranium support instead of the standard tail uranium (0.25%) for standard MOX fuel. This approach allows to multirecycle Pu or TRU (Pu+MA) as long as U235 is available, by keeping the Pu or TRU content in the fuel constant and at a value ensuring a negative moderator void coefficient (i.e. the loss of the coolant brings imperatively the reactor to a subcritical state). Once this value is determined, the U235 enrichment of the MOX-UE fuel is adjusted in order to reach the target burnup (51 GWd/t in this study).

  1. Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; SONG Yue-Li; TUO Fei; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,according to the regulation of growth and decay of radioactive nuclides produced in reactions,a formula used to calculate the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element is deduced,and it is pointed out that the activation formula given in two references is incorrect.Then,as an example,the so-called total activation cross section in one of the two references is analyzed and the correct results of the cross sections of 182W(n,p)182(m+g)Ta,183W(n,p)183Ta and 206Pb(n,a)203Hg induced by neutrons around 14 MeV calculated with the data given in the literature,the nuclear parameters and some evaluated values are given.Finally,the correct results are compared with other values collected in the literature.

  2. New approaches investigating production rates of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Braucher, Regis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have proved to be valuable tools for environmental and Earth sciences. However, accurate application of this method is only possible, if terrestrial production rates in a certain environment over a certain time period and their depth-dependence within the exposed material are exactly known. Unfortunately, the existing data and models differ up to several tens of percent. Thus, one of the European project CRONUS-EU goals is the high quality calibration of the {sup 36}Cl production rate by spallation at independently dated surfaces. As part of fulfilling this task we have investigated calcite-rich samples from four medieval landslide areas in the Alps: Mont Granier, Le Claps, Dobratsch, and Veliki Vrh (330-1620 m, 1248-1442 AD). For investigating the depth-dependence of the different nuclear reactions, especially, the muon- and thermal neutron-induced contributions, we have analysed mixtures of carbonates and siliceous conglomerate samples - for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl - exposed at different shielding depths and taken from a core drilled in 2005 at La Ciotat, France (from surface to 11 m shielding). AMS of {sup 36}Cl was performed at LLNL and ETH, {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at ASTER.

  3. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  4. Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Bourlès, Didier L; Duringer, Philippe; Jolivet, Marc; Braucher, Régis; Carcaillet, Julien; Schuster, Mathieu; Arnaud, Nicolas; Monié, Patrick; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2008-03-04

    Ages were determined at two hominid localities from the Chad Basin in the Djurab Desert (Northern Chad). In the Koro Toro fossiliferous area, KT 12 locality (16 degrees 00'N, 18 degrees 53'E) was the site of discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) and in the Toros-Menalla fossiliferous area, TM 266 locality (16 degrees 15'N, 17 degrees 29'E) was the site of discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï). At both localities, the evolutive degree of the associated fossil mammal assemblages allowed a biochronological estimation of the hominid remains: early Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) at KT 12 and late Miocene ( approximately 7 Ma) at TM 266. Atmospheric (10)Be, a cosmogenic nuclide, was used to quasicontinuously date these sedimentary units. The authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be dating of a pelite relic within the sedimentary level containing Abel yields an age of 3.58 +/- 0.27 Ma that points to the contemporaneity of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) with Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy). The 28 (10)Be/(9)Be ages obtained within the anthracotheriid unit containing Toumaï bracket, by absolute dating, the age of Sahelanthropus tchadensis to lie between 6.8 and 7.2 Ma. This chronological constraint is an important cornerstone both for establishing the earliest stages of hominid evolution and for new calibrations of the molecular clock.

  5. A multi-layered active target for the study of neutron-unbound nuclides at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica; Gueye, Paul; Redpath, Thomas; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron-unbound nuclides were investigated using a multi-layered Si/Be active target designed for use with the MoNA/LISA setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron (NSCL). The setup consists of the MoNA/LISA arrays (for neutron detection) and a superconducting sweeper magnet (for charged separation) to identify products following the decay of neutron unbound states. The segmented target consisted of three 700 mg/cm2 beryllium targets and four 0.14 mm thick 62x62 mm2 silicon detectors. As a commissioning experiment for the target the decay of two-neutron unbound 26O populated in a one-proton removal reaction from a radioactive 27F beam was performed. The 27F secondary radioactive beam from the NSCL's Coupled Cyclotron Facility was produced from the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam incident on a thick beryllium target and then cleanly selected by the A1900 fragment separator. The energy loss and position spectra of the incoming beam and reaction products were used to calibrate the Silicon detectors to within 1.5% in both energy and position. A dedicated Geant4 model of the target was developed to simulate the energy loss within the target. A description of the experimental setup, simulation work, and energy and position calibration will be presented. DoE/NNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  6. Oxidative Dissolution of Spent Fuel and Release of Nuclides from a Copper/Iron Canister : Model Developments and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Longcheng

    2001-01-01

    Three models have been developed and applied in the performance assessment of a final repository. They are based on accepted theories and experimental results for known and possible mechanisms that may dominate in the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and the release of nuclides from a canister. Assuming that the canister is breached at an early stage after disposal, the three models describe three sub-systems in the near field of the repository, in which the governing processes and mechani...

  7. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 , 7 / 2, and 9 / 2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  8. Determinatiojn of nuclide vectors for the clearance procedure according paragraph 29 of the radiation protection regulations; Ermittlung von Nuklidvektoren im Freigabeverfahren gemaess paragraph 29 Strahlenschutzverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, Sinisa [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS)

    2009-07-01

    The new version of the radiation protection regulations the clearance of radioactive materials is regulated by detailed directives. The clearance procedure in the frame of nuclear facility dismantling is now harmonized with respect to the limiting values for clearance. The authors describe the methodology for the determination of nuclide vectors that has been elaborated for practical use within the clearance procedure. The nuclide vector is neither defined in the atomic law, nor in the radiation protection regulations; the nuclide vector does not represent the real nuclide distribution, it is a calculated value that is supposed to be relevant for radiological purposes. Dependent on the model assumptions significant differences in the resulting clearance limits can appear. The applicability of the concept is strongly dependent on the radiological status in the different nuclear facilities.

  9. Feasibility of the $\\beta^-$ Radio-Guided Surgery with a Variety of Radio-Nuclides of Interest to Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Bencivenga, Gaia; Bocci, Valerio; Cartoni, Antonella; Collamati, Francesco; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Giordano, Alessandro; Indovina, Luca; Marafini, Michela; Morganti, Silvio; Rotili, Dante; Russomando, Andrea; Scotognella, Teresa; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Venditti, Iole; Faccini, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery overcomes the corresponding $\\gamma$ technique in case the background from healthy tissues is relevant. It can be used only in case a radio-tracer marked with $^{90}$Y is available since the current probe prototype was optimized for the emission spectrum of this radio-nuclide. Here we study, with a set of laboratory tests and simulations, the prototype capability in case a different radio-nuclide is chosen among those used in nuclear medicine. As a result we estimate the probe efficiency on electrons and photons as a function of energy and we evaluate the feasibility of a radio-guided surgery exploiting the selected radio-nuclides. We conclude that requiring a 0.1~ml residue to be detected within 1~s by administering 3~MBq/Kg of radio-isotope, the current probe prototype would yield a significant signal in a vast range of values of SUV and TNR in case $^{31}$Si,$^{32}$P, $^{97}$Zr, and $^{188}$Re are used. Conversely, a tuning of the detector would be needed to efficie...

  10. Development of a new nuclide generation and depletion code using a topological solver based on graph theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasselmann, S., E-mail: s.kasselmann@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Schitthelm, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tantillo, F. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Scholthaus, S.; Rössel, C. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Allelein, H.-J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The problem of calculating the amounts of a coupled nuclide system varying with time especially when exposed to a neutron flux is a well-known problem and has been addressed by a number of computer codes. These codes cover a broad spectrum of applications, are based on comprehensive validation work and are therefore justifiably renowned among their users. However, due to their long development history, they are lacking a modern interface, which impedes a fast and robust internal coupling to other codes applied in the field of nuclear reactor physics. Therefore a project has been initiated to develop a new object-oriented nuclide transmutation code. It comprises an innovative solver based on graph theory, which exploits the topology of nuclide chains and therefore speeds up the calculation scheme. Highest priority has been given to the existence of a generic software interface well as an easy handling by making use of XML files for the user input. In this paper we report on the status of the code development and present first benchmark results, which prove the applicability of the selected approach.

  11. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  12. Denudation rates derived from spatially-averaged cosmogenic nuclide analysis in Nelson catchments, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdis, A.; Norton, K. P.; Ditchburn, B.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand's tectonically and climatically dynamic environment generates erosion rates that outstrip global averages by up to ten times in some locations. In order to assess recent changes in erosion rate, and also to predict future erosion dynamics, it is important to quantify long-term, background erosion. Current research on erosion in New Zealand predominantly covers short-term (100 yrs) erosion dynamics and Myr dynamics from thermochronological proxy data. Without medium-term denudation data for New Zealand, it is uncertain which variables (climate, anthropogenic disturbance of the landscape, tectonic uplift, lithological, or geomorphic characteristics) exert the dominant control on denudation in New Zealand. Spatially-averaged cosmogenic nuclide analysis can effectively offer this information by providing averaged rates of denudation on millennial timescales without the biases and limitations of short-term erosion methods. Basin-averaged denudation rates were obtained in the Nelson region, New Zealand, from analysis of concentrations of meteoric 10Be in clay and in-situ produced 10Be in quartz. The measured denudation rates integrate over ~8000 yrs (meteoric) and ~3000 yrs (in-situ). Not only do the 10Be records produce erosion rates that are remarkably consistent with each other, but they are also independent of topographic metrics. Denudation rates range from ~116 - 306 t km-2 yr-1, with the exception of one basin which is eroding at 789 t km-2 yr-1(derived from meteoric 10Be) and 644 t km-2 yr-1(derived from in-situ 10Be). The homogeneity of rates and absence of a significant correlation with geomorphic or lithological characteristics suggest another factor is exerting the dominant control on landscape denudation in the Nelson region. Storm variability is a likely driver of erosion in this setting. The background rates are higher than current short term rates (~50 - 200 t km-2 yr-1) due to the significant erosion caused by high magnitude, low frequency

  13. Extensive MIS 3 glaciation in southernmost Patagonia revealed by cosmogenic nuclide dating of outwash sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Hein, Andrew S.; Rodés, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    The timing and extent of former glacial advances can demonstrate leads and lags during periods of climatic change and their forcing, but this requires robust glacial chronologies. In parts of southernmost Patagonia, dating pre-global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) ice limits has proven difficult due to post-deposition processes affecting the build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in moraine boulders. Here we provide ages for the Río Cullen and San Sebastián glacial limits of the former Bahía Inútil-San Sebastián (BI-SSb) ice lobe on Tierra del Fuego (53-54°S), previously hypothesised to represent advances during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12 and 10, respectively. Our approach uses cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating, but targets glacial outwash associated with these limits and uses depth-profiles and surface cobble samples, thereby accounting for surface deflation and inheritance. The data reveal that the limits formed more recently than previously thought, giving ages of 45.6 ka (139.9/-14.3) for the Río Cullen, and 30.1 ka (+45.6/-23.1) for the San Sebastián limits. These dates indicate extensive glaciation in southern Patagonia during MIS 3, prior to the well-constrained, but much less extensive MIS 2 (gLGM) limit. This suggests the pattern of ice advances in the region was different to northern Patagonia, with the terrestrial limits relating to the last glacial cycle, rather than progressively less extensive glaciations over hundreds of thousands of years. However, the dates are consistent with MIS 3 glaciation elsewhere in the southern mid-latitudes, and the combination of cooler summers and warmer winters with increased precipitation, may have caused extensive glaciation prior to the gLGM.

  14. Constraining Landscape History and Glacial Erosivity Using Paired Cosmogenic Nuclides in Upernavik, Northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude landscape evolution processes have the potential to preserve old, relict surfaces through burial by cold-based, nonerosive glacial ice. To investigate landscape history and age in the high Arctic, we analyzed in situ cosmogenic Be(sup 10) and Al (sup 26) in 33 rocks from Upernavik, northwest Greenland. We sampled adjacent bedrock-boulder pairs along a 100 km transect at elevations up to 1000 m above sea level. Bedrock samples gave significantly older apparent exposure ages than corresponding boulder samples, and minimum limiting ages increased with elevation. Two-isotope calculations Al(sup26)/B(sup 10) on 20 of the 33 samples yielded minimum limiting exposure durations up to 112 k.y., minimum limiting burial durations up to 900 k.y., and minimum limiting total histories up to 990 k.y. The prevalence of BE(sup 10) and Al(sup 26) inherited from previous periods of exposure, especially in bedrock samples at high elevation, indicates that these areas record long and complex surface exposure histories, including significant periods of burial with little subglacial erosion. The long total histories suggest that these high elevation surfaces were largely preserved beneath cold-based, nonerosive ice or snowfields for at least the latter half of the Quaternary. Because of high concentrations of inherited nuclides, only the six youngest boulder samples appear to record the timing of ice retreat. These six samples suggest deglaciation of the Upernavik coast at 11.3 +/- 0.5 ka (average +/- 1 standard deviation). There is no difference in deglaciation age along the 100 km sample transect, indicating that the ice-marginal position retreated rapidly at rates of approx.120 m yr(sup-1).

  15. On a solar origin for the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliver, E. W. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Tylka, A. J. [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dietrich, W. F. [Praxis, Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States); Ling, A. G. [Atmospheric Environmental Research, 3550 Aberdeen Ave., Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a >1 GV spectrum ∼45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a >30 MeV proton fluence (F {sub 30}) of ∼8 × 10{sup 10} proton cm{sup –2}, ∼10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F {sub 30} value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for >30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is ∼X230 (∼9 × 10{sup 33} erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of ∼X35 (∼10{sup 33} erg) and ∼X45 (∼2 × 10{sup 33} erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a ∼10{sup 34} erg flare is ∼2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The ∼1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last ∼2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.

  16. Deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica from glacial geomorphology and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. J.; Hein, A. S.; Sugden, D. E.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Shanks, R.; Xu, S.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.

    2017-02-01

    The retreat history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is important for understanding rapid deglaciation, as well as to constrain numerical ice sheet models and ice loading models required for glacial isostatic adjustment modelling. There is particular debate about the extent of grounded ice in the Weddell Sea embayment at the Last Glacial Maximum, and its subsequent deglacial history. Here we provide a new dataset of geomorphological observations and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages of erratic samples that constrain the deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, adjacent to the present day Foundation Ice Stream and Academy Glacier in the southern Weddell Sea embayment. We show there is evidence of at least two glaciations, the first of which was relatively old and warm-based, and a more recent cold-based glaciation. During the most recent glaciation ice thickened by at least 450 m in the Williams Hills and at least 380 m on Mt Bragg. Progressive thinning from these sites was well underway by 10 ka BP and ice reached present levels by 2.5 ka BP, and is broadly similar to the relatively modest thinning histories in the southern Ellsworth Mountains. The thinning history is consistent with, but does not mandate, a Late Holocene retreat of the grounding line to a smaller-than-present configuration, as has been recently hypothesized based on ice sheet and glacial isostatic modelling. The data also show that clasts with complex exposure histories are pervasive and that clast recycling is highly site-dependent. These new data provide constraints on a reconstruction of the retreat history of the formerly-expanded Foundation Ice Stream, derived using a numerical flowband model.

  17. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    "by vision". Especially in regions like the Southern Alps affected of considerable neo-tectonic activity and paraglacial erosion, post-depositional movement of any boulders on moraine ridges cannot be excluded a priori. On base on these considerations, an attempt to combine TCND with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology has been developed (Winkler 2009). Cosmogenic 10Be dating delivers ‘absolute' ages for the exposure of boulder surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer relative-age dating technique. Therefore, Schmidt-hammer measurements can successfully endorse the selection of representative boulders for TCND and effectively avoid sampling boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Additionally, the number of boulders sampled for TCND can be reduced, positive in the light of economic and conservational considerations. Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at a number of individual glaciers in Westland/Tai Poutini and Mt Cook/Aoraki National Parks of the Southern Alps proof its potential. At least three ‘Little Ice Age'-type events culminating around 2,300, 1,600, and 1,000 years ago and predating the "Little Ice Age" have been confirmed. The construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and demonstrates the high potential of this attempt. References: Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M., Putnam, A., Finkel, R.C., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Schwartz, R., McIntosh, A., Chinn, T. & Schlüchter, C. (2009): High-frequency Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand differ from the northern signature. Science 324, 622 - 625. Winkler, S. (2009): First attempt to combine terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt hammer relative-age dating: Strauchon Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Central European

  18. Effectiveness of ambulatory tru-close thoracic vent for the outpatient management of pneumothorax: A prospective pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Pyo; Lee, Sung Soo; Lee, Geun Dong; Joo, Seung Moon; Yum, Tae Jun; Lee, Kwang Hun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haam, Seok Jin [Dept. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility, procedural safety, and long-term therapeutic efficacy of a small-sized ambulatory thoracic vent (TV) device for the treatment of pneumothorax. From November 2012 to July 2013, 18 consecutive patients (3 females, 15 males) aged 16–64 years (mean: 34.7 ± 14.9 years, median: 29 years) were enrolled prospectively. Of these, 15 patients had spontaneous pneumothorax and 3 had iatrogenic pneumothorax. A Tru-Close TV with a small-bore (11- or 13-Fr) catheter was inserted under bi-plane fluoroscopic assistance. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Complete lung re-expansion was achieved at 24 hours in 88.9% of patients (16/18 patients). All patients tolerated the procedure and no major complications occurred. The patients' mean numeric pain intensity score was 2.4 (range: 0–5) in daily life activity during the TV treatment. All patients with spontaneous pneumothorax underwent outpatient follow-up. The mean time to TV removal was 4.7 (3–13) days. Early surgical conversion rate of 16.7% (3/18 patients) occurred in 2 patients with incomplete lung expansion and 1 patient with immediate pneumothorax recurrence post-TV removal; and late surgical conversion occurred in 2 of 18 patients (11.1%). The recurrence-free long-term success rate was 72.2% (13/18 patients) during a 3-year follow-up period from November 2012 to June 2016. TV application was a simple, safe, and technically feasible procedure in an outpatient clinic, with an acceptable long-term recurrence-free rate. Thus, TV could be useful for the immediate treatment of pneumothorax.

  19. Tru-cut needle pleural biopsy and cytology as the initial procedure in the evaluation of pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana Rial, Maribel; Briones Gómez, Andrés; Ferrando Gabarda, José Ramón; Cifuentes Ruiz, José Fernando; Guarín Corredor, María Juliana; Manchego Frach, Nuria; Cases Viedma, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    The evaluation of pleural effusion (PE) includes various techniques, including pleural biopsy (PB). Our aim was to study the diagnostic yield of Tru-Cut needle PB (TCPB) and to define clinical/radiological situations in which TCPB might be indicated as an initial procedure. Retrospective study of TCPB in a hospital centre (2010-2012). Cases of pleural lesions without effusion were excluded. Clinical and radiological variables, diagnostic yield, TCPB complications and factors associated with the diagnostic yield of the combination of TCPB and thoracocentesis as initial procedure were analysed. One hundred and twenty-seven (127) TCPB were reviewed: 29.1% were cases of malignant PE and in 18.9% the cause of the PE could not be determined. The diagnostic yield of TCPB for tuberculosis was 76.5% (13/17) and 54% (20/37) for malignant PE. Complications occurred in 4.7% of the cases. In 72 patients with a final definitive diagnosis, TCPB was performed at the same time as the initial thoracocentesis. Diagnostic yield for the combination of TCPB/cytology as an initial technique was 43% (31/72) compared to 12.5% (9/72) for cytology only (p=0.01). The only predictive variable for the indication of TCBP as an initial technique was a PE volume>2/3 (P=.04). TCPB is safe and provides an acceptable diagnostic yield, particularly when combined with simultaneous cytology in the evaluation of PE of various aetiologies. Radiological criteria may help guide the selection of patients who could benefit from this technique as an initial procedure combined with thoracocentesis. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  1. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  2. Correct Pre-Operative Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Tru-cut Biopsy: Key Point in Breast Cancer Management and a Part of Patient Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joulaee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new revolutionary concept in breast cancer diagnosis and management during the last 3 decades significantly decreases invasion against patients while maximizing the accuracy of diagnosis and the effectiveness of treatment."n"n In this new concept team work multidisciplinary approach is the key. The presence of an interventional breast radiologist in this new approach is absolutely necessary. The role of an interventional and a non interventional breast radiologist in this team work is highlighted and must be respected, especially by surgeons. Now the surgeon performs surgery only to treat the patient either for malignant pathology or symptomatic benign masses. No surgery is acceptable for diagnosis or staging. Diagnosis is best done by preoperative Tru-cut biopsy is done by an interventional breast radiologist for non palpable lesions  in the ideal situation. For palpable lesions depending on the situation either a radiologist or a surgeon would carry out office tru-cut biopsy. For non palpable lesions, the interventional radiologist and not the surgeon performs the diagnosis. Depending on the case, either the radiologist or the surgeon can peform Tru-cut biopsy for palpable lesions. The benefits of pre-operative diagnosis are both for the patients and the whole health care system. The patient would profit the most from this new concept: -No surgery would be done for non-cancerous non-symptomatic lesions. -In the case of cancer, diagnosis would be confirmed pre-operatively. Correct pre-operative diagnosis would eliminate unnecessary surgery for benign pathology for many non-palpable and non-symptomatic palpable lesions. The patient would profit from not having surgery for a benign condition and as a result there will be no endangered health. In the same time avoidance of surgery for non-symptomatic benign breast pathology would significantly decrease the overall health care price for breast disease to have more budgets to instruct standard

  3. Cosmogenic Nuclide Exposure Dating of the Tiltill Rock Avalanche, Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K. R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Stone, J. O.; Stock, G. M.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Yosemite National Park serves as an excellent natural laboratory for studying rock falls and rock avalanches because these are the main processes modifying the nearly vertical slopes of this recently glaciated landscape. Mass wasting represents a significant hazard in the region and the database of previous rock falls and other mass wasting events in Yosemite is extensive, dating back to the mid-1800s. However, this record is too short to capture the recurrence characteristics and triggering mechanisms of the very largest events, necessitating studies of the geologic record of mass wasting. Rock falls and rock avalanches are readily dated by cosmogenic nuclide methods due to their instantaneous formation, and results can be tied to triggering events such as seismic activity (e.g. Stock et al., 2009). Here, we apply exposure dating to the Holocene Tiltill rock avalanche north of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The deposit comprises what appear to be two separate lobes of rock and debris, yielding a total volume of ~3.1 x 106 m3. Assuming an erosion rate of 0.0006 cm/yr and neglecting snowpack shielding, preliminary data suggest a mean exposure age of 11,000 + 600 year B.P. for both deposits, indicating that they were emplaced in a single event. The age of the Tiltill 'slide' is similar to earthquakes on the Owens Valley Fault between 10,800 + 600 and 10,200 + 200 cal year B.P. (Bacon, 2007) and the White Mountain Fault, ~10,000 cal year B.P. (Reheis, 1996; DePolo, 1989). Given that movement on the Owens Valley fault in 1872 caused a number of rock falls in Yosemite and the coincidence of ages between the Tiltill 'slide' and paleoseismic events, a large earthquake in Eastern Sierra Nevada may have triggered this event. Other trigger events are also possibilities, but only through compilation of a database of large rock avalanches can statistically significant groupings of events begin to demonstrate whether seismic triggering is a dominant process.

  4. Uranium and thorium nuclides series determined in medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Francisconi, L.; Damatto, S. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years the study of medicinal plants has become the focus of ever more extensive research all over the world due to their diversity and potential as source of medicinal products. According to the World Health Organization approximately 80% of world population makes use of medicinal herbs due to their believed therapeutic action. Besides being used as medicine, medicinal plants are also largely used as dietary supplements. The presence of radionuclides in plants constitutes one of the main pathways for their transfer to man. The amount of radioactive nuclides from U and Th series in edible vegetables are relatively well known since they have been the main concern of research conducted worldwide. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have been neglected in these studies, possibly because the ingestion of radioactive material through their consumption has not been recognized or was considered insignificant. The objective of the present study was to determine the content of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in 25 species of medicinal plants used in Brazil, both as medicine and as dietary supplement. The medicinal plant samples were obtained in specialized pharmacies and drugstores. The raw plant and their extracts, produced as recommended by the National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses for the determination of U and Th and by Total Alpha and Beta Counting after Radiochemical Separation for determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. In the raw plants the activity concentrations varied from 0,08 Bq kg{sup -1} to 8,0 Bq kg{sup -1} for thorium, from < LID to 22 Bq kg{sup -1} for uranium, from 1,8 Bq kg{sup -1} to 12 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 33 Bq kg{sup -1} to 74 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and from 10 Bq kg{sup -1} to 120 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. In the extracts, the activity concentrations varied from 9 mBq kg{sup -1} to 137 mBq kg{sup -1} for Th

  5. [Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2009-05-20

    A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect.

  6. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2. These results may be used to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Heavy Element Chemistry program.

  7. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    We present a new, extensive in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al dataset from high-elevation low-relief summits along Sognefjorden in Norway. Contrary to previous studies of high-elevation low-relief summits in cold regions, we find only limited cosmogenic nuclide inheritance in bedrock surfaces......, indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005...

  8. Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides (MODERN) - Part 1: A new conversion model to derive soil redistribution rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRN) has become one of the most commonly used tools to quantify sediment erosion or depositional processes. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRN, land uses and soil redistribution processes. The new model MODERN (Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of any FRN at the reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance in converting different FRN inventories is discussed for a theoretical case as well as for two already published case studies i.e. a (137)Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and a (210)Pbex study on a ploughed area located in the Transylvanian Plain (Romania). The tests highlight a highly significant correspondence (i.e. correlation factor of 0.91) between the results of MODERN and the published results of other models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The development and the cost free accessibility of MODERN (see modern.umweltgeo.unibas.ch) will ensure the promotion of wider application of FRNs for tracing soil erosion and sedimentation.

  9. TruMicro Series 2000 sub-400 fs class industrial fiber lasers: adjustment of laser parameters to process requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, Florian; Kahmann, Max; Tan, Chuong; Diekamp, Holger; Jansen, Florian; Scelle, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    and multi-level quad-loop stabilization of the output power of the laser.2 In addition to the well-established platform latest developments addressed single-pulse energies up to 50 μJ and made femtosecond pulse durations available for the TruMicro Series 2000. Beyond these stabilization aspects this laser architecture together with other optical modules and combined with smart laser control software enables process-driven adjustments of the parameters (e. g. repetition rate, multi-pulse functionalities, pulse energy, pulse duration) by external signals, which will be presented in this work.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations in denudation rates derived from cosmogenic nuclides in four European fluvial terrace sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M.; Ehlers, T. A.; Stor, T.; Torrent, J.; Lobato, L.; Christl, M.; Vockenhuber, C.

    2016-12-01

    The denudation of landscapes is affected by temporal and spatial variations in tectonics, climate, and vegetation. However, deciphering the contributions of these different processes has proven challenging. In this study, cosmogenic nuclide-derived modern and paleo catchment-wide denudation rates in four European rivers are investigated. We present 12 new and 4 recalculated cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates from modern river sediments and 14 paleo-denudation rates from terraces deposited over the last 2 Ma. The catchments studied are located in regions with minimal Quaternary tectonic activity and span different climates over 12o latitude. Results indicate that modern denudation rates range between 16 ± 11 and 51 ± 7 mm/ka with no clear latitudinal variation. Modern denudation rates are compared with catchment geomorphic indices including slope, fluvial steepness index, and relief. The denudation rates correlate better to catchment topographic indices (R2 ≈ 0.4) rather than climate. Paleo-denudation rates range from 8 ± 7 to 56 ± 7 mm/ka and are associated with a possible increase in the average paleo-denudation rates over the past 2 Ma. Taken together, the results indicate that quantification of catchment-wide denudation rates over long (Quaternary) time scales because of climate change is difficult. Future work to study climate influence on denudation rates should focus on the successes of previous work that document transient denudation rates over shorter and more recent time scales, i.e., from the Last Glacial Maximum to present.

  11. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V., E-mail: priscilaoamaral@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br, E-mail: marceloredigolo@gmail.com, E-mail: caike1995@gmail.com, E-mail: ovega@ipen.bremails [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}), clothianidin (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}S) and thiamethoxam (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 3}S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  12. Capture and Solidification of Rare Earth Nuclide (Nd) in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Using a Synthetic Inorganic Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na-Young; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, neodymium (Nd) nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were captured and solidified using a synthetic inorganic composite (Li{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), a process that allows the selective capture of Nd and fabrication of a composite with Nd captured from waste, without additional additives or mixing. The Nd nuclides in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were mainly captured in the form of LiNdSiO{sub 4}, and it was confirmed that NdSiO{sub 3} can be formed in the composite with captured Nd when the content of Nd in the composite is increased. The capture efficiency was higher than about 98 wt%. It was thought that the salt recovered from the Nd capture test was a renewable form could be reused in the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel, because the composite has high chemical durability in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 900 ℃. The composite captured Nd was fabricated into a homogeneous glass form and a stable ceramic form.

  13. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 2. Deposition of Cs and Sr on grain crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E

    1998-12-31

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr at different times during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout and the results are compared with similar earlier Swedish works on nuclide retention in experiments and on fallout in agriculture. The aim has been to cover the nuclide transfer to grain crops after deposition at different times during the growing period. The initial interception capacity per kg d.w., TRd, seemed to depend on the surface/weight ratio of the plant parts considered. Changes in TRd-values were rapid during the early growth but slower in later stages. The reduction half-time was then often 2 weeks for vegetative parts. Considering the fraction of a deposition retained, FRd, the residence half-time had an average length of 3-4 weeks. During that time there were possibilities for cesium penetration into the plant and further transfer to ears and grain. Strontium did not seem to be transferred that way. There was no increase of cesium in the ears per unit d.w. after the initial interception. However, there was a steady increase in the total content, especially after deposition during the latter half of the growth period when about 5 % was retained of cesium, and 2 % of strontium. The retention of fallout caesium in 1964 was statistically estimated to be of about the same size in Swedish grains 12 refs, 19 figs, 19 tabs

  14. J-dependence of s-wave neutron strength function and presence of intermediate structure in medium and heavy mass nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badola, Amit; Singhal, S. K.; Bhatnagar, Manoj; Agrawal, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron resonance structures of nuclides have been studied over a wide energy range as these parameters are used for regulating the inputs to optical and statistical model calculations. On the basis of high resolution data on resonance parameters (E0, Γn, Jπ), s-wave neutron strength functions (S0) for individual Jπ values are calculated and the J-dependence of it has been investigated for 79 odd nuclides. Our analysis of statistical properties shows the J-dependence of (S0) and this contribution should be included in the OM calculations. Our study well materializes the presence of intermediate structure (IS) for 24 odd nuclides within both data and information reported in literature.

  15. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  16. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  17. Mass measurement of cooled neutron-deficient bismuth projectile fragments with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany); Radon, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2005-06-01

    Masses of 582 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}85) were measured with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI, 117 were used for calibration. The masses of 71 nuclides were obtained for the first time. A typical mass accuracy of 30 {mu}u was achieved. These data have entered the latest atomic mass evaluation. The mass determination of about 140 additional nuclides was possible via known energies (Q-values) of {alpha}-, {beta}-, or proton decays. The obtained results are compared with the results of other measurements. (orig.)

  18. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  19. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short-Lived Nuclides Connection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sahijpal

    2014-06-01

    An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an -body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. In contrary to the conventional Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach provides a natural framework to understand the astrophysical environment related with the origin of the solar system. We deduce the nature of the two stellar clusters; the one that formed and evolved prior to the solar system formation, and the other within which the solar system that was probably formed. The former could have contributed to the short-lived nuclides 129I and 53Mn, whereas, the supernova associated with the most massive star in the latter contributed 26Al and 60Fe to the solar system. The analysiswas performed with the revised solar metallicity of 0.014

  20. Removal of radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Polyacryamide-expanded perlite: Effects of pH, concentration and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Recep

    2012-10-01

    Poly (Acryamide-expanded perlite) [P(AAm-EP)], was synthesized. The influence of process parameters: initial pH and five radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series (TI+, Ra2+, Bi3+, Ac3+ and Pb2+ in a leaching solution) concentration, on sorption thermodynamic was studied and discussed. The five natural radio nuclides were counted by gamma spectrometer using a type NAI (Tl) detector. The amounts of five radio nuclides sorbed at equlibrium were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich type isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (XL) were in the order of 208Tl (0.4 MBq kg-1)>212Pb and 212Bi (0.3 MBq kg-1)>228Ac and (0.1 MBq kg-1)>226Ra (0.04 MBq kg-1). These results demonstrated that P(AAm-EP) had high affinity to the five natural radio nuclides. In order to specify the type of adsorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters such as the standard enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy were also determined. It was also demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was spontaneous (ΔG0). The composite was reused for four more times after regeneration without any detectable changes either in its structure or adsorptive capability.

  1. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of {sup 16}O, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  2. Analogue studies in the alligator rivers region. In-situ measurement of uranium series nuclides with SHRIMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sato, Tsutomu; Isobe, Hiroshi; Williams, I.S.; Zaw, M.; Payne, T.E.; Airey, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    The SHRIMP analyses have been conducted for rock samples from the Koongarra secondary ore deposit to obtain activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and isotopic ratios of {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 204}Pb/{sup 206}Pb. Target minerals for the analyses were iron minerals and kaolinite, which are the main weathering products in this area. The activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U were obtained based on counts at masses of uranium metal. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios based on counts of uranium oxides were not appropriate, because count rates of {sup 234}U{sup 16}O were interfered by those of {sup 238}U{sup 12}C molecule. The activity ratios of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U were approximately unity for crystalline iron nodules. This fact suggested that the mean residence time of uranium within the iron nodules was at least 1 million years. On the other hand, slightly higher values than unity were obtained for kaolinite. Lead isotopes were investigated and a positive relationship was recognized between {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 204}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios. (author)

  3. Removal of radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Polyacryamide-expanded perlite: Effects of pH, concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkaya, Recep, E-mail: rakkaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet Univ. Vocat. Sch. Hlth. Serv. TR. 58140, Sivas (Turkey)

    2012-10-01

    Poly (Acryamide-expanded perlite) [P(AAm-EP)], was synthesized. The influence of process parameters: initial pH and five radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series (TI{sup +}, Ra{sup 2+}, Bi{sup 3+}, Ac{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} in a leaching solution) concentration, on sorption thermodynamic was studied and discussed. The five natural radio nuclides were counted by gamma spectrometer using a type NAI (Tl) detector. The amounts of five radio nuclides sorbed at equlibrium were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich type isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (X{sub L}) were in the order of {sup 208}Tl (0.4 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi (0.3 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 228}Ac and (0.1 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 226}Ra (0.04 MBq kg{sup -1}). These results demonstrated that P(AAm-EP) had high affinity to the five natural radio nuclides. In order to specify the type of adsorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters such as the standard enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy were also determined. It was also demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was spontaneous ({Delta}G<0), the process was exothermic ({Delta}H<0) thus increasing entropy ({Delta}S>0). The composite was reused for four more times after regeneration without any detectable changes either in its structure or adsorptive capability. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite provide an enhanced adsorption uptake for radio nuclides of the U- and Th-series ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite can be applied to the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic parameters indicated adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The P(HEMA-EP) composite is reused up to 5 times with no loss of removal efficiency.

  4. Contributions of Bacău to the economic literature and culture – The life and work of Professor Vasile Pătruţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic culture and accounting theory in Bacău area has its beginnings in the setting up of the first practical school of agriculture, by Ion Ionescu de la Brad, who included in the curriculum an accounting course, as well. Over the years, the economic education of Bacău area education has evolved from “The School of Accounting and Co-operative Education” (1919 to the modern economic higher education, in our days. During an important period of the evolution of education and culture in Bacău area, Professor Vasile Pătruţ is present, having a significant contribution to the accounting theory, teaching and practice in Bacău.

  5. Gamma-ray characterization of uranium-series nuclides and its application to the study of the Pena Blanca natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virgina

    Two natural analogue sites located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico were characterized for radionuclide mobility. Analogue I is used to assess the long-term behavior of uranium-series nuclides in a host rock and geochemical environment that is similar to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analogue II represents a former dump site to assess short-term radionuclide mobility. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis was used to measure radioactivity of the U-series nuclides. Samples analyzed from Analogue I consist of: (1) fracture-infillings associated with different alteration assemblages collected within and outside the breccia pipe from various levels of the deposit and (2) fracture-infillings collected along an east-west trending fracture which intersects the breccia pipe and extends into the host rock. Alteration mineralogy, established via X-ray diffraction analysis, consists of pure kaolinite, a mixture of Fe-oxyhydroxide (goethite, hematite) With inclusions of jarosite and alunite, and carbonates. Results from activity ratios of 230Th/238U versus 226Ra/230Th indicate that majority of the Fe-oxyhydroxides from the breccia zone show a slight disequilibrium with respect to Ra enrichment and U depletion. This observation is modeled as requiring a multiple-event history of U mobility. An amorphous Fe sample distal to the breccia zone shows similar behavior but to a greater extent. This extreme behavior is ascribed to initially low U content and greater late-stage U removal. Two Fe-oxyhydroxide samples from Within the breccia pipe also display multiple-event stages but exhibit both Ra and U leaching. This behavior is shared by Fe-oxyhydroxide samples collected inside and peripheral to the breccia zone from the east-west trending fracture. Finally, three samples, two Fe phase samples outside the breccia zone and a kaolinite inside the breccia zone, show Ra and U enrichment. Also, a distal Fe-oxyhydroxide sample from the

  6. Direct Mass Measurements on the Superallowed Emitter $^{74}$Rb and its Daughter $^{74}$Kr Isospin-Symmetry-Breaking Correction for Standard-Model Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Brown, B A; Delahaye, P; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2004-01-01

    The decay energy of the superallowed $\\beta$-decay $^{74}$Rb($\\beta^{+}$)$^{74}$Kr was determined by direct Penning trap mass measurements on both the mother and the daughter nuclide using the time-of-flight resonance technique and found to be $Q = 10416.8(4.5)$ keV. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb, with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. Together with existing data for the partial half-life as well as theoretical corrections, the decay energy yields a comparative half-life of $Ft$ = 3084(15) s for this decay, in agreement with the mean value for the series of the lighter nuclides from $^{10}$C to $^{54}$Co. Assuming conserved vector current, this result allows for an experimental determination of the isospin-symmetry-breaking correction $\\delta$C.

  7. Oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and release of nuclides from a copper/iron canister. Model developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcheng Liu

    2001-12-01

    Three models have been developed and applied in the performance assessment of a final repository. They are based on accepted theories and experimental results for known and possible mechanisms that may dominate in the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and the release of nuclides from a canister. Assuming that the canister is breached at an early stage after disposal, the three models describe three sub-systems in the near field of the repository, in which the governing processes and mechanisms are quite different. In the model for the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix, a set of kinetic descriptions is provided that describes the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix and the release of the embedded nuclides. In particular, the effect of autocatalytic reduction of hexavalent uranium by dissolved H{sub 2}, using UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel pellets as a catalyst, is taken into account. The simulation results suggest that most of the radiolytic oxidants will be consumed by the oxidation of the fuel matrix, and that much less will be depleted by dissolved ferrous iron. Most of the radiolytically produced hexavalent uranium will be reduced by the autocatalytic reaction with H{sub 2} on the fuel surface. It will reprecipitate as UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel surface, and thus very little net oxidation of the fuel will take place. In the reactive transport model, the interactions of multiple processes within a defective canister are described, in which numerous redox reactions take place as multiple species diffuse. The effect of corrosion of the cast iron insert of the canister and the reduction of dissolved hexavalent uranium by ferrous iron sorbed onto iron corrosion products and by dissolved H{sub 2} are particularly included. Scoping calculations suggest that corrosion of the iron insert will occur primarily under anaerobic conditions. The escaping oxidants from the fuel rods will migrate toward the iron insert. Much of these oxidants will, however, be consumed

  8. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  9. Results of the First TOF Mass Measurements at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, M.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Galaviz, D.; Gade, A.; Lorusso, G.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Stolz, A.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Wallace, M.

    2008-04-01

    Time-of-Flight mass measurements technique, recently developed at the NSCL, MSU, was used to measure masses of exotic neutron-rich nuclides in the Fe region, important for r-process calculations as well as for calculations of processes occurring in the crust of accreting neutron stars. Results from the experiment will be presented and discussed.

  10. Efficient and Accurate Calculation of Burnup Problems with Short-Lived Nuclides by a Krylov Subspace Method with the Newton Divided Difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays lattice physics codes tend to utilize a detailed burnup chain including short-lived nuclides in order to perform more accurate burnup calculations. But, since production codes, for example, ORIGEN2, take account of nuclides which have relatively long half-life, it is inappropriate for such detailed burnup chain calculation. To enhance that drawback, many matrix exponential calculation methods have been developed. Recently, a Krylov subspace method with the PADE approximation was used. In this paper, a Krylov subspace method based on spectral decomposition property of the matrix function theory with the Newton divided difference (NDD) is introduced. It is tested with a sample problem and compared with simple Taylor expansion method

  11. 89Zr, a Radiometal Nuclide with High Potential for Molecular Imaging with PET: Chemistry, Applications and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schirrmacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging—and especially Positron Emission Tomography (PET—is of increasing importance for the diagnosis of various diseases and thus is experiencing increasing dissemination. Consequently, there is a growing demand for appropriate PET tracers which allow for a specific accumulation in the target structure as well as its visualization and exhibit decay characteristics matching their in vivo pharmacokinetics. To meet this demand, the development of new targeting vectors as well as the use of uncommon radionuclides becomes increasingly important. Uncommon nuclides in this regard enable the utilization of various selectively accumulating bioactive molecules such as peptides, antibodies, their fragments, other proteins and artificial structures for PET imaging in personalized medicine. Among these radionuclides, 89Zr (t1/2 = 3.27 days and mean Eβ+ = 0.389 MeV has attracted increasing attention within the last years due to its favorably long half-life, which enables imaging at late time-points, being especially favorable in case of slowly-accumulating targeting vectors. This review outlines the recent developments in the field of 89Zr-labeled bioactive molecules, their potential and application in PET imaging and beyond, as well as remaining challenges.

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  13. An octahedral deformation with six alpha particles at the Z = 12 system, Mg nuclides: Third nucleons, Alpharons

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that the emergence of a large deformation in the magnesium, Mg, nuclides, especially at the Z = 12, N = 12, should be associated with an octahedral deformed shape. Within the framework of molecular geometrical symmetry, we find a possibility that the Z = 12, N = 12 system would form an octahedral structure consisting of six points of alpha(4He) particles, yielding the ground collectivity. With this point of view, we draw the following serial molecular structures; the Z = 10, N = 10, 20Ne, corresponds to a hexahedral, the Z = 8, N = 8, 16O, does to a tetrahedral, and the Z = 6, N = 6, 12C, does to a trigonal symmetry. Moreover, the Z = 2, N = 2, 4He(alpha), fits into a tetrahedral symmetry with four points of nucleons; two protons and two neutrons. The enhanced deformation at Z = 12 with N > 20 would be explained by a deformed shape related to an Ethene(Ethylene)-like skeleton with six alpha particles. The deformation at Z = 10, with N = 10 and 12, can be interpreted as being attributed to a hexahed...

  14. Estimate of the intensities of the radioactive nuclides produced at the super-FRS at the future GSI facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.

    2004-11-01

    The principal goal of the new facility is the construction of a worldwide unique and technically innovative accelerator system that will provide an extensive range of particle beams. Proton and antiproton beams will be available and ion beams of all chemical elements up to uranium will be produced with world-record intensities. The main employ of the high-intensity ion beams is the production of energetic beams of short-lived (radioactive) nuclei, in the following referred to as exotic or Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs). RIBs are produced in nuclear reactions experienced by the primary beams of stable particles. We report on the study of the production of radioactive nuclides and of their propagation through the Super-FRS. The study was performed by means of a nuclear-reaction Monte-Carlo code, ABRABLA, opportunely implemented for the above-described purpose. This work offers an overview of the radioactivity production in the Super-FRS area; the latter is the required starting knowledge for the design of the shielding structure. (orig.)

  15. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-1, 23.76 (11.10–37.10 Bq· kg-1, 96.84 (30.60–229.30 Bq· kg-1 and 28.09 Bq·kg-1 (3.10–61.80 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Both 238U and 232Th have high correlations with ash yield of coals, suggesting their inorganic origins. The overall environmental effect of natural radionuclides in studied coals is considered to be negligible, as assessed by related indexes (i.e., radium equivalent activity, air-adsorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index. However, the absorbed dose rates values are higher than the average value of global primordial radiation and the Chinese natural gamma radiation dose rate.

  16. G4MoNA - A Geant4 Simulation for unbound nuclides detected with MoNA/LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul; Freeman, Jessica; Frank, Nathan; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MoNA Collaboration has conducted a plethora of experiments to study unbound nuclei near the neutron dripline using the invariant mass technique since 2005. These experiments used a variety of secondary beams from the Coupled Cyclotron Facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The experimental setup consists of a large gap superconducting Sweeper magnet for charged fragments separation and the MoNA/LISA neutron detector arrays for neutron detection. Recently, a multi-layered Si/Be segmented target consisting of three 700 mg/cm2 thick 9Be slabs and four 140 μ m Si detectors were added to the setup. This target improves the resolution of the reconstructed decay energy spectra of the unbound nuclides. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was used to develop a complete realistic model of the setup including a new class to treat the decay of unbound nuclei, the Si/Be segmented target, the MoNA/LISA and the charged fragments detector systems. Comparison between simulated and experimental data will be presented. DoENNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  17. IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTAINER MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) AND LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORED AT THE CENTRAL WASTE COMPLEX (CWC) AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-11-14

    The Central Waste Complex (CWC) is the interim storage facility for Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste, transuranic waste, transuranic mixed waste, low-level and low-level mixed radioactive waste at the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The majority of the waste stored at the facility is retrieved from the low-level burial grounds in the 200 West Area at the Site, with minor quantities of newly generated waste from on-site and off-site waste generators. The CWC comprises 18 storage buildings that house 13,000 containers. Each waste container within the facility is scanned into its location by building, module, tier and position and the information is stored in a site-wide database. As waste is retrieved from the burial grounds, a preliminary non-destructive assay is performed to determine if the waste is transuranic (TRU) or low-level waste (LLW) and subsequently shipped to the CWC. In general, the TRU and LLW waste containers are stored in separate locations within the CWC, but the final disposition of each waste container is not known upon receipt. The final disposition of each waste container is determined by the appropriate program as process knowledge is applied and characterization data becomes available. Waste containers are stored within the CWC based on their physical chemical and radiological hazards. Further segregation within each building is done by container size (55-gallon, 85-gallon, Standard Waste Box) and waste stream. Due to this waste storage scheme, assembling waste containers for shipment out of the CWC has been time consuming and labor intensive. Qualitatively, the ratio of containers moved to containers in the outgoing shipment has been excessively high, which correlates to additional worker exposure, shipment delays, and operational inefficiencies. These inefficiencies impacted the LLW Program's ability to meet commitments established by the Tri-Party Agreement, an agreement between the State

  18. Using short-lived nuclides of the U- and Th-series to probe the kinetics of colloid migration in forested soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihs, Sophie; Prunier, Jonathan; Thien, Bruno; Lemarchand, Damien; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Chabaux, François

    2011-12-01

    The recent chemical dynamics of a podzolic forest soil section (from the Strengbach watershed, France) was investigated using U- and Th-series nuclides. Analyses of ( 238U), ( 230Th), ( 226Ra), ( 232Th), ( 228Ra) and ( 228Th) activities in the soil particles, the seepage waters, and the mature leaves of the beech trees growing on this soil were performed by TIMS or gamma spectrometry. The simultaneous analysis of the different soil ( sl) compartments allows to demonstrate that a preferential Th leaching over Ra must be assumed to explain the ( 226Ra/ 230Th), ( 228Ra/ 232Th) and ( 228Th/ 228Ra) disequilibria recorded in the soil particles. The overall Ra- and Th- transfer schemes are entirely consistent with the prevailing acido-complexolysis weathering mechanism in podzols. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) and ( 228Ra/ 232Th) disequilibria measured in the different soil layers enable dating of the contemporary processes occurring in this soil. In this way, we have determined that a preferential Th-leaching from the shallow Ah horizon, due to a strong complexation with organic colloids, began fairly recently (18 years ago at most). The continual increase in pH recorded in precipitations over the last 20 years is assumed to be the cause of this enhanced organic complexation. A lower soil horizon (50-60 cm) is also affected by preferential Th leaching, though lasting over several centuries at least, with a much smaller leaching rate. The migration of Th isotopes through this soil section might hence be used as a tracer for the organic colloids migration and the induced radioactive disequilibria demonstrate to be useful for assessing the colloidal migration kinetics in a forested soil. Ra and Th isotopic ratios also appear to be valuable tracers of some mineral-water-plant interactions occurring in soil. The ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) ratio enables discrimination of the Ra flux originating from leaf degradation from that originating from mineral

  19. Toward precise QEC values for the superallowed 0+→0+ β decays of T=2 nuclides: The masses of Na20, Al24, P28, and Cl32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, C.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Parikh, A.; Wirth, H.-F.; Bishop, S.; Chen, A. A.; Eppinger, K.; García, A.; Krücken, R.; Lepyoshkina, O.; Rugel, G.; Setoodehnia, K.

    2010-05-01

    High-precision measurements of superallowed 0+→0+ β decays of T=2 nuclides such as Mg20, Si24, S28, and Ar32 can contribute to searches for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics if the QEC values are accurate to a few keV or better. As a step toward providing precise QEC values for these decays, the ground-state masses of the respective daughter nuclei Na20, Al24, P28, and Cl32 have been determined by measuring the (He3,t) reactions leading to them with the Ar36(He3,t)K36 reaction as a calibration. A quadrupole-dipole-dipole-dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph was used together with thin ion-implanted carbon-foil targets of Ne20, Mg24, Si28, S32, and Ar36. The masses of Na20 and Cl32 are found to be in good agreement with the values from the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME03) [G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, and C. Thibault, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)], and the precision has been improved by a factor of 6 in both cases. The masses of Al24 and P28 are found to be higher than the values from AME03 by 9.5 keV (3.2σ) and 11.5 keV (3.6σ), respectively, and the precision has been improved by a factor of 2.5 in both cases. The new Cl32 mass is used together with the excitation energy of its lowest T=2 level and the mass of Ar32 to derive an improved superallowed QEC value of 6087.3(22) keV for this case. The effects on quantities related to standard-model tests including the β-ν correlation coefficient a and the isospin-symmetry-breaking correction δC are examined for the A=32 case.

  20. Nickel Foil as Transmutation Detector for Neutron Fluence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupák, Vít; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodová, Zdena; Šoltés, Jaroslav; Tomandl, Ivo; Kudějová, Petra

    2016-02-01

    Activation detectors are very often used for determination of the neutron fluence in reactor dosimetry. However, there are few disadvantages concerning these detectors; it is the demand of the knowledge of the irradiation history and a loss of information due to a radioactive decay in time. Transmutation detectors TMD could be a solution in this case. The transmutation detectors are materials in which stable or long-lived nuclides are produced by nuclear reactions with neutrons. From a measurement of concentration of these nuclides, neutron fluence can be evaluated regardless of the cooling time.

  1. Nickel Foil as Transmutation Detector for Neutron Fluence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klupák Vít

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation detectors are very often used for determination of the neutron fluence in reactor dosimetry. However, there are few disadvantages concerning these detectors; it is the demand of the knowledge of the irradiation history and a loss of information due to a radioactive decay in time. Transmutation detectors TMD could be a solution in this case. The transmutation detectors are materials in which stable or long-lived nuclides are produced by nuclear reactions with neutrons. From a measurement of concentration of these nuclides, neutron fluence can be evaluated regardless of the cooling time.

  2. RESEARCH METHODS FOR EVALUATION ABSORBING AND ACCUMULATING NUCLIDES OF PLANT%植物吸收和富集核素的研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永金; 罗学刚

    2011-01-01

    本文在把植物吸收和富集核素的研究分为监测性研究、机理性研究、修复性研究和胁迫性研究的基础上,从核素的选择与处理、植物的选择、试验方法、评价方法几个方面,归纳讨论了植物吸收和富集核素的研究方法,以期为核素的植物生态修复研究提供一些参考。%This paper reviewed the recent studies on plants absorb and accumulation of nuclides and devided the studies to several aspects such as monitoring,mechanism restoration,and stressing based on their purpose.The paper also summaried the methods for selection and treatment of nuclides,plants preparation,nuclides test and evaluation.

  3. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  4. Quantitating error in blood flow measurements with radioactive microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, R.E. Jr.; Hauck, W.W.; Aldea, G.S.; Flynn, A.E.; Coggins, D.L.; Hoffman, J.I.

    1989-07-01

    Accurate determination of the reproducibility of measurements using the microsphere technique is important in assessing differences in blood flow to different organs or regions within organs, as well as changes in perfusion under various experimental conditions. The sources of error of the technique are briefly reviewed. In addition, we derived a method for combining quantifiable sources of error into a single estimate that was evaluated experimentally by simultaneously injecting eight or nine sets of microspheres (each with a different radionuclide label) into four anesthetized dogs. Each nuclide was used to calculate blood flow in 145-190 myocardial regions. We compared each flow determination (using a single nuclide label) with a weighted mean for the piece (based on the remaining nuclides). The difference was defined as ''measured'' error. In all, there were a total of 5,975 flow observations. We compared measured error with theoretical estimates based on the Poisson error of radioactive disintegration and microsphere entrapment, nuclide separation error, and reference flow error. We found that combined estimates based on these sources completely accounted for measured error in the relative distribution of microspheres. In addition, our estimates of the error in measuring absolute flows (which were established using microsphere reference samples) slightly, but significantly, underestimated measured error in absolute flow.

  5. $\\beta$-Decay Half-Life of the $rp$-Process Waiting Point Nuclide $^{84}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J B; Bazin, D; Becerril, A; Berryman, J S; Crawford, H L; Estrade, A; Guess, C J; Hitt, G W; Lorusso, G; Matos, M; Minamisono, K; Montes, F; Pereira, J; Perdikakis, G; Schatz, H; Smith, K; Zegers, R G T

    2009-01-01

    A half-life of 2.2 $\\pm$ 0.2 s has been deduced for the ground-state $\\beta$ decay of $^{84}$Mo, more than 1$\\sigma$ shorter than the previously adopted value. $^{84}$Mo is an even-even N = Z nucleus lying on the proton dripline, created during explosive hydrogen burning in Type I X-ray bursts in the rapid proton capture ($rp$) process. The effect of the measured half-life on $rp$-process reaction flow is explored. Implications on theoretical treatments of nuclear deformation in $^{84}$Mo are also discussed.

  6. Radioactive sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn daughter nuclides on a paper strip

    CERN Document Server

    Peralta, L; Ortigão, C

    2003-01-01

    The isotope sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn belongs to the sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U decay chain and can be obtained from natural mineral sources. The fact that radon is a gas and its radionuclide daughters get implanted on surrounding materials allows a set of different experiments in radiation physics. These experiments range from isotope decay time measurement to alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy. To solve the radioactive decay chain equations, a simple iterative method is used as an alternative to the exact analytical solution.

  7. The new 6 MV multi-nuclide AMS facility at the University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Kimikazu, E-mail: ksasa@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Masumi; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Satou, Yukihiko; Izumi, Daiki; Sueki, Keisuke

    2015-10-15

    The former accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system installed on the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba was completely destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. A replacement has been designed and constructed at the university as part of the post-quake reconstruction project. It consists of a 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, two multiple cathode AMS ion sources (MC-SNICSs), and a rare-particle detection system. The 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator will be applied not only to AMS, but also to areas such as nanotechnology, ion beam analysis, heavy ion irradiation, and nuclear physics. The rare-particle detection system will be capable of measuring environmental levels of long-lived radioisotopes of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. It is also expected to measure other radioisotopes such as {sup 32}Si and {sup 90}Sr. The 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator was installed in the spring of 2014 at the University of Tsukuba. Routine beam delivery and AMS experiments will start in 2015.

  8. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  9. Accurate masses of neutron-deficient nuclides close to Z=82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. E-mail: schwarz@nscl.msu.edu; Ames, F.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; De Coster, C.; Dilling, J.; Engels, O.; Fossion, R.; Garcia Ramos, J.-E.; Henry, S.; Herfurth, F.; Heyde, K.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; Lamour, E.; Lunney, D.; Martel, I.; Moore, R.B.; Oinonen, M.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Szerypo, J.; Weber, C

    2001-10-22

    Mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN are extended to nonsurface ionizable species using newly developed ion-beam bunching devices. Masses of {sup 179-197}Hg, {sup 196,198}Pb, {sup 197}Bi, {sup 198}Po and {sup 203}At were determined with an accuracy of 1x10{sup -7} corresponding to {delta}m{approx}20 keV. Applying a resolving power of up to 3.7x10{sup 6} ground and isomeric states of {sup 185,187,191,193,197}Hg were separated. First experimental values for the isomeric excitation energy of {sup 187,191}Hg are obtained. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and theoretical approaches are discussed to model the observed fine structure in the binding energy.

  10. Cirques have growth spurts during deglacial and interglacial periods: Evidence from 10Be and 26Al nuclide inventories in the central and eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crest, Y.; Delmas, M.; Braucher, R.; Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.

    2017-02-01

    Cirques are emblematic landforms of alpine landscapes. The statistical distribution of cirque-floor elevations is used to infer glacial equilibrium-line altitude, and the age of their frontal moraines for reconstructing glacial chronologies. Very few studies, however, have sought to measure cirque-floor and supraglacial ridgetop bedrock downwearing rates in order to confront these denudation estimates with theoretical models of Quaternary mountain landscape evolution. Here we use 10Be nuclide samples (n = 36) from moraines, bedrock steps, and supraglacial ridgetops among a population of cirques in the east-central Pyrenees in order to quantify denudation in the landscape and detect whether the mountain topography bears any relevance to the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis. Minimum exposure ages (MEAs) obtained for a succession of moraines spanning the Oldest Dryas to the Holocene produced a deglaciation chronology for three different Pyrenean ranges: Maladeta, Bassiès, and Carlit. Based on a series of corrections, calibrations, and chronostratigraphic tuning procedures, MEAs on ice-polished bedrock exposures were further used to model denudation depths at nested timescales during the Würm, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. Results show that subglacial cirque-floor denudation was lower during glacial periods (Würm: 10 mm/ka) than during deglacial and interglacial periods (tens to hundreds of mm/ka). The relative inefficiency of glacial denudation in the cirque zone during the Würm would have resulted from (i) cold-based and/or (ii) low-gradient glaciers situated in the upper reaches of the icefield; and/or from (iii) glacier-load starvation because of arrested clast supply from supraglacial rockslopes situated in the permafrost zone. Denudation peaked during the Younger Dryas and Holocene glacial advances, a time when cirque glaciers became steeper, warmer-based, and when frost cracking weakened supraglacial ridgetops, thus enhancing subglacial erosion by providing

  11. Are percutaneous transgastric biopsies using 14-,16- and 18-G Tru-Cut needles safe? An experimental study in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan, H.; Incesu, L.; Gunes, M. [Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun (Turkey). Department of Radiology; Ozen, N.; Gumus, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun (Turkey). Department of Surgery

    1998-05-01

    We evaluated perforation, peritonitis and bleeding after 14-, 16-, 18-G Tru-Cut needles were passed through the stomach in an animal model. Insertions were performed on seven anesthetized rabbits with 18-,16-and 14-G needles simulating the clinical technique. Diluted contrast medium with methylene blue (60mL) was administered through a nasogastric tube after the biopsy. Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the upper abdomen was performed 10 minutes after the insertion for leakage. The abdominal contents were inspected by laparotomy. There was no contrast medium leakage outside the gastrointestinal tract on CT images. Neither methylene blue nor other stomach content leakage was identified by laparotomy, even with manual squeezing. A tiny spot of blood was observed on the serosal surface of the stomach with the 18-G needle passes (five cases), whereas a relatively large haematoma was present with 14-G needle (four cases). Six of the rabbits survived and one died due to an inadvertant aortic injury. The results of the study show that transgastric route with an 1 8-G cutting needle can be used without fear of peritonitis and bleeding. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 19 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Eutectic reaction analysis between TRU-50%Zr alloy fuel and HT-9 cladding, and temperature prediction of eutectic reaction under steady-state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok

    2001-02-01

    Blanket fuel assembly for HYPER contains a bundle of pins arrayed in triangular pitch, which has hexagonal bundle structure. The reference blanket fuel pin consists of the fuel slug of TRU-50wt%Zr alloy and the cladding material of ferritic martensite steel, HT-9. Chemical interaction between fuel slug and cladding is one of the major concerns in metallic fuel rod design. The contact of metallic fuel slug and stainless steel cladding in a fuel rod forms a complex multi-component diffusion couple at elevated temperatures. The potential problem of inter-diffusion of fuel and cladding components is essentially two-fold weakening of cladding mechanical strength due to the formation of diffusion zones in the cladding, and the formation of comparatively low melting point phases in the fuel/cladding interface to develop eutectic reaction. The main components of fuel slug are composed of zirconium alloying element in plutonium matrix, including neptunium, americium and uranium additionally. Therefore basic eutectic reaction change of Pu-Fe binary system can be assessed, while it is estimated how much other elements zirconium, uranium, americium and neptunium influence on plutonium phase stability. Afterwards it is needed that eutectic reaction is verified through experimental necessarily.

  13. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  14. High-sensitivity AMS for heavy nuclides at the Munich Tandem accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Wallner, C

    2000-01-01

    During the last years we have aimed at utilizing the high energy achievable at the Munich MP Tandem (TV=14 MV) for maximum sensitivity. One of our interests is the measurements of radionuclides around A=60 ( sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 3 Ni) because of their high scientific potentials. However, in this mass region there are usually strong limitations in sensitivity due to a large isobaric background. Its suppression is performed by means of a gas-filled magnet and a multi DELTA E ionization chamber. A Wien filter and a time-of-flight path allow a further suppression of (non-isobaric) background. The optimization of the setup as a whole yielded detection limits of sup 5 sup 3 Mn/Mn approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 sup 6 sup 3 Ni/Ni approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 and sup 6 sup 0 Fe/Fe approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 6 , which presently cannot be achieved by any other detection method. The overall efficiency (including ion source) is typically 10 sup - sup 5 -10 sup - sup 4. The gas-filled magnet allows an...

  15. Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements and Their Importance for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoš, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, A. M.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Famiano, M.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Lorusso, G.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Wallace, M.

    2009-03-01

    Atomic masses play an important role in nuclear astrophysics. The lack of experimental values for nuclides of interest has triggered a rapid development of new mass measurement devices around the world, including Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass measurements offering an access to the most exotic nuclides. Recently, the TOF-Brho technique that includes a position measurement for magnetic rigidity correction has been implemented at the NSCL. An experiment with a similar TOF-Brho technique is approved and planned at the next generation radioactive beam facility (RIBF) at RIKEN.

  16. Insights on the post-seismic geomorphological response to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake from detrital cosmogenic nuclides data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Godard, Vincent; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Scherler, Dirk; Xu, Chong; Xu, Quiang; Xie, Kejia; Bellier, Olivier; Ansberque, Claire; de Sigoyer, Julia; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    In high-relief mountain ranges bounded by reverse faults, large-magnitude earthquakes can contribute to topographic growth by co- and inter-seismic surface uplift of the hanging wall; meanwhile, earthquakes can also lower relief by causing erosion through extensive landslides. Quantifying evacuation process of co-seismic landslides material is central to our understanding of mass redistribution at the earth surface and the evolution of active mountain ranges. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Shan range of eastern Tibet provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate such direct impact. Cosmogenic nuclides concentrations in river sands are diluted by the input of low-concentration landslide debris materials after the earthquake (West et al., 2014), and we document the evolution 10Be concentrations in quartz for several years after the Wenchuan earthquake to trace the routing processes of co-seismic landslides. Over the 2008-2013 period we collected river sand samples at 19 locations annually along the rivers that flow through the rupture zone. When compared with published pre-earthquake data, our results show that the 10Be concentration in river sand declined dramatically after the earthquake at all sampling sites. Meanwhile, multi-year time series of 10Be concentration at single sites present roughly constant level of dilution with moderate fluctuations. Our analyses indicate that the 10Be dilution amplitude is closely controlled by local catchment slope and landslide density, rather than by the location of landslides with respect to sampling sites. The perturbation we observed for 10Be concentrations in the 0.25~1 mm size fraction appears to be sustained over the timescale of our survey with no clear relaxation, which is consistent with independent results from suspended sediment analysis (Wang et al., 2015).

  17. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  18. New Insights on Long Term Geomagnetic Moment Variation from Cosmogenic Nuclide and Paleointensity Signatures along Ocean Sediment Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Valet, J. P.; Bassinot, F. C.; Ménabréaz, L.; Simon, Q.; Demory, F.; Valery, G.; Vidal, L.; Beaufort, L.; de Garidel-Thoron, T.

    2015-12-01

    Some numerical and experimental simulations suggest that precession might supply enough power to influence planetary dynamos. The demonstration of a causal relationship between the Earth's orbital motion and variations of the geomagnetic field intensity, would open interesting perspective for modelling the past and future geomagnetic field behaviour and its eventual relationships to past and future orbitally constrained, climatic changes. Although pristine geomagnetic signals can be extracted by filtering and stacking multiple normalized intensity records, the reconstruction of high resolution geomagnetic field variations still raises questions. Namely, significant variance at orbital frequencies in relative paleointensity (RPI) records are generally considered as clues of residual contamination by paleoclimatically induced variations of magnetic carriers size ranges or mineralogy. Such questions can be adressed using other indicators of the geomagnetic dipole moment variation, such as the cosmogenic production modulated by the magnetospheric shielding. During the MAGORB project (ANR-09-BLAN-053-001) cosmogenic nuclide geochemistry, d18O, and paleomagnetic records were constructed along thick clayey-carbonate sequences deposited in the equatorial pacific and indian oceans over the last million of years. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio and RPI variations generally exhibit similar ranges of oscillations. However significant offsets appear between some RPI lows and their corresponding 10Be/9Be peaks, suggesting delayed lock-in of the remanent magnetization. After transfer on time scales the new geomagnetic moment series can be compared with the PISO-1500 and SINT-2000 stacks, and with the 10Be ice core record of EPICA Dome C. These new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio records provide new opportunities to: 1) assess the validity of high resolution RPI records, 2) evaluate address the question of the presence of orbital periods in the paleo-field geomagnetic spectrum, and 3) to

  19. Extracting dynamic topography from river profiles and cosmogenic nuclide geochronology in the Middle Atlas and the High Plateaus of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Alvar; Babault, Julien; Owen, Lewis A.; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, María-Luisa

    2015-11-01

    The Moulouya river system has intensely eroded the Arhbalou, Missour, and Guercif Neogene foreland basins in northeastern Morocco, having changed from net aggradation during the Miocene-early Pliocene to net incision punctuated by alluvial fan deposition at late Pliocene or early Quaternary time. This region as a whole has experienced mantle-driven, surface uplift (dynamic topography) since the late Cenozoic, being locally affected by uplift due to crustal shortening and thickening of the Middle Atlas too. Knickpoints located along the major streams of the Moulouya fluvial network, appear on both the undeformed margins of the Missour and Guercif foreland basins (High Plateaus), as well as along the thrust mountain front of the southern Middle Atlas, where they reach heights of 800-1000 m. 500-550 m of the knickpoint vertical incision might be explained by long-wavelength mantle-driven dynamic surface uplift, whereas the remaining 450-500 m in the southern Middle Atlas front and 200-300 m in the northeastern Middle Atlas front seem to be thrust-related uplift of the Jebel Bou Naceur. Be-10 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides have been used to date two Quaternary river terraces in the Chegg Ard valley at 62 ± 14 ka and 411 ± 55 ka. The dated terraces allow the incision rates associated with the frontal structures of the Middle Atlas to be estimated at ~ 0.3 mm yr- 1. Furthermore, these ages have served to evaluate mantle-driven regional surface uplift since the middle Pleistocene in the central Missour basin, yielding values of ~ 0.1-0.2 mm yr- 1.

  20. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  1. Simulation of radio nuclide migration in crystalline rock under influence of matrix diffusion and sorption kinetics: Code development and pre-assessment of migration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerman, A.; Xu Shulan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences

    1996-04-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to illuminate how spatial variability in rock chemistry in combination with spatial variability in matrix diffusion affects the radio nuclide migration along single fractures in crystalline rock. Models for ground water flow and transport of radio nuclides in a single fracture with micro-fissures have been formulated on the basis of generally accepted physical and chemical principles. Limits for the validity of the models are stated. The model equations are solved by combining finite differences and finite element methods in a computer code package. The computational package consists of three parts, namely, a stochastic field generator, a sub-program that solves the flow problem and a sub-program that solves the transport problem in a single fracture with connecting micro-fissures. Migration experiments have been pre-assessed by simulations of breakthrough curves for a constant concentration change at the upstream boundary. Breakthrough curves are sensitive to variations of parameters, such as, fracture aperture, porosity, distribution coefficient and advection velocity. The impact of matrix diffusion and sorption is manifested in terms of a retention of radionuclides causing a prolonged breakthrough. Heterogeneous sorption was characterized with a variable distribution coefficient for which the coefficient of variation CV(K{sub d})=1 and the integral scale of an exponential covariance function is one tenth of the drill core`s length. Simulated breakthrough curves for the heterogeneous sorption case have a relative variance of 3% in comparison to that of homogeneous case. An appropriate experimental set up for investigation of the effect of matrix diffusion and sorption on radio nuclide migration experiments would be an aperture less than 1 mm and porosity larger than 0.5%. 36 refs, 19 figs.

  2. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room%DSA室应用放射性核素的防护与护理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂敏

    2009-01-01

    探讨DSA室核素的防护与护理管理.方法 回顾应用放射性核素~(125)I粒子防护上作及护理管理情况.结果 建立核素防护DSA室规范性管理,主要管理模式有人员管理、业务技能专业化管理、放射性药品及废弃物的管理、做好术前健康宣教等.结论 使患者在DSA室接受良好的核素治疗,在得到良好治疗的同时,也保护了工作环境,培养了一批专业护理人员.%Objective To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods The clinical state of the protection of radioactive ~(131)I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained.

  3. 基于支持向量机的快速核素识别方法研究%The Study of Fast Nuclide Identification Method with SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先博; 张晖

    2014-01-01

    针对传统γ能谱核素识别算法在较低放射性水平下的情况下存在核素识别慢,对相干核素识别效果差的问题,基于统计学习理论提出了基于支持向量机的快速核素识别方法。本方法一方面通过对峰位确定方法改进来提高特征量提取的精确度,去除γ能谱中重叠峰对相干核素识别中的影响,另一方面使用支持向量机方法实现核素的快速分类。通过与传统方法的比对,新方法在识别相干核素方面达到了很好的识别效果。%Nuclide identification algorithm for energy spectrum at low level radioactive nuclide identification exits slow, poor re-sults on coherent radionuclide identification problem.based on statistical learning theory proposed based on support vector ma-chine quick radionuclide identification method. By this method one hand, spectrum data smoothing, peak position to determine ways to improve to improve the accuracy of feature extraction, removal of overlapping peaks in spectra for radionuclide identifica-tion of coherent effects, on the other hand using the support vector machine approach to nuclear prime fast classification. By com-parison with the traditional methods, the new method in identifying coherent nuclide has reached a good recognition results.

  4. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model; Probabilidades y energias de reestructuracion atomica subsiguientes a la captura electronica. Modelo KLMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-07-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  5. 荧光镜检技术(TruScreen)联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌的临床研究%Clinical research on fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 叶青丽; 李忠; 李志玲; 陈改元; 唐莉; 陈素容; 李茜; 卢硕懿

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光镜检技术(TruScreen)联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌的诊断价值.方法 将500例宫颈癌筛查者依次进行TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片检查、宫颈巴氏涂片和阴道镜下宫颈活检,将病理结果与TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片和宫颈巴氏涂片结果进行对照分析.结果 TruScreen和巴氏涂片阳性分别为63例和49例,病理检查阳性为46例,TruScre en与巴氏涂片检测CIN的敏感度分别为95.65%和80.43%,特异度分别为62.75%和76.47%,差异有显著性(P< 0.05).结论 TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌具有准确率高的特点.%Objective To explore diagnostic value of the fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening.Methods 500 women with cervical cancer screening were examined by TruScreen combined with pap smear screening,contraposed by the histology biopsy,and the difference of the two cytological examinations and the pathological examination were analyzed.Results The positive of TruScreen and cervix pap smear was 63 cases and 49 cases,the pathological examination was 46 cases,the sensitivity of CIN TruScreen and cervix pap smear were 95.65% and 80.43% respectively,and the specificity were 62.75% and 76.47% respectively,with statistical significant difference(P < 0.05).Conclusion The fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening has an advantage of high accuracy rate.

  6. alpha-decay spectroscopy of light odd-odd Bi isotopes - II sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Bi and the new nuclide sup 1 sup 8 sup 4 Bi

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, A N; Ackermann, D; Münzenberg, G; Hessberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Kojouharov, I; Kindler, B; Lommel, B; Huyse, M; Vel, K V D; Duppen, P V; Heyde, Kris L G

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-decay of the new nuclide sup 1 sup 8 sup 4 Bi has been studied in the complete-fusion reaction sup 9 sup 3 Nb( sup 9 sup 4 Mo, 3n) sup 1 sup 8 sup 4 Bi at the velocity filter SHIP. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight and subsequently identified on the basis of recoil-alpha, recoil-alpha-gamma analysis and excitation functions measurements. Two alpha-decaying isomeric states in sup 1 sup 8 sup 4 Bi with half-life values of 13(2) ms and 6.6(1.5) ms were identified. The alpha-branching ratio of sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Tl was deduced for the first time as b subalpha = (2-12)%. Improved data on the fine-structure alpha-decay of sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Bi were obtained in the sup 9 sup 3 Nb( sup 9 sup 5 Mo, 2n) sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Bi reaction. A similarity of the decay energies and half-life values of sup 1 sup 8 sup 4 sup , sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Bi is pointed out and a possible explanation for this effect is suggested.

  7. Measurement of very low alpha activity in water; Medida de muy baja actividad alfa en aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, M. T.; Acena, M. L.

    1987-07-01

    Measurement of very low levels of alpha-emitting nuclides in water needs substantial improvements. A system based on the adsorbing properties manganese dioxide eliminates the need for transporting very large volumes of water and increases the sensitivity of the measurement. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields. [TX, for calculating delayed neutron yields; MATINV, for matrix inversion; in FORTRAN for LSI-II minicomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of /sup 232/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242m/Am, /sup 245/Cm, and /sup 249/Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from /sup 232/Th to /sup 252/Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables.

  9. Work plan for improving the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation of nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Axel; Vaglio-Gaudard, Claire; Martin, Julie-Fiona; Noguère, Gilles; Eschbach, Romain

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN2.3 is the reference package used for fuel cycle applications in France. It solves the Boltzmann and Bateman equations in a coupling way, with the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, to compute the fuel cycle values of interest. It includes both deterministic transport codes APOLLO2 (for light water reactors) and ERANOS2 (for fast reactors), and the DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code, each of them being developed by CEA/DEN with the support of its industrial partners. The DARWIN2.3 package has been experimentally validated for pressurized and boiling water reactors, as well as for sodium fast reactors; this experimental validation relies on the analysis of post-irradiation experiments (PIE). The DARWIN2.3 experimental validation work points out some isotopes for which the depleted concentration calculation can be improved. Some other nuclides have no available experimental validation, and their concentration calculation uncertainty is provided by the propagation of a priori nuclear data uncertainties. This paper describes the work plan of studies initiated this year to improve the accuracy of the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation concerning some nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle.

  10. Applying ISO 11929:2010 Standard to detection limit calculation in least-squares based multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectrum evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisch, G.

    2017-05-01

    The concepts of ISO 11929 (2010) are applied to evaluation of radionuclide activities from more complex multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectra. From net peak areas estimated by peak fitting, activities and their standard uncertainties are calculated by weighted linear least-squares method with an additional step, where uncertainties of the design matrix elements are taken into account. A numerical treatment of the standard's uncertainty function, based on ISO 11929 Annex C.5, leads to a procedure for deriving decision threshold and detection limit values. The methods shown allow resolving interferences between radionuclide activities also in case of calculating detection limits where they can improve the latter by including more than one gamma line per radionuclide. The co"mmon single nuclide weighted mean is extended to an interference-corrected (generalized) weighted mean, which, combined with the least-squares method, allows faster detection limit calculations. In addition, a new grouped uncertainty budget was inferred, which for each radionuclide gives uncertainty budgets from seven main variables, such as net count rates, peak efficiencies, gamma emission intensities and others; grouping refers to summation over lists of peaks per radionuclide.

  11. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  12. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes; Radioactivites eteintes a courtes periodes dans les meteorites et evolution precoce du systeme solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussidon, M. [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CRPG-CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gounelle, M. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Lab. d' Etude de la Matiere Extra-Terrestre (LEME), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-11-15

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53 days), {sup 10}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 1.5 Ma), {sup 26}Al (T{sub 1/2} = 0.74 Ma), {sup 36}Cl (T{sub 1/2} = 0.3 Ma), {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 0.1 Ma), {sup 53}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 3.7 Ma) and {sup 60}Fe (T{sub 1/2} = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl for irradiation scenario and {sup 60}Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  13. Overview of the JYFLTRAP mass measurements and high-precision -values for weak interaction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Eronen; Jyfltrap

    2010-08-01

    The JYFLTRAP Penning trap set-up at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, is a Penning trap facility that has provided high-precision atomic mass values for short-lived nuclides since 2003. Until now, masses of more than 250 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Since JYFLTRAP is coupled to the chemically insensitive IGISOL mass separator, any element can be accessed. So far, a huge mass surface extending from magnesium ( = 12) to lead ( = 82) has been covered.

  14. Mass measurements of neutron-deficient radionuclides near the end-point of the rp-process with SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Di, Z.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Mukherjee, M.; Rahaman, S.; Rauth, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Audi, G. [IN2P3-CNRS UPS, CSNSM, Orsay Campus (France); Blaum, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes-Gutenberg-Universtitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Chaudhuri, A.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universtitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Greifswald (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Vorobjev, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Ferrer, R.; Weber, C. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universtitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Habs, D.; Neumayr, J.B.; Thirolf, P.G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Physik der, Garching (Germany); Kluge, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yu. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Plass, W. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Rodriguez, D. [IN2P3, LPC-ENSICAEN, Caen Cedex (France); Scheidenberger, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Direct mass measurements of nuclides near to the supposed end-point region of the astrophysical rp-process were performed at SHIPTRAP, the Penning trap mass spectrometer at GSI Darmstadt. The masses of 24 nuclides were measured with relative uncertainties between 5.10{sup -8} and 2.10{sup -7}. Three of them, {sup 107}Sb, {sup 111}I and {sup 112}I, were determined experimentally for the first time. The data analysis and mass evaluation are presented in detail. (orig.)

  15. High-precision mass measurements in the rare-earth region to investigate the proton-neutron interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Schwarz, S; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M; Litvinov, Y

    We propose precision mass measurements on a series of short-lived nuclides for the investigation of proton-neutron interactions and two neutron separation energies and their role in nuclear structure, especially concerning deformation and collectivity. The nuclides include neutron-rich Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, and Yb isotopes, as well as $^{186}$Hf. The investigations will require the Penning trap mass-spectrometer ISOLTRAP which routinely reaches the necessary mass precision of about 10 keV. The measurements are planned for a period of two years and include a request for the test of the RILIS scheme of Sm.

  16. Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G

    1988-03-01

    The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition.

  17. 1{sup st} annual workshop proceedings of the collaborative project ''Fast/instant release of safety relevant radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel'' (7{sup th} EC FP CP FIRST-Nuclides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Duro, Lara; Valls, Alba (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The EURATOM FP7 Collaborative Project ''Fast / Instant Release of Safety Relevant Radionuclides from Spent Nuclear Fuel (CP FIRST-Nuclides)'' started in January 1, 2012 and extends over 3 years. The European nuclear waste management organisations contributing to the Technology Platform ''Implementing Geological Disposal (IGD-TP)'' considered the fast / instant release of safety relevant radionuclides from high burn-up spent nuclear fuel as one of the key topics in the deployment plan. For this reason, the CP FIRST-Nuclides deals with understanding the behaviour of high burn-up uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) spent nuclear fuels in deep geological repositories. The fast / instant release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel was investigated in a series of previous European. In addition, there were several studies mainly of the French research programs that investigated and quantified the rapid. However, several important issues are still open and consequently, the CP FIRST-Nuclides aims on covering this deficiency of knowledge, determining, for example, the ''instant release fraction (IRF)'' values of iodine, chlorine, carbon and selenium that are still largely unknown. Fuel elements from different Light Water Reactors (LWRs), with different enrichments, burn-up and average power rates need to be disposed of in Europe. This waste type represents one of the sources for the release of radionuclides after loss of integrity of a disposed canister. The quantification of time dependent release of radionuclides from spent high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel is required for safety analyses. The first release fraction consists of radionuclides in gaseous form, and those showing a high solubility in groundwater. LWRs use conventional oxide fuels with initial enrichments of up to 5 wt.% {sup 235}U for reaching average burn-up of ≤ 60 GWd/t{sub HM}. During the use of UO{sub 2} in a reactor, a significantly higher burn-up takes

  18. Use of U-series nuclides to constrain sediments transfer-times in the alluvial plains: example of the Ganges and Bramaputra river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Blaes, Estelle; Stille, Peter; France-Lanord, Christian; Dosseto, Antony

    2010-05-01

    U-series nuclides have the potential to bring important information on the transfer time of sediments in the alluvial plains. This is a consequence of the dual property of these nuclides 1) to be fractionated during physical denudation and chemical weathering processes and 2) to have radioactive decay periods of the same order of magnitude as the time-scales of these processes (e.g. Chabaux et al., 2003b, 2008). We have illustrated such a potential with the analysis of U-series disequilibria in sediments collected in the Ganges and Bramaputra river basin. The approach relies on the analysis of U-series in river sediments collected along the streams. Indeed, as illustrated in Granet et al. (2007), in large alluvial plains where sediments are only transferred and not affected by additional inputs of new weathering products from fresh rocks, the intensity of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in river sediments will only depend on two parameters: (a) the duration of the transfer including the time spent in soils and in the river, and (b) the nature and the intensity of U-Th fractionations occurring in sediments during their transfer into alluvial plains. Recovering time information from the variation of U-Th disequilibria in such sediments requires therefore the use of realistic models accounting for the U-Th fractionation of sediments during their transfers into the plain. From the data, it is proposed for the Ganges and Bramaputra river sediments, that the main U-Th fractionation process is connected with the sediment weathering during their transit and storage in the plain. In this case the U-Th variation in sediments along the two main rivers lead to quite long sediment transfer time in the alluvial plains, of 100-150 ky for Bramaputra plain and of 400 or 500 ky for the Ganges river. Chabaux F., Riotte J., Dequincey O. (2003) U-Th-Ra fractionation during weathering and river transport, Rev Mineral. Geochem. 52, 533-576. Chabaux, F., Bourdon, B., Riotte, J., 2008. U

  19. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors describe the activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR’s National Metrology Laboratory on a solution of the pure beta emitting Radio nuclide phosphorus-32 that formed part of an international key comparison. Depending on the production...

  20. Field test of nuclide migration in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. Cooperative research program on field migration test between CIRP and JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhiwen; Cui Anxi; Gu Cunli [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    A field test was jointly conducted by China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to explore moisture movement with Br{sup -} and migration of radioactive tracer {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 90}Sr in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. The test ran under two rainfall conditions, the artificial rainfall with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d and 5 mm/hr, and the natural rainfall. Tracing test of Br{sup -} implies that there does have water going through the bentonite specimen. However, the curves are very complex and further work need be conducted to quantify this movement. {sup 238}Pu has no observable movement during the test period under either rainfall conditions, and {sup 237}Np has very short movement dominated by diffusion. Bentonite-based materials are effective to retard nuclide migration. (author)

  1. The deep accumulation of 10Be at Utsira, southwestern Norway: Implications for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating in peripheral ice sheet landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Jason P.; Goehring, Brent M.; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge

    2016-09-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is a widely used method for constraining past ice sheet histories. We scrutinize a recently published data set of cosmogenic 10Be data from erratic boulders in Norway used to constrain the deglaciation of the western Scandinavian Ice Sheet to 20 ka. Our model of the 10Be inventory in glacial surfaces leads us to conclude that the chronology may be afflicted by the deep subsurface accumulation of 10Be during long-lasting ice-free periods that resulted in 10Be ages >10% too old. We suggest that the majority of the dated erratic boulders contain a uniform level of inherited muon-produced 10Be and were derived from bedrock depths >2.5 m and most likely ~4 m. The implication of our finding is that for landscapes that experience long ice-free periods between brief maximum glacial phases, glacial erosion of >5 m is required to remove detectable traces of inherited 10Be.

  2. Comparison of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression between primary non-small cell lung cancer and paired lymph node metastases: implications for targeted nuclide radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression in metastases of NSCLC was limited. In receptor-mediated targeted nuclide radiotherapy, tumor cells are killed with delivered radiation and therapeutic efficiency is mainly dependent on the receptor expression. Thus, the level and stability of receptor expression in both primary tumors and corresponding metastases is crucial in the assessment of a receptor as target. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR is suitable as target for clinical therapy. Methods Expression of EGFR was investigated immunohistochemically in paired samples of lymph node metastases and corresponding NSCLC primary lesions (n = 51. EGFR expression was scored as 0, 1+, 2+ or 3+. Results Positive (1+, 2+ or 3+ EGFR immunostaining was evident in 36 of 47 (76.6% analysed NSCLC primary tumors, and in 78.7% of the corresponding lymph node metastases. When EGFR expression is classified as positive or negative, discordance between the primary tumors and the corresponding metastases was observed in 5 cases (10.6%. EGFR overexpression (2+ or 3+ was found in 53.2% (25/47 of the NSCLC primary tumors and 59.6% of the corresponding metastases. Nine out of the 47 paired samples (19.2% were discordant: Only three patients who had EGFR overexpression in the primary tumors showed EGFR downregulation (0 or 1+ in lymph node metastases, while six patients changed the other way around. Conclusions The EGFR expression in the primary tumor and the corresponding metastasis is discordant in about 10% of the patients. When overexpression is considered, the discordance is observed in about 20% of the cases. However, concerning EGFR overexpression in the primary tumors, similar expression in the metastases could be predicted with a reasonably high probability, which is encouraging for testing of EGFR targeted nuclide radiotherapy.

  3. Origin, structure and exposure history of a wave-cut platform more than 1 Ma in age at the coast of northern Spain: A multiple cosmogenic nuclide approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Hetzel, R.; Niedermann, S.; Menéndez, R.; Marquínez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Along the Asturian coast of northern Spain an uplifted wave-cut platform extends for ˜ 100 km east-west. The steep cliff which bounds the gently seaward-dipping platform to the north increases in height from 30 m in the west to 100 m in the east and reflects the overall eastward increase in platform elevation. The southern edge of the 2-4 km-wide platform runs along the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains, as constrained by a high-resolution digital elevation model. The marine platform, which was carved into deformed Paleozoic bedrock with abundant quartzite beds, is largely covered by weathered marine and continental sediments. Quartzite samples from flat bedrock outcrops which are currently not covered by sediment or soil yield cosmogenic nuclide concentrations ( 21Ne, 10Be and 26Al) that demonstrate a long and complex exposure history, including periods of burial with partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. The combination of multiple cosmogenic nuclides yields a minimum age of 1-2 Ma for the platform. Taking into account (i) the horizontal and vertical extent of the platform, (ii) the high resistance to erosion of the quartzitic bedrock, and (iii) published data on the magnitude of past sea level fluctuations, we suggest that the wave-cut platform formed in the Pliocene. Subvertical faults cutting the platform at high angles to the coastline offset the southern edge of the platform by 20 to 40 m and reactivate the pre-existing anisotropy in the Paleozoic bedrock. Uplift and crustal deformation of the coastal region have occurred after platform formation in the Pliocene and may still be active. The slow deformation of the northern edge of the Iberian plate including the Cantabrian Mountains may result from the ongoing slow convergence at an incipient subduction zone extending along the coast of northern Spain.

  4. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful

  5. Method of Gas Filled Time of Flight in AMS Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Isobaric interference is the main problem to be overcome in determination the long-livedradioisotopes. Energy loss method was used to measurement of these nuclides, but in the low energyaccelerator, the △E-E method is limited. In order to improve the power of isobaric identification in theaccelerator mass spectrometric measurements, a gas-filled time-of-flight (GF-TOF) spectrometric detectorhas been designed and set up.

  6. Extinction of the N=20 neutron-shell closure for 32Mg examined by direct mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, A; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Gwinner, G; Kwiatkowski, A A; Lennarz, A; Lunney, D; Macdonald, T D; Schultz, B E; Simon, M C; Simon, V V; Dilling, J

    2013-01-01

    The 'island of inversion' around $^{32}$Mg is one of the most important paradigm for studying the disappearance of the stabilizing 'magic' of a shell closure. We present the first Penning-trap mass measurements of the exotic nuclides $^{29-31}$Na and $^{30-34}$Mg, which allow a precise determination of the empirical shell gap for $^{32}$Mg. The new value of 1.10(3) MeV is the lowest observed shell gap for any nuclide with a canonical magic number.

  7. 原地生成宇宙成因核素在地学研究中的应用%Applications of in-situ Cosmogenic Nuclides in Earth Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静; 刘宇平; 杜谷; 李建忠; 高永娟

    2012-01-01

    传统测年方法(14C、热释光、光释光等)无法直接测量地貌面或基岩面的形成年代,利用宇宙生成核素定出的年代可以直接计算地质、地貌体的暴露年代和埋藏时代.随着测量仪器的长足进步,特别是加速器质谱(AMS)检出限(可测至106原子)的大幅度提高,原地生成宇宙成因核素定年技术给地貌学带来了革命性的变化,因此宇宙生成核素被广泛应用于古气候学、构造地质学、火山年代学及古地磁学等.本文阐释了原地生成宇宙核素定年方法的基本原理,并在地学领域应用的现有基础上,从冰川、断层、阶地等研究对象出发,以沉积物埋藏年龄、地表侵蚀速率、断层滑动速率等为研究内容,具体描述该定年技术在冰川地貌、构造地貌、地貌过程及地貌演化研究中的国内外研究现状,以及应用中尚待解决的诸如核素产生速率与空间、时间关系;样品地质、地貌条件对结果造成的不确定性等问题.%Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) techniques can directly measure surface exposure ages and burial events but traditional 14C dating, thermoluminescence dating, luminescence dating, etc cannot. In addition, the rapid progress of measuring instrumentation accuracy and precision, especially the detection limit of Accelerated Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has greatly improved to 106 atoms. Therefore, TCN dating techniques have led to a revolutionary change, prompting increasing use in the nuclide earth sciences of paleoclimatology, structural geology, tephrochronology and paleomagnetism, for example. In this paper, the principles of TCN are briefly introduced. Based on existing applications, it describes the present field of burial age, erosion rate and faultslip rate for the glacier, fault slip and terrace, etc.. Current research work and problems in several specific earth science areas including glacial geomorphology, tectonic geomorphology

  8. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  9. The measurement test of uranium in a uranium-contaminated waste by passive gamma-rays measurement method

    CERN Document Server

    Sukegawa, Y; Ohki, K; Suzuki, S; Yoshida, M

    2002-01-01

    This report is completed about the measurement test and the proofreading of passive gamma - rays measurement method for Non - destructive assay of uranium in a uranium-contaminated waste. The following are the results of the test. 1) The estimation of the amount of uranium by ionization survey meter is difficult for low intensity of gamma-rays emitted from uranium under about 50g. 2) The estimation of the amount of uranium in the waste by NaI detector is possible in case of only uranium, but the estimation from mixed spectrums with transmission source (60-cobalt) is difficult to confirm target peaks. 3) If daughter nuclides of uranium and thorium chain of uranium ore exist, measurement by NaI detector is affected by gamma-rays from the daughter nuclides seriously-As a result, the estimation of the amount of uranium is difficult. 4) The measurement of uranium in a uranium-contaminated waste by germanium detector is possible to estimate of uranium and other nuclides. 5) As to estimation of the amount of uranium...

  10. Measurement of the (gamma,n) reaction rates of the nuclides 190Pt, 192Pt, and 198Pt in the astrophysical gamma-process

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, K; Babilon, M; Enders, J; Hartmann, T; Hutter, C; Rauscher, T; Volz, S; Zilges, A

    2001-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of heavy neutron-deficient nuclei in a stellar photon bath at the temperatures relevant for the astrophysical gamma process was investigated. In order to derive (gamma,n) cross sections and reaction rates, the stellar photon bath was simulated by the superposition of several bremsstrahlung spectra with different endpoint energies. As a first test for this method, the (gamma,n) reaction rates of the platinum isotopes 190Pt, 192Pt, and 198Pt were derived. The results are compared to other experimental data and theoretical calculations.

  11. Simulation of decay processes and radiation transport times in radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Bé, M.-M.; Dulieu, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Salvat, F.

    2017-04-01

    The Fortran subroutine package PENNUC, which simulates random decay pathways of radioactive nuclides, is described. The decay scheme of the active nuclide is obtained from the NUCLEIDE database, whose web application has been complemented with the option of exporting nuclear decay data (possible nuclear transitions, branching ratios, type and energy of emitted particles) in a format that is readable by the simulation subroutines. In the case of beta emitters, the initial energy of the electron or positron is sampled from the theoretical Fermi spectrum. De-excitation of the atomic electron cloud following electron capture and internal conversion is described using transition probabilities from the LLNL Evaluated Atomic Data Library and empirical or calculated energies of released X rays and Auger electrons. The time evolution of radiation showers is determined by considering the lifetimes of nuclear and atomic levels, as well as radiation propagation times. Although PENNUC is designed to operate independently, here it is used in conjunction with the electron-photon transport code PENELOPE, and both together allow the simulation of experiments with radioactive sources in complex material structures consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The reliability of these simulation tools is demonstrated through comparisons of simulated and measured energy spectra from radionuclides with complex multi-gamma spectra, nuclides with metastable levels in their decay pathways, nuclides with two daughters, and beta plus emitters.

  12. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Saito, Makina [Beamline Spectroscopy/Scattering Group, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-02-24

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  13. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs (Zwicky Consulting GmbH, Remigen (Switzerland)); Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  14. The behavior of the uranium decay chain nuclides and thorium during the flank eruptions of Kilauea (Hawaii) between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinitz, I.M.; Turekian, K.K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The concentrations of members of the {sup 238}U decay chain and {sup 232}Th have been determined for the lavas that erupted on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (Puu Oo) between January 1983 and January 1985. There was a decrease during the first 180 days in the abundances of all nuclides, following the behavior of the incompatible elements. ({sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U) varies with ({sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U) yielding a batch process age for the source magma of 127,800 {plus minus} 28,500 (2{omega}) y, similar to East Pacific Rise basalts. No ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium was evident at Puu Oo although Haleakala and Loihi show significant excesses of ({sup 226}Ra) over ({sup 230}Th). The initial ({sup 210}Pb) excess relative to ({sup 226}Ra) implies strong incompatibility of {sup 210}Pb probably with the help of chloride complexing, and the deficiency in later episodes indicates volatilization from the melt mediated by the formation of volatile chloride compounds.

  15. 加速器驱动洁净核能系统中的燃耗行为分析%Analysis of Evolution of the Nuclides of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊胜; 赵志祥; 丁大钊

    2001-01-01

    研究了加速器驱动洁净核能系统(ADS)次临界反应堆内核素的演化。分析结果表明:ADS具有嬗变长寿命核废物的能力。从快堆和热堆的比较可知,ADS的快堆具有输出功率大、长寿命超铀放射性废物的累积水平低、裂变产物对反应堆反应性和能量增益影响小等优点。这些优点在利用U-Pu燃料循环的次临界堆中十分明显。对于利用Th-U燃料循环的次临界堆,热堆和快堆都是可以工作的;而对于U-Pu燃料循环的系统,快堆则是较好的选择。%This work concerns in the evolution of the nuclides in thesub-critical reactor of ADS.The analysis results indicate that the long-life nuclear waster can be transmutated in the ADS.The comparison between thermal and fast ADS demonstrate that the fast ADS has large power output,less minor actinide production and small fission products poisoning effect compared with thermal system.

  16. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides; Modelo de cuatro capas para calcular la eficiencia de deteccion en nucleidos que se desintegran por captura electronica pura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Fernandez Martinez, A.

    1985-07-01

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Three L-subshells atomic model to compute counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides; Modelo con tres subcapas L para calcular la eficiencia de recuento de nucleidos que se desintegran por captura electronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, A.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1986-07-01

    The present paper develops a three L-subshell a and K, M-a hells atomic model in order to obtain the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting. Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of 264 different atomic rearrangement way so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit to test the influence of the different atomic and nuclear parameters upon the counting efficiency nuclides of low and medium atomic number decaying by electron capture. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. 36Cl terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating suggests Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene mass movements on the south face of Aconcagua mountain and in the Las Cuevas–Horcones valleys, Central Andes, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanns, Reginald; Fauque, Luis; Wilson, Carlos GW

    2014-01-01

    The morphology, sedimentology and mineralogy of deposits that previously had been associated with glacial advances (the Penitentes, Horcones and Almacenes drifts) were reinvestigated and dated using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) 36Cl. These results indicate that the deposits previously associated with the Horcones and Almacenes drifts are actually deposits of a rock slope failure from the southern face of Aconcagua mountain forming a debris–ice avalanche that were deposited 10 490±...

  19. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, I.; Grimberg, A.; David, J.-C.; Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J.; Zanini, L.; Noah, E.

    2016-07-01

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for 3H of 2-3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  20. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurebayashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sakurai, H., E-mail: sakurail@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Doshita, N. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, F. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Horiuchi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Tajima, Y. [Institute of Arts and Sciences, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Oe, T. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sato, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Gunji, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Inui, E. [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kondo, K. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Iwata, N. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sasaki, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Kunieda, S. [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-1195, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10{sup –9} PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10{sup 13} was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  1. β-decay half-life of the rp-process waiting-point nuclide Mo84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, J. B.; Mantica, P. F.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Berryman, J. S.; Crawford, H. L.; Estrade, A.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Perdikakis, G.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2009-01-01

    A half-life of 2.2 ± 0.2 s has been deduced for the ground-state β decay of Mo84, more than 1σ shorter than the previously adopted value. Mo84 is an even-even N=Z nucleus lying on the proton dripline, created during explosive hydrogen burning in type I x-ray bursts in the rapid proton capture (rp) process. The effect of the measured half-life on rp-process reaction flow is explored. Implications on theoretical treatments of nuclear deformation in Mo84 are also discussed.

  2. Cross-sections for nuclide production in 56Fe target irradiated by 300, 500,750, 1000, 1500, and 2600 MeV protons compared with data on hydrogen target irradiation by 300, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500 MeV/nucleon 56Fe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Yu E; Titarenko, A Yu; Butko, M A; Pavlov, K V; Florya, S N; Tikhonov, R S; Mashnik, S G; Ignatyuk, A V; Titarenko, N N; Gudowsky, W; Tesinsky, M; Persson, C -M L; Abderrahim, H Ait; Kumawat, H; Duarte, H

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sections for radioactive nuclide production in 56Fe(p,x) reactions at 300, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and 2600 MeV were measured using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator. In total, 221 independent and cumulative yields of products of half-lives from 6.6 min to 312 days have been obtained via the direct-spectrometry method. The measured data have been compared with the experimental data obtained elsewhere by the direct and inverse kinematics methods and with calculations by 15 codes, namely: MCNPX (INCL, CEM2k, BERTINI, ISABEL), LAHET (BERTINI, ISABEL), CEM03 (.01, .G1, .S1), LAQGSM03 (.01, .G1, >.S1), CASCADE-2004, LAHETO, and BRIEFF. Most of our data are in a good agreement with the inverse kinematics results and disprove the results of some earlier activation measurements that were quite different from the inverse kinematics measurements. The most significant calculation-to-experiment differences are observed in the yields of the A<30 light nuclei, indicating that further improvements in nuclear reaction ...

  3. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  4. Measurement of airborne radon concentrations at several sites in a radioactivity research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Anzai, I

    1999-06-01

    Radon-222 is a natural, gaseous, radioactive nuclide released from the ground and building materials into the air. Radon and its daughter nuclides can be an important disturbance factor for the measurement of environmental radioactivity. Radon concentrations in air in a radiation laboratory were measured with PICO-RAD detectors, which directly adsorb radon gas on activated charcoal. Generally, radon concentration increased in the absence of ventilation; a high concentration was observed in a radioisotope storage room without ventilation. Concentrations were low in other rooms used for experiments and measurement, which suggests that the radiation control practice in this laboratory is satisfactory and that the influence of natural radon gas on the measurement of radioactivity is negligible.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of GCR neutron capture production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites and lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    KolláR, D.; Michel, R.; Masarik, J.

    2006-03-01

    A purely physical model based on a Monte Carlo simulation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particle interaction with meteoroids is used to investigate neutron interactions down to thermal energies. Experimental and/or evaluated excitation functions are used to calculate neutron capture production rates as a function of the size of the meteoroid and the depth below its surface. Presented are the depth profiles of cosmogenic radionuclides 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 59Ni, and 129I for meteoroid radii from 10 cm up to 500 cm and a 2π irradiation. Effects of bulk chemical composition on n-capture processes are studied and discussed for various chondritic and lunar compositions. The mean GCR particle flux over the last 300 ka was determined from the comparison of simulations with measured 41Ca activities in the Apollo 15 drill core. The determined value significantly differs from that obtained using equivalent models of spallation residue production.

  6. 核素心肌灌注显像诊断无症状性心肌缺血价值%Value of nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging to the diagnosis of silent myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲; 贾鹏; 李爱梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨核素心肌灌注显像诊断无症状性心肌缺血的临床应用价值.方法 动态心电图或其他心电检测技术检测无症状性心肌梗死患者22例,均行核素心肌灌注显像与冠状动脉造影检查,并以冠状动脉造影结果为金标准,计算核素心肌灌注显像结果预测值.结果22例患者中8例核素心肌灌注显像表现为不可逆性心肌缺血,14例表现为混合性心肌缺血,共检测出40个节段病变心肌.冠状动脉造影检出阳性血管45支(血管狭窄程度≥50%),其中28支狭窄程度>90%,15支狭窄程度>70%~90%,2支狭窄程度≤70%.核素心肌灌注显像阳性结果预测值为88.9%(40/45).结论 核素心肌灌注显像有助于无症状性心肌缺血诊断,并可用于评价心肌损害严重程度.%Objective To study the clinical value of nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging to the diagnosis of silent myocardial infarction. Methods Twenty-two patients with silent myocardial infarction received gated nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography, and the predictive value was calculated on the basis of coronary angiographic results. Results In 22 cases receiving nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging, irreversible myocardial ischemia was found in 8 cases, and mixed ischemia was found in 14 cases. A total of 40 diseased myocardial segments were found. Coronary angiography showed stenosis was above 50% in 45 arterial vessels, in which stenosis was above 90% in 28 arterial vessels, and was between 90% and 70% in 15 arterial vessels, and was below 70% in 2 arterial vessels. The positive predictive rate of nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging was 88. 9%. Conclusion Nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has significant clinical value to the diagnosis of silent myocardial infarction and evaluation of myocardial damage.

  7. Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazli Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Sümer, Ökmen; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Uzel, Bora; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2014-05-01

    The 300-km wide West Anatolian Extensional Province is one of the regions of intense seismic activity in the world within the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Deformation pattern in the area is controlled by three major E-W trending graben systems of Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes which have been formed as a result of roughly N-S extensional tectonic regime since the early Miocene. These graben systems show evidences of surface faulting during the Pleistocene-Holocene and are geomorphologically characterized by well-exposed limestone normal fault scarps with a relief of tens of meters and well-preserved slickenlines. Since limestones are resistant to weathering, the limestone scarps can efficiently record several past earthquakes. Cosmogenic 36Cl is the only element to identify and date the rupture events. Each rupture causes exposure of previously buried section of the scarp to the surface. Accordingly, due to being well enough exposed to cosmic rays, accumulation of 36Cl accelerates during period of quiescence. Thus, distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations can be applied to investigate periods of seismic activity and inactivity and also to calculate the vertical displacement along the fault plane in association with each rupture. In this study, we focus on the Priene-Sazli Fault, located on the most western part of Büyük Menderes graben. Along the active fault zone, well exposed archaeological sites (e.g. Priene) have been discovered, where destructive historical earthquakes have left evidence of ancient damages in the historical period and during the 20th century. The Priene-Sazli Fault caused the July 16, 1955 Söke-Balat earthquake (M=6.8) with fault-plane solution indicating of normal southeast downthrow along with subsidiary dextral motion. We collected 117 samples from four continuous strips on the Priene-Sazli Fault to measure 36Cl concentrations. We used a new Matlab code to identify the significant ruptures and their timing. Our preliminary

  8. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from

    CERN Document Server

    V.N. Panteleev et al.

    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient isotopes have been investigated at the IRIS facility (PNPI) in the collaboration with Legnaro – GANIL – Orsay laboratories. The yields and release times of the species produced in the targets by the reactions induced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron have been measured. For the purpose to elaborate the most efficient and fast uranium carbide target prototype three kinds of the target materials were studied: a) a high density UC target material having ceramic-like structure with the density of 11 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 200 microns; b) a high density UC target material with the density of 12 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the method of the powder metallurgy; c) a low density UCx target material with the density 3g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the ISOLDE method. The comp...

  9. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  10. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Valet, Jean‐Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium‐10 (10Be) production rates. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05‐2920 and MD05‐2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05‐2920, MD05‐2930 and MD90‐0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 1022 Am2) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10Be‐derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes‐Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial‐scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities. PMID:28163989

  11. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 ((10)Be) production rates. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric (10)Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest (10)Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 10(22) Am(2)) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant (10)Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The (10)Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  12. Study on AMS Measurement Method of Long-lived Radionuclide 135Cs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Xin-yi; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; DOU; Liang; LAN; Xiao-xi; PANG; Fang-fang; WU; Shao-yong; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    The long-lived fission product135Cs(T1/2=2.3×106 a)is a very sensitive indicator nuclide to monitor the nuclear leak.AMS is the only effective method to measure 135Cs with high sensitivity.The measurement method was explored by using different forms of samples such as CsF and CsNO3.Preliminary experimental results show that the isobaric interference of 135Ba can be suppressed effectively,

  13. INC Model interpretation of the proton induced residual nuclide production cross sections below 2 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Spergel, M.S.; Lakatos, S.; Manche, E.P. (York Coll., Jamaica, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of interpreting the abundances of various isotopes in meteorites or on lunar and planetary surfaces exposed to fragmentation by cosmic rays, Webber et al. recently reported the measured total elemental and isotopic cross sections with heavy ions as projectiles on H, He, and C targets with beam energies of 0.33 - 1.7 GeV/nucleon. We employ the INC model to predict the fragmentation of the heavy ions in a hydrogen target with the inverse reaction process: proton bombardment of a heavy-ion nucleus leading to spallation products. Charge-changing and mass-changing cross sections are calculated for proton bombardment of an {sup 56}Fe target with beam energies ranging from 0.33 to 1.88 GeV. Total Z-changing and A-changing cross sections in the energy range 0.6 to 1.88 GeV are in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental data of Webber et al. and Westfall at al., while the agreement below 0.6 GeV proton energy is not as good. The general trend of the Z-changing cross sections are reproduced by the model calculations at each proton incident energy. The interaction of 200-MeV protons with synthetic Stony Meteorite samples was undertaken to explain radionuclide production in a cosmic-ray environment. The BNL Linac 200-MeV-proton beam was used to irradiate synthetic Stony Meteorites to simulate cosmic-ray exposures corresponding to 6.4 and 16.4 million years. Each irradiated sample was analyzed with the help of a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for long-lived radioisotopes. The intranuclear cascade code HETC was employed to simulate the 200-MeV proton bombardment on the meteorite samples to predict the radionuclides {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Mn, and {sup 56}Co produced in the experimental investigation.

  14. INC Model interpretation of the proton induced residual nuclide production cross sections below 2 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Spergel, M.S.; Lakatos, S.; Manche, E.P. [York Coll., Jamaica, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    For the purposes of interpreting the abundances of various isotopes in meteorites or on lunar and planetary surfaces exposed to fragmentation by cosmic rays, Webber et al. recently reported the measured total elemental and isotopic cross sections with heavy ions as projectiles on H, He, and C targets with beam energies of 0.33 - 1.7 GeV/nucleon. We employ the INC model to predict the fragmentation of the heavy ions in a hydrogen target with the inverse reaction process: proton bombardment of a heavy-ion nucleus leading to spallation products. Charge-changing and mass-changing cross sections are calculated for proton bombardment of an {sup 56}Fe target with beam energies ranging from 0.33 to 1.88 GeV. Total Z-changing and A-changing cross sections in the energy range 0.6 to 1.88 GeV are in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental data of Webber et al. and Westfall at al., while the agreement below 0.6 GeV proton energy is not as good. The general trend of the Z-changing cross sections are reproduced by the model calculations at each proton incident energy. The interaction of 200-MeV protons with synthetic Stony Meteorite samples was undertaken to explain radionuclide production in a cosmic-ray environment. The BNL Linac 200-MeV-proton beam was used to irradiate synthetic Stony Meteorites to simulate cosmic-ray exposures corresponding to 6.4 and 16.4 million years. Each irradiated sample was analyzed with the help of a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for long-lived radioisotopes. The intranuclear cascade code HETC was employed to simulate the 200-MeV proton bombardment on the meteorite samples to predict the radionuclides {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Mn, and {sup 56}Co produced in the experimental investigation.

  15. Experimental investigations on the nuclear structure of the neutron-rich nuclides 44S and 20O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Gonzalez, Daniel

    Experimental results of two independent studies on the nuclear structure of the neutron-rich nuclei S4416 and O20 8 O are presented. A short introduction on the context of these studies within nuclear physics is given in chapter 1. Because of the fundamental differences between the experiments and analysis techniques the investigations have been separated in two chapters. The investigation of 44S, extracted via the two-proton knockout reaction from 46Ar with intermediate beam energy, is presented in chapter 2. Four new excited states are identified, of which the first 4+ state presents evidence of deformation, as suggested by line-shape simulations of the detected gamma rays. This is also indicated by a shell-model calculation, where the deformation of the first 4 + state originates in a neutron particle-hole configuration which is fundamentally different from the "intruder"configuration producing the ground state deformation and from the configuration describing the relatively long-lived isomeric 0+ state. Consequently, not three coexisting shapes, rather three coexisting configurations are found in 44S, corresponding to zero, one and two neutron particle-hole excitations. In chapter 3, results from the analysis of the 19O( d,p)20O reaction in inverse kinematics using the active gas target detector array ANASEN are presented. In order to study the location and fragmentation of the d3/2 orbital in 20O, a beam of the short-lived 19O was produced at the RESOLUT radioactive beam facility of the Florida State University. The ejected protons from the (d,p) reaction were measured with large solid angle coverage and for beam energies between 2.2 and 4.3 MeV/A. Data from the 17O(d,p)18O reaction was acquired to verify our experimental methods and analysis techniques.

  16. Development of the measurement technique for nuclear data with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Harada, Hideo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    To obtain the thermal neutron capture cross sections of radioactive fission product nuclides as the basic data on transmutation study, a measurement technique with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy was developed. When daughter nuclides after neutron irradiations are stable, measuring the neutron capture cross sections is impossible. Therefore, a new technique was developed to investigate these. With this, the level schemes from the information of the prompt {gamma}-rays emitted during neutron irradiation are constructed, and the cross section is deduced with the emission probabilities of prompt {gamma}-rays. The measurement system for this technique was developed, and was effective. The system enables obtaining information on the cascade {gamma}-rays necessary for constructing the level-scheme. By measuring {sup nat}Pd, the partial level-scheme was constructed, and two new levels at 1906 keV and 2400 keV were identified. By using this technique, the neutron capture cross sections of nuclides that can't be measured by an activation method can be measured. (author)

  17. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  18. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  19. 宇宙成因核素埋藏年龄测定及其在地球科学中的应用%TERRESTRIAL IN SITU COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES BURIAL DATING AND ITS APPLICATION IN GEOSCIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兆德; 陈杰; 张会平

    2011-01-01

    原地生成宇宙成因核素埋藏测年方法,在晚新生代沉积物尤其是陆相碎屑沉积物测年上具有广泛的应用前景.在同一岩石或矿物中的宇宙成因核素对,例如26Al和10Be在地表的生成速率比值是固定的,不受纬度和海拔的影响,但是这一核素对分别具有不同的半衰期.在地表经历了暴露的沉积物被埋藏后,该比值会随着时间而降低,因此具有不同的半衰期的核素对(例如26Al/10Be)可以作为一种地质时钟,测年范围在几十万a至5Ma.文中简要介绍了目前常用的4种方法及其应用:暴露-埋藏图解法、深度剖面法、等时线法以及26Al-21Ne和10Be-21Ne法.%Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides burial dating has a promising application in dating of late Cenozoic detrital sediments,for example,cave sediments,fluvial sediments and moraine. This method relies on a pair of cosmic-ray-produced nuclides that are produced in the same rock or mineral target at a fixed ratio, but have different half-lives. For example, 26Al and 10Be are produced in quartz at 26Al: 10Be = 6.75: 1. The ratio is not affected by latitude and altitude. After sediments are buried, the ratio would become less as time goes. Therefore, 26Al/10Be ratio can be used as a geological clock. The dating range can be from several hundreds of thousand years to five million years. In this article, we introduce four methods and their applications: exposure-burial diagram method,depth profile method,isochron method, 26Al-21Ne and 10Be-21Ne method. Exposure-burial diagram method is often applied to cave sediments dating, for exposure-burial history of cave deposits is easy. Depth profile method is applied to fluvial sediments dating. There is a good application for isochron approach in till-paleosol sequences in North America. 26Al-21Ne and 10Be-21Ne method has a great potential applicaton in future for its larger dating time and less uncertainty than other methods. The dating method still

  20. Exhumation and incision history of the Lahul Himalaya, northern India, based on (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron; Dietsch, Craig; Owen, Lewis A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Spotila, James; Haneberg, William C.

    2009-06-01

    Low-temperature apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology on vertical transects of leucogranite stocks and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure dating on strath terraces in the Lahul Himalaya provide a first approximation of long-term (10 4-10 6 years) exhumation rates for the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS) for northern India. The AHe ages show that exhumation of the HHCS in Lahul from shallow crustal levels to the surface was ~ 1-2 mm/a and occurred during the past ~ 2.5 Ma. Bedrock exhumation in Lahul fits into a regional pattern in the HHCS of low-temperature thermochronometers yielding Plio-Pleistocene ages. Surface exposure ages of strath terraces along the Chandra River range from ~ 3.5 to 0.2 ka. Two sites along the Chandra River show a correlation between TCN age and height above the river level yielding maximum incision rates of 12 and 5.5 mm/a. Comparison of our AHe and surface exposure ages from Lahul with thermochronometry data from the fastest uplifting region at the western end of the Himalaya, the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, illustrates that there are contrasting regions in the High Himalaya where longer term (10 5-10 7 years) erosion and exhumation of bedrock substantially differ even though Holocene rates of fluvial incision are comparable. These data imply that the orogen's indenting corners are regions where focused denudation has been stable since the mid-Pliocene. However, away from these localized areas where there is a potent coupling of tectonic and surface processes that produce rapid uplift and denudation, Plio-Pleistocene erosion and exhumation can be characterized by disequilibrium, where longer term rates are relatively slower and shorter term fluvial erosion is highly variable over time and distance. The surface exposure age data reflect differential incision along the length of the Chandra River over millennial time frames, illustrate the variances that are possible in Himalayan river incision, and highlight

  1. Slip rate variability over the Holocene period in the middle Aterno fault system (Italy), retrieved from in situ 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating of exhumed fault-plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Jim; Benedetti, Lucilla; Pucci, Stefano; Villani, Fabio; Bourles, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim; Aumaitre, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Numerous numerical modeling studies have described and quantified non-stochastic spatio-temporal variations of earthquake occurrences within fault-networks, such as temporal clustered earthquakes or fault synchronization. However, very few long-enough paleoseismological and geological records are available to test those models against well-constrained dataset and thus account for such variability in the fault behavior. The prerequisites for improving our understanding of fault-rupture processes and thus our capacity to better assess seismic hazard are to acquire paleoseismological records that enable to derive both long-term slip-rate and short-term variability, on a large population of faults and/or within a fault system. These conditions met in Central Apennines, an extensional province where substantial paleoseismological dataset accurately described the Holocene seismic history of a dense network of normal faults. In this study we use 36Cl in situ cosmogenic nuclide to retrieve the seismic history of 3 faults belonging to the Middle Aterno fault system, from north to south: the Bazzano fault, the Roccapreturo fault and the Sulmona fault, a portion of which ruptured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake in Italy. We use a new modeling approach to determine the age and slip of past seismic events from the 36Cl concentration profiles. This model is based on an inverse approach and uses an optimization algorithm enabling all the parameter space (number of events, age and slip of events, pre-exposure) to be explored without a priori constraints (see Tesson et al. in session TS4.2/NH4.16/SM3.8). Using this new approach, we precisely determine the slip events occurrences over the Holocene period of those three faults. The results indicate that the three studied faults have ruptured between 4.5 and 5.5 ka, while the southernmost part of the system has also ruptured between at 1.5-3 ka (Sulmona fault and southern segment of Roccapreturo). Those results are in agreement

  2. [Contrast study on natural radioactive nuclides contents of rice between Xiangshan uranium deposit area, Jiangxi and non-uranium depsoit area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping-Hui; Ye, Chang-Sheng; Xie, Shu-Rong; Rui, Yu-Kui

    2009-07-01

    The contents of natural radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium in paddies were analyzed and compared by means of ICP-MS. Totally 14 paddy samples were distinguished into two groups and collected from two rice planting area. One group (12 paddy samples) was collected from the Xiangshan uranium deposit area, Jiangxi province; while the other group (2 samples) collected from non-uranium deposit suburban area of Fuzhou city, Jiangxi, as comparison samples. The distance between the two sampling areas is about 80 kilometers. Before analysis, those paddy samples were continuously carbonized by two hours first, then continuously incinerated for 8 hours at the temperature of 600 degrees centigrade. The results show that the uranium contents in the paddy ash of samples gotten from Xiangshan uranium deposit area range from 0.053 to 1.482 microg x g(-1). The uranium contents of two comparison paddy samples ash are 0.059 and 0.061 microg x g(-1), respectiovely. The average uranium content of paddy ash of uranium deposit area is 0.323 microg x g(-1). Compared with the comparison samples, the uranium contents of paddy ash of uranium deposit area are considerably high, 5.30 times that of non-uranium deposit area. The thorium contents in paddy ash of the uranium deposit area, however, are relatively low and less than that of samples collected from non-uranium deposit area, which range from 0.029 to 0.311 microg x g(-1); The average level is 0.104 microg x g(-1), only about 50% of that of paddy ash sampled from non-urnaium deposit area. Moreover, there is significant linearity correlation between uranium and thorium contents of paddy sampled from Xiangshan uranium deposit area. The positive effects show that the thorium contents of paddy increase as uranium contents of paddy in uranium deposit area increase. The causes for the remarkable difference in uranium contents in paddy between urianium deposit area and non-uranium deposit area are not clear yet. The research on

  3. Optimize BP Neural Network by an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization to Implement Nuclide Identification%一种改进粒子群算法优化BP神经网络实现核素识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘议聪; 朱泓光; 宋永强

    2016-01-01

    To get the global optimal point, propose an optimize BP neural network by an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement nuclide identification. It changes inertia weight and learning factor dynamically with self-adaption to optimize the weight value and threshold value of BP neural network. It gets the global optimal value of the particle swarm by training BP neural network to identify models. Finally, it implements nuclide identification by using the optimal weight and threshold value. The experiment shows our proposed method can not only converge to the optimal value faster but also do a good balance between local search and global search. Therefore, it significantly improves the convergence speed and the accuracy of nuclide identification.%为获得全局最优点,提出一种改进粒子群算法优化BP神经网络实现核素识别方法.该算法用一种动态改变惯性权重与学习因子的自适应方法,优化BP神经网络的阈值与权值,通过训练BP神经网络识别模型得到粒子群的全局最优解,利用最优权值与阈值实现核素识别.分析结果表明:该方法不仅能更快地收敛于最优解,同时能更好地平衡全局搜索和局部搜索能力,有效地改善算法的收敛速度和识别精度.

  4. Restoration of the N=82 Shell Gap from Direct Mass Measurements of $^{132,134}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Dworschak, M; Blaum, K; Delahaye, P; George, S; Hager, U; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2008-01-01

    A high-precision direct Penning trap mass measurement has revealed a 0.5-MeV deviation of the binding energy of $^{134}$Sn from the currently accepted value. The corrected mass assignment of this neutron-rich nuclide restores the neutron-shell gap at N=82, previously considered to be a case of “shell quenching.” In fact, the new shell gap value for the short-lived $^{132}$Sn is larger than that of the doubly-magic $^{48}$Ca which is stable. The N=82 shell gap has considerable impact on fission recycling during the $r$ process. More generally, the new finding has important consequences for microscopic mean-field theories which systematically deviate from the measured binding energies of closed-shell nuclides.

  5. Precision mass measurements on neutron-rich Zn isotopes and their consequences on the astrophysical r-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, Sudarshan

    2008-07-15

    The rapid neutron-capture or the r-process is responsible for the origin of about half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei in the universe heavier than iron. For the calculation of the abundances of those nuclei, atomic masses are required as one of the input parameters with very high precision. In the present work, the masses of the neutron rich Zn isotopes (A=71 to 81) lying in the r-process path have been measured in the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN. The mass of {sup 81}Zn has been measured directly for the rst time. The half-lives of the nuclides ranged from 46.5 h ({sup 72}Zn) down to 290 ms ({sup 81}Zn). In case of all the nuclides, the relative mass uncertainty ({delta}m=m) achieved was in the order of 10{sup -8} corresponding to a 100-fold improvement in precision over previous measurements. (orig.)

  6. 78 FR 38970 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) and TRU Generator Sets and Facilities... Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) and TRU Generator Sets and... Amendments to California's ``Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled Transport Refrigeration...

  7. 药物负荷核素心肌灌注显影对冠心病的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of drug stress nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging to coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海英; 郭月玲; 李菲; 蔡丽; 蒲朝煜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of drug stress nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging ( MPI ) to coronary heart disease ( CHD ). Methods The patients ( n = 88 ) with suspected CHD were simultaneously given coronary angiography ( CAG ) and dipyridamole or adenosine stress nuclide MPI, and then they were given retrospective analysis. The difference was less than 14 days between CAG date and MPI date. Taking CAG results as golden criterion of CHD diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of drug stress nuclide MPI were compared and analyzed. Results The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of drug stress nuclide MPI were, respectively, 91. 4% ,73. 3% and 85. 2% in the diagnosis of CHD. Among 5 false negative cases ,4 with single vessel lesion, 1 with double vessel lesion and all of them had good compensatory circulation. Among 8 false positive cases, 3 with syndrome X and 4 with slow coronary flow. Conclusion Drug stress nuclide MPI is an effective pathway for non-invasive diagnosis of CHD and myocardial ischemia. Most of patients with false positive or false negative have corresponding pathophysiological bases of coronary artery or cardial myodium.%目的 探讨药物负荷核素心肌灌注显像(MPI)对冠心病的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析88例疑有冠心病且同时行冠状动脉造影(CAG)和双嘧达莫或腺苷药物负荷核素MPI患者,CAG与MPI检查日期相差不超过14 d,以CAG检查结果作为诊断冠心病的金标准,对比分析药物负荷核素MPI敏感度、特异性等指标.结果 药物负荷核素MPI诊断冠心病的敏感度、特异性、准确率分别为91.4%、73.3%、85.2%;在5例假阴性患者中,4例为单支病变,1例为双支病变,侧支循环均良好;8例假阳性患者中,3例为X综合征,4例为冠状动脉血流缓慢.结论 药物负荷核素心肌灌注显像是无创诊断冠心病及心肌缺血的有效途径,其假阳性和假阴性患者多有相应的冠状动脉或心肌的病理生理基础.

  8. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  9. Measurement of fissile mass in large-size containers with a transportable linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyer Dherbey, Jacques; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common problem of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive inspection. The direct measurement of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini- Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 microsecond(s) pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse by using Sequential Photon Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures technique which has ben developed in this framework. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented. Finally, the advantages and performances of the photofission interrogation technique, the use of a transportable electron linear accelerator as a particle source, and the experimental and electronic details will be discussed.

  10. Application of the low dose nuclide on the bone imaging and fusion imaging%低剂量核素在骨显像及融合显像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹萍; 余颂科; 蔡宗萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨使用低剂量核素在骨显像及图像融合显像中的临床应用价值.方法 选择40例肿瘤患者行单光子发射型/计算机断层显像装置(SPECT/CT)骨显像,其中注射低剂量(10 mCi)20例,常规剂量(15~25 mCi)20例,采用相同扫描速度,将所得图像予以分析.对疑似骨转移患者(共21例)行骨图像融合.将注射上述两种剂量患者的图像通过3位医师分析.结果 低剂量与常规剂量核素在骨显像及融合图像中的图像质量均可达到诊断标准,采用感兴趣区(ROI)定量分析得出两种剂量平均计数相差7.78%.结论 低剂量核素在骨显像及融合显像中的显像质量均能达到诊断标准.%Objective To explore the clinical value of the bone imaging and imaging fusion technologies by using the low dose nuclide. Methods To choose 40 malignant tumor patients scanned by single photon emission computer tomography/computer tomography(SPECT/CT) ;to inject 20 patients with the Iow nuclide dose (10 mCi),give the other 20 patients regular dose(15-25 mCi) ;scan the above cases in the whole body bone scintigraphy,and scan the low and regularly dose cases in the same speed,then render the images to doctors to confirm the suspected bone metastasis patients (21 cases) to integrate the SPECT/CT bone images;next,to render the integrated images of the cases to 3 radiologists to analyse the images quality. Results The bone imaging and the integrated image quality are alike between the low nuclide dose and the regular one. The result of ROI counting quantitative analysis shows that the count difference between the two doses is 7.78% on average. Conclusion The bone imaging and the integrated images quality used in low dose can reach the diagnostic standard. It can be generally used in the patients,support staff and public.

  11. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals. (HLW)

  12. Direct mass measurements beyond the proton drip-line

    CERN Document Server

    Rauth, C; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chaudhuri, A; Eliseev, S; Ferrer, R; Habs, D; Herfurth, F; Hessberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Kluge, H J; Maero, G; Martin, A; Marx, G; Mukherjee, M; Neumayr, J B; Plass, W R; Quint, W; Rahaman, S; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Vorobjev, G; Weber, C; Di, Z

    2007-01-01

    First on-line mass measurements were performed at the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. The masses of 18 neutron-deficient isotopes in the terbium-to-thulium region produced in fusion-evaporation reactions were determined with relative uncertainties of about $7\\cdot 10^{-8}$, nine of them for the first time. Four nuclides ($^{144, 145}$Ho and $^{147, 148}$Tm) were found to be proton-unbound. The implication of the results on the location of the proton drip-line is discussed by analyzing the one-proton separation energies.

  13. Investigation of Neutron Spectra and Transmutation of ^{129}I, ^{237}Np and Other Nuclides with 1.5 GeV Protons from the Dubna Nuclotron Using the Electronuclear Setup "Energy plus Transmutation"

    CERN Document Server

    Krivopustov, M I; Balabekyan, A R; Batusov, Yu A; Bielewicz, M; Brandt, R; Chaloun, P; Chultem, D; Dwivedi, K K; Elishev, A F; Fragopoulou, M; Henzl, V; Henzlová, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Kievets, M K; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Kugler, A; Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Mariin, I I; Nourreddine, A; Odoj, R; Pavliouk, A V; Pronskikh, V S; Robotham, H; Siemon, K; Szuta, M; Stegailov, V I; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stoulos, S; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Tumendelger, T; Wojecehowski, A; Wagner, V; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W; Zamani-Valasiadou, M; Kumawat, H; Kumar, V; Zaverioukha, O S; Zhuk, I V

    2004-01-01

    Experiments which are part of the scientific program "Investigations of physical aspects of electronuclear method of energy production and transmutation for radioactive waste of atomic energetics using relativistic beams from the JINR Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron" (project "Energy plus Transmutation") are described. A large lead target surrounded by a four-section uranium blanket with total weight of 206.4 kg natural uranium was irradiated with 1.5 GeV protons from the new cryogenic accelerator Nuclotron. Radiochemical sensors were exposed to the secondary particle fluences inside and on top of the target assembly. Two long-lived radioactive waste of atomic energetics sensors ^{129}I and ^{237}Np (approximately 1 g weight each) and stable nuclides ^{27}Al, ^{59}Co, ^{127}I, ^{139}La, ^{197}Au and ^{209}Bi as well as natural and enriched uranium were used. In addition, various solid state nuclear track detectors and nuclear emulsions were exposed simultaneously. The experimental results confirm the theoretical e...

  14. Mass measurements of very neutron-deficient Mo and Tc isotopes and their impact on rp process nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Haettner, E; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Block, M; Eliseev, S; Fleckenstein, T; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Kluge, H -J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rahaman, S; Rauscher, T; Rodríguez, D; Schatz, H; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Sun, B; Thirolf, P G; Vorobjev, G; Wang, M; Weber, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.122501

    2011-01-01

    The masses of ten proton-rich nuclides, including the N=Z+1 nuclides 85-Mo and 87-Tc, were measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. Compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 a systematic shift of the mass surface by up to 1.6 MeV is observed causing significant abundance changes of the ashes of astrophysical X-ray bursts. Surprisingly low alpha-separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc are found, making the formation of a ZrNb cycle in the rp process possible. Such a cycle would impose an upper temperature limit for the synthesis of elements beyond Nb in the rp process.

  15. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  16. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La

  17. The use of a transportable linear accelerator for fissile mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common care of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive prospecting. The direct control of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini-Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 μs pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented.

  18. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.; Korsbech, U.

    1992-12-01

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne [gamma]-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB).

  19. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Herfurth, F; Ames, F; Audi, G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Engels, O; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Moores, R B; Oinonen, M; Sauvan, E; Bolle, C A; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Weber, C

    2002-01-01

    Mass measurements of /sup 34/Ar, /sup 73-78/Kr, and /sup 74,76/Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q/sub EC/-values are needed for the investigations of the F /sub t/-value of 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ nuclear beta -decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q/sub EC/-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with delta m/mmeasured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The /sup 34/Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1.10/sup -8/. The Q/sub EC/-value of the /sup 34/Ar 0 /sup +/ to 0/sup +/ decay can now he determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, /sup 74/Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (18 refs).

  20. Measurement of the half-life of 198Au in a non-metal: High-precision measurement shows no host-material dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J R; Iacob, V E; Dibidad, A; Hardy, J C

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the half-life of the beta decay of 198Au to be 2.6948(9) d, with the nuclide sited in an insulating environment. Comparing this result with the half-life we measured previously with a metallic environment, we find the half-lives in both environments to be the same within 0.04%, thus contradicting a prediction that screening from a "plasma" of quasi-free electrons in a metal increases the half-life by as much as 7%.

  1. COMPLIS experiments: COllaboration for spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, J. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Boos, N. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire AimeCotton (France); Crawford, J.E. [McGill University, Physics Department (Canada); Duong, H.T. [Laboratoire AimeCotton (France); Genevey, J. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires (France); Girod, M. [Commissariat al' Energie Atomique, Service de Physique Nucleaire (France); Huber, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Ibrahim, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Krieg, M. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Le Blanc, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Lee, J.K.P. [McGill University, Physics Department (Canada); Libert, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (France); Lunney, D.; Obert, J.; Oms, J. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Peru, S. [Commissariat al' Energie Atomique, Service de Physique Nucleaire (France); Pinard, J. [Laboratoire AimeCotton (France); Putaux, J.C.; Roussiere, B. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France)] (and others)

    2000-12-15

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient isotopes of Au, Pt and Ir, produced as daughter elements from a Hg ISOLDE beam. For these transitional region nuclides, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) were measured by Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). Magnetic moments {mu}, spectroscopic quadrupole moments Q{sub s} and changes of the nuclear mean square charge radius {delta}along isotopic series have been extracted. For some results, a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions is presented.

  2. Measurement and Monte Carlo Calculation of Waste Drum Filled With Radioactive Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Li-jun; ZHANG; Wei-dong; YE; Hong-sheng; LIN; Min; CHEN; Xi-lin; GUO; Xiao-qing

    2012-01-01

    <正>Theoretically the best calibrating source of gamma scan system (SGS) is a waste drum filled with uniform distribution of medium and radioactive nuclides. However, in reality, waste drums usually full of solid substance, which are difficult to be prepared in a completely uniformly distributed state. To reduce measurement uncertainty of the radioactivity of waste drums prepared using the method of shell source, a waste drum filled with radioactive aqueous solution was prepared. Besides, its radioactivity was measured by a SGS device and calculated using Monte Carlo method to verify the exact geometric model, which

  3. Investigation of the proton-neutron interaction by high-precision nuclear mass measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    Savreux, R P; Akkus, B

    2007-01-01

    We propose to measure the atomic masses of a series of short-lived nuclides, including $^{70}$Ni, $^{122-130}$Cd, $^{134}$Sn, $^{138,140}$Xe, $^{207-210}$Hg, and $^{223-225}$Rn, that contribute to the investigation of the proton-neutron interaction and its role in nuclear structure. The high-precision mass measurements are planned for the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP that reaches the required precision of 10 keV in the nuclear mass determination.

  4. Use of discrete Fourier transform to sum spectra in measurements with long counting times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar Rubio Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Sta. Teresa de Jornet 38, E-06800, Merida (Spain); Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: E.garciatorano@ciemat.es

    2007-07-11

    When measuring nuclear spectra for long counting times, it is usual to split the acquisition in a set of spectra of shorter duration that are later added after correcting by drift during the measurements. We describe a method to determine the shifting correction by using the properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The method does not require assuming a particular spectral shape and the implementation is essentially independent of the kind of spectra being analyzed. The drift correction is defined for an integer number of channels. We present the results of the application to alpha-particle spectroscopy of long-lived nuclides.

  5. Study of dependence of quasi-particle alignment on proton and neutron numbers in A = 80 region through g-factor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqing, Yuan; Ping, Fan; Yongnan, Zheng; Yi, Zuo; Dongmei, Zhou; Qiaoli, Zhang; Xiaoguang, Wu; Guangsheng, Li; Lihua, Zhu; Guoji, Xu; Qiwen, Fan; Xizhen, Zhang; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Minamisono, T.; Shengyun, Zhu

    2010-06-01

    Dependence of quasi-particle alignment on proton and neutron numbers has been studied in A = 80 mass region through g-factor measurements by using TMF-IMPAD. The experimental results show that for the nuclides 84Zr, 85Zr and 86Zr with Z = 40 the proton alignment is followed by the neutron alignment in 84Zr and 85Zr, while the neutron alignment is followed by the proton alignment in 86Zr, and for the nuclides 82Sr, 83Y, 84Zr and 85Nb with N = 44 the proton aligns only in 82Sr, the proton alignment occurs first that is followed by the neutron alignment in 83Y and 84Zr and the neutron alignment is followed by the proton alignment in 85Nb. Proton and/or neutron alignments lead to different patterns of the g-factor variation with spin.

  6. Yield of Radionuclides and Isomers Measured in Fragmentation of the ^{nat}W and ^{186}W (97%) Targets with Protons at 630, 420 and 270 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A; Chaloun, P; Filossofov, D V; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Korolev, N A; Lebedev, N A; Novgorodov, A F; Collins, C B; Popescu, I I; Ur, C A

    2004-01-01

    Yields and cross sections of the radioactive nuclide formation have been measured via induced activity gamma-spectra after irradiation of the natural composition W and enriched ^{186)W targets at Dubna synchrocyclotron. Spallation and fission products have been represented among the detected nuclides. The high-spin isomers of Hf and Lu were produced and the isomer-to-ground state ratios could be estimated. The nuclide yields have also been calculated using the LAHET code at 6 values of proton energy in the range from 100 to 800 MeV both for ^{nat)W and for enriched ^{186)W targets. Measured isotope yields are generally in agreement with the calculations, however, the code is incapable to predict the isomer-to-ground state ratios. In experiment, it has been shown that the ^{177m}Lu, ^{178m2}Hf and ^{179m2}Hf high-spin isomers are produced with 2.5 times higher yield in the 97% enriched ^{186)W target as compared to the ^{nat)W target at identical irradiations. This makes significance for the creation of high-a...

  7. First one-line mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and mass determinations of neutron-rich Fr and Ra isotopes at ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, M.S.

    2005-02-16

    SHIPTRAP is an ion trap facility behind the velocity lter SHIP at GSI/Darmstadt. Its aim are precision studies of transuranium nuclides produced in a fusion reaction and separated by SHIP. The current set-up for high-precision mass measurements consists of three main functional parts: (i) a gas cell for stopping the energetic ions from SHIP, (ii) radiofrequency quadrupole structures to cool and to bunch the ions extracted from the gas cell, and (iii) a superconducting magnet with two cylindrical Penning traps at a eld strength of 7 T. In this work the Penning trap system has been installed and extensively characterized. The rst on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides were carried out and the masses of {sup 147}Er and {sup 148}Er could be experimentally determined for the rst time. Here a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m of about 1 x 10{sup -6} was achieved. Furthermore the masses of heavy neutron-rich {sup 229-232}Ra and {sup 230}Fr isotopes have been determined with a relative mass uncertainty of about 1 x 10{sup -7} with the ISOLTRAP mass spectometer at ISOLDE/CERN. The isotope {sup 232}Ra is the heaviest unstable nuclide ever investigated with a Penning trap. Underlying nuclear structure effects of these nuclides far from {beta}-stability were studied by a comparison of the resulting two-neutron separation energies S{sub 2n} with those given by the theoretical Infinite Nuclear Mass model. (orig.)

  8. Identification of Highly Deformed Even-Even Nuclides in the Neutron- and Proton-Rich Regions of the Nuclear Chart from the B(E2) and E2 Predictions in the Generalized Differential Equation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, R C

    2015-01-01

    We identify here possible occurrence of large deformations in the neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear chart from extensive predictions of the values of the reduced quadrupole transition probability B-E2 for the transition from the ground state to the first 2+ state and the corresponding excitation energy E2 of even-even nuclei in the recently developed Generalized Differential Equation model exclusively meant for these physical quantities. This is made possible from our analysis of the predicted values of these two physical quantities and the corresponding deformation parameters derived from them such as the quadrupole deformation beta-2, the ratio of beta-2 to the Weisskopf single-particle beta-2 and the intrinsic electric quadruplole moment , calculated for a large number of both known as well as hitherto unknown even-even isotopes of Oxygen to Fermium (Z=8 to 100). Our critical analysis of the resulting data convincingly support possible existence of large collectivity for the nuclides 30,32 Ne...

  9. 液基细胞学联合初善仪检测在宫颈癌筛查中的应用%Value of TruScreen combined with Thinprep cytology test in screening of cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜欣欣; 赛晓勇; 刘爱军; 张云; 付晓宇; 李江华; 孟元光

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨液基细胞学(TCT)与初善仪(TS)在宫颈病变筛查中的联合应用价值。方法选择2013年12月~2014年11月就诊于解放军总医院妇科门诊阴道镜室的患者218例,所有患者均给予TCT及TS检查,并根据TCT及TS检查结果进行分组,结合病理学结果分析两种检测方法细胞学诊断价值的差异。结果TCT结果显示,218例患者中,不能明确意义的非典型鳞状细胞(ASC-US)76例,非典型鳞状细胞不除上皮内高度病变(ASC-H)43例,低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)58例,高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL)41例;TS检测异常者94例。病理结果正常者106例,LSIL/CIN 141例,HSIL/CIN 2~371例。病理结果正常患者中,细胞学ASC-H与LSIL的检出率分别为53.5%和56.9%;低级别病变患者中,ASC-US和LSIL的检出率显著高于ASC-H及HSIL组(P=0.005);高级别病变患者中,ASC-H及HSIL的检出率显著高于ASC-US和LSIL(P=0.004)。经TS分层后,TS阴性而病理结果正常的患者中,TCT各组的检出率均提高;TS阳性而病理低级别病变患者中,ASC-US与LSIL的检出率升高,ASC-H与HSIL呈下降趋势,高级别病变患者中,TBS分级四组的检出率均升高。结论联合应用TS可以减少阴道镜门诊的过度转诊并能够更灵敏地发现高级别病变患者。%Objective To investigate the value of TruScreen (TS) combined with Thinprep cytology test in screening of cervical lesions. Methods 218 patients from December 2013 to November 2014 in Outpatient Vaginoscopy Room of PLA General Hospital, all patients were given the detection of TCT and TS, they were divided into different group ac-cording the detection results of TCT and TS, and diagnostic value of TCT and TS were evaluated by pathology result as a golden standard. Results The results of TCT showed that, there were 76 cases of ASC-US, 43 cases of ASC-H, 58 cases of LSIL and 41 cases of HSIL in total of 218 patients; TS showed that 94 cases were abnormal. Pathological re

  10. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  11. 238U and 232Th series nuclides in groundwater from the J-13 well at the Nevada Test Site: Implications for ion retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Sally A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, Karl K.; Shaw, Henry

    1992-07-01

    The activities of members of the 238U and 232Th decay chains have been determined in water from well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site near Yucca Mountain. Using 222Rn as a measure of recoil flux, adsorption (k1) and desorption (k2) rate constants for Ra and Pb have been determined. The ratio (k1/k2), defined as the dimensionless distribution coefficient, K, is 1.3 × 104 for Ra and 2.7 × 104 for Pb and is estimated to be about 104 for Th.

  12. Effective determination of the long-lived nuclide 41Ca in nuclear reactor bioshield concretes: comparison of liquid scintillation counting and accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P E; Croudace, I W; Hillegonds, D J

    2009-03-01

    The routine application of liquid scintillation counting to (41)Ca determination has been hindered by the absence of traceable calibration standards of known (41)Ca activity concentrations. The introduction of the new IRMM (41)Ca mass-spectrometric standards with sufficiently high (41)Ca activities for radiometric detection has partly overcome this although accurate measurement of stable Ca concentrations coupled with precise half-life data are still required to correct the certified (41)Ca:(40)Ca ratios to (41)Ca activity concentrations. In this study, (41)Ca efficiency versus quench curves have been produced using the IRMM standard, and their accuracy validated by comparison with theoretical calculations of (41)Ca efficiencies. Further verification of the technique was achieved through the analysis of (41)Ca in a reactor bioshield core that had been previously investigated for other radionuclide variations. Calcium-41 activity concentrations of up to 25 Bq/g were detected. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of the same suite of samples showed a very good agreement, providing validation of the procedure. Calcium-41 activity concentrations declined exponentially with distance from the core of the nuclear reactor and correlated well with the predicted neutron flux.

  13. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: rodriguez@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay-Campus(France); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Beck, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kellerbauer, A. [CERN, Division EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Sauvan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2006-04-17

    The masses of {sup 72-78,80,82,86}Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for {sup 72-75}Kr outweighed previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  14. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Äystö, J; Beck, D

    2006-01-01

    The masses of $^{72–78,80,82,86}$Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for $^{72–75}$Kr being more precise than the previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  15. Erosion Rates Over Millennial and Decadal Timescales: Measurements at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, K. L.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    Erosion rate measurements are essential for modeling landscape evolution and for discerning how sediment loading affects stream ecosystems. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be in stream sediments can be used to measure whole-catchment erosion rates averaged over thousands of years, a timescale that is unobservable by other methods. Comparing long-term erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclides with short-term sediment yields can shed light on erosional processes and on the effects of land use on sediment delivery to streams. Using cosmogenic 10Be, we measured erosion rates averaged over the past several thousand years at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek in Northern California. Sediment yields have also been measured at Caspar Creek since 1963 using sediment trapping and gauging methods, and sediment yield data have been collected at Redwood Creek since 1974. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Caspar Creek sediments indicates an average erosion rate of 0.13 mm/yr, which agrees with the short-term sediment yield data within error. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Redwood Creek sediments implies an average long-term erosion rate of 0.3 mm/yr, which is in rough agreement with traditional measurements of stream sediment flux. These results imply that the rate of sediment delivery to Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek over the past few decades is broadly consistent with the long-term average rate of sediment production in these watersheds.

  16. Accurate mass measurements of short-lived isotopes with the MISTRAL rf spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Toader, C F; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Duma, M; Jacotin, M; Henry, S; Képinski, J F; Lebée, G; Le Scornet, G; Lunney, M D; Monsanglant, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C

    1999-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment has measured its first masses at ISOLDE. Installed in May 1997, this radiofrequency transmission spectrometer is to concentrate on nuclides with particularly short half-lives. MISTRAL received its first stable beam in October and first radioactive beam in November 1997. These first tests, with a plasma ion source, resulted in excellent isobaric separation and reasonable transmission. Further testing and development enabled first data taking in July 1998 on neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms.

  17. High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Blaum, K; Carrel, F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2006-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes 84,86-95Kr have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes 94Kr and 95Kr were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides 89Kr and 91Kr disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  18. Value of nuclide bone imaging forecasting the effect of 99Tc-MDP treating rheumatoid arthritis%核素骨显像预测99Tc-MDP治疗类风湿关节炎效果的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利霞; 刘鹏; 钟彩玲; 陈艳; 夏天; 何国荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of nuclide bone imaging forecasting the effect of 99Tc-MDP treating rheumatoid arthritis. Methods From June 2012 to October 2014,39 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed clearly were taken images for affected joints by radionuclide bone imaging agent (99mTc-MDP) before 99Tc-MDP treat-ment.The uptake ratio (T/N) of affected joints was calculated by region of interest (ROI) technique.Before 99Tc-MDP treatment and after 6-week therapy,joint tenderness number,joint swelling number,time of morning stiffness,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded.They were divided into effective markedly group, effective group and ineffective group.T/N value among three groups was compared.According to T/N value,they were di-vided into high uptake group and low uptake group,in which the therapeutic effect was compared. Results There was a statistical difference of T/N value in different therapeutic group (P<0.05),and T/N value in effective markedly group was highest,and lowest in the ineffective group.There was a statistical difference of curative effect between high uptake group and low uptake group,and the curative effect in high uptake group was better than that of low uptake group (P<0.05). Conclusion Nuclide bone imaging has higher clinical value in forecasting effect of 99Tc-MDP treating rheumatoid arthritis and has a better guidance role for clinicians optimizing therapeutic regimen.%目的:探讨核素骨显像预测99Tc-MDP治疗类风湿关节炎效果的临床价值。方法2012年6月~2014年10月,选取诊断明确的39例活动性类风湿关节炎患者在99Tc-MDP治疗前采用放射性核素骨骼显像剂(99mTc-MDP)对病变关节进行显像,利用感兴趣区(ROI)技术计算病变关节摄取比值(T/N)。99Tc-MDP治疗前及治疗后6周记录患者的关节压痛数、关节肿胀数、晨僵时间,红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C反应蛋白(CRP),将患者分为显

  19. Rates of basin-wide rockwall retreat in the K2 region of the Central Karakoram defined by terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong Bae; Owen, Lewis A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Kamp, Ulrich; Bishop, Michael P.; Bush, Andrew; Copland, Luke; Shroder, John F.

    2009-06-01

    Basin-wide rockwall retreat rates are estimated using cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in supraglacial debris from the Baltoro Glacier basin in K2 region of the Central Karakoram, Pakistan. Total cosmogenic 10Be concentrations of the supraglacial debris were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to determine 10Be concentrations inherited from the rockwalls within the glaciated basin. Given that rockfall induced by periglacial weathering and snow and ice avalanches is the most important source of supraglacial debris production in the high mountain glaciated basin, the erosion rate of the bare bedrock can be considered to be the rate of rockwall retreat. The rate of the rockwall erosion, converted from the calculated inheritance of 10Be concentrations, using the maximum velocity of the active glacier, places an upper limit ranging from 0.65 mm/year to 2.48 mm/year. This rate of rockwall retreat is in the same order of magnitude reported in other high Himalayan mountains. The rate, however, is an order of magnitude higher than erosion rates inferred from sediment budget studies and half that of the fluvial incision rate and exhumation rate for the same region. The difference between rates of basin-wide rockwall retreat and fluvial incision rates over the Late Quaternary suggests that in this glaciated basin fluvial incision is likely enhanced by localized/differential tectonism and/or isostatic uplift.

  20. Determination of the specific activities of the cosmogenic nuclides {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in meteorites from the Sahara by means of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzow, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie; Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie; Romstedt, J. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Planetologie; Dittrich-Hannen, B. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik

    1996-06-01

    In 30 samples of meteorites from the Sahara the specific activity of {sup 26}Al, and in the case of rare meteorite types also that of {sup 10}Be was determined. In most cases, the measured data are consistent with the suggestions about possible pairings which were based on mineralogical and petrographical investigations. The investigated CR and CH chondrites were found to be saturated in {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be. The {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be production rates can be assumed to be (44.5{+-}0.9) dpm/kg and (20.7{+-}0.3) dpm/kg, respectively, for CR as well as (30.1{+-}0.9) dpm/kg and (16.7{+-}0.4) dpm/kg for CH chondrites. Furthermore the {sup 26}Al data of 11 ordinary chondrites can also be interpreted as saturation activities and allow the assumption of 3.10{sup 6} y to be the lower limit of the exposure ages of these meteorites. In the case of Acfer 277, in addition to the {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al determinations, a study on nuclear tracks was performed. These data suggest that the investigated sample was located at no more than 8 cm below the original surface of a meteoroid of a radius between 25 cm and 65 cm which traveled through space (0.3{+-}0.1).10{sup 6} y before entering the earth`s atmosphere. (orig.)

  1. The effect to the nuclear reactor after the actinide nuclides added to the nuclear fuel%核燃料中添加锕系元素对反应堆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 刘滨; 胡文超; 黄礼明; 赵伟; 屠荆; 朱养妮

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we study the effects of different reactors after the MA added to the nuclear fuel, and we also study the feasibility of MA transmutation in different types of nuclear reactor. We simulate the reactor cores by MCNP4C code, our simulations showed that after adding the MA to the nuclear fuel, neutron flux and neutron spectra have different effects in the different reactor cores. In contrast to the fast reactor, the reactivity, the neutron flux and the neutron energy spectrum of the thermal reactor are severely impacted after the MA added to the nuclear fuel. Our results showed that fast reactor and the high flux thermal reactor are promising in transmutation of MA nuclides.%文章的主要目的是研究核燃料中添加MA后对不同堆型的影响以及各种堆型嬗变MA的可行性.本文采用MCNP4C程序进行模拟,结果显示核燃料中添加MA后对不同的堆型产生不同程度的影响,相对于快堆而言,热堆的反应性、中子通量以及中子能谱受MA的影响很大.研究表明快堆和高通量热中子堆在嬗变MA核素方面具有很高的研究价值.

  2. 东北地区土壤中放射性核素含量的抽样测量与分析%Measurement and Analysis of Radio-Nuclides Contents in Soil of the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帮保; 颜强; 李桃生; 安冬; 张成功; 张朋飞

    2014-01-01

    目的 测量东北地区土壤中放射性核素含量,从当地气候、成土母岩分布、植被分布、受放射性污染的程度等角度研究不同区域土壤中放射性核素含量存在差异的原因,并评估其对地表γ辐射量的贡献.方法 应用北京核仪器厂生产的BH 1936型低本底多道γ谱仪对由中国计量科学研究院提供的混合体标准源进行测量,得到探测器对232Th、226 Ra、238U和40K四种核素所发出的最大γ分支比的全能峰探测效率.测量土壤样品的γ能谱,分析计算得到土壤样品中的放射性核素的含量.结果 通过对东北地区不同区域26份常见土壤样品中天然放射性核素的放射性活度进行抽样测量与数据处理,得出土壤中232 Th、226 Ra、238U和40K的含量均值分别为:52.9 Bq/kg,44.8 Bq/kg,50.3 Bq/kg,820.3 Bq/kg,较以往年所得数值略有增加.结论 结果表明,232Th含量在残积母质类土壤中最高,在沉积母质类土壤中最低;226Ra和238U含量在冲积母质类土壤中最高,在残积母质类土壤中最低;40K含量在沉积母质类土壤中最高,在冲积母质类土壤中最低.232Th和40K含量在山地中最高,在平原中最低,而226Ra和238U含量则是在平原中最高,在山地中最低.根据土壤中放射性核素含量估算东北地区的年有效环境剂量(0.54 mSv),其值符合正常标准.

  3. Overview on measures concerning the radiation exposure reduction following events with serious radiological consequences (catalogue of measures) Pt. 2. Background information, theory and examples of use; Uebersicht ueber Massnahmen zur Verringerung der Strahlenexposition nach Ereignissen mit nicht unerheblichen radiologischen Auswirkungen. (Massnahmenkatalog). T. 2. Hintergrundinformationen, Theorie und Anwendungsbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkel, Simone; Schnadt, Horst (comps.)

    2010-07-01

    The report edited by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety includes the following chapters: Summary of materials: international nuclear and radiological event scale (INES), nuclear power plants in Europe, significance of the reference nuclide I-131, emergency protection measures, radiation protection measures, contaminated surface waters, contaminated matter disposal, prevention of radiation exposure by inhalation, decision making concerning agriculture and food, radiation protection during disposal procedures. Theoretical fundamentals: decontamination, dose rate, contaminated soils, inhalation dose, contaminated articles, contaminated surface waters, contaminated skin, contamination by ingestion, conversion factors, calculation procedures for appropriate measures. Examples for use of the catalogue of measures.

  4. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out. An investigation of possibilities and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.; Korsbech, U.

    1992-12-01

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne {gamma}-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB).

  5. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  6. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  7. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  8. Anomalous effects on radiation detectors and capacitance measurements inside a modified Faraday cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milián-Sánchez, V., E-mail: vicmisan@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, Valencia (Spain); Mocholí-Salcedo, A., E-mail: amocholi@eln.upv.es [Traffic Control Systems Group, ITACA Institute, Universitat Politécnica de, Camino de Vera, s/n, Valencia (Spain); Milián, C., E-mail: carles.milian@cpht.polytechnique.fr [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Kolombet, V.A., E-mail: kolombet@iteb.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow Region, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, Valencia (Spain); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Universitat Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-08-21

    We present experimental results showing certain anomalies in the measurements performed inside a modified Faraday cage of decay rates of Ra-226, Tl-204 and Sr-90/I-90, of the gamma spectrum of a Cs-137 preparation, and of the capacitance of both a class-I multilayer ceramic capacitor and of the interconnection cable between the radiation detector and the scaler. Decay rates fluctuate significantly up to 5% around the initial value and differently depending on the type of nuclide, and the spectrum photopeak increases in 4.4%. In the case of the capacitor, direct capacitance measurements at 100 Hz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz show variations up to 0.7%, the most significant taking place at 100 Hz. In the case of the interconnection cable, the capacitance varies up to 1%. Dispersion also tends to increase inside the enclosure. However, the measured capacitance variations do not explain the variations observed in decay rates. - Highlights: • Background counts and decay rates changes of different nuclides are described. • Those changes are observed inside a multilayer modified Faraday cage. • Noise in a multichannel analyzer increases inside the multilayer enclosure. • Capacitance of a class-I multilayer ceramic capacitor varies inside the enclosure. • Capacitance changes depend on the used frequency.

  9. Irradiated Xenon Isotopic Ratio Measurement for Failed Fuel Detection and Location in Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chikara; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Harano, Hideki

    2009-08-01

    The accuracy of xenon isotopic ratio burn-up calculations used for failed fuel identification was evaluated by an irradiation test of xenon tag gas samples in the Joyo test reactor. The experiment was carried out using pressurized steel capsules containing unique blend ratios of stable xenon tag gases in an on-line creep rupture experiment in Joyo. The tag gas samples were irradiated to total neutron fluences of 1.6 to 4.8 × 1026 n/m2. Laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry was used to analyze the cover gas containing released tag gas diluted to isotopic ratios of 100 to 102 ppb. The isotopic ratios of xenon tag gases after irradiation were calculated using the ORIGEN2 code. The neutron cross sections of xenon nuclides were based on the JENDL-3.3 library. These cross sections were collapsed into one group using the neutron spectra of Joyo. The comparison of measured and calculated xenon isotopic ratios provided C/E values that ranged from 0.92 to 1.10. The differences between calculation and measurement were considered to be mainly due to the measurement errors and the xenon nuclide cross section uncertainties.

  10. Treatment Registration and Nuclide Decay Calculation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-guo; XU Bo; CHEN Zhi-jun; ZHOU Ai-qing; WANG Xue-qin; ZHANG Bin; MA Tao; SHEN Jun-jin; LIU Jie; JIN Hai-xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To design a software to do the complicated and multiple calcula-tions automatically in routine internal radionuclide irradiation therapy to avoid mistakes and shorten patients waiting times. Methods:The software is designed on the Microsoft Windows XP operating system. Visual Basic 5.0 and Microsoft Access 2000 are used re-spectively as the programming language and database system here. The data and DBGrid controls and VB data window guide of Visual Basic were used to control access to and Ac-cess database. Results: Not only can the radioactivity of any radionuclide be calculated, but also the administered total iodine dose of therapy for hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer and the total administered 153 Sm-EDTMP solutions for remedy of bone metastasis of malig-nant tumor can be ciphered out. Conclusion: The work becomes easier, faster, more cor-rect and interesting when the software can make the complicated and multiple calculations automatically. Patients' information, diagnosis and treatment can be recorded for further study.

  11. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Nuclide radioactive decay data uncertainties library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanova, D. S.; Zherdev, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the developing the library of uncertainties of radioactive decay data in the ABBN data library format are described. Different evaluations of uncertainties were compared and their effects on the results of calculations of residual energy release were determined using the test problems and experiment. Tables were generated in the ABBN format with the data obtained on the basis of libraries in ENDF-6 format. 3821 isotopes from the ENDF/B-7 data library, 3852 isotopes from the JEFF-3.11 data library and 1264 isotopes from the JENDL-4.0 data library were processed. It was revealed that the differences in the evaluations accepted in different decay data libraries are not so big, although they sometimes exceed the uncertainties assigned to the data in the ENDF/B-7 and JEFF-3.11 libraries, which as a rule, they agree with each other. On the basis of developed method it is supposed to create a library of data uncertainties for radioactive decay within the constant data system in FSUE RFNC-VNIIEF with its further connection with CRYSTAL module.

  13. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of {sup 182}Hf (T{sub 1/2}=9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, {sup 182}W. The degrees of relative {sup 182}W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to {+-}0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of {sup 182}Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  14. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  15. Discovery of $^{229}$Rn and the structure of the heaviest Rn and Ra isotopes from Penning-trap mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Neidherr, D; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Böhm, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Casten, R F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Minaya-Ramirez, E; Naimi, S; Noah, E; Penescu, L; Rosenbusch, M; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The masses of the neutron-rich radon isotopes $^{223–229}$Rn have been determined for the first time, using the ISOLTRAP setup at CERN ISOLDE. In addition, this experiment marks the first discovery of a new nuclide,$^{229}$Rn, by Penning-trap mass measurement. The new, high-accuracy data allow a fine examination of the mass surface, via the valence-nucleon interaction ${\\delta}$V$_{pn}$. The results reveal intriguing behavior, possibly reflecting either a N=134 subshell closure or an octupolar deformation in this region.

  16. Accurate correction of magnetic field instabilities for high-resolution isochronous mass measurements in storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, P; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Wang, M; Tu, X L; Blaum, K; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Audi, G; Yan, X L; Chen, X C; Xu, X; Zhang, W; Sun, B H; Yamaguchi, T; Chen, R J; Fu, C Y; Ge, Z; Huang, W J; Liu, D W; Xing, Y M; Zeng, Q

    2014-01-01

    Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a successful technique for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with relative precision of about $10^{-5}-10^{-7}$. Instabilities of the magnetic fields in storage rings are one of the major contributions limiting the achievable mass resolving power, which is directly related to the precision of the obtained mass values. A new data analysis method is proposed allowing one to minimise the effect of such instabilities. The masses of the previously measured at the CSRe $^{41}$Ti, $^{43}$V, $^{47}$Mn, $^{49}$Fe, $^{53}$Ni and $^{55}$Cu nuclides were re-determined with this method. An improvement of the mass precision by a factor of $\\sim 1.7$ has been achieved for $^{41}$Ti and $^{43}$V. The method can be applied to any isochronous mass experiment irrespective of the accelerator facility. Furthermore, the method can be used as an on-line tool for checking the isochronous conditions of the storage ring.

  17. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifarth René

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,γ, (n,p, (n,α, (n,2n, or (n,f, could be investigated.

  18. Development of radon {center_dot} thoron exhalation measuring system and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, Jun; Yamasaki, Keizo; Yoshimoto, Takaaki; Okamoto, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Tadashi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Shimo, Michikuni

    1995-02-01

    As representative methods to determine radon/thoron exhalation rate from the surface of ground, we have used `accumulation method`, `adsorption method` or `vertical profile method`. These methods, however, are complicated in their procedures and not always measure radon/thoron activities directly. To make up for these weakness, we developed a radon/thoron exhalation in-situ measuring system with large-sized ZnS(Ag) scintillator. This system is basically composed of, skirt part which covers the ground, scintillation detector (30cmx40cm), light guide, photomultiplier tube, digital ratemeter, recorder (hand-held computer) and printer. The nuclides which accumulate in the skirt and contribute to counts are {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po, and {sup 214}Po in the U-series, {sup 220}Rn, {sup 216}Po, in the Th-series. Each count due to radon and thoron can be distinguished from the difference of half time. We can assess exhalation rates readily and speedy using the counts of alpha particles from these nuclides. The calibration of the system was performed by the comparison with the accumulation method or the `flow method`. We applied this system on the spot located at Tsuruga district of Fukui prefecture in Japan. Radon/thoron concentrations at this spot is very high. To investigate the source of radon we used this system and the PICO-RAD system, and the relation between radon concentrations and radon exhalation rates will be reported. (author).

  19. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, René; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,$\\gamma$), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  20. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  1. Therapy palliative with {sup 2}23Ra without special radiation protection measures?; Palliative Therapie mit {sup 223}Ra ohne besondere Strahlenschutzmassnahmen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, Guenther [Forschungsbuero Radonbalneologie (FRB), Grosspoesna (Germany); Petzold, Juergen

    2015-07-01

    For nearly 2 years now as a therapy of the castration resistant prostata carcinoma a nuclide therapy with {sup 223}Ra-Dichloride (trade-mark Xofigo) is applied. Xofigo is applied by a medical specialist for nuclear medicine altogether 6 times in a monthly distance. The activity used in each case is according to the body weight (50 kBq/kg BW). This therapy is licensed by the supervisory authorities of the German federal countries as an ambulant therapy. Special radiation protection measures are only required when exceeding a given number of 17 patients per year as incorparation measurements.

  2. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements; Comparacion Bilateral CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR de la Medida de Actividad de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-07-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Time optimization of (90)Sr measurements: Sequential measurement of multiple samples during ingrowth of (90)Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Stina; Tovedal, Annika; Björnham, Oscar; Ramebäck, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more rapid determination of a series of samples containing (90)Sr by making the Cherenkov measurement of the daughter nuclide (90)Y more time efficient. There are many instances when an optimization of the measurement method might be favorable, such as; situations requiring rapid results in order to make urgent decisions or, on the other hand, to maximize the throughput of samples in a limited available time span. In order to minimize the total analysis time, a mathematical model was developed which calculates the time of ingrowth as well as individual measurement times for n samples in a series. This work is focused on the measurement of (90)Y during ingrowth, after an initial chemical separation of strontium, in which it is assumed that no other radioactive strontium isotopes are present. By using a fixed minimum detectable activity (MDA) and iterating the measurement time for each consecutive sample the total analysis time will be less, compared to using the same measurement time for all samples. It was found that by optimization, the total analysis time for 10 samples can be decreased greatly, from 21h to 6.5h, when assuming a MDA of 1Bq/L and at a background count rate of approximately 0.8cpm.

  4. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartini, Ludovica, E-mail: ludovica.sartini@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Genoa University, Genoa (Italy); Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander [Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP), Belarus State University, Minsk (Belarus); Etiope, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Capone, Antonio [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico [Tecnomare S.p.A., Venice (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by {sup 40}K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., {sup 238}U,{sup 232}Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., {sup 137}Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  5. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed {beta}-decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ames, F.; Engels, O. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Audi, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1321 (United States); Moore, R.B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 2T8 (Canada); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Mass measurements of {sup 34}Ar, {sup 73-78}Kr, and {sup 74,76}Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q{sub EC}-values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} nuclear {beta}-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q{sub EC}-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with {delta}m/m {<=} 3{sup .}10 {sup -8}. For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The {sup 34}Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10{sup -8}. The Q {sub EC}-value of the {sup 34}Ar 0 {sup +} {yields} 0 {sup +} decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, {sup 74}Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  6. The EWGRD Round Robin Measurement Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. A.; Wagemans, J.; Fernandes, A. C.; Girard, J. M.; Kis, D. P.; Klupák, V.; Mutnuru, R.; Philibert, H.; Rousseau, G.; Santos, J. P.; Serén, T.; Zsolnay, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a round robin exercise carried out to compare specific activity measurements performed by eight European organisations on a set of ten neutron activation detectors containing the radio-nuclides 110mAg, 60Co, 54Mn, 46Sc and 94Nb. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate the level of consistency between the participating organisations in blind tests of measurements relevant to reactor metrology. The samples used were selected from a stock of pre-existing irradiated material held at SCK•CEN. Taking turns over a period of approximately 9 months, the participating organisations received the samples, measured them and provided their results to an independent referee who collated and compared the data. The inter-comparison has demonstrated good agreement between the participants with standard deviations for each dosimeter varying between 1.6% and 3.1%. The paper provides results of the EWGRD Round Robin in an anonymised form together with discussion and conclusions which may be drawn from the exercise.

  7. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  8. Atomic site preferences and its effect on magnetic structure in the intermetallic borides M{sub 2}Fe(Ru{sub 0.8}T{sub 0.2}){sub 5}B{sub 2} (M=Sc, Ti, Zr; T=Ru, Rh, Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brgoch, Jakoah, E-mail: jrbrgoc@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Mahmoud, Yassir A. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Miller, Gordon J., E-mail: gmiller@iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The site preference for a class of intermetallic borides following the general formula M{sub 2}Fe(Ru{sub 0.8}T{sub 0.2}){sub 5}B{sub 2} (M=Sc, Ti, Zr; T=Ru, Rh, Ir), has been explored using ab initio and semi-empirical electronic structure calculations. This intermetallic boride series contains two potential sites, the Wyckoff 2c and 8j sites, for Rh or Ir to replace Ru atoms. Since the 8j site is a nearest neighbor to the magnetically active Fe atom, whereas the 2c site is a next nearest neighbor, the substitution pattern should play an important role in the magnetic structure of these compounds