Gerritsen, Debby L.; Steverink, Nardi; Frijters, Dinnus H. M.; Ooms, Marcel E.; Ribbe, Miel W.
Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to develop an observational scale to measure the social well-being of nursing home residents, by assessing not only the social behaviour of the resident towards others, but also the behaviour of others towards the resident. Background. Traditionally,
To provide the first estimates of a comprehensive measure of social capital for the Indigenous population and to link the indicators to well-being. Observational study-based. Household survey. Nationally representative sample of 7823 Indigenous Australians aged 15 years and over who were usual residents of private dwellings. Whether or not the respondent felt happy in the last 4 weeks all or most of the time (happiness), and whether or not they felt so sad that nothing could cheer them up at least a little bit of the time over the same period (sadness). There were no consistent differences in social capital measures between Indigenous men and women, nor were there consistent differences between the remote and non-remote population. High levels of social capital were, however, associated with higher subjective well-being. Social capital is both an indicator and determinant of well-being. It was possible to derive an index of social capital for Indigenous Australians that had a strong positive association with self-reported happiness and a negative association with self-reported sadness. However, the analysis also showed that there are a set of related domains of social capital, rather than there being a single underlying concept. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.
Examines social fitness, the combination of resources from social connections that influence how individuals respond to stressful circumstances, to identify methods of increasing social connectedness and support among U.S. Airmen and their families.
van Deurzen, I.A.; Roosma, F.
Purpose In the present contribution we address the measurement invariance of a new mental well-being scale of three items that was applied in the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Health 2011 module. Our aim is to establish if and for how many countries (partial) scalar invariance is
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real
Mental, social, and physical well-being in New Hampshire, Oregon, and Washington, 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: implications for public health research and practice related to Healthy People 2020 foundation health measures on well-being
Kobau, Rosemarie; Bann, Carla; Lewis, Megan; Zack, Matthew M; Boardman, Angela M; Boyd, Renee; Lim, Kim C; Holder, Tommy; Hoff, Anastacia KL; Luncheon, Cecily; Thompson, William; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Lucas, Richard E
Background Well-being is now accepted as one of four cross-cutting measures in gauging progress for Healthy People 2020. This shift to population indicators of well-being redresses notions of health that have focused on absence of illness (negative health) as a primary or sufficient indicator of positive functioning. The purpose of this study was to estimate mental, social, and physical well-being in three US states using new measures piloted on the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Su...
L. D'Acci (Luca)
textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes
Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E
The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.
Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G
Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.
Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita
This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
impacts of corporate social responsibility on the well-being of workers in the ... policies have been the healthcare, education, security, housing, agriculture, arts and tourism, sports, charity organization, religion, social clubs, government ...
verbalization among practitioners and thus a move towards shared understandings of what it means to fare well. Ideally, this should lead to timely pedagogical interventions to improve the lives of children who are not perceived to be thriving. In this manner, the tool addresses larger concerns around the role...... that simply ‘is’. This involves a focus on well-being as it is experienced, shaped, practiced, and recognized in everyday practices, always already embedded within wider contexts of institutional settings, social relationships and political agendas. In the discussion of perceptions and practices of well......-being, the paper will draw on the analytical concept of social technology (Jöhncke, Svendsen and Whyte, 2004) to explore the well-being assessment tool as not simply a solution to the problem of working pedagogically and systematically with well-being but also as a tool that activates particular perspectives...
Gatenio Gabel, Shirley; Zhang, Yiwei
In recent decades, measures of child well-being have evolved from single dimension to multidimensional measures. Multi-dimensional measures deepen and broaden our understanding of child well-being and inform us of areas of neglect. Child well-being in China today is measured through proxy measures of household need. This paper discusses the evolution of child well-being measures more generally, explores the benefits of positive indicators and multiple dimensions in formulating policy, and then reviews efforts to date by the Chinese government, researchers, and non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations to develop comprehensive multidimensional measures of child well-being in China. The domains and their potential interactions, as well as data sources and availability, are presented. The authors believe that child well-being in China would benefit from the development of a multidimensional index and that there is sufficient data to develop such an index.
Barry, Margaret M.; Clarke, Aleisha Mary; Dowling, Katherine
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical perspective on the international evidence on promoting young people’s social and emotional well-being in schools. The challenges of integrating evidence-based interventions within schools are discussed and the need for innovative approaches
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jie; Norvilitis, Jill M
We explored the possibility of applying 4 psychological scales developed and commonly used in the West to Chinese culture. The participants, 273 Chinese and 302 Americans, completed measures of self-esteem (Self-Esteem Scale; Rosenberg, 1965), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988), and suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation; Beck, Kovacs, & Weissman, 1979). All scales were found to be reliable and valid cross culturally. Comparative analyses suggest that gender differences on all 4 scales are smaller among the Chinese than the Americans. Americans were more likely to score higher on the socially desirable scales (self-esteem and social support) and lower on the socially undesirable scale (suicidal ideation). However, no cultural differences were found in this study on the measure of depression. Results suggest that, with a few considerations or potential modifications, the current measures could be used in Chinese culture.
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto
This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch
Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.
The usual focus of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria has always been on the society or the community where business is located while the place of workers as stakeholder in business is usually downplayed. This study examined the impact of corporate social responsibility on the wellbeing of workers in the ...
Lewis, Robin J.; Derlega, Valerian J.; Clarke, Eva G.; Kuang, Jenny C.
Stigma consciousness, the expectation of prejudice and discrimination, has been associated with negative psychological outcomes for lesbians. This research examined the moderating role of social constraints or difficulty lesbians experience in talking with others about sexual orientation-related issues. One hundred five, predominantly out,…
Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Sourosh, Maryam; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Nejabat, Mahmoud; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi
According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution), and some related factors in the school of nursing and midwifery students. This cross-sectional study was carried out between Julys to December 2015 and comprised 346 students in the school of nursing and midwifery in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Social well-being, socio-demographic status and physical activity were measured by valid questionnaires. Univariate linear regression analysis, multiple imputation method, ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used as different statistical methods. The P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The mean score of social well-being was 50. The minimum and maximum scores of social well-being were 20 to 100. Married students had higher social well-being than single students in univariate linear regression (Beta: 2.111, 95% CI: (0.387 to 3.738), P=0.017). Also, social integration had higher scores in married students (P=0.015). Social actualization was higher in male students (P=0.015); on the other hand, social contribution was higher in female students (P=0.026). The results of our study showed that social well-being status of students in this research was not satisfactory. Designing and conducting programs for promotion of social well-being, for example preparing facilities for marriage of students, can be helpful. Evaluation of social well-being in students of other schools with multicenter studies seems to be useful.
Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution, and some related factors in the school of nursing and midwifery students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between Julys to December 2015 and comprised 346 students in the school of nursing and midwifery in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Social well-being, socio-demographic status and physical activity were measured by valid questionnaires. Univariate linear regression analysis, multiple imputation method, ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used as different statistical methods. The P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean score of social well-being was 50. The minimum and maximum scores of social well-being were 20 to 100. Married students had higher social well-being than single students in univariate linear regression (Beta: 2.111, 95% CI: (0.387 to 3.738, P=0.017. Also, social integration had higher scores in married students (P=0.015. Social actualization was higher in male students (P=0.015; on the other hand, social contribution was higher in female students (P=0.026. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that social well-being status of students in this research was not satisfactory. Designing and conducting programs for promotion of social well-being, for example preparing facilities for marriage of students, can be helpful. Evaluation of social well-being in students of other schools with multicenter studies seems to be useful.
Parker, Gordon B; Hyett, Matthew P
Because there has been a lack of a single comprehensive measure for assessing workplace well-being, we elected to develop such a self-report measure. Provisional items were extracted from the literature on "positive psychology" and were adapted to capture their workplace application. The provisional 50-item set was completed by a nonclinical sample of 150 adults. A second and third sample was recruited to examine its reliability and any impact of depressed mood and sociodemographic and work-related variables, respectively. Factor analysis identified four domains, "Work Satisfaction," "Organizational Respect for the Employee," "Employer Care," and a negative construct-"Intrusion of Work into Private Life." High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the final 31-item measure, whereas there was no distinct impact of depressed mood on the scale scores. Work Satisfaction scale scores were influenced by job type. Gender effects were found for two of the four scales, whereas a longer period of employment inversely linked to Organizational Respect for the Employee and Employer Care scores and was conversely associated with higher Intrusion of Work into Private Life scores. The refined measure should enable individuals and employers to quantify the levels of support and well-being provided by employing organizations.
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L
Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.
Gamble, Dorothy N.
This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…
Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah
The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the…
Gerson, J.; Plagnol, A.; Corr, P. J.
The purpose of the study was to explore whether personality traits moderate the association between social comparison on Facebook and subjective well-being, measured as both life satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being. Data were collected via an online questionnaire which measured Facebook use, social comparison behavior and personality traits for 337 respondents. The results showed positive associations between Facebook intensity and both measures of subjective well-being, and negative assoc...
Birtel, Michèle D; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J
Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs), aged between 18 and 64, completed an online survey measuring perceived stigma, internalized stigma, shame, perceived social support, and mental health and well-being (self-esteem, depression and anxiety, sleep). We found that perceived stigma was associated with lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep. Furthermore, perceived social support followed the opposite pattern, and was associated with higher self-esteem, lower depression and anxiety, and better sleep. The effects of perceived stigma and of perceived social support on our outcome measures were mediated by internalized stigma and by internalized shame. Helping individuals with substance abuse to utilize their social support may be fruitful for combatting the negative impact of internalized stigma and shame on mental health and well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Skinner, T. Chas; John, Mary; Hampson, Sarah E.
, well-being, and social support. Results: Perceived impact of diabetes and supportive family and friends were prospectively predictive of participants' well-being measures. Although support from family and friends was predictive of better dietary self-care, this relationship was mediated by personal...... of diabetes are important determinants of both dietary self-care and well-being. In addition, personal models may serve to mediate the relationship between social support and dietary behavior.......Objectives: To examine whether peer support and illness representation mediate the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Method: Fifty-two adolescents (12-18 years old) with Type I diabetes were recruited and followed over 6 months, completing assessments of self- management...
Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A
This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.
Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme; Zilda Aparecida Perreira Del Prette; Susana Coimbra
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the f...
Huppert, Felicia A.; Marks, Nic; Clark, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Stutzer, Alois; Vitterso, Joar; Wahrendorf, Morten
It has become customary to judge the success of a society through the use of objective indicators, predominantly economic and social ones. Yet in most developed nations, increases in income, education and health have arguably not produced comparable increases in happiness or life satisfaction. While much has been learned from the introduction of…
Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H
We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being.
Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas
This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…
Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme
Full Text Available There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the first and second years of public high school. The data were collectively obtained in the classroom using the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents, the Social Support Appraisal Scale and the Psychological Well-being Scale. The results indicated that family configuration is not associated with the psychological well-being of adolescents. The social skills of empathy, self-control, civility, social resourcefulness and affective approach as well as the social support appraisals from friends and family were the best predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to future research and interventions.
Okabayashi, Hideki; Hougham, Gavin W
Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders over three years were examined. Repeated measurements of 498 elders over a three-year survey interval were obtained from a baseline mail survey and two- and three-year follow-up surveys. Outcomes were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Male elders were more likely to have a spouse and work at paid jobs, while female elders were likely to have more frequent contacts with their child/children and more interactions with friends. As the elders aged over three years, life satisfaction decreased, while depression did not show any significant overall trend. There were no beneficial effects of social interactions on change in well-being, although social participation, interaction with friends, and conversation with spouse were beneficially related to baseline levels of both depressive tendency and life satisfaction. Among female elders only, the number of children had beneficial effects on life satisfaction. There are modest gender differences of the impact of social interactions on the well-being of Japanese elders, and the number of children seems to be more important as potential sources of support for female rather than male elders. Spousal conversation and non-obligatory social interaction such as unpaid social activities and friendship seem to be important for both male and female elders in Japan. These findings suggest that social relations among Japanese elders may be moving away from more gender dependent patterns seen in the past.
Full Text Available High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level models and then use multivariate (individual-level Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the
Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa
High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective
Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H
Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wayment, Heidi A; Walters, Andrew Schrack
The present study examined the ability of an interpersonal construct called athletic connectedness to mediate the relationship between task and ego goal orientations and well-being. We operationalised athletic social connectedness as a sense of social belonging and sense of connection with teammates. We hypothesised that athletic social connectedness would be positively associated with task goals, negatively associated with ego goals, and would at least partially mediate the relationship between achievement goals and well-being. We administered questionnaires to female (N = 106; mean age = 20.47, SD = 1.12) and male (N = 100; mean age = 20.95, SD = 1.21) NCAA Division III college athletes. We tested our hypothesised model using structural equation modelling, which included testing a measurement model that specified four latent variables and then comparing the estimates generated by our hypothesised model with our data. We also tested three alternative models and found our hypothesised model to fit best. As predicted, there were significant indirect effects of task and ego motivation on well-being through athletic connectedness, demonstrating formal evidence of mediation. The r 2 coefficient indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in well-being, a moderate effect size (Cohen, 1988). Discussion focuses on the importance of considering interpersonal constructs as a way to improve our understanding of relationship between task and ego goal orientations to well-being in athletes.
Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa M; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W
Patient assault is a serious issue for the well-being of staff in psychiatric hospitals. To guide workplace responses to patient assault, more information is needed about social support from different sources and whether those supports are associated with staff well-being. The present study examines social support after patient assault from work-based and nonwork-based sources, and whether inpatient psychiatric staff desires support from them and perceive the support received as being effective. Received support across sources was examined in relations to staff well-being (physical health, mental health, anger, sleep quality) and perceptions of safety. Survey data was collected from 348 clinical staff in a large public forensic mental hospital. Among the 242 staff who reported an assault in the last year, 71% wanted support and 72% found effective support from at least one source. Generally, effective support from supervisors, coworkers, and their combination was associated with better well-being. Support from nonwork sources was related to less concerns about safety, but not to other well-being measures. However, 28% of staff did not receive effective support from any source postassault. Gaps in support as reported in this study and as found by other investigators call for systematic programming by hospital organizations to enhance the well-being of clinical staff, which in turn has implications for patient care.
Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott
Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…
Abstract. Existing work on the effects of social network sites (SNS) on well-being has often stressed that SNS can help people gain social support from their online networks, which positively affects their well-being. However, the majority of studies in this area have been cross-sectional in nature and/or relied on student samples. Using data from six waves of a longitudinal study with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, we first examined whether users and nonusers of SNS differ in online social support and well-being (as indicated by life satisfaction and stress). In a second step, we investigated in more detail how SNS use – more specifically, asking for advice and the number of strong ties on these SNS – are related to online social support, stress, and satisfaction with life. Overall, our results provide no evidence for SNS use and online social support affecting either stress or life satisfaction. SNS users reported more online social support than nonusers did, but also higher levels of stress; the two groups did not differ in overall life satisfaction. With regard to the underlying processes, we found positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between asking for advice on SNS and online social support, indicating that SNS can be an effective tool for receiving social support. However, online social support was not related to higher life satisfaction or reduced stress 6 months later; instead, it seems that SNS users with lower life satisfaction and/or higher stress seek more social support online by asking for advice on SNS. PMID:29147141
McDaniel, Brandon T; Coyne, Sarah M; Holmes, Erin K
Drawing on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and prior empirical research, the current study examines the way that blogging and social networking may impact feelings of connection and social support, which in turn could impact maternal well-being (e.g., marital functioning, parenting stress, and depression). One hundred and fifty-seven new mothers reported on their media use and various well-being variables. On average, mothers were 27 years old (SD = 5.15) and infants were 7.90 months old (SD = 5.21). All mothers had access to the Internet in their home. New mothers spent approximately 3 hours on the computer each day, with most of this time spent on the Internet. Findings suggested that frequency of blogging predicted feelings of connection to extended family and friends which then predicted perceptions of social support. This in turn predicted maternal well-being, as measured by marital satisfaction, couple conflict, parenting stress, and depression. In sum, blogging may improve new mothers' well-being, as they feel more connected to the world outside their home through the Internet.
Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…
Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller
The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…
Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine
Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.
Daniels, K; Guppy, A
Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.
Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Sourosh, Maryam; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Nejabat, Mahmoud; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi
ABSTRACT Background: According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution), and some related factors in ...
Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar
Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.
Weinberg, Michael; Harel, Hila; Shamani, Michal; Or-Chen, Keren; Ron, Pnina; Gil, Sharon
Exposure to war can lead to numerous traumatic experiences affecting the daily lives and personal well-being of the civilian population. However, no research to date has examined the associations between postwar well-being and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, tendency to forgive, and social support during and following war. Authors examined a sample of 160 Israeli civilians who were exposed to rocket and missile fire during the 2014 Gaza War. Time 1 (Tl) started approximately one week after the beginning of the war and ended four weeks later following the first 72-hour ceasefire declaration by the United Nations. Respondents were re-approached by personal e-mail approximately one month after T1. A structural equation model design showed that higher postwar tendency to forgive, and social support, are associated with higher postwar well-being. It is notable that higher social support during the war had a negative effect on postwar well-being. In addition, higher posttraumatic symptoms and well-being during the war had a positive effect on higher postwar well-being. The study findings reinforce the importance of personal variables in postwar well-being. However, increased awareness of both social support and PTSD symptoms as "double-edged sword" resources is advisable, considering the different effects of social support and PTSD symptoms on well-being both during and after the war. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.
Held, Mary L; Cuellar, Matthew
Objective This study examined the direct and mediating effects of maternal social capital on health and well-being for native- and foreign-born Latina mothers and their children. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline and nine-year follow up waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. The study included a sample of 874 Latina mothers. Mplus7 was used to perform structural equation modeling to determine whether exogenous indicators (age, education, and economic well-being) predicted social capital, whether social capital predicted mother and child well-being, and whether mediating effects helped explain each relationship. Results For native-born Latinas (n = 540), social capital did not predict maternal or child well-being. However, social capital significantly mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal well-being. For foreign-born Latinas (n = 334), social capital was a significant predictor of maternal well-being. Social capital also mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal, but not child well-being. Younger and foreign-born Latinas who report higher educational attainment and economic well-being have greater social capital, and thus better self-reported health. Conclusion Findings suggest that social capital is particularly relevant to the health of foreign-born Latinas. For all Latina mothers, social capital may serve as a protective mitigating factor to better health. Health service providers should evaluate the potential to integrate programs that promote social capital accumulation for Latinas. Further research should examine factors to improve the health of Latinas' children.
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…
Groenewegen, P.P.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vries, de S.; Verheij, R.A.
Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social
Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Abs, Daniel; Casas, Ferran; Bedin, Livia Maria
This paper's main objective is to show relations between interest in media, perceived social support and adolescents' personal well-being. For this purpose, 1,589 Brazilian adolescents answered a questionnaire containing Cummins' Personal Well-Being, Vaux's Social Support Appraisals and Casas' interest in media scales. The media in study are: The…
Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi
Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that the different effects of the demographic factors on social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.
Ekas, Naomi V.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Whitman, Thomas L.
This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between multiple sources of social support (e.g., partner, family, and friends), optimism, and well-being among mothers of children with ASD. Social support was examined as a mediator and moderator of the optimism-maternal well-being relationship. Moreover, the role of…
Visser, Sanne Siete; Bailey, Ajay; Meijering, Louise
This article explores how Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands enhance their gendered social well-being. We provide an in-depth view of gender-specific places and relations that shape the social well-being of migrants, focusing on place-based lived experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews and
Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi
Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention.
Weidman, Aaron C.; Fernandez, Katya C.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.
The social compensation hypothesis states that the internet primarily benefits individuals who feel uncomfortable communicating face-to-face. In the current research, we tested whether individuals higher in social anxiety use the internet as a compensatory social medium, and whether such use is associated with greater well-being. In Study 1, individuals higher in social anxiety reported greater feelings of comfort and self-disclosure when socializing online than less socially anxious individu...
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, soc...
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Full Text Available Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and Chiche, adaptation VM Sokolova. The findings relate to the need to include indicators of psychosocial well-being of the person in the system of corresponding psycho-pedagogical and socio-psychological support of the university.
Home Accidents Effects On The Physical And Social Well-Being Of The Aged In ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Social Work education should stretch its arms out to embrace erotological training for ... More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.
Gaspar, Tania; Bilimória, Helena; Albergaria, Francisca; Matos, Margarida Gaspar
Children and adolescents with cognitive and developmental difficulties show difficulty in social interaction, feelings of rejection, autonomy, social rules and in behavioural and emotional self-regulation. Importantly, their subjective well-being is associated to social support and personal factors, such as self-esteem and a positive self-image.…
Awang, Mohd Mahzan; Kutty, Faridah Mydin; Ahmad, Abdul Razaq
The current study explored first-year student experience in receiving social support and its relation to their ability to adapt with university ethos. It also explored how social support on academic adjustment, social adjustment and emotional adjustment among students were significantly associated with student well-being. This qualitative research…
Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue; [Compilers].
This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem is presented. Some of the themes and strategies presented are policy...
Full Text Available During the last three decades, social capital has gained prominence throughout the social sciences. The concepts has been analysed in various manners (from perspectives of economics, political sciences, sociology, anthropology etc. providing wide range of theoretical conceptualizations. The aim of paper is to analyse the relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens using co-responsibility approach. In order to achieve the aim, the tasks are formulated as follows: 1 to review theoretical background for concept of social capital and subjective well-being, 2 to analyse the factors of social capital at local level, and 3 to use the results of conducted empirical research at Salaspils municipality in analysing the correlation of level of social capital and possibility to improve well-being implementing inclusive local management. Research methods used: Scientific literature studies, several stages of focus group discussions, statistical data analysis, SPIRAL methodology, scenario method. The main findings of the paper - there are evidences on relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens. In municipalities with sufficient level of social capital are good opportunities to use participatory techniques for achieving higher level of overall well-being. The paper consists of practical value how to mobilise the social capital of the municipality in order to ensure the inclusive management of the territory.
Full Text Available The importance of social support for psychological well-being has been aptly highlighted in epidemiological and psychological research. However, it is not clear from the existing research whether gender differences in structural (relationship status, network size, frequency of interactions with friends and functional (support satisfaction aspects of social support exist and -if they do- to what extent they affect males’ and females’ well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses of crossectional data from a Greek community sample showed that support satisfaction was an important predictor of well-being outcomes in males whereas several structural indicators were predictors of different well-being outcomes in females. Females’ anxiety, perceived stress, and loneliness were adversely affected by frequency of interaction with acquaintances. The results are discussed with regard to gender-role differences that may be underlying the social support effects on well-being, as well as related cultural values.
Linnabery, Eileen; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Towler, Annette
In the workplace, Black women encounter different job demands than their White counterparts and often experience less control. Demand-control theory offers a framework to examine the challenges Black women face as well as how factors such as coping strategies and social support can moderate levels of well-being. In this study we examined the impact of Black women's social support and coping strategies on job-family role strain, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Responses were collected from 188 highly educated Black American women employed in variety of occupations. Results of path modeling found that social support is important to well-being, and that self-help coping can overcome deficient social support's impact on well-being. Exploratory analyses revealed that support from ones' family, church, coworkers, and supervisor each individually related to aspects of well-being, particularly when self-help coping is low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer
Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
Weidman, Aaron C; Fernandez, Katya C; Levinson, Cheri A; Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Rodebaugh, Thomas L
The social compensation hypothesis states that the internet primarily benefits individuals who feel uncomfortable communicating face-to-face. In the current research, we tested whether individuals higher in social anxiety use the internet as a compensatory social medium, and whether such use is associated with greater well-being. In Study 1, individuals higher in social anxiety reported greater feelings of comfort and self-disclosure when socializing online than less socially anxious individuals, but reported less self-disclosure when communicating face-to-face. However, in Study 2, social anxiety was associated with lower quality of life and higher depression most strongly for individuals who communicated frequently online. Our results suggest that, whereas social anxiety may be associated with using the internet as an alternative to face-to-face communication, such a strategy may result in poorer well-being.
Birtel, Michèle; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J.
Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs)...
Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Infurna, Frank J; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G; Ram, Nilam
Well-being development at the end of life is often characterized by steep deteriorations, but individual differences in these terminal declines are substantial and not yet well understood. This study moved beyond typical consideration of health predictors and explored the role of social orientation and engagement. To do so, we used social variables at the behavioral level (self-ratings of social participation) and the motivational level (valuing social and family goals), assessed 2 to 4 years before death. We applied single- and multiphase growth models to up to 27-year annual longitudinal data from 2,910 now deceased participants of the nation-wide German Socio-Economic Panel Study (Mage at death = 74 years; SD = 14; 48% women). Results revealed that leading a socially active life and prioritizing social goals in late life were independently associated with higher late-life well-being, less pronounced late-life decline, and a later onset of terminal decline. Significant interaction effects suggested that the combination of (reduced) social participation and (lowered) social goals magnifies the effects of each other. Findings also indicated that less decline in social participation was associated with less severe rates and a later onset of well-being decline. We found little evidence that valuing family goals is associated with late-life trajectories of well-being. Associations were independent of key correlates of well-being and mortality, including age at death, gender, education, disability, hospital stays, and goals in other life domains. We discuss possible pathways by which maintaining social orientation into late life may help mitigate terminal decline in well-being. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Muntaner, Carles; Vanroelen, Christophe
The objective of this study is to examine social inequalities in employee mental well-being, using relational social class indicators. Relational social class indicators are based on theoretical insights about the mechanisms generating social (health) inequalities. Additionally, it is examined whether the psychosocial work environment and employment quality act as intermediary determinants of social class inequalities in mental well-being, simultaneously testing the mediation (differential exposure) and moderation (differential vulnerability) hypotheses. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004/5) and Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. The measure for social class was inspired by E.O. Wright's class scheme. Three-level linear multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. We found social class inequalities in mental well-being in the European working population for both men and women. Compared to unskilled workers, managers reported the best mental well-being, while supervisors held an intermediary position. As regards the mediation hypothesis, an unfavourable psychosocial work environment and low-quality employment conditions mediated the relation between social class and poor mental well-being in both men and women. However, low quality of employment relations only mediated the "social class-mental well-being" association in the male sample. As regards the moderation hypothesis, modification effects were seen for the psychosocial work environment and employment conditions in both men and women. Relational indicators of social class are related to mental well-being in European employees. Relational accounts of social class are complementary to stratification indicators in social epidemiology. From a policy perspective, better employee mental well-being and less social class inequality could be achieved through initiatives addressing the
Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon
Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…
Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah
The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.
Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Zanjani, Faika; Ten Have, Thomas R; Oslin, David W
Utilizing a heterogenous sample of adults diagnosed with HIV infection, the current study sought to explore associations among age, various dimensions of social support, and psychological and functional well-being. Cross-sectional data capturing subjective and instrumental support, social interaction, behavioral health service utilization, and psychological well-being (ie, positive affect and depressive symptomatology), and physical functioning, were collected from 109 men and women living with HIV. To explore age group differences, participants were stratified by age (social interaction. However, older adults reported higher subjective support, which in turn was associated with lower depressive symptomatology, greater positive affect, and nonutilization of behavioral health services. More attention should be paid to the social environment of individuals diagnosed with HIV as the quality of social relationships may be particularly important for successful psychological adaptation to HIV.
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the quality of intervention and assessment and
Daniels, Kevin; Watson, David; Gedikli, Cigdem
There is consistent evidence that a good social environment in the workplace is associated with employee well-being. However, there has been no specific review of interventions to improve well-being through improving social environments at work. We conducted a systematic review of such interventions, and also considered performance as an outcome. We found eight studies of interventions. Six studies were of interventions that were based on introducing shared social activities into workgroups. Six out of the six studies demonstrated improvements in well-being across the sample (five studies), or for an identifiable sub-group (one study). Four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in social environments, and four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in indicators of performance. Analysis of implementation factors indicated that the interventions based on shared activities require some external facilitation, favorable worker attitudes prior to the intervention, and several different components. We found two studies that focused on improving fairness perceptions in the workplace. There were no consistent effects of these interventions on well-being or performance. We conclude that there is some evidence that interventions that increase the frequency of shared activities between workers can improve worker well-being and performance. We offer suggestions for improving the evidence base.
Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L.
Subjective well-being includes ‘affect’ and ‘satisfaction with life’ (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users’ affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language. PMID:29135991
Li, Nan; Chen, Weiqin
China, like many other countries, is facing the challenges of an ageing population. Literature has shown that the lack of social interaction has a negative impact on the physical health of the elderly, and playing games can be beneficial in maintaining or even improving their cognitive abilities. This study describes the design and development process for a social and cognitive mobile game and the related user evaluation in terms of well-being. The objective is to explore the underlying connections between game playing and the improvement of well-being among elderly people in China.
Full Text Available An empirical research was carried out with the aim of exploring in levels of anomy, social well-being and institutional trust and their relationship. Is a descriptive correlation study with a non experimental design based on a convenience sample composed by 585 participants (34.7% males and 65.3% females, age: M = 28.50; SD = 11.02 from Buenos Aires and other Argentinian cities. Results show a general positive perception of social well being -with a lack in others confidence-, low levels of institutional trust and high punctuations inanomic frustration. Convergent validity was corroborated and group differences showed up.
Dmitry V. Lifintsev
Full Text Available The overview and theoretical study of social support for children and adolescents is presented. The issues of social development of children and adolescents in terms of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and Kahn’s and Antonucci’s Convoy Model of Social Relations are discussed. The sources, forms and types of social support for the early, pre-school, primary school and adolescents are analyzed. The paper specifies the following issues: the parent-child relationships and characteristics of social support in early childhood can affect the development of the structure and quality of human social relations network throughout his/her life. Social networks and the organization of social support for adolescents are detailed. The patterns of social support of adolescents may affect their psychosocial well-being. The social support systems used by modern adolescents are described. The controversial issues of seeking social support as the leading coping strategy are raised. Various ways of seeking social support for adolescence are analyzed. The importance of parents, teachers and peers in providing social support for children and adolescents is shown. The author’s view of social support as one of the resources of the child’s autonomy, which can be developed only in certain respects, i.e. respect for personal boundaries and accepting differences in individual values and needs, the independence aspiration supported by respect and interest, unpunished by shame or the threat of rejection.
Rook, Karen S
Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative aspects of social network involvement. If focuses on later life, a time when risks for declining health and for the loss or disruption of social relationships increase.
Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Delgado-Valencia, Eric; Rojas-Ballesteros, Mariela; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra
In recent years, northern Chile has received a large number of immigrants attracted mainly by mining and related services. The last population census revealed that 70.5 % of foreigners in Chile came from South America, and were mainly Peruvians (30.5 %), Argentines (16.8 %), and Colombians (8.1 %). The aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the social well-being levels reported by Colombian and Peruvian immigrants in northern Chile, as well as their connection to socio-demographic and relational factors. The Spanish version of the Scale of Social Well-being (Keyes in Soc Psychol Q 61:121-140, 1998) was administered to 431 men and women over 18 years old, with a minimum residence of 6 months in the city of Antofagasta. The highest-rated aspect was Social Contribution, and the lowest-rated aspect was Social Acceptance. The relational variables that show statistically significant differences in both populations relate to who the subject lives with, the degree of contact that the subject has with people from Chile, and the subject's relationship status. There are no differences that indicate a higher level of social well-being in one population more than the other; however, it appears that the Peruvian population has a greater perception of Social Coherence, while Colombians show a greater perception of Social Contribution.
Full Text Available Well-being and mental health of psychologists and their clients can be strongly linked to the psychologists’ experience of work. We know from general theories of occupational health psychology that certain work factors will have a greater impact on well-being than others. Work engagement is positively related with occupational health, while burnout and workaholic tendencies relate negatively. An individual’s resources can buffer against these negative effects. Specifically, the environmental resource of social support can impede the impact and instance of workaholism and has a positive influence on burnout. Social support is often encouraged by sport psychologists in protecting an athlete’s well-being. Drawing on theory and research from work and organisational, health and social psychology we explore the lived experiences of burnout and work engagement among applied sport psychologists, investigating their perceptions of how these experiences impact their well-being. Thirty participants from five countries were asked, using semi-structured interviews, to recall specific incidents when feelings of work engagement and burnout occurred. We examined the influence of social support and its impact on these incidents. Thematic analysis revealed that burnout is frequently experienced despite high levels of work engagement. Sources of social support differ between groups of high burnout versus low burnout, as does reference to the dimensions of work engagement. Avenues for future research including investigating the role of mindfulness and therapeutic lifestyle changes for practitioners are outlined.
The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…
This meta-analysis examines the relationship between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being factors, namely self-esteem, life satisfaction, loneliness, and depression. Sixty-one studies consisting of 67 independent samples involving 19,652 participants were identified. The mean correlation between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being was low at r = -0.07. The correlations between time spent on social networking sites and positive indicators (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were close to 0, whereas those between time spent on social networking sites and negative indicators (depression and loneliness) were weak. The effects of publication outlet, site on which users spent time, scale of time spent, and participant age and gender were not significant. As most included studies used student samples, future research should be conducted to examine this relationship for adults.
Magallares, Alejandro; Perez-Garin, Daniel; Molero, Fernando
The present study analyzes the existing relationship between three variables related to social rejection (perception of overt and subtle discrimination and stigma consciousness) and the psychological and subjective well-being among people with schizophrenia. Likewise, we will analyze the relationship between two possible strategies to cope with stigma (active coping and avoidant coping) and well-being. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 50 people with schizophrenia recruited from the social care network for people with mental illness in the Community of Madrid. Results show, as expected, the existence of a negative association between the variables related to social rejection and psychological and subjective well-being. It was also found that avoidant coping is negatively related to well-being, while active coping is positively related, although in the latter case relations do not reach significance. In view of the implementation of interventions to improve the well-being of people with schizophrenia, our results suggest implementing strategies to reduce the perception of discrimination (especially subtle or indirect discrimination) and encouraging the use of active strategies to cope with stigma as opposed to avoidant-coping strategies.
O' Leary, Karen; Dockray, Samantha; Hammond, Sean
Little research has examined the usefulness of positive well-being factors during pregnancy. Recent mindfulness research demonstrates that inconsistencies and the suitability of extant measures have yet to be examined in pregnancy. Effects of gratitude during pregnancy have yet to be examined despite consistently reported benefits in non-pregnant groups. The aims of this paper were to develop the Gratitude during Pregnancy (GDP) scale, validate the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) and examine the importance of gratitude and mindfulness during pregnancy. In study 1, 375 pregnant women completed gratitude and mindfulness measures. The one-factor structure of the MAAS was retained and demonstrated good reliability α = 0.88. Using exploratory factor analysis, an 18-item GDP scale was developed, demonstrating good reliability α = 0.89. The four GDP factors are as follows: general gratitude, physical changes, antenatal care and social support. In study 2, 87 pregnant women completed well-being questionnaires, including the GDP and MAAS. Gratitude correlated with positive affect, life satisfaction and pregnancy uplifts (p gratitude and provide a reliable means to measure both constructs during pregnancy.
Chen, Lushi; Gong, Tao; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L
Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p subjective well-being profile can also reflect other psychological traits like depression (r = 0.24, p social media language.
Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A
Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities.
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina
The aim of this study is to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the social support system adopted in teacher education and its significance for the student teachers' experienced well-being. The focus was on exploring the extent to which empowering "emotional," "informational" or "instrumental" support is…
Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.
We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…
Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S
In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Agneessens, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.
We argue that sociological explanations proposed within the social capital framework to explain individual well-being are incomplete because they do not differentiate between interpersonal influence and selection mechanisms, on the one hand, and cognitive intra-personal processes. on the other. To
Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We
Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.
In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…
McGill, Rebecca Kang; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane
This study examined patterns of intra- and interracial best friendships during middle school and their associations with social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that intraracial friendships would be beneficial for racial or ethnic minority youth because such relationships provide protection and solidarity in a discriminatory society.…
Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B
Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors' predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Li, Haifeng; Ji, Yang; Chen, Tianyong
Social support has been widely known as a protective factor for the emotional well-being (EWB) of older adults, but less studies have investigated the roles of different sources of social support (i.e., family and friend support) on different facets of EWB (i.e., positive affect and negative affect) simultaneously. In this study, the associations between family/friend support and positive/negative affect were investigated in a sample of 700 Chinese elderly. The EWB and social support were measured with a 12-item affective wordlist (Kahneman et al., 2004) and a self-prepared questionnaire. The results showed that (1) the order of contact frequency and mutual support followed a hierarchical order from spouse, children, to friends; (2) zero-order correlations of both family support and friend support were associated with more positive affect and less negative affect; and when compared with the relative role of family and friend support, (3) spouse (children if spouse is not available) support had greater contribution on decreasing negative affect, while friend support had greater influence on increasing positive affect, even after controlling the demographic, self-rated health and life events variables. Family and friend support play different roles on the two facets of EWB of the elderly. These results were better explained in light of the task specificity model rather than the hierarchical compensatory model. Moreover, positive affect may be enhanced by friend support (based on personal interests and selectable) rather than family support (bonded by kinship and not selectable), which added evidences to the socioemotional selectivity theory.
Full Text Available Social support has been widely known as a protective factor for the emotional well-being (EWB of older adults, but less studies have investigated the roles of different sources of social support (i.e., family and friend support on different facets of EWB (i.e., positive affect and negative affect simultaneously.In this study, the associations between family/friend support and positive/negative affect were investigated in a sample of 700 Chinese elderly. The EWB and social support were measured with a 12-item affective wordlist (Kahneman et al., 2004 and a self-prepared questionnaire. The results showed that (1 the order of contact frequency and mutual support followed a hierarchical order from spouse, children, to friends; (2 zero-order correlations of both family support and friend support were associated with more positive affect and less negative affect; and when compared with the relative role of family and friend support, (3 spouse (children if spouse is not available support had greater contribution on decreasing negative affect, while friend support had greater influence on increasing positive affect, even after controlling the demographic, self-rated health and life events variables.Family and friend support play different roles on the two facets of EWB of the elderly. These results were better explained in light of the task specificity model rather than the hierarchical compensatory model. Moreover, positive affect may be enhanced by friend support (based on personal interests and selectable rather than family support (bonded by kinship and not selectable, which added evidences to the socioemotional selectivity theory.
James, Carrie; Davis, Katie; Charmaraman, Linda; Konrath, Sara; Slovak, Petr; Weinstein, Emily; Yarosh, Lana
Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth's happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Russell, G.; Topham, P.
Background: This paper reports findings from two complementary web-surveys conducted in the UK, in\\ud which 787 university students described their experiences of social anxiety.\\ud \\ud Aims: The aim was to explore the impact of social anxiety on student learning and well-being in the context of higher education.\\ud \\ud Method: Participants self-selected using a screening tool and completed a web-based questionnaire.\\ud \\ud Results: The findings are consistent with previous research on social...
Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in the elderly referring to rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. The study population was all the elderly referring to the rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. The sample size was 147 people, which were selected by random cluster sampling. To gather the data, Norbeck social support questionnaire, Philadelphia morale scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were use. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA used for data analysis. Results: A total of 80 (54.4% of sample were male. The mean (SD age of older adults was 71.9(5.09 years and mean of subjective wellbeing was 8.65(2.28. The relationship between social support and subjective wellbeing was statistically significant (P=0.002, r=0.273. Conclusion: The findings showed significant relationship between social support and subjective well-being. It seems that having high social support will lead to better subjective well-being.
Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie
This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…
Galina Dmitrievna Gritsenko
Full Text Available The article reflects the results of monitoring the social well-being of the labour community in the Russian environment. The level of stability in the region is largely determined by the social well-being of the population. In this context the most important aspect is a population estimation of the labor market and employment conditions. To this end there has been carried out questionnaire in 2006, 2009 and 2012, the sample - quota, the sample size - more than 1,000 people. The analysis of empirical material used the research “Monitoring the quality of life of the population of the Stavropol Territory” (2014. Comparative analysis of the data allows to suggest a narrowing of the labor market being accompanied by the outflow of labor, especially the young, and by the expansion of the share of pensioners. Detected trend is typical for economically underdeveloped areas. This creates a negative social well-being. However, the natural conditions in the Stavropol region are optimal for the development of agriculture and processing industry, which is especially important in the conditions of implementation of the policy of import substitution. The results confirm the low technological level of production in the economic region, the economic potential is insignificant. Social well-being of the labor community territory corresponds to national trends subsidized regions. This situation leads to the preservation of the investment unattractive edge, social and economic instability of the region, low labor activity of Stavropol region citizens. In the analyzed context must be entered in the policy of the regional authorities innovative mechanisms for socio-economic development of the region, must make the transition from the conservative version of social and economic development of the region in the moderately optimistic.
Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; Datla, Vivek V.; Volkova, Svitlana; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Pirrung, Megan A.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.
Social media can provide a resource for characterizing communities and targeted populations through activities and content shared online. For instance, studying the armed forces‚Äô use of social media may provide insights into their health and wellbeing. In this paper, we address three broad research questions: (1) How do military populations use social media? (2) What topics do military users discuss in social media? (3) Do military users talk about health and well-being differently than civilians? Military Twitter users were identified through keywords in the profile description of users who posted geotagged tweets at military installations. These military tweets were compared with the tweets from remaining population. Our analysis indicate that military users talk more about military related responsibilities and events, whereas non-military users talk more about school, work, and leisure activities. A significant difference in online content generated by both populations was identified, involving sentiment, health, language, and social media features.
Marie J. C. Forgeard
Full Text Available
Many experts now recognize that income is not a measure that alone captures the wellbeing of individuals, and governments around the world are starting to rethink the ways in which they measure the welfare of their citizens. Wellbeing is best understood as a multifaceted phenomenon that can be assessed by measuring a wide array of subjective and objective constructs. This review summarizes the state of research on the various domains of wellbeing measured by psychologists and social scientists, and provides an overview of the main theoretical perspectives that integrate these domains. Among these theoretical perspectives, we highlight Well-being Theory, which decomposes the wellbeing construct into five domains: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA. We conclude by formulating recommendations for future research on the measurement of wellbeing. These recommendations include the need to combine both objective and subjective indicators, and the use of a dashboard approach to measurement. This approach conveys the multifaceted nature of wellbeing and will help policy-makers and citizens understand which domains of wellbeing should constitute priorities for public policy.
Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dos Santos, Sabrina B; Rocha, Gabrielli P; Fernandez, Liana L; de Padua, Analuiza C; Reppold, Caroline T
Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study's Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups ( p spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group. Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease's impact on these constructs.
Full Text Available This research was conducted to analyze the contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR perceived motives in enhancing poor children's well being and consumer loyalty. CSR strategy studied were CSR strategies implemented by two companies, Garuda Indonesia and Pertamina, which are State Owned Companies (fully or partially owned by government of Indonesia. Garuda Indonesia is a service company engaged in airline industry, and Pertamina is a non service company engaged in oil and gas industry.Using factor analysis and multiple regression, the result indicates some differences between firms CSR activities in in developing children well being and customer loyalty. This result has implication for the firm that different type of CSR activities and different industry will reflect different motives, further have different impact in children’s well being.
Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.
Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia fosters self-continuity and the implications of that process for well-being. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity by augmenting social connectedness, that is, a sense of belongingness and acceptance (Experiments 1-4). Nostalgia-induced self-continuity, in turn, confers eudaimonic well-being, operationalized as subjective vitality (i.e., a feeling of aliveness and energy; Experiments 5-6). The findings clarify and expand the benefits of nostalgia for both the self-system and psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ryan, R M; Deci, E L
Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R
The current paper examines whether quantitative aspects of social support (i.e., support network characteristics) indirectly influence psychological well-being via older adults' qualitative perceptions of support (i.e., satisfaction with social relationships). A sample of 416 adults aged ≥60 was drawn from the Social Integration and Aging Study, a community-based survey conducted in a small US (Midwestern) city. The survey assessed social networks, social support, and physical and mental health among older adults. Bootstrapping was used to examine mediation models. Greater support network size predicted lower perceived stress, fewer depressive symptoms, and better life satisfaction, yet this association was fully mediated by relationship satisfaction. For support network composition, greater proportion kin was associated with lower stress and better life satisfaction, though not depressive symptoms, however, relationship satisfaction did not mediate this link. Findings highlight the complex interplay of support network characteristics and satisfaction, and suggest the greater import of support satisfaction for older adults' psychological well-being.
Kearns, Ade; Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne
There is a growing policy concern about the extent of loneliness in advanced societies, and its prevalence among various social groups. This study looks at loneliness among people living in deprived communities, where there may be additional barriers to social engagement including low incomes, fear of crime, poor services and transient populations. The aim was to examine the prevalence of loneliness, and also its associations with different types of social contacts and forms of social support, and its links to self-reported health and well-being in the population group. The method involved a cross-sectional survey of 4302 adults across 15 communities, with the data analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for sociodemographics, then for all other predictors within each domain of interest. Frequent feelings of loneliness were more common among those who: had contact with family monthly or less; had contact with neighbours weekly or less; rarely talked to people in the neighbourhood; and who had no available sources of practical or emotional support. Feelings of loneliness were most strongly associated with poor mental health, but were also associated with long-term problems of stress, anxiety and depression, and with low mental well-being, though to a lesser degree. The findings are consistent with a view that situational loneliness may be the product of residential structures and resources in deprived areas. The findings also show that neighbourly behaviours of different kinds are important for protecting against loneliness in deprived communities. Familiarity within the neighbourhood, as active acquaintance rather than merely recognition, is also important. The findings are indicative of several mechanisms that may link loneliness to health and well-being in our study group: loneliness itself as a stressor; lonely people not responding well to the many other stressors in deprived areas; and loneliness as the product of weak social buffering to
van den Berg Agnes E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safety. Methods/design The program consists of three projects at three different scales: at a macro scale using data on the Netherlands as a whole, at an intermediate scale looking into the specific effect of green space in the urban environment, and at micro scale investigating the effects of allotment gardens. The projects are observational studies, combining existing data on land use and health interview survey data, and collecting new data through questionnaires and interviews. Multilevel analysis and GIS techniques will be used to analyze the data. Discussion Previous (experimental research in environmental psychology has shown that a natural environment has a positive effect on well-being through restoration of stress and attentional fatigue. Descriptive epidemiological research has shown a positive relationship between the amount of green space in the living environment and physical and mental health and longevity. The program has three aims. First, to document the relationship between the amount and type of green space in people's living environment and their health, well-being, and feelings of safety. Second, to investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship. Mechanisms relate to exposure (leading to stress reduction and attention restoration, healthy behavior and social integration, and selection. Third, to translate the results into policy on the crossroads of spatial planning, public health, and safety. Strong points of our program are: we study several interrelated dependent variables, in different ordinary settings (as opposed to experimental or extreme settings, focusing on different target groups, using appropriate multilevel
Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Weng, Chih-Yuan
The association between gratefulness and well-being is well established; however, few studies have examined the mechanisms that underlie this association. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) posits that positive emotions broaden individuals' momentary thought-action repertoires, which serve to build personal resources that can be drawn upon during future stressful encounters. Based on this theory, the current study examined whether gratefulness, a positive emotion, would build social and cognitive resources in terms of social connectedness and presence of meaning in life (i.e., mediators), which subsequently contribute to subjective well-being (SWB). A total of 232 students participated in an online survey at 2 different time points (3 months apart). The mediational hypothesis was tested by latent change score analyses using structural equation modeling techniques. The results showed that changes in gratefulness predicted changes in social connectedness and presence of meaning in life, which, in turn, predicted changes in SWB. The study's findings provided further support for the broaden-and-build theory and suggested that gratefulness is an important positive emotion that contributes to SWB through increased social connectedness and a greater presence of meaning in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sabrina B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Introduction: Positive psychology (PP constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia.Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group.Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study’s Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS.Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.05. The individuals with MCI and mild dementia had lower spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group.Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease’s impact on these constructs.
Bagroy, Shrey; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; De Choudhury, Munmun
Psychological distress in the form of depression, anxiety and other mental health challenges among college students is a growing health concern. Dearth of accurate, continuous, and multi-campus data on mental well-being presents significant challenges to intervention and mitigation efforts in college campuses. We examine the potential of social media as a new “barometer” for quantifying the mental well-being of college populations. Utilizing student-contributed data in Reddit communities of over 100 universities, we first build and evaluate a transfer learning based classification approach that can detect mental health expressions with 97% accuracy. Thereafter, we propose a robust campus-specific Mental Well-being Index: MWI. We find that MWI is able to reveal meaningful temporal patterns of mental well-being in campuses, and to assess how their expressions relate to university attributes like size, academic prestige, and student demographics. We discuss the implications of our work for improving counselor efforts, and in the design of tools that can enable better assessment of the mental health climate of college campuses. PMID:28840202
Bagroy, Shrey; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; De Choudhury, Munmun
Psychological distress in the form of depression, anxiety and other mental health challenges among college students is a growing health concern. Dearth of accurate, continuous, and multi-campus data on mental well-being presents significant challenges to intervention and mitigation efforts in college campuses. We examine the potential of social media as a new "barometer" for quantifying the mental well-being of college populations. Utilizing student-contributed data in Reddit communities of over 100 universities, we first build and evaluate a transfer learning based classification approach that can detect mental health expressions with 97% accuracy. Thereafter, we propose a robust campus-specific Mental Well-being Index: MWI. We find that MWI is able to reveal meaningful temporal patterns of mental well-being in campuses, and to assess how their expressions relate to university attributes like size, academic prestige, and student demographics. We discuss the implications of our work for improving counselor efforts, and in the design of tools that can enable better assessment of the mental health climate of college campuses.
DeMasi, Orianna; Feygin, Sidney; Dembo, Aluma; Aguilera, Adrian; Recht, Benjamin
Automatically tracking mental well-being could facilitate personalization of treatments for mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Smartphones present a novel and ubiquitous opportunity to track individuals' behavior and may be useful for inferring and automatically monitoring mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which activity and sleep tracking with a smartphone can be used for monitoring individuals' mental well-being. A cohort of 106 individuals was recruited to install an app on their smartphone that would track their well-being with daily surveys and track their behavior with activity inferences from their phone's accelerometer data. Of the participants recruited, 53 had sufficient data to infer activity and sleep measures. For this subset of individuals, we related measures of activity and sleep to the individuals' well-being and used these measures to predict their well-being. We found that smartphone-measured approximations for daily physical activity were positively correlated with both mood (P=.004) and perceived energy level (PSleep duration was positively correlated with mood (P=.02) but not energy. Our measure for sleep disturbance was not found to be significantly related to either mood or energy, which could imply too much noise in the measurement. Models predicting the well-being measures from the activity and sleep measures were found to be significantly better than naive baselines (Psleep inferred from smartphone activity were strongly related to and somewhat predictive of participants' well-being. Whereas the improvement over naive models was modest, it reaffirms the importance of considering physical activity and sleep for predicting mood and for making automatic mood monitoring a reality. ©Orianna DeMasi, Sidney Feygin, Aluma Dembo, Adrian Aguilera, Benjamin Recht. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.10.2017.
Bernabé, Miguel; Lisbona, Ana; Palací, Francisco José; Martín-Aragón, Maite
Research on positive emotions associated with the performance of an activity, such as work or study, has increased exponentially in recent years. Passion is understood as an attitude and intense emotion in the performance of an activity, and it has shown both positive and negative consequences for well-being. A link between social identity and positive emotions through social category membership has been described. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between social identity, the dimensions of passion and the positive impact on university responses. A quasi-experimental design was used on a sample of 266 university students from different Spanish universities (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Universidad de Alicante). Descriptive analyzes were performed on the study's variables using SPSS 18. Structural equation modeling was carried out with AMOS 18 and the mediational analysis with MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). The results show that the identity of the studies had an indirect effect on positive responses mediated by passion for the studies (RMSEA = .07; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; TLI = .92). It is observed that the harmonious and obsessive dimensions of passion differ in the mediating effect on happiness and satisfaction with studies. Practical and theoretical implications for well-being are discussed.
Andrew J. Hussey
Full Text Available We use data from Add Health to estimate models of peer effects and effects of social environment on adolescent psychological well-being. Past literature has focused mostly on the role of peers on adolescents, notably on schooling (GPA, high school graduation, etc. and risk behavioral (smoking, drinking, drug use, etc. outcomes. Our study’s core innovation lies in the conceptual testing of the hypothesis that an enlarged adolescent social environment encompasses support from peers, school, parents, and the neighborhood. In this paper, we isolate the effects of each of these groups on adolescent psychological well-being and find significant effects of support from schools and parents. However, peer effects are insignificant except for the baseline Ordinary Least Squares (OLS model. Separate models for males and females and different age groups are also estimated and similar results are found, although the effects are greatest during late adolescence. Given the likely endogeneity of peer group formation, we also use an instrumental variables (IV approach. The IV results indicate that peer effects are not statistically significant, but otherwise mimic OLS estimates, supporting the presence of a multi-faceted social network influencing adolescent health. These results, reinforced by further statistical testing, suggest that past work limiting influence on adolescent behavior or outcome to only the peers tends to be incomplete.
The impacts of trade liberalization and open markets on global, regional, and local economies are a key consideration for those involved in government, business, and financial sectors. However, their impacts on health and social well-being of populations are not well-evidenced acknowledged within the health sector, let alone the impact on developing countries. As free trade becomes an inevitable outcome for many developing nations, the full implications of trade on economies, environments, and population health needs to be better articulated in order to ensure fully informed trade negotiations that support equitable outcomes. This article takes a broad look at the key issues for Papua New Guinea (PNG) in trade and how these translate to discrepancies in economic, health, and social benefits for its population. Despite its active trading and high GDP, only 10% of the population experience better economic and social outcomes. The bulk of PNG's population lives in poverty, challenged by geographical, cultural, and political barriers to better income, education, and health. Progress needs to be made to minimize these barriers and to allow more of PNG's population to experience the economic benefits generated through trade activities. A balance needs to be maintained between the desire of developed countries to broaden their markets, and the efforts of developing countries to promote and protect the health and well-being of their populations through increasing participation in global markets. PACER Plus presents an opportunity for pursuing alternative models of trade agreements that support and develop Pacific health.
Morelli, Sylvia A; Ong, Desmond C; Makati, Rucha; Jackson, Matthew O; Zaki, Jamil
Individuals benefit from occupying central roles in social networks, but little is known about the psychological traits that predict centrality. Across four college freshman dorms ( n = 193), we characterized individuals with a battery of personality questionnaires and also asked them to nominate dorm members with whom they had different types of relationships. This revealed several social networks within dorm communities with differing characteristics. In particular, additional data showed that networks varied in the degree to which nominations depend on ( i ) trust and ( ii ) shared fun and excitement. Networks more dependent upon trust were further defined by fewer connections than those more dependent on fun. Crucially, network and personality features interacted to predict individuals' centrality: people high in well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positive emotion) were central to networks characterized by fun, whereas people high in empathy were central to networks characterized by trust. Together, these findings provide network-based corroboration of psychological evidence that well-being is socially attractive, whereas empathy supports close relationships. More broadly, these data highlight how an individual's personality relates to the roles that they play in sustaining their community.
Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth
Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.
Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea E.; Adler, Alejandro; White, Mathew A.
Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13–18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then explored the nomological net surrounding each factor by examining cross-sectional associations with life satisfaction, hope, gratitude, school engagement, growth mindset, spirituality, physical vitality, physical activity, somatic symptoms, and stressful life events. Factors differentially related to these correlates, offering support for the multidimensional approach to measuring well-being. Directly assessing subjective well-being across multiple domains offers the potential for schools to more systematically understand and promote well-being. PMID:25745508
Cerezo, J; Bernabé, M; Lisbona, A; Palací, F J
Socialization during the training of specialists is a key step in the subsequent adjustment and occupational well-being of health professionals in the hospital organisation. To analyse the relationship of socialization and resilience with the engagement responses of specialists in training. Convenience sampling was used, with 110 professionals from six teaching units of different hospitals participating in the study. Descriptive and mediational analysis of the study variables were performed using SPSS 21 and Macro Preacher and Hayes (2004). The results show statistically significant relationships between socialization, resilience, and engagement. The mediating role of resilience is also shown (β=0.10; se=0.12; p<0.05, 95% CI: [0.02-0.23]) to generate engagement in health professionals. An interaction effect is observed between socialization, and specialty moderates resilience. Therefore it can be seen that positive socialization and resilience can promote good performance. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta
This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.
Zephyr T. Bloch-Jorgensen
Full Text Available Background: Centeredness Theory (CT is proposed as a new mental health paradigm that focuses on well-being at a systems-level, across the core life domains of the self, the family unit, relationships, community, and work. The current studies aimed to validate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures CT against existing well-being and mental health measures.Methods: Study 1 included 488 anonymous online respondents (46% females, 28% males, 25% unknown with median age between 31 and 35 years across 38 countries who completed the CT scale. Study 2 included 49 first-year psychology students (90% females, mean age of 19 years from Sydney Australia that completed the CT scale and other well-being and mental health questionnaires at baseline and 2-weeks follow-up.Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a refined 60-item CT scale with five domains, each with four sub-domains. The CT scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, and showed evidence of convergent validity against other well-being measures (e.g., COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale, SWLS scale, and Ryff's Psychological Well-being scale.Conclusions: The CT scale appears to be a reliable measure of well-being at a systems-level. Future studies need to confirm these findings in larger heterogeneous samples.
Bauer, Monika A; Wilkie, James E B; Kim, Jung K; Bodenhausen, Galen V
Correlational evidence indicates that materialistic individuals experience relatively low levels of well-being. Across four experiments, we found that situational cuing can also trigger materialistic mind-sets, with similarly negative personal and social consequences. Merely viewing desirable consumer goods resulted in increases in materialistic concerns and led to heightened negative affect and reduced social involvement (Experiment 1). Framing a computer task as a "Consumer Reaction Study" led to a stronger automatic bias toward values reflecting self-enhancement, compared with framing the same task as a "Citizen Reaction Study" (Experiment 2). Consumer cues also increased competitiveness (Experiment 3) and selfishness in a water-conservation dilemma (Experiment 4). Thus, the costs of materialism are not localized only in particularly materialistic people, but can also be found in individuals who happen to be exposed to environmental cues that activate consumerism-cues that are commonplace in contemporary society.
Na, Jinkyung; Chan, Micaela Y; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Park, Denise C
A consistent/stable sense of the self is more valued in middle-class contexts than working-class contexts; hence, we predicted that middle-class individuals would have higher self-concept clarity than working-class individuals. It is further expected that self-concept clarity would be more important to one's well-being among middle-class individuals than among working-class individuals. Supporting these predictions, self-concept clarity was positively associated with higher social class. Moreover, although self-concept clarity was associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health, the association significantly attenuated among working-class individuals. In addition, self-concept clarity was not associated with physical health and its association with physical health did not interact with social class.
Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher
Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.
A multi-method approach was used to examine whether and how companion animals (CA) affect subjective well-being and social networks of Japanese people. In Study 1, a mail survey with a probability sample of 1250 Japanese adults over 40 years old showed that (1) female owners' attachment to CA negatively correlated with subjective well-being, and (2) although younger (under 65) CA owners had more close friends than non-owners, this tendency was reversed for those over 65. In Study 2, in-depth interviews with 27 adults showed that (1) female CA owners reported lower subjective well-being than non-owners, (2) although CA owners were generally successful in interacting with strangers through CA-related behaviors such as dog-walking, those relationships were unlikely to become close, and (3) in contrast to the owners' tendency to portray themselves in positive ways, most non-owners described CA owners negatively, such as being lonely or bad-mannered. Based on the present findings, which sharply contradict those of previous studies in the western societies, future issues are discussed.
Carmel, S; Lazar, A
The purpose of the study was to compare three groups of Israeli elderly that differ in social class and immigration status on measures of health and psycho-social well-being, and assess the factors which explain their self-rated health (SRH). Based on a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70 +), data were collected from 1138 persons during 1994 by structured home interviews. Social class differences among Israeli veterans were mainly found with regard to psycho-social characteristics. They were less conspicuous in health measures. New immigrants, who had a higher level of education than the veterans, but ranked lower on economic status, reported lower levels of health and psycho-social well-being than the veterans. Self-rated health among the immigrants was mainly explained by objective measures of health, and economic status, while in the higher social class of veterans it was also explained by education and psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings indicate that in contradiction to the convergence hypothesis, social class and immigration status affect health and well-being also in old age. It is suggested that the immigration crisis and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin, as well as the lower social and economic status of the immigrants in Israel, outweigh their relative advantage in age and education in influencing their health and well-being. The differences found among the three groups in the factors that explain self-rated health have implications for the use of economic status as a relevant indicator of social class when considering health status among the elderly, and for the interpretation of SRH, as a global measure of health, in different socio-cultural groups.
Bijstra, J.O.; Jackson, A.E.
This study discusses the educational effects of a social skills training on adolescents' social skills, self-esteem, well-being and coping. A group of 14- to 16-year-old normal adolescents followed a social skills training based on social learning principles. A pre-tear experiment - post-test design
Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.
Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; Datla, Vivek V.; Volkova, Svitlana; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Pirrung, Megan A.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.
Social media can provide a resource for characterizing communities and small populations through activities and content shared online. For instance, studying the language use in social media within military populations may provide insights into their health and wellbeing. In this paper, we address three research questions: (1) How do military populations use social media? (2) What do military users discuss in social media? And (3) Do military users talk about health and well-being differently than civilians? Military Twitter users were identified through keywords in the profile description of users who posted geo-tagged tweets at military installations. The data was anonymized for the analysis. User profiles that belong to military population were compared to the nonmilitary population. Our results indicate that military users talk more about events in their military life, whereas nonmilitary users talk more about school, work, and leisure activities. We also found that the online content generated by both populations is significantly different, including health-related language and communication behavior.
Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke
With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.
It has been suggested that the mental health of schoolchildren can be undermined by repeated bullying at school and further exacerbated by having inadequate social support. To evaluate this claim, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered anonymously to 845 adolescent schoolchildren attending coeducational secondary schools in South Australia, together with measures of the extent to which each reported being bullied at school and the social support available to them. Multiple regression analyses indicated that for both sexes frequent peer victimization and low social support contributed significantly and independently to relatively poor mental health. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of maintaining psychological well-being in individuals who have experienced critical events. The research presented in this paper was carried out within the paradigm of salutogenesis, according to which the most crucial factors in preserving one’s mental and physical health are the realization of the inner potential, cognitive and physical activity, orientation towards healthy life goals, and self-actualization, and not only the absence of illness and disabilities. The authors describe a procedure of methodological triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data that enabled them to outline the social psychological conditions necessary for the positive functioning of individuals who have experienced critical events.
Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla
This study was mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between psychological well-being and lifestyle, religion, perceived physical health and social desirability of Italian elders. Four hundred and six cognitively healthy 65-99 years old participants were recruited from the Italian isle of Sardinia, where a high prevalence of centenarians is registered. Participants were presented with several tools assessing psychological well-being, lifestyle, social desirability, religiosity and subjective physical health. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the social desirability measure is the best predictor of general subjective well-being, whereas further predictors are age, perceived physical health and gardening. A significant but moderate relationship was also found between psychological well-being, subjective physical health and religiosity, while controlling for social desirability. Social desirability seems to contaminate the self-rating of psychological well-being in late adulthood. Moreover, from a developmental perspective, age-related factors, life style and perceived physical health are strictly related to and therefore influence the perception of life quality in the third and fourth age.
Bartley, Emily J; Edmond, Sara N; Wren, Anava A; Somers, Tamara J; Teo, Irene; Zhou, Sicong; Rowe, Krista A; Abernethy, Amy P; Keefe, Francis J; Shelby, Rebecca A
Holding back, or withholding discussion of disease-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative outcomes including lower quality of life, diminished well-being, and relational distress. For patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the degree to which one holds back from discussing illness-related concerns may be an important determinant of social well-being and health; however, this has not been systematically assessed in this population. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effects of holding back discussion of disease-related concerns on the relationship between health-related symptoms and social well-being in adult patients undergoing HSCT. Seventy autologous (n = 55) and allogeneic (n = 15) HSCT patients completed measures of holding back, social well-being, and health symptoms (i.e., pain, fatigue, sleep problems, cognitive problems) both before and after transplantation (i.e., three months after transplantation and six months after transplantation). In patients with average to high levels of holding back, health symptoms were significantly related to lower levels of social well-being; however, for patients with low levels of holding back, the relationship between health symptoms and social well-being was not significant. The results of the present study suggest that the level of holding back may be important in understanding how health-related symptoms relate to social well-being in patients undergoing HSCT. These findings underscore the importance of addressing how patients undergoing HSCT communicate about their disease with others as this may be related to their adjustment to illness and treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russell-Jones David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between
Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many diseases and improves physical and mental health. However, physical inactivity is widespread globally. Improving physical activity levels is a global concern in well-being management. Exercise performance measurement systems have the potential to improve physical activity by providing feedback and motivation to users. We propose an exercise performance measurement system for well-being management that is based on the accumulated activity effective index (AAEI and incorporates a smartphone-embedded sensor. The proposed system generates a numeric index that is based on users’ exercise performance: their level of physical activity and number of days spent exercising. The AAEI presents a clear number that can serve as a useful feedback and goal-setting tool. We implemented the exercise performance measurement system by using a smartphone and conducted experiments to assess the feasibility of the system and investigated the user experience. We recruited 17 participants for validating the feasibility of the measurement system and a total of 35 participants for investigating the user experience. The exercise performance measurement system showed an overall precision of 88% in activity level estimation. Users provided positive feedback about their experience with the exercise performance measurement system. The proposed system is feasible and has a positive effective on well-being management.
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socioeconomic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Results. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than Whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their White peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (p ethnic density and diversity were not consistently associated with TDS for any ethnic group. Living in more deprived neighbourhoods was associated with poorer psychological well-being for Whites and Black Caribbeans (p ethnic density and deprivation in schools or neighbourhoods, was an important influence on psychological well-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over Whites. PMID:22332834
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11-16 years in 51 London (U.K.) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socio-economic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their white peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (pwell-being for whites and black Caribbeans (pwell-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over whites.
Cilliers, Jacobus; Dube, Oeindrila; Siddiqi, Bilal
Civil wars divide nations along social, economic, and political cleavages, often pitting one neighbor against another. To restore social cohesion, many countries undertake truth and reconciliation efforts. We examined the consequences of one such effort in Sierra Leone, designed and implemented by a Sierra Leonean nongovernmental organization called Fambul Tok. As a part of this effort, community-level forums are set up in which victims detail war atrocities, and perpetrators confess to war crimes. We used random assignment to study its impact across 200 villages, drawing on data from 2383 individuals. We found that reconciliation had both positive and negative consequences. It led to greater forgiveness of perpetrators and strengthened social capital: Social networks were larger, and people contributed more to public goods in treated villages. However, these benefits came at a substantial cost: The reconciliation treatment also worsened psychological health, increasing depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in these same villages. For a subset of villages, we measured outcomes both 9 months and 31 months after the intervention. These results show that the effects, both positive and negative, persisted into the longer time horizon. Our findings suggest that policy-makers need to restructure reconciliation processes in ways that reduce their negative psychological costs while retaining their positive societal benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Smeeding, Timothy M.
Most societies, rich and poor, seek to measure progress in reducing poverty and need, as indicated by material deprivation or social exclusion. The yardsticks used to assess progress and policy impact mainly include income-based poverty, but broader measures of poverty based on consumption, wealth, and material deprivation are also now coming into…
Sheldon, Kennon M; Bettencourt, B Ann
Five candidate measures of psychological need-satisfaction were evaluated as predictors of high positive and low negative mood within the group, intrinsic motivation for group activities, and high commitment to the group. Consistent with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991), personal autonomy and interpersonal relatedness both predicted positive outcomes. Consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991), feeling included within the group, feeling personally distinctive within the group, and feeling that the group is distinctive compared to other groups, also predicted positive outcomes. Simultaneous regression analyses indicated that the five needs were differentially related to the different well-being indicators, and also suggested that group inclusion may be the most important need to satisfy within group contexts. Supplementary analyses showed that members of formal groups felt less personal autonomy, but more group distinctiveness, compared to informal group members.
Margolis, Seth A; Nakhutina, Luba; Schaffer, Sarah G; Grant, Arthur C; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S
Perceived epilepsy stigma and reduced social well-being are prevalent sources of distress in people with epilepsy (PWE). Yet, research on patient-level correlates of these difficulties is lacking, especially among underserved groups. Racially/ethnically diverse adults with intractable seizures (N=60, 62% female; 79% Black, 20% Hispanic/Latino, 8% White) completed validated measures of personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI-3), perceived epilepsy stigma (Epilepsy Stigma Scale, ESS), and quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy, QOLIE-89). Controlling for covariates, ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression evaluated the total, direct, and indirect effects of NEO-FFI-3 neuroticism and extraversion scores on epilepsy-related social well-being (i.e., combination of QOLIE-89 social isolation and work/driving/social function subscales, α=0.87), mediated through perceived stigma. In separate models, higher levels of neuroticism (N) and lower levels of extraversion (E) were significantly and independently associated with greater perceived stigma (N path a=0.71, p=0.005; E path a=-1.10, pStigma, in turn, was significantly and independently associated with poorer social well-being (N path b=0.23, psocial well-being through their respective associations with perceived stigma (N path ab=-0.16, 95% CIs [-0.347, -0.044]; E path ab=0.25, 95% CIs [0.076, 0.493]). Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion covaried with stigma beliefs, and these may be markers of poor social outcomes in PWE. Mediation models suggest that targeting epilepsy stigma beliefs may be a particularly useful component to incorporate when developing interventions aimed at promoting social well-being in diverse PWE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.
Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…
Rintala, Diana H
Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social well-being and social justice are meant to create a positive outcome meaningful for people and societies. According to the guidelines of social life cycle assessment, especially well-being should be considered as the main area of protection to assess social impacts of products. In addition, equity and equality need to be addressed in terms of social justice to ensure a fair and ethic society. However, even if a lot of studies focused on the definition social indicators to assess resulting impacts, neither have scientific or common agreements been founded to define a valid set of indicators, nor have consistent pathways from inventory towards impact indicators been established. This work, therefore, proposes possible pathways from life cycle inventory to impact assessment of two social midpoint categories: fair wage and level of education. Respective cause-effect-chains are developed based on the environmental life cycle assessment principle. Correspondingly, social inventory indicators throughout direct impacts to midpoint and endpoint categories are defined. Three endpoint categories are included (economic welfare, damage to human health and environmental stability to address social well-being and social justice. Qualitative characterization factors and a scaling method are proposed to evaluate the impacts according to threshold and reference values from valuable literature.
Sirgy, M. Joseph; Widgery, Robin N.; Lee, Dong-Jin; Yu, Grace B.
A new measure of community well-being is developed based on the notion that community residents perceive the quality-of-life (QOL) impact of community services and conditions in various life domains (e.g., family, social, leisure, health, financial, cultural, consumer, work, spiritual, and environmental domains). These perceptions influence…
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
symptoms (SMD -0.52, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.07). However, the quality of evidence was very low, and risk of bias resulted from researcher/therapist allegiance to treatment methods, effects of uncertain asylum status of some people and real-time non-standardised translation of assessment measures. No measures of adverse events were described, nor of participation, social functioning, quantity of social or family relationships, proxy measures by third parties or satisfaction with treatment. Too few studies were identified for review authors to attempt sensitivity analyses. Very low-quality evidence suggests no differences between psychological therapies and controls in terms of immediate effects on post-traumatic symptoms, distress or quality of life; however, NET and CBT were found to confer moderate benefits in reducing distress and PTSD symptoms over the medium term (six months after treatment). Evidence was of very low quality, mainly because non-standardised assessment methods using interpreters were applied, and sample sizes were very small. Most eligible trials also revealed medium to high risk of bias. Further, attention to the cultural appropriateness of interventions or to their psychometric qualities was inadequate, and assessment measures used were unsuitable. As such, these findings should be interpreted with caution.No data were available on whether symptom reduction enabled improvements in quality of life, participation in community life, or in social and family relationships in the medium term. Details of adverse events and treatment satisfaction were not available immediately after treatment nor in the medium term. Future research should aim to address these gaps in the evidence and should include larger sample sizes when possible. Problems of torture survivors need to be defined far more broadly than by PTSD symptoms, and recognition given to the contextual influences of being a torture survivor, including as an asylum seeker or refugee, on psychological and
Melkman, Eran P
The goals of the present study are to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and adult well-being among vulnerable young adults formerly placed in substitute care, and to investigate how characteristics of their social support networks mediate this association. A sample of 345 Israeli young adults (ages 18-25), who had aged out of foster or residential care, responded to standardized self-report questionnaires tapping their social support network characteristics (e.g., network size or adequacy) vis-à-vis several types of social support (emotional, practical, information and guidance), experiences of childhood adversity, and measures of well-being (psychological distress, loneliness, and life satisfaction). Structural equation modelling (SEM) provided support for the mediating role of social support in the relationship between early adversity and adult well-being. Although network size, frequency of contact with its members, satisfaction with support, and network adequacy, were all negatively related to early adversity, only network adequacy showed a major and consistent contribution to the various measures of well-being. While patterns were similar across the types of support, the effects of practical and guidance support were most substantial. The findings suggest that the detrimental long-term consequences of early adversity on adult well-being are related not only to impaired structural aspects of support (e.g., network size), but also to a decreased ability to recognize available support and mobilize it. Practical and guidance support, more than emotional support, seem to be of critical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Nancy L; Wabano, Mary Jo; Usuba, Koyo; Pangowish, Brenda; Trottier, Mélanie; Jacko, Diane; Burke, Tricia A; Corbiere, Rita G
Aboriginal children experience challenges to their health and well-being, yet also have unique strengths. It has been difficult to accurately assess their health outcomes due to the lack of culturally relevant measures. The Aboriginal Children's Health and Well-Being Measure (ACHWM) was developed to address this gap. This paper describes the validity of the new measure. We recruited First Nations children from one First Nation reserve in Canada. Participants were asked to complete the ACHWM independently using a computer tablet. Participants also completed the PedsQL. The ACHWM total score and 4 Quadrant scores were expected to have a moderate correlation of between 0.4 and 0.6 with the parallel PedsQL total score, domains (scale scores), and summary scores. Paired ACHWM and PedsQL scores were available for 48 participants. They had a mean age of 14.6 (range of 7 to 19) years and 60.4 % were girls. The Pearson's correlation between the total ACHWM score and a total PedsQL aggregate score was 0.52 (p = 0.0001). The correlations with the Physical Health Summary Scores and the Psychosocial Health Summary Scores were slightly lower range (r = 0.35 p = 0.016; and r = 0.51 p = 0.0002 respectively) and approached the expected range. The ACHWM Quadrant scores were moderately correlated with the parallel PedsQL domains ranging from r = 0.45 to r = 0.64 (p ≤ 0.001). The Spiritual Quadrant of the ACHWM did not have a parallel domain in the PedsQL. These results establish the validity of the ACHWM. The children gave this measure an Ojibway name, Aaniish Naa Gegii, meaning "how are you?". This measure is now ready for implementation, and will contribute to a better understanding of the health of Aboriginal children.
Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade
We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parentin...
Farruggia, SP; Greenberger, E; Chen, C; Heckhausen, J
Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and a matched sample of 163 comparison youth. Results showed that foster-care youth did not differ from the comparison sample on measures of well-being,...
Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Terry, Melissa N.; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan
Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and…
Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon
There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.
Foster, Mindi D
Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that are
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that
Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline
There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
W J Coetzer
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to validate two measures of affective well-being, namely the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES for employees in an insurance company, to assess their construct equivalence for different language groups and to determine the relationship between burnout and work engagement. A cross-sectional survey design with an availability sample (N = 613 was used. The MBI, UWES and a biographical questionnaire were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a three-factor model of burnout, consisting of Exhaustion, Cynicism and Professional Efficacy and a three-factor model of work engagement consisting of Vigour, Dedication and Absorption. Acceptable construct equivalence of the three-factor model of burnout and work engagement for different language groups was confirmed. A second-order factor analysis of the scales resulted in two factors, namely burnout and work engagement.
Legassie, Jenny; Zibrowski, Elaine M; Goldszmidt, Mark A
Assessing resident well-being is becoming increasingly important from a programmatic standpoint. Two measures that have been used to assess this are the Clance Impostor Scale (CIS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). However, little is known about the relationship between the two phenomena. To explore the prevalence and association between impostorism and burnout syndrome in a sample of internal medicine residents. Anonymous, cross-sectional postal survey. Forty-eight internal medicine residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-3) at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry (62.3% response rate). Short demographic questionnaire, CIS and MBI-HSS. Impostorism and burnout syndrome were identified in 43.8% and 12.5% of residents, respectively. With the exception of a negative correlation between CIS scores and the MBI's personal accomplishment subscale (r = -.30; 95% CI -.54 to -.02), no other significant relations were identified. Foreign-trained residents were more likely to score as impostors (odds ratio [OR] 10.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 98.2) while senior residents were more likely to experience burnout syndrome (OR 16.5 95% CI 1.6 to 168.5). Both impostorism and burnout syndrome appear to be threats to resident well-being in our program. The lack of relationship between the two would suggest that programs and researchers wishing to address the issue of resident distress should consider using both measures. The finding that foreign-trained residents appear to be more susceptible to impostorism warrants further study.
A. de Haan (Arjan); I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E. Webbink (Ellen); R. Foa (Roberto)
textabstractDevelopment practitioners worldwide increasingly recognize the importance of informal institutions -- such as norms of cooperation, non-discrimination, or the role of community oversight in the management of investment activities -- in affecting well-being, poverty, and even economic
A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...
Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Scheppingen, A.R. van
Signiﬁcant improvements in health and well-being can be created as implicit by-products of activities from agents other than health professionals, with each of these agents having their own prime (i.e. parallel) interests. For this reason, more relevant strategies and interventions for promoting
Haslam, S.A.; Jetten, J; Postmes, T.; Haslam, C.
The social environment comprising communities, families, neighbourhoods, work teams, and various other forms of social group is not simply an external feature of the world that provides a context for individual behaviour. Instead these groups impact on the psychology of individuals through their
Technostress is stress induced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use. Research on the topic has focused primarily on the workforce and tended to overlook senior citizens. This study presents the development of a new scale, which was designed to measure technostress specifically among older adults. The scale explores five constructs: overload, invasion, complexity, privacy and inclusion. The initial 20-item measure was tested in a pilot study and then included in an online survey of 537 Internet users aged 60 years and over. Based on the statistical analysis, the scale was reduced to 14 items. The constructs had good internal homogeneity, significant inter-construct correlations and high loadings on a single latent factor. The scores were well distributed along the range. Concurrent validity was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A significant negative association was found between the two scales - a correlation that remained significant even after controlling for background variables. The new scale is useful for measuring technostress in older people, and technostress ought to be considered a particular threat to well-being in later life. Future research should explore its antecedents and consequences and identify interventions useful in alleviating its harmful effect on older ICT users.
Saavedra, Javier; Pérez, Elvira; Crawford, Paul; Arias, Samuel
This mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study evaluates the impact of an artistic workshop on a group of people with severe mental illness (SMI). This study focuses on the impact of creative practices on well-being and social inclusion outcomes. After participating in a creative workshop, 31 people diagnosed with a SMI completed pre/post-intervention measures, namely, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale and the Social Inclusion questionnaire. It was applied in two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The statistic Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis were applied for non-parametric data to measure pre/post-test effects and workshop experience effects, respectively. In addition to quantitative measures, one observer participated in each workshop that ran in parallel in order to deepen and triangulate quantitative outcomes. The qualitative and quantitative results show that social inclusion improved in a significant way with an important size effect. Psychological wellbeing increased significantly with a low size effect. In accordance with these results, creative practices with people diagnosed with SMI are recommended. In order to increase the impact of these interventions, it is recommended to utilize public space away from clinical environments and to include people without SMI in creative activities together with SMI patients. Implications for Rehabilitation: Creative practices can significantly improve social inclusions and well-being in people with severe mental illness. Participating in creative workshops helps to elaborate personal meanings and promote recovery. Creative practices in mental health services can challenge professional roles and institutional practices. Participation of people with and without severe mental illness engaged together in artistic activities can decrease public stigma.
Natale, Alfredo; Di Martino, Salvatore; Procentese, Fortuna; Arcidiacono, Caterina
This contribution sets out to combine the perspective of the degrowth paradigm with that of Critical Community psychology. Following the degrowth argument, the advancement of human well-being calls for a shift from growth-based societies to ones grounded in the ethos of degrowth. In this regard, we acknowledge the necessity for both theoretical principles and examples of good practice, which can lead to this transition. To this end, the article combines some of the underlying principles of th...
Page, Kathryn May
The focus of this thesis was on the utility of the workplace in promoting employee well-being. The thesis applied principles of positive psychology (PP) to the field of occupational health psychology (OHP). Paper 1 reviewed employee well-being with a focus on both general and work-related dimensions. Paper 2 developed a niche for positive employee well-being programs. It reviewed a number of strategies for improving employee health and well-being, including occupational health and safety leg...
Maitland, S B; Dixon, R A; Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C
Although the Bradburn Affect Balance scale (ABS) is a frequently used two-factor indicator of well-being in later life, its measurement and invariance properties are not well documented. We examined these issues using confirmatory factor analyses of cross-sectional (adults ages 54-87 years) and longitudinal data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Stability of the positive and negative affect factors was moderate across a 3-year period. Overall, factor loadings for positive affect items were invariant over time with the exception of the pleased item. Negative affect items were time invariant. However, age-group comparisons between young-old and old-old groups revealed age differences in loadings for the upset item at Time 1. Finally, gender groups differed in loadings for the top of the world and going your way items. Thus a pattern of partial measurement equivalence characterized item response to the ABS. Our results suggest that group comparisons and longitudinal change in ABS scale scores of positive and negative affect should be interpreted with caution.
Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.; van Winden, F.
This paper experimentally studies the effects of competitive rivalry in a social dilemma where people's actions cannot be contractually fixed. We find that, in comparison with no rivalry, the presence of rivalry does neither increase efficiency nor does it yield any gains in earnings for the short
Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia
Öneren Sendil, Çagla; Tantekin Erden, Feyza
This study investigated the differences in peer preference, gender and temperamental characteristics of children aged five to six in relation to their social competence (SC) and behavioural adaptation. The data were collected through the use of "Picture Sociometry Scale", "SC and Behaviour Evaluation Scale" and "Short…
Hindmarsh, Gabrielle; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Emerson, Eric
Background: Children of parents with intellectual impairment are thought to be at risk for poor social-emotional well-being. This study investigated the relationship between maternal intellectual impairment and poor child social-emotional well-being. Method: Secondary analysis of data from waves 2-4 of the Millennium Cohort Study (UK).…
Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679
Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel
There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mari Ripa, Daniel
La presente Tesis Doctoral analiza la influencia de las iniciativas de la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa (RSC) de las empresas en la salud, seguridad y bienestar de los trabajadores. Para ello, se utiliza una orientación multimétodo, que incluye análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos así como diversas fuentes de datos. En primer lugar, se examina el grado en que 27 estándares de evaluación de RSC cubren las condiciones laborales, a través de una extensa revisión, y qué áreas...
Full Text Available Urban greenery provides ecosystem services that play an important role in the challenging context of urban deprivation and poverty. This study assesses the social importance of vegetation through empirical assessment of 44 urban slums in the rapidly developing southern city of Bangalore, India. Vegetation played a major role in supporting nutrition by its role in food consumption, and in promoting health through the planting of species with medicinal use. Trees in slums also formed nodes for social activities including conversing and playing, domestic activities such as cooking and washing dishes, and livelihood activities such as the manufacture of broomsticks and tyre repair. Innovative methods of gardening were widely adopted, with kitchen gardens found planted in plastic bags, paint cans, old kitchen utensils and buckets, indicating the importance given to planting in environments with limited finances. Short and narrow trunked trees with medium-sized canopies and high economic value, such as Pongamia, were preferred. A greater focus on greening in slums is needed, and can provide an invaluable, inexpensive and sustainable approach to improve lives in these congested, deprived environments.
Rural to urban migration has become a salient feature of the country. However, there is a dearth of study highlighting impact of this movement on mental health of the migrant people. The main objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between specific components of social environment and psychological well-being of migrants in an urban center. The National Capital Territory of Delhi was selected for intensive study and has an exploratory design supported by cross-sectional primary data. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data about the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents. For measuring the mental well-being, the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO5) was used. The required information was procured through interview method from 1230 sampled respondents. Influence of socioeconomic variables on mental well-being of the people was estimated through multivariate logistic regression methods. For different combinations of risk factors, five models were developed based on unstandardized likelihood coefficients. Poor mental health was significantly higher among single/widow/divorced/separated (odds ratio [OR] =0.76, P income level ( P < 0.001) were positively related to mental health. Poor housing conditions ( P < 0.001), adjustment problem ( P < 0.001), and feeling insecure ( P < 0.01) were independent predictors of poor mental health. Socioeconomic and environmental problem caused by the migrants and faced by the migrants is required in-depth study to formulate comprehensive policies.
Gross-Manos, Daphna; Ben-Arieh, Asher
The literature examining the relations between economic situation and happiness has focused almost exclusively on a household's income as a proxy for economic situation and, accordingly, also focused chiefly on the adult population, excluding children and adolescents. To fill this gap, this study examines the relation between economic deprivation and happiness by using 2 alternative proxies: material deprivation and social exclusion. The study tests the relation of these measures to the most common measure for happiness-subjective well-being (SWB)-in a sample of Israeli 12-year-olds (N = 1,081). The study also examines the effects of culture and life circumstances on these complex relations. Findings show that both material deprivation and social exclusion are negatively associated with children's SWB. Social exclusion explained a much larger percentage of children's SWB, adding up to 20%. Furthermore, children who were identified as materially deprived and socially excluded were found to be at much greater risk for unhappiness. Material deprivation was found to be significantly more important to the SWB of males compared with females, and for Jews compared with Arabs. Finally, some implications for social policy and regarding the relation of economic situation and happiness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Uvnas-Moberg, Kerstin; Petersson, Maria
The neuroendocrine and physiological systems related to pain and stress have long been subjected to study. More recently, the corresponding systems promoting anti-stress and restoration have also come into focus. It is not only important to investigate the mechanisms underlying disease but also to examine the physiological and psychological mechanisms which protect and heal the body and soul. The nonapeptide oxytocin, originally known to stimulate labour and milk ejection, appears to play an important role in this regard. Oxytocin can induce anti-stress-like effects such as reduction of blood pressure and cortisol levels. It increases pain thresholds, exerts an anxiolytic-like effect and stimulates various types of positive social interaction. In addition, it promotes growth and healing. Repeated exposure to oxytocin causes long-lasting effects by influencing the activity of other transmitter systems, a pattern which makes oxytocin potentially clinically relevant. Oxytocin can be released by various types of non-noxious sensory stimulation, for example by touch and warmth. Ingestion of food triggers oxytocin release by activation of vagal afferents. Most likely, oxytocin can also be released by stimulation of other senses such as olfaction, as well as by certain types of sound and light. In addition, purely psychological mechanisms may trigger the release of oxytocin. This means that positive interaction involving touch and psychological support may be health-promoting. The social interaction of daily life, as well as a positive environment, continuously activate this system. In addition, various types of psychotherapy involving transfer of support, warmth and empathy are likely to induce similar effects, which thus contribute to the positive effects of these kinds of therapies.
Mozaffari, Naser; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan
Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses' experience of social well-being. Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme extracted from the data analysis was "thirst for a holistic support" in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support) and external support (society's support and media's support). Nurses' experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses.
Ethnic conflict, political violence and wars that presently shape many parts of world have deep-seated structural causes. In poor and highly indebted countries, economic and environmental decline, asset depletion, and erosion of the subsistence base lead to further impoverishment and food insecurity for vast sectors of the population. Growing ethnic and religious tensions over a shrinking resource base often escort the emergence of predatory practices, rivalry, political violence, and internal wars. The nature of armed conflict has changed substantially over time and most strategic analysts agree that in the second half of the 20th century, contemporary wars are less of a problem of relations between states than a problem within states. Despite the growing number of armed conflicts and wars throughout the world, not enough attention has been paid to the local patterns of distress being experienced and the long-term health impact and psychosocial consequences of the various forms of political violence against individuals, communities, or specific ethnic groups. The short or long-term impact assessment on civilian populations of poor countries affected by war have been scarce, and studies focussing on experiences of collective suffering and trauma-related disorders among survivors are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature. The medicalization of collective suffering and trauma reflects a poor understanding of the relationships among critically important social determinants and the range of possible health outcomes of political violence.
Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin
The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.
Lam, Lawrence T.; Wong, Emmy M. Y.
This cross-sectional observational study aims to examine the current status and familial factors associated with social competence and emotional well-being among young children in an urban city in the East Asia region. Early childhood teachers assessed the social competence and the emotional state of preschool children with the Social Competence…
Graham, Carrie L.; Scharlach, Andrew E.; Price Wolf, Jennifer
Background: Villages represent an emerging consumer-driven social support model that aims to enhance the social engagement, independence, and well-being of community-dwelling seniors through a combination of social activities, volunteer opportunities, service referral, and direct assistance. This study aimed to assess the perceived impact of…
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
In the USA, levels of emotional well-being among cancer survivors remain low. Social media is recognized as important to improve their emotional well-being. However, little is known about social mechanisms that underlie the impact of health-related social media in cancer care. This study proposed a moderated mediation model to signify a pathway linking social media use to emotional well-being. Four-hundred and fifty-nine cancer survivors identified through the 2013 US-based Health Information National Trends Survey were included for data analysis. First, structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the path from social media use to emotional well-being, mediated by patient activation. Second, hierarchical regression was performed to test the moderation effect of emotion management. Last, a normal theory-based approach was used to explore the final moderated mediation model. The effect of health-related social media use on emotional well-being was completely mediated by patient activation. Also, emotion management positively moderated the effect of patient activation on emotional well-being. Last, emotion management positively moderated the mediation pathway from health-related social media use to patient activation, and finally, to emotional well-being. Health-related social media, by itself, is not sufficient to bring about improvement in cancer survivors' emotional well-being. Patient activation and emotion management play a significant role. In future interventions designed to improve cancer survivors' emotional health, health practitioners should not only encourage cancer survivors to use social media for health purposes, but also activate them in the course of care, and improve their emotion self-management skills.
Khallad, Y.; Jabr, F.
The effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being (perceived stress and depression) were assessed in 2 samples of Jordanian and Turkish college students. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between perceived support and mental well-being. Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived family support was a better predictor of mental well-being for Jordanian students, while perceived support from friends was a better pre...
Muhammad Farid Ilhamuddin
Full Text Available This study aims to know the relation between religiousity (X1 and psychological well being (Y, the relation between optimism (X2 and psychological well being (Y, as well as the relation between social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y of students of MAN in the entire Malang city. This study was a non-experimental study with causal relationship study plan. The result of this research showed that there was a positive significant between X1 and Y, X2 and Y, X3 and Y; X1, X2, X3 had strong linear relation with Y; the influence of the three independent logical well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y student of MAN se-Kota Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan religiusitas (X1 dan psychological well being (Y, optimis (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-kota Malang. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah non experimental research dengan jenis penelitian causal relationship study. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan positif signifikan antara X1 dan Y, X2 dan Y, X3 dan Y; X1, X2, X3 memiliki hubungan linear yang kuat dengan Y; pengaruh ketiga variabel independen psychological well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-Kota Malang.
Di Cagno, A; Iuliano, E; Aquino, G; Fiorilli, G; Battaglia, C; Giombini, A; Calcagno, G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27±3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80±2.53), and evaluated for social participation level, psychological well-being and symptomatic psychological disorders, using three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS) and Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL-90-R) respectively. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score in the non-player group was significantly higher (ppsychological well-being and social skills of visually impaired people and their Torball practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.
The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…
Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Suárez, Zulema E; Abu-Bader, Soleman
This study examined the perceived impact of religious discrimination and Islamophobia on Muslim Americans' well-being during the 2016 United States presidential election campaign. Data were collected from a national sample of 1,130 Muslim Americans. Perceived religious discrimination (PRD) was measured using the Perceived Religious Discrimination Scale. Results of canonical correlation analysis showed that perceived Islamophobia was associated with safety (β = .45, p < .001), level of stress (β = -.25, p < .001), level of religiosity (β = -.11, p < .05), and employment (β = .11, p < .05). PRD was associated with preexposure to religious-based discrimination; β = -.12, p < .05), safety (.47, p < .001), level of stress (β = -.33, p < .001), religiosity (β = -.15, p < .010), and years in the United States (β = .16, p < .010). Results also suggest that some Muslim subgroups, such as women and older people, may face "double jeopardy" based on multiple stigmatized identities. When addressing mental health concerns in marginalized groups, it is necessary to link health with social justice and examine how social injustices may affect people's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen
A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.
van Ingen, Erik; Rains, Stephen A; Wright, Kevin B
We examine the role of the Internet in dealing with problems in later life by analyzing whether direct and buffering models of social support can be applied to social network site (SNS) use. Whereas the direct model implies a positive effect of time spent using SNSs on subjective well-being, and a
Booker, Cara L; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda
Adolescents are among the highest consumers of social media while research has shown that their well-being decreases with age. The temporal relationship between social media interaction and well-being is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in social media interaction and two well-being measures are related across ages using parallel growth models. Data come from five waves of the youth questionnaire, 10-15 years, of the Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study (pooled n = 9859). Social media interaction was assessed through daily frequency of chatting on social websites. Well-being was measured by happiness with six domains of life and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Findings suggest gender differences in the relationship between interacting on social media and well-being. There were significant correlations between interacting on social media and well-being intercepts and between social media interaction and well-being slopes among females. Additionally higher social media interaction at age 10 was associated with declines in well-being thereafter for females, but not for males. Results were similar for both measures of well-being. High levels of social media interaction in early adolescence have implications for well-being in later adolescence, particularly for females. The lack of an association among males suggests other factors might be associated with their reduction in well-being with age. These findings contribute to the debate on causality and may inform future policy and interventions.
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...
The degree to which social well-being is predicated upon levels of material consumption remains under-examined from a large-N, quantitative perspective. The present study analyzes the factors influencing levels of maternal mortality in 2005 among 92 peripheral countries. We incorporate into regression analysis the ecological footprint, a comprehensive measure of natural resource consumption, and alternative explanatory variables drawn from previous research. Results illustrate ecological footprint consumption has a moderately strong direct influence shaping lower levels of maternal mortality. Path analysis reveals export commodity concentration has a negative effect on level of ecological footprint demand net the strong positive influence of income per capita. This illustrates cross-national trade dependency relations directly influence natural resource consumption opportunities and thereby indirectly contribute to higher maternal mortality levels within the periphery of the world economy. The results confirm material consumption is an important dimension of improvement in maternal mortality.
Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ELSA 85 project is a population-based study with the purpose to learn more about the "elderly elderly". The aim of this part of the ELSA 85 study is to explore the effects of childlessness on the psychological wellbeing, living situation and social support of 85-year old individuals. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to all (650 85-year old men and women living in Linköping Municipality in 2007. Psychological well-being and social network was measured using a number of questions. Results 496 individuals participated in the study. No differences in psychological wellbeing were found between the 85-year olds who were childless and those who were parents. The childless 85-year olds were less likely to have relatives close by and to receive help than those who were parents. Individuals of both groups were equally likely to end up in institutional care, to have friends close by and to be in contact with neighbours. Conclusions Even though elderly childless individuals have social networks of less support potential than those who are parents there are no differences in certain psychological wellbeing indicators between the two groups. Apparently, childless elderly individuals find ways to cope with whatever negative effects of childlessness they may have experienced.
Koehly, Laura M; Peters, June A; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H
We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among sisters from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sixty-five sisters from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants' social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of sisters within families. Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that sisters shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, sisters demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants' emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk.
Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M
Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N =84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N =51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.
Jamieson, Lisa M; Paradies, Yin C; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Cairney, Sheree J; Sayers, Susan M
Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous social and emotional well-being.
Cairney Sheree J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Methods Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. Results After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. Conclusion The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous
Brunson, Julie A; Overup, Camilla S; Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Novak, Sarah A; Smith, C Veronica
A negative body image has been associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes. Social pressures from others, in the form of weight-related social control, may serve to exacerbate this effect, especially for college-aged women. Undergraduate students (N=399) completed a variety of questionnaires assessing weight-related social control, well-being, and diet and exercise behaviors. The results suggest that weight is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes and particularly for women, weight-related social control is also associated with these negative effects. In addition, men of higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or higher self-perceived weight did not experience negative health and well-being outcomes to the same degree that overweight women did. Parents in particular seem to instigate weight-related social control to change students' diet and exercise behaviors. These results help clarify the effects of weight-related social control in a college population, where weight may be especially important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Cook, Paul F
The impact of diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer, stressors that affect emotional well-being, is influenced by several psychosocial factors and the relationships among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between optimism and emotional well-being (EWB) and the individual and combined mediation of this relationship by perceived social support (SS), problem focused coping (PFC), and self-transcendence in women with breast cancer during radiation therapy. Ninety-three women receiving radiation treatment for breast cancer completed questionnaires that measured EWB, optimism, SS, PFC, and self-transcendence. Correlational and multiple regression analysis revealed that optimism was positively related to EWB. Of the three mediators, self-transcendence alone was found to partially mediate the relationship between optimism and EWB. The relationship between optimism and PFC was not significant. Optimism was related to SS, but its indirect effect on EWB through SS did not reach significance. During breast cancer treatment, the positive effects of optimism on EWB are partially mediated by a woman's level of self-transcendence. Brief screening of women's optimism may help identify women at risk for psychological distress. Early detection and interventions to promote psychological adjustment throughout the cancer trajectory (e.g. enhancing self-transcendence) should receive attention in future research. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ju, Chengting; Zhang, Baoshan; You, Xuqun; Alterman, Valeria; Li, Yongkang
Few studies have focused on the relationships among religiousness, social support and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescent populations. This study tries to fill this gap. Using cluster sampling, we selected two groups: Group A, which included 738 Tibetan adolescents with a formal religious affiliation and represented adolescents from a religious culture, and Group B, which included 720 Han adolescents without a religious affiliation and represented adolescents from an irreligious culture. Structural equation modelling showed that only in Group A did social support mediate (partially) the relationship between religious experience and subjective well-being; furthermore, the results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that only in Group A did social support moderate the relationship between religious ideology and subjective well-being. Possible explanations for the discrepancies between the findings obtained in this study and those obtained in previous studies are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...
Roosevelt Vilar Lobo de Souza
Full Text Available This research aimed to adapt the Positivity Scale (PS to the Brazilian context, gathering evidence of validity and reliability. Two studies were performed. Study 1 was composed of 200 people from Paraíba, with a mean age of 23.4 years old (SD = 4.53, who answered the PS and demographic questions. Results pointed to a one-factor solution in this scale, which presented satisfactory reliability (α = .85. Study 2 gathered 290 undergraduate students with a mean age of 23.9 years old (SD = 7.60, who answered the PS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale and demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analyses (ML and ADF estimators corroborated the one-factor structure, which presented an acceptable reliability (CR = .65. Furthermore, its convergent validity was confirmed based on the average variance extracted (AVE = .60 and on its correlations with satisfaction with life and vitality (p < .001. In conclusion, this measure has been shown to be psychometrically adequate for use in Brazil.
Caserta, Tehetna Alemu; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
Stigma and marginalization are one of the major challenges orphans face in their daily lives, particularly in developing countries, but little is known about their impacts on mental health. This study examines how orphan-related characteristics, stigma and marginalization are associated with psychosocial well-being. It further analyses the role of social support in mediating between stigma and marginalization and mental health, indicated by emotional well-being and mental distress. The participants in this study were 430 Rwandan orphans who were 10-25 years of age, and of whom 179 were females and 251 were males. Results showed that high levels of stigma and marginalization were associated with a lower level of emotional well-being and higher levels of mental distress. A mediation analysis indicated that low level of social support due to stigma and marginalization contributed significantly to low level of emotional well-being. Once stigma, marginalization and social support were fully accounted for, AIDS orphans exhibited higher levels of mental distress than those who were orphaned by genocide or other causes. Future interventions designed to reduce stigma and marginalization for orphans and actions that facilitate social support can significantly improve emotional well-being and reduce mental distress among orphans.
Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Ruthig, Joelle C; Heckhausen, Jutta
Drawing from Heckhausen and Schulz's Motivational Theory of Life-span Development, this study examined perceived control as a moderator of the protective relationship between downward social comparison and subjective well-being among older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 97, 63% female, ages 79-97) were interviewed in their own homes at three time-points over a nine-year period. Interviews assessed older adults' perceived control over daily tasks, their use of downward social comparison in response to task restriction, and their subjective well-being. Regression analyses yielded a significant interaction between downward social comparison and perceived control for three subjective well-being outcomes: life satisfaction, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses revealed that downward social comparison was associated with greater subjective well-being at low levels of perceived control; but was unrelated to subjective well-being at high levels of perceived control. These findings corroborate Heckhausen and Schulz's theorized goal-opportunity congruence premise and have implications for quality-of-life interventions to assist community-dwelling older adults.
The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...
Full Text Available Children and adolescents with intellectual disability have higher rates of mental health problems compared with there typically developing peers. Social support has been identified as an important protective factor for psychological well - being. In this paper we discuss the benefits of social support networks, and consider approaches for promoting children’s perceptions of the availability of social support. We describe an evidence-based intervention that has been specially adapted and implemented for students with intellectual disability in school settings. In a randomised controlled trial, the Aussie Optimism Resilience Skills Program was associated with improved perceptions of social support following a 10-week intervention. Educators need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of students with intellectual disability to the development mental health problems and the proactive ways in which they can promote psychological well - being within their classrooms.
An important and recurrent attribute in resilient individuals is the value they place in relationships to others, and the quality of these relationships, and it was of interest to investigate how the concept of resilience was related to social capital. Resilience and social capital are associated with good outcomes and well-being, although individual and cultural differences exist. An essential topic in the resilience research is the prevention of maladaptation in individuals at risk. Therefo...
Khallad, Yacoub; Jabr, Fares
The effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being (perceived stress and depression) were assessed in 2 samples of Jordanian and Turkish college students. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between perceived support and mental well-being. Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived family support was a better predictor of mental well-being for Jordanian students, while perceived support from friends was a better predictor of mental well-being for Turkish students. Perceived family demands were stronger predictors of mental well-being for participants from both ethnic groups. Jordanian and Turkish participants who perceived their families to be too demanding were more likely to report higher depression and stress levels. None of the interactions between social support or family demands and either of the 2 demographic variables were statistically significant. These findings provide a more nuanced view of the relationship between social support and mental health among college students, and point to the relevance of some cultural and situational factors. They also draw further attention to the detrimental effects of unrealistic family demands and pressures on the mental health of college youths. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.
Amato, Paul R.
How have recent changes in U.S. family structure affected the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the nation's children? Paul Amato examines the effects of family formation on children and evaluates whether current marriage-promotion programs are likely to meet children's needs. Amato begins by investigating how children in households…
Pluut, H.; Curseu, P.L.; Ilies, R.
Stress is a prevalent phenomenon among university students. We extend research on academic consequences and outcomes of stress by exploring study–leisure conflict (interference between the study and social domains) in our study of student well-being and performance. Using the Job Demands-Resources
Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary
Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…
Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley
A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…
Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji
The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…
Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by
Cattell, Vicky; Dines, Nick; Gesler, Wil; Curtis, Sarah
The rejuvenation of public spaces is a key policy concern in the UK. Drawing on a wide literature and on qualitative research located in a multi-ethnic area of East London, this paper explores their relationship to well-being and social relations. It demonstrates that ordinary spaces are a significant resource for both individuals and communities. The beneficial properties of public spaces are not reducible to natural or aesthetic criteria, however. Social interaction in spaces can provide relief from daily routines, sustenance for people's sense of community, opportunities for sustaining bonding ties or making bridges, and can influence tolerance and raise people's spirits. They also possess subjective meanings that accumulate over time and can contribute to meeting diverse needs. Different users of public spaces attain a sense of well- being for different reasons: the paper calls for policy approaches in which the social and therapeutic properties of a range of everyday spaces are more widely recognised and nurtured.
Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.
Sonia F. Hoque
Full Text Available The commodification of peasant livelihoods through export-oriented aquaculture has brought about significant social-ecological changes in low-lying coastal areas in many parts of Asia. A better understanding of the underlying drivers and distributional effects of these changes requires integration of social and ecological approaches that often have different epistemological origins. Resilience thinking has gained increased traction in social-ecological systems research because it provides a dynamic analysis of the cross-scalar interactions between multiple conditions and processes. However, the system-oriented perspective inherent in resilience thinking fails to acknowledge the heterogeneous values, interests, and power of social actors and their roles in navigating social-ecological change. Incorporation of political ecology and well-being perspectives can provide an actor-oriented analysis of the trade-offs associated with change and help to determine which state is desirable for whom. However, empirical demonstrations of such interdisciplinary approaches remain scarce. Here, we explore the combined application of resilience, political ecology, and well-being in investigating the root causes of social-ecological change and identifying the winners and losers of system transformation through empirical analysis of the differential changes in farming systems in two villages in coastal Bangladesh. Using the adaptive cycle as a structuring model, we examine the evolution of the shrimp aquaculture system over the past few decades, particularly looking at the power dynamics between households of different wealth classes. We found that although asymmetric land ownership and political ties enabled the wealthier households to reach their desired farming system in one village, social resilience achieved through memory, leadership, and crisis empowered poorer households to exercise their agency in another village. Material dimensions such as improved
Full Text Available Oxytocin is often portrayed as a hormone specific to social behavior, reflective of positive welfare states, and linked to mental states. Research on oxytocin in domesticated animal species has been few to date but is rapidly increasing (in dog, pig, cattle, sheep, with direct implications for animal welfare. This review evaluates the evidence for the specificity of oxytocin as an indicator of: 1. Social, 2. Positive, and 3. Psychological well-being. Oxytocin has most often been studied in socially relevant paradigms, with a lack of non-social control paradigms. Oxytocin research appears biased toward investigating positive valence, with a lack of control in valence or arousal. Oxytocin actions are modulated by the environmental and social contexts, which are important factors to consider. Limited evidence supports that oxytocin's actions are linked to psychological states; nevertheless whether this is a direct effect of oxytocin per se remains to be demonstrated. Overall, it is premature to judge oxytocin's potential as an animal welfare indicator given the few and discrepant findings and a lack of standardization in methodology. We cover potential causes for discrepancies and suggest solutions through appropriate methodological design, oxytocin sampling or delivery, analysis and reporting. Of particular interest, the oxytocinergic system as a whole remains poorly understood. Appreciation for the differences that social contact and group living pose in domesticated species and the way they interact with humans should be key considerations in using oxytocin as a psychosocial indicator of well-being.
Rothman, Naomi B; Magee, Joe C
Our findings draw attention to the interpersonal communication function of a relatively unexplored dimension of emotions-the level of social engagement versus disengagement. In four experiments, regardless of valence and target group gender, observers infer greater relational well-being (more cohesiveness and less conflict) between group members from socially engaging (sadness and appreciation) versus disengaging (anger and pride) emotion expressions. Supporting our argument that social (dis)engagement is a critical dimension communicated by these emotions, we demonstrate (1) that inferences about group members' self-interest mediate the effect of socially engaging emotions on cohesiveness and (2) that the influence of socially disengaging emotion expressions on inferences of conflict is attenuated when groups have collectivistic norms (i.e., members value a high level of social engagement). Furthermore, we show an important downstream consequence of these inferences of relational well-being: Groups that seem less cohesive because of their members' proud (versus appreciative) expressions are also expected to have worse task performance.
Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael
An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques
This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientatio...
Wiles, Janine L; Allen, Ruth E S; Palmer, Anthea J; Hayman, Karen J; Keeling, Sally; Kerse, Ngaire
A sense of belonging or attachment to place is believed to help maintain a sense of identity and well-being, and to facilitate successful adjustments in old age. Older people in particular have been shown to draw meaning and security from the places in which they live. Qualitative data from multiple conversational interviews held over the period of a year with each of 83 community-dwelling older people in Auckland within the context of a study conducted from 2006 to 2008 are interpreted to explore how older people relate to their social and physical environments, with a specific focus on attachment to place and the meaning of home. The concept of 'social space' is proposed, to capture the elastic physical, imaginative, emotional and symbolic experiences of and connections to people and place across time and in scope. Talking with older people themselves gave a rich account of attachment to place, social spaces, and well-being. Our participants had strong attachments to their homes and neighbourhoods, extensive participation in 'beyond spaces', and shrinking social worlds. They did not, however necessarily view changes as negative; instead there was a delicate negotiation of positive and negative aspects, and complex engagement with 'social space' as a profoundly meaningful construct.
Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kerr, Susan
In recent years civil society organisations, associations, institutions and groups have become increasingly involved at various levels in the governance of healthcare systems around the world. In the UK, particularly in the context of recent reform of the National Health Service in England, social enterprise - that part of the third sector engaged in trading - has come to the fore as a potential model of state-sponsored healthcare delivery. However, to date, there has been no review of evidence on the outcomes of social enterprise involvement in healthcare, nor in the ability of social enterprise to address health inequalities more widely through action on the social determinants of health. Following the development of an initial conceptual model, this systematic review identifies and synthesises evidence from published empirical research on the impact of social enterprise activity on health outcomes and their social determinants. Ten health and social science databases were searched with no date delimiters set. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied prior to data extraction and quality appraisal. Heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed precluded meta-analysis/meta-synthesis and so the results are therefore presented in narrative form. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The included studies provide limited evidence that social enterprise activity can impact positively on mental health, self-reliance/esteem and health behaviours, reduce stigmatization and build social capital, all of which can contribute to overall health and well-being. No empirical research was identified that examined social enterprise as an alternative mode of healthcare delivery. Due to the limited evidence available, we discuss the relationship between the evidence found and other literature not included in the review. There is a clear need for research to better understand and evidence causal mechanisms and to explore the impact of social enterprise activity, and wider civil
Baek, Young Min; Bae, Young; Jang, Hyunmi
With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed.
Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying
Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning
Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques
This qualitative study sought to explore sexual identity development among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon; the stigma experienced by these men; and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men who have sex with men and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual and limiting interaction with men who have sex with men to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of men who have sex with men in Beirut, much as has been found in Western gay communities.
Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wagstaff, Chris; Randall, Duncan
The findings presented in this article were unanticipated and came to light during a study which investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' views about preventive primary care services. This article reports findings which indicate that African and African-Caribbean fathers strive to enable and protect children's mental well-being and create social, cultural and symbolic forms of capital. It also seeks to identify implications for health and social care policy and practice in England. There is limited literature examining African and African-Caribbean fathers' health experiences in England. Consequently an exploratory research approach was required. This involved nine, in-depth, semi-structured qualitative group interviews undertaken with 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers. The data were analysed thematically using abductive reasoning, informed by Bourdieu's theoretical work. Fathers were striving to enable and protect children's mental well-being through providing authoritative, loving, affectionate fatherhood involving reasoning, good communication and promoting self-esteem. These practices were seen to be necessary if children were to prosper in a harsh social world characterised by structural hazards including racism, negative stereotypes and limited opportunities. The fathers reported their efforts to develop what Bourdieu has termed symbolic, cultural and social capital as means of promoting the mental well-being of their children and the children of others. The implications for theory, future research, public health policy and practice, in relation to the needs of African and African-Caribbean fathers and families, are also discussed, with specific focus on how to realise the potential of African and African-Caribbean fathers' positive contributions to family and community health.
Pilkington, Pamela D; Windsor, Tim D; Crisp, Dimity A
This study examined the extent to which associations between volunteering and subjective well-being (SWB) could be related to volunteers having more supportive social networks relative to nonvolunteers. The sample consisted of 561 midlife and older adults (aged 55-94 years) from the TRAnsitions In Later Life study. Multiple mediation analyses examined associations between hours spent volunteering per week; availability of social support from friends, relatives, and neighbors; positive and negative social exchanges; and SWB. The results indicated that the higher life satisfaction and positive affect reported by those who volunteer at moderate levels (up to 7 hr per week) are related to their higher levels of positive social exchanges and greater availability of social support from friends and family, relative to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteer at higher levels (7 hr or more per week) also reported greater levels of positive affect in comparison to nonvolunteers, and this was related to their greater availability of social support from friends. Availability of support from friends accounted for the greatest proportion of the volunteering-SWB associations. The findings suggest that the positive SWB associated with volunteering is related to volunteers' more extensive friend and family networks.
Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Afzali, Mohammad H; Chapman, Cath; Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim
Social isolation and low levels of social support are associated with depression. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between depression and social connectivity factors (frequency of contact and quality of social connections) in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. A national survey of 8841 participants aged 16-85 years was conducted. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between social connectivity factors and 12-month prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in the whole sample, as well as across three age groups: younger adults (16-34 years), middle-aged adults (35-54 years), and older adults (55+ years). Respondents indicated how often they were in contact with family members and friends (frequency of contact), and how many family and friends they could rely on and confide in (quality of support), and were assessed for Major Depressive Disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostics Interview. Overall, higher social connection quality was more closely and consistently associated with lower odds of the past year depression, relative to frequency of social interaction. The exception to this was for the older group in which fewer than a single friendship interaction each month was associated with a two-fold increased likelihood of the past year depression (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.25). Friendship networks were important throughout life, although in middle adulthood, family support was also critically important-those who did not have any family support had more than a three-fold increased odds of the past year depression (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.07-5.85). High-quality social connection with friends and family members is associated with reduced likelihood of the past year depression. Intervention studies that target the quality of social support for depression, particularly support from friends, are warranted.
Full Text Available Financial literacy is reviewed in the article as a factor influencing any individual’s well-being. Characteristics of a financially competent individual are defined. Behavioral mistakes impeding rational decision-making are outlined. Structures bearing the signs of financial pyramids are described as an example of their participants’ cognitive limitations. The importance of creating a common information area is stressed. This process is aimed at remedying negative consequences for all economic agents and preventing inefficient financial decisions when executing financial transactions. The major task of the process is to incorporate information about social and economic activity of institutions (state, business and non-governmental and population in the common information area. Therefore, every economic agent will get prompt and trustworthy information. It will encourage an individual to make financially adequate decisions. The article also presents fundamental solutions for improving individuals’ well-being when raising their financial literacy
de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske
Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Smart mobile devices, due to their ubiquitous nature and high level penetration in everyday life, can be a key component of an Ambient Assisted Living system to improve the quality of life of older people. This paper presents the development and evaluation of Senior App Suite, a system created for assisting seniors’ personal independence and social inclusion. The system integrates mobile computing combined with web and service-oriented technologies to offer a mobile application suite that seniors can easily use to access services, spanning various application areas such as social networking, emergency detection and overall well-being. The research hypothesis is that using such services can be beneficial for decreasing social isolation. There is quantitative indication that this assumption is realistic backed up also by the qualitative analysis from the user’s feedback derived during a pilot study (n = 22 suggesting that Senior App Suite can motivate people in new activities, maintain connection with social ties, give joy and self-confidence, and increase the frequency and quality of social interactions. Our contribution is a detailed methodology spanning the research, design, development, and evaluation of a solution that aims to improve the quality of life of seniors while addressing open issues identified in related initiatives.
De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe
The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedro Alcântara da Silva
Full Text Available This article aims to identify the main determinants of self-rated health and well-being in the elderly Portuguese population, using a set of dimensions including demographic and socioeconomic indicators, characteristics of interpersonal networks and social activities, health, sexual activity, representations of aging, and feeling of happiness. Taking socioeconomic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors into account to analyze the explanatory value of the interrelated dimensions and weights for each factor, the author argues that social capital, activities associated with active aging, and greater optimism towards aging can contribute greatly to better self-rated health and wellbeing among the elderly, partially offsetting the effect of socioeconomic factors and illness associated with age.
Pavot, W; Diener, E; Colvin, C R; Sandvik, E
The structure of subjective well-being has been conceptualized as consisting of two major components: the emotional or affective component and the judgmental or cognitive component (Diener, 1984; Veenhoven, 1984). The judgmental component has also been conceptualized as life satisfaction (Andrews & Withey, 1976). Although the affective component of subjective well-being has received considerable attention from researchers, the judgmental component has been relatively neglected. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) was developed as a measure of the judgmental component of subjective well-being (SWB). Two studied designed to validate further the SWLS are reported. Peer reports, a memory measure, and clinical ratings are used as external criteria for validation. Evidence for the reliability and predictive validity of the SWLS is presented, and its performance is compared to other related scales. The SWLS is shown to be a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction, suited for use with a wide range of age groups and applications, which makes possible the savings of interview time and resources compared to many measures of life satisfaction. In addition, the high convergence of self- and peer-reported measures of subjective well-being and life satisfaction provide strong evidence that subjective well-being is a relatively global and stable phenomenon, not simply a momentary judgment based on fleeting influences.
Mielniczuk, Emilia; Łaguna, Mariola
The first aim of the study reported in this article was to test the factorial structure of job-related affect in a Polish sample. The second aim was to develop the Polish adaptation of the Warr's job-related affective well-being measure published in 1990, which is designed to assess 4 types of affect at work: anxiety, comfort, depression, enthusiasm. A longitudinal study design with 2 measurement times was used for verifying the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the measure. The final sample consisted of 254 Polish employees from different professions. Participants were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires consisting of measures capturing job-related affective well-being, mood, and turnover intention. The first step of analysis was to test the theoretically-based structure of the job-related affective well-being measure in a Polish sample. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a 4-factor model best describes the structure of the measure in comparison to 5 alternative models. Next, reliability of this measure was assessed. All scales achieved good internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability after 2 weeks. Finally, the convergent and discriminant validity as well as the criterion and predictive validity of all job-related affective well-being scales was confirmed, based on correlations between job-related affect and mood as well as turnover intention. The results suggest that the Polish adaptation of Warr's job-related affective well-being measure can be used by scientists as well as by practitioners who aim at assessing 4 types of affective well-being at a work context. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Ziegelstein, Roy C
Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects. They often enable trainees to temporarily distance themselves mentally and emotionally from a stressful environment. In this Invited Commentary, the author suggests that medical school leaders and residency program directors should also create structured opportunities for trainees to establish meaningful connections with each other in order to provide greater social support and thereby reduce the harmful effects of stress. Social connection and engagement, as well as group identification, have potential to promote well-being and reduce burnout during training.
Gharaibeh, Muntaha; Oweis, Arwa
The purpose of this study was to explore why Jordanian women stay with an abusive husband. The study used a qualitative approach to collect data from 28 abused women who were recruited through their community during the summer and fall of 2007. Data were collected using an open-ended question through one-on-one in-depth interviews. Results from analysis of the qualitative data revealed that abused Jordanian women identified five main reasons for staying with an abusive husband: the inherited social background, financial dependency, lack of family support, sacrificing self for the sake of the children, and the adverse social consequences of divorce. The results indicate that Jordanian women are strongly bound by traditions and cultural rules and lack all means of empowerment. Results of the study have implications for healthcare providers, social workers, policy makers, and educators to enhance the health and social well-being of Arab Muslim women in Jordan. The findings may also apply to Arab families immigrating to the United States, Canada, and Europe who tend to bring their cultural beliefs, values, and norms, and may help healthcare professionals dealing with violence against women in these countries. Healthcare professionals worldwide need to play an instrumental role in providing culture-specific and evidence-based care to empower women staying in abusive relationships, taking into consideration the influence of Arab Muslim culture.
Shapiro, Deborah R; Martin, Jeffery J
Peer relationships account for a significant motivational influence on sport participation among youth athletes with and without disabilities. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the quality of friendships, physical self-perceptions and general self-worth predicted close friendship, loneliness and social acceptance among 46 athletes with physical disabilities (males = 35, female = 11) between the ages of 12 and 21 (M age = 15.37, SD = 2.45). Second, this study examined descriptive information on the quality of friendships inside and outside of an adapted sport setting, feelings of loneliness, social acceptance, close friendships, athletic competence, physical appearance, and self-worth among youth athletes with physical disabilities. Participants completed the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS), a Loneliness Rating Scale and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Three regression analyses used positive and negative aspects of non-sport friendship quality, positive aspects of sport friendship quality, physical appearance, athletic competence, and self-worth as predictors and accounted for 57%, 41%, and 31% of the variance in loneliness, close friendships, and social acceptance, respectively. Athletic competence and self-worth were the most important predictors of loneliness and close friendships with significant (p e., self-worth) and sport specific psychological (i.e., athletic competence) constructs in predicting important social well-being indices (i.e., close friendships & loneliness). Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kutek, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Deborah; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate
To examine the effects of social support and sense of community on rural men's subjective well-being, considering the main effects and stress-buffer models. Cross-sectional population-based survey, non-probability sampling frame primarily convenience sampling. Community-based setting. A total of 185 men aged 18+ years from rural South Australia. Subjective well-being, measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Two-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted, with subjective well-being as the dependent variable, controlling for independent variables of age, living alone and farm employment. Social support was the most effective predictor of well-being, followed by stress, and only a very modest contribution from sense of community; total variance explained was 56% (F(6,178) = 37.77, P well-being and sense of community/well-being relationships (mediation analysis). Results demonstrated the benefits of social support on well-being using the stress-buffer and main effects models, within a sample of rural men, and explored the relatively unexamined relationship between sense of community and well-being. Rural men have considerable stress impacting their well-being. This study identifies that it is critical for individuals, organisations and policy makers to be aware of the capacity of both social supports and sense of community to buffer stress and promote well-being within rural men. Furthermore, structural, community-based approaches might have greater capacity to cost-effectively provide this support, contrasting with the growing trend towards individual-based approaches for mental health. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wrosch, Carsten
Social support is theoretically expected to be positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) and subjective well-being, and stress is expected to be positively associated with PTG and negatively associated with subjective well-being among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, empirical evidence is mixed, predominantly cross-sectional, and few studies have examined the unique effects of these predictors on positive changes in psychological experiences post cancer diagnosis and systemic treatment. This study examined both general and BC-specific social support and stress as predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors. Women (N = 173, Mage = 55.40, SD = 10.99) who had recently finished treatment completed demographic and treatment measures at baseline (T1); general and cancer-specific social support and stress, PTG and subjective well-being at 3 months (T2); and PTG and subjective well-being again at 6 months (T3). Longitudinal predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being were examined using hierarchical multiple regression. The BC-specific social support (β = .12) and stress (cancer worry; β = .10) predicted increasing levels of PTG. Improvements in subjective well-being were predicted by higher levels of general social support (β = .21) and lower levels of general stress (β = -.59). There are distinct predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors, supporting the distinction between the trauma-specific process of PTG and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vescovelli, Francesca; Albieri, Elisa; Ruini, Chiara
The evaluation of eudaimonic well-being in adolescence is hampered by the lack of specific assessment tools. Moreover, with younger populations, the assessment of positive functioning may be biased by self-report data only, and may be more accurate by adding significant adults' evaluations. The objective of this research was to measure adolescents' well-being and prosocial behaviours using self-rated and observer-rated instruments, and their pattern of associations. The sample included 150 Italian high school adolescents. Observed-evaluation was performed by their school teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescents completed Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scales and Symptom Questionnaire. Pearson' r correlations and Linear regression were performed. Self-rated dimensions of psychological well-being significantly correlated with all observer-rated dimensions, but Strengths and Difficulties Emotional symptom scale. Multiple linear regression showed that the self-rated dimensions Environmental Mastery and Personal Growth, and surprisingly not Positive Relations, are related to the observer-rated dimension Prosocial Behaviour. Adolescents with higher levels of well-being in specific dimensions tend to be perceived as less problematic by their teachers. However, some dimensions of positive functioning present discrepancies between self and observer-rated instruments. Thus, the conjunct use of self-reports and observer-rated tools for a more comprehensive assessment of students' eudaimonic well-being is recommended.
Hooge, de I.E.
Background Within the Royal Netherlands Army, work situation and well-being of employees are repeatedly measured by psychologists to improve the work situation. Traditionally this was done using samples of employees and generalizing findings to the whole army. However, commanders of specific units
van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.
The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country
Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster
In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...
Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P
The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.
Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Drążkowski, Dariusz
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities.
Sorensen, Glorian; Sparer, Emily; Williams, Jessica A R; Gundersen, Daniel; Boden, Leslie I; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Katz, Jeffrey N; McLellan, Deborah L; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Revette, Anna; Wagner, Gregory R
To present a measure of effective workplace organizational policies, programs, and practices that focuses on working conditions and organizational facilitators of worker safety, health and well-being: the workplace integrated safety and health (WISH) assessment. Development of this assessment used an iterative process involving a modified Delphi method, extensive literature reviews, and systematic cognitive testing. The assessment measures six core constructs identified as central to best practices for protecting and promoting worker safety, health and well-being: leadership commitment; participation; policies, programs, and practices that foster supportive working conditions; comprehensive and collaborative strategies; adherence to federal and state regulations and ethical norms; and data-driven change. The WISH Assessment holds promise as a tool that may inform organizational priority setting and guide research around causal pathways influencing implementation and outcomes related to these approaches.
Rahman, Tauhidur; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.
Whereas a large number of empirical studies have been devoted to analyzing the relationship between measures of income and globalization (defined by openness to international trade), much less attention has been paid to the analysis of well-being for the various subgroups of population and their causal associations with globalization. To address this gap in the literature, this paper first analyzes the quality of life (QOL) of 'poor' and 'non-poor' population segments of 40 African countries ...
Zhou, Xin; Krishnan, Archana
Habitual exercising is an important precursor to both physical and psychological well-being. There is, thus, a strong interest in identifying key factors that can best motivate individuals to sustain regular exercise regimen. In addition to the importance of psychographic factors, social media use may act as external motivator by allowing users to interact and communicate about exercise. In this study, we examined the influence of health consciousness, health-oriented beliefs, intrinsic motivation, as willingness to communicate about health on social media, social media activity on exercise, and online social support on exercise maintenance and well-being on a sample of 532 American adults. Employing structural equation modeling, we found that health-oriented beliefs mediated the effect of health consciousness on intrinsic motivation which in turn was a significant predictor of exercise maintenance. Exercise maintenance significantly predicted both physical and psychological well-being. Extrinsic motivators, as measured by willingness to communicate about health on social media, social media activity on exercise, and online social support did not however significantly influence exercise maintenance. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of exercise-promoting interventions by identifying underlying factors that influence exercise maintenance.
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika
Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.
Lewis, Joanne M; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Currow, David C
Social relations and networks are vital for sustaining and enhancing end-of-life care. The social capital concept supports a framework to understand the association between social relations and well-being; yet, to date, there has been very limited investigation of social capital in the palliative care literature. A framework for understanding social contexts in end-of-life care is necessary. To summarize the literature on social capital, well-being, and quality of life for key outcomes to inform a model of social capital in palliative care. The electronic databases MEDLINE (1997 to March 2011), Embase (1997 to March 2011), CINAHL (1997 to March 2011), and PsycINFO (1997 to March 2011) were searched using key/MeSH search terms of "social capital," "palliative care," and "well-being" and/or "quality of life." The literature was reviewed to identify key concepts to develop and inform a palliative care social capital framework. A total of 93 articles were included in the literature review, with only two articles identifying discourse on social capital and palliative care. Four key areas integrating the social capital outcomes informed a framework for palliative care. The social capital concept provides a structure for understanding how the organization and meaning of social contexts can potentially enhance or hinder end-of-life care. Research that identifies specificity in application of social capital concepts is fundamental to issues of access to services, sustaining levels of care, quality of life, and well-being. The importance of "bridged" social capital relations and networks for improved resource acquisition and information flow was identified in the literature and outlined within the palliative care social capital framework. Differential access to social capital by disadvantaged groups provides further impetus to engage a model of social capital for palliative care. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Even though well-being in the domain of school is important for mental health, time trend research of this topic is limited. In particular, there is a lack of research investigating differences between ethnic minority and majority students, and there is a lack of literature empirically exploring possible explanations for the time trends in school well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate time trends in school well-being among adolescents in Oslo, explore moderations by gender and...
Sansone, Lori A.
The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529
Selman, Lucy; Speck, Peter; Gysels, Marjolein; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Tony; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard
Patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa experience high levels of spiritual distress with a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Locally validated measurement tools are needed to identify patients' spiritual needs and evaluate and improve spiritual care, but up to now such tools have been lacking in Africa. The African Palliative Care Association (APCA) African Palliative Outcome Scale (POS) contains two items relating to peace and life worthwhile. We aimed to determine the content and construct validity of these items as measures of spiritual wellbeing in African palliative care populations. The study was conducted at five palliative care services, four in South Africa and one in Uganda. The mixed-methods study design involved: (1) cognitive interviews with 72 patients, analysed thematically to explore the items' content validity, and (2) quantitative data collection (n = 285 patients) using the POS and the Spirit 8 to assess construct validity. (1) Peace was interpreted according to the themes 'perception of self and world', 'relationship to others', 'spiritual beliefs' and 'health and healthcare'. Life worthwhile was interpreted in relation to 'perception of self and world', 'relationship to others' and 'identity'. (2) Conceptual convergence and divergence were also evident in the quantitative data: there was moderate correlation between peace and Spirit 8 spiritual well-being (r = 0.46), but little correlation between life worthwhile and Spirit 8 spiritual well-being (r = 0.18) (both p spiritual well-being in African palliative care. Peace and life worthwhile are brief and simple enough to be integrated into routine practice and can be used to measure this important but neglected outcome in this population.
Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya
This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.
Renzaho, A M N; de Silva-Sanigorski, A
To examine the strength of associations between child oral health and aspects of the home environment (child behaviour, parental psychological distress and family functioning) in a large sample of 1- to 12-year-old Australian children. The current study used data from the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Study. Data were obtained on 4590 primary carers. Measures of the family environment included the level of family functioning, parental psychological distress, child's emotion and behavioural problems and the family structure. The odds of children having good oral health status were lower with increasing parental psychological distress and poor family functioning across all age groups, and lower with increasing child mental health or conduct problems among children aged 4 years or older. Socioeconomic factors were also related to child oral health status, but this was significant only among children aged 4-7 years, with the odds of children having good oral health status 68% higher in households with a yearly income ≥AUD$ 60 000 compared with households with income family functioning and the mental health of parents and children into existing systems reaching vulnerable community members may improve child oral health outcomes and reduce the unequal distribution of oral disease across the social gradient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Malkina Marina, Yu.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the degree of inter-regional convergence / divergence of Russian regions in per capita GRP, nominal and real incomes and social well-being index (SWI in 2004-2013, as well as the evaluation of the factors that have caused these changes. Methods: deflation of household incomes by means of relative cost of living index in the regions; measurement of social well-being, based on the index of localization of real incomes relatively intraregional Gini coefficient; calculation of weighted indices of inter-regional differentiation (Gini and variation coefficients, Hachman, Theil and Atkinson indexes; proportional method of factor analysis. Results obtained: 1 in 2004-2013 in Russia there was a convergence of all regional indicators, however, in a change of the social well-being index there are two periods of divergence: 2009 (a weak growth and 2012 (a significant burst; 2 the main factors of regions’ convergence in the SWI were: (re distribution factor (its impact over time increased significantly, inflation factor (it is observed a small reduction in its influence and the factor of intraregional income inequality (its influence is mainly depleted. The results may be useful for different levels government in the management of regional development.
The complexity of the components and their interactions that characterize children’s health and well-being are not adequately captured by current public health paradigms. Children are exposed to combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors from their built, natural, ...
This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives.…
Skevington, S M; Böhnke, J R
Subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective quality of life (QoL) are key concepts describing experience, capacities, states, behaviours, appraisals, and emotional reactions to circumstances. Used widely in public discourse, policy, and research, their theoretical and empirical relations remain little explored. The present research aimed to develop an integrated model of SWB and QoL through empirically testing its overlapping and exclusive dimensions. Survey data was obtained from N = 2533 in 11 countries. Adults completed the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) instrument which assesses 33 QoL facets in 6 domains. The facets operationalize components of the hedonic SWB model, extended with eudaimonia, as SWB+. Network analyses, and regression models with random effect for cultural centre, assessed the differential contributions of SWB+ and QoL in predicting general QoL, explanatory power, and model parsimony. When all SWB+ and QoL variables are assessed together, the final model explains more variance in general QoL than either of the competing models; also it shows the most parsimonious fit. This fully integrated model contains only positive feelings from SWB+, with 13 other QoL facets drawn from all six domains, when adjusted for health status and educational level. These findings provide the foundation for a new Life Quality and Well-being (LQW) model that awaits confirmation. The LQW model improves on existing models of SWB+ and QoL by better explaining general QoL than facets of either model on its own. The 14 selected facets potentially offer a new, single measure with considerable conceptual breadth, and international foundations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterman, Amy H; Reeve, Charlie L; Winford, Eboni C; Cotton, Sian; Salsman, John M; McQuellon, Richard; Tsevat, Joel; Campbell, Cassie
The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp; Peterman, Fitchett, Brady, Hernandez, & Cella, 2002) has become a widely used measure of spirituality; however, there remain questions about its specific factor structure and the validity of scores from its separate scales. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the Meaning and Peace scales denote distinct factors. The present study addresses previous limitations by examining the extent to which the Meaning and Peace scales relate differentially to a variety of physical and mental health variables across 4 sets of data from adults with a number of chronic health conditions. Although a model with separate but correlated factors fit the data better, discriminant validity analyses indicated limited differences in the pattern of associations each scale showed with a wide array of commonly used health and quality-of-life measures. In total, the results suggest that people may distinguish between the concepts of Meaning and Peace, but the observed relations with health outcomes are primarily due to variance shared between the 2 factors. Additional research is needed to better understand the separate and joint role of Meaning and Peace in the quality of life of people with chronic illness. 2014 APA
Harding, Seeromanie; Whitrow, Melissa; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria; Teyhan, Alison; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Der, Geoff
The cause of ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease remains a scientific challenge. Blood pressure tracks from late childhood to adulthood. We examined ethnic differences in changes in blood pressure between early and late adolescence in the United Kingdom. Longitudinal measures of blood pressure, height, weight, leg length, smoking, and socioeconomic circumstances were obtained from London, United Kingdom, schoolchildren of White British (n=692), Black Caribbean (n=670), Black African (n=772), Indian (n=384), and Pakistani and Bangladeshi (n=402) ethnicity at 11 to 13 years and 14 to 16 years. Predicted age- and ethnic-specific means of blood pressure, adjusted for anthropometry and social exposures, were derived using mixed models. Among boys, systolic blood pressure did not differ by ethnicity at 12 years, but the greater increase among Black Africans than Whites led to higher systolic blood pressure at 16 years (+2.9 mm Hg). Among girls, ethnic differences in mean systolic blood pressure were not significant at any age, but while systolic blood pressure hardly changed with age among White girls, it increased among Black Caribbeans and Black Africans. Ethnic differences in diastolic blood pressure were more marked than those for systolic blood pressure. Body mass index, height, and leg length were independent predictors of blood pressure, with few ethnic-specific effects. Socioeconomic disadvantage had a disproportionate effect on blood pressure for girls in minority groups. The findings suggest that ethnic divergences in blood pressure begin in adolescence and are particularly striking for boys. They signal the need for early prevention of adverse cardiovascular disease risks in later life.
Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel
Epilepsy presents an identity of exclusion, which at multiple levels hinders the ability to engage with one's community. This article describes an exploratory, mixed methods study (N = 42) of the relationship between the social, cultural and environmental context and the experience of living with epilepsy in Cameroon. Participants were identified as 'epileptics', consequently restrictions placed on them reduced their ability to perform traditional roles, affected their social value and excluded them from their communities. Participants detail the effects of their reduced 'social value' and the challenges they face in attempts to be re-integrated as productive and functioning members of society.
Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M
This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change.
Marianna M.-B. Harunova
Full Text Available This article summarises the results of an evaluation by young Tuvan people to their access to education, their job satisfaction, and prospects of succeeding in their professional career, as well as methods of improving material conditions that young Tuvans consider the most beneficial to themselves. The author gives an estimate of the social well-being of the young population based on the given results of the social poll.
Utz, Sonja; Breuer, Johannes
Existing work on the effects of social network sites (SNS) on well-being has often stressed that SNS can help people gain social support from their online networks, which positively affects their well-being. However, the majority of studies in this area have been cross-sectional in nature and/or relied on student samples. Using data from six waves of a longitudinal study with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, we first examined whether users and nonusers of SNS differ in online social support and well-being (as indicated by life satisfaction and stress). In a second step, we investigated in more detail how SNS use - more specifically, asking for advice and the number of strong ties on these SNS - are related to online social support, stress, and satisfaction with life. Overall, our results provide no evidence for SNS use and online social support affecting either stress or life satisfaction. SNS users reported more online social support than nonusers did, but also higher levels of stress; the two groups did not differ in overall life satisfaction. With regard to the underlying processes, we found positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between asking for advice on SNS and online social support, indicating that SNS can be an effective tool for receiving social support. However, online social support was not related to higher life satisfaction or reduced stress 6 months later; instead, it seems that SNS users with lower life satisfaction and/or higher stress seek more social support online by asking for advice on SNS.
Full Text Available This study investigated PhD students’ conceptions of writing and how they saw themselves as writers. The Writing Process Questionnaire was created to analyse PhD students’ ideas of academic writing. In addition, it was of interest, what the relation between conceptions of writing and the PhD students’ well-being was. The participants were 669 PhD students from a major Finnish university who volunteered to fill in a questionnaire. The present study covered scales for measuring six distinct theoretical constructs that were created by forming sum variables of 26 questions: Blocks, Procrastination, Perfectionism, Innate ability, Knowledge transforming, and Productivity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to verify the six-dimension construct. Exhaustion, stress, anxiety and lack of interest all correlated positively with Blocks, Procrastination, and Perfectionism, and negatively with Productivity. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted by LISREL confirmed the six-factor structure of the writing scale. In conclusion, there is good evidence that the questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool, and it captures some essential aspectsof academic writing process and its emotional dimensions.
Ni, S; Chui, C H-K; Ji, X; Jordan, L; Chan, C L-W
Migrant children refer to rural children who accompany one or both parents to urban area. Empirical evidence showed that compared with their urban counterparts, migrant children had poorer developmental, emotional and psychological health. A sample of 1306 migrant children were recruited to examine the characteristics of migrant children and investigate the effects of identity integration, support and socioeconomic factors (e.g. age, gender, type of school, family socioeconomic status, city type) on their subjective wellbeing. Children with higher levels of identity integration, social support, family socioeconomic status, who attended public school and who lived in the third-tiered city of Weihai demonstrated better subjective wellbeing. Social support remained a strong predictor for subjective wellbeing, despite a significant mediating effect of identity integration. These results highlight the need for policymakers and practitioners alike to address individual factors pertaining to psychological adjustments, as well as social determinants of subjective wellbeing in the context of migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Aims: Due to the studentship stressful factors and challenging clinical conditions and internship, the nursing students undergo emotional exhaustion and academic burnout. The outcomes might, also, negatively affect their academic engagement and functions. The aim of this study was to explain the academic motivation of the nursing students based on the social welfare and vitality. Instrument & Methods: In the correlational study, the nursing students of Arak University of Medical Sciences were studied in the academic year 2014-15. 210 students were selected via available sampling. Data was collected using academic motivation, Kees social welfare, and academic vitality questionnaires. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using Pearson correlation and multivariate regression tests. Findings: The total mean scores of social welfare, academic motivation, and academic vitality were 98.68±13.21, 40.55±5.98, and 18.58±7.58, respectively. There were significant and positive correlations between social welfare and academic motivation (r=0.183; p<0.001 and the subscales including emotional motivation (r=0.103; p<0.048 and cognitive motivation (r=0.154; p<0.003. Due to the lack of any correlation between academic vitality and academic motivation and its sub-scales, the academic vitality could not predict the academic motivation. Nevertheless, the social welfare could predict 33% of the variance of academic motivation. Conclusion: The social welfare plays an important role to determine the academic motivation of nursing students. Nevertheless, academic vitality plays no role.
Colbow, Alexander James
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…
Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Rimehaug, Tormod; Harder, A.T.; Kayed, Nanna; Grietens, Hans
Troubled youngsters in residential youth care (RYC) institutions live their daily life in and around the institutions with other disturbed youngsters and different staff members. The effect that this emerging social climate has on residents in RYC institutions is not very clear and sometimes
Zinsser, Katherine M; Christensen, Claire G; Torres, Luz
Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: This article aims to identifying social, cultural, economic, wellbeing, and urban structure needs of Tehran Seniors Association members and recognizing their current conditions in 8 areas with respect to WHO project on an age-friendly city indexes. Methods & Materials: Four hundred members of Tehran Seniors Association who lived in Tehran were selected by random sampling method (276 women and 124 men with the mean age of 63 years to participate in this descriptive-inferential study. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including inferential and descriptive parts. The descriptive part was divided into demographic characteristics with 12 questions and elders’ needs in 8 areas or 75 indexes. Scoring was conducted based on a 1 to 5 scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: In the area of open spaces and buildings, the highest score belonged to “cleanness of public areas” and the lowest score to “providing special services in stores and banks” (mean scores of 2.50 and 1.65, respectively. Regarding transportation area, the highest score went to “appropriate installment of traffic signs at cross-roads” and the lowest score to “seniors specific transportation” (mean scores of 3.03 and 1.58, respectively. Concerning housing, “suitability of interior design” got the highest score and “affordable and adequate housing” got the lowest one (mean scores of 1.93 and 1.51, respectively. Regarding social participation, “allowance of proper time to seniors special occasions” and “aiding elders at risk of social isolation” (mean scores of 2.88 and 2.07, resectively got the maximum and minimum scores. Considering respect and socialization, “positive attitude toward elders in mass media” and “looking for elders’ advices on how to serve them better in commercial centers” (mean scores of 2.84 and1.74, respectively gained the highest and lowest scores, respectively. Concerning
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj
This study employed a social ecology framework to evaluate psychosocial well-being in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of functional impairment and reintegration. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the contribution of factors at multiple levels. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, physical abuse in the household, and loss of wealth during the conflict predicted poor outcomes. At the community level, living in high caste Hindu communities predicted lack of reintegration supports. Ultimately, social ecology is well suited to identify intervention foci across ecological levels based on community differences in vulnerability and protective factors.
Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.
, anxiety, perceived social support and personal models of diabetes. Perceived impact of diabetes, but not perceived seriousness, and peer support were significant predictors of depression. Family support was a significant predictor of all self-management measures. However, for dietary self......This study set out to examine whether peer support and illness representation mediates the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Seventy-four participants (12-18-years-old) with type I diabetes mellitus completed questionnaires assessing their self-management, depression...
Weiss, Laura A; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group 'Customized Care'. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as "How do you want to live your life?". The intervention helps people to find their 'passion', i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Shortcomings of earlier intervention studies in positive
Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M
Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Wadsworth, M E; Montgomery, S M; Bartley, M J
In our studies of the effects of unemployment in the early working life of men in a British national birth cohort we have shown elsewhere that this experience was part of a longer term accumulation of social and health disadvantage. This present study asks whether men's unemployment also inflicted potential longterm damage to future socio-economic chances and health. We therefore constructed indicators of socio-economic circumstances and health at 33 years from factors already shown to be associated with health in later life. For the socio-economic indicator we used a combination of income, occupational status and home ownership and described this as socio-economic capital. For the health indicator we combined scores of body mass index, leisure time exercise, frequency of eating fresh fruit and of smoking, and described this as health capital. After controlling for pre-labour market socio-economic and health factors, prolonged unemployment is shown here to reduce significantly both socio-economic and health capital by age 33 years. We conclude that the experience of prolonged unemployment early in the working life of this population of young men looks likely to have a persisting effect on their future health and socio-economic circumstances.
Soboleva Antonina A.
Full Text Available Prevention of falls aims to increase the strength of large groups of muscles, mainly in the lower limbs, as well as to improve gait, balance, and coordination parameters. Nordic walking (NW is a new type of walking training; the main purpose of NW is to involve the muscles that are not used during normal walking, which enables the performance of high intensity exercises at a relatively low level of perceived exertion. The article deals with the relevance of the problem of raising the health level and working capacity of mature and elderly-aged population. The importance of regular physical exercises as a universal means of satisfying the human body in motion has proved to be substantial. The research results in a positive impact of NW training on the functional status and health of women under the age of 50 - 60, the optimal structure of correctly graduated exercises during Nordic walking trainings in winter and snow-free periods. The quality of women’s life is determined and improved. NW is a form of physical activity which is recommended along with physiotherapy for the elderly to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, vascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people’s physical, and, hence, social welfare.
Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S
To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index=0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of -2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available.
Hannula, Virva; Hautala, Nina M; Tossavainen, Päivi; Falck, Aura A K
To evaluate the social performance of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) since childhood with particular interest in its relation to the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The prevalence of DR was evaluated in a population-based Finnish cohort of children with T1D during 1989-1990. The subjects were contacted 18 years later for evaluation of DR, education, employment, and family relations. 136 of 216 subjects participated in the study in 2007 (mean age 30 ± 3 years, mean diabetes duration 23 ± 4 years, 78 men). There were 42 subjects (31%) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). A university degree was held by 9%, a degree from a university of applied sciences by 33%, and 45% had a vocational school education; 7% were full-time students while 4% had received no education after comprehensive school. PDR was associated with lower education. Sixty percent of the subjects with PDR and 68% of those with non-PDR held full-time jobs. Four percent of the non-PDR group were unemployed while 26% of subjects with PDR were outside working life because of either unemployment or retirement. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a spouse, and 60 subjects had a total of 119 children. PDR did not compromise the likelihood of having a spouse and children. The majority of young adults with T1D take active roles in society by working and raising families. However, patients with PDR lacked secondary education significantly more often and were less likely to work than those with non-PDR. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Spiritual well-being and quality of life among Icelanders receiving palliative care: data from Icelandic pilot-testing of a provisional measure of spiritual well-being from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.
Asgeirsdottir, G H; Sigurdardottir, V; Gunnarsdottir, S; Sigurbjörnsson, E; Traustadottir, R; Kelly, E; Young, T; Vivat, B
Palliative care focuses on improving quality of life (QoL). This study examined the feasibility of the Icelandic version of a provisional European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) measure of spiritual well-being (SWB), and explored the relationship between SWB and QoL for palliative care patients in Iceland. Instruments from the EORTC were used: the provisional measure of SWB, which was undergoing pilot-testing in Iceland, and the EORTC QLQ C15-PAL. The correlation between scores was examined and descriptive statistics were used. Structured interviews explored feasibility. Thirty persons participated with average age 72 years. Belief in God or a higher power had the mean 3.33 on a 1-4 scale and the mean for overall SWB was 5.73 on a 1-7 scale. The mean score for global health/QoL was 59.4, physical functioning 48.5 and emotional functioning 78.9 on a 0-100 scale. Overall QoL was positively correlated with SWB showing r(30) = 0.386, P = 0.035. The participants found that answering the provisional EORTC QLQ-SWB prompted an emotional response and took the opportunity to discuss the subject. The provisional SWB measure was found relevant for the Icelandic context, and the study indicates that SWB and QoL are closely connected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper focuses on an innovative intersection between education, health and arts. Taking a broad definition of health it examines some social and psychological well-being impacts of extended collaborations between a theatre company and children with communication difficulties. It seeks to test aspects of Fredrickson's(1) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in a primary school curriculum context. The researcher participated in a project called Speech Bubbles. The programme was devised by theatre practitioners and aimed at six- and seven-year-olds with difficulties in speech, language and communication. Sessions were observed, videoed and analysed for levels of child well-being using an established scale. In addition, responses regarding perceived improvements in speech, language and communication were gathered from school records and teachers, teaching assistants, practitioners and parents. Data were captured using still images and videos, children's recorded commentaries, conversations, written feedback and observation. Using grounded research methods, themes and categories arose directly from the collected data. Fluency, vocabulary, inventiveness and concentration were enhanced in the large majority of referred children. The research also found significant positive developments in motivation and confidence. Teachers and their assistants credited the drama intervention with notable improvements in attitude, behaviour and relationships over the year. Aspects of many children's psychological well-being also showed marked signs of progress when measured against original reasons for referral and normal expectations over a year. An unexpected outcome was evidence of heightened well-being of the teaching assistants involved. Findings compared well with expectations based upon Fredrickson's theory and also the theatre company's view that theatre-making promotes emotional awareness and empathy. Improvements in both children's well-being and communication were
De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe
The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is ...
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel
Publisher's version, source: http://10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00727. Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being i...
Itzick, Michal; Kagan, Maya; Tal-Katz, Patricia
Perceived social support has gained importance as a significant preventive factor of depressive symptoms and as helpful for rebuilding feelings of self-worth and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities. The current study examined whether perceived social support moderates the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities in Israel. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires among a convenience sample of 433 people with physical disabilities in Israel and hierarchical multiple regression was performed. The findings reveal that perceived social support has a moderating role in the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities, such that those with low and moderate levels of perceived social support showed a negative association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being, while those with high levels of perceived social support showed no association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. Findings are discussed in light of the social model of disability, and practical implications are suggested. Implications for Rehabilitation A negative association was found between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities with low and moderate levels of perceived social support. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities must acknowledge the importance of social support for people with physical disabilities and for their families. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should take a proactive approach to locating disabled people who do not receive or do not have adequate social support and offer them assistance. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should engage in wide social activities aimed at providing resources and opportunities to service beneficiaries. Society
Turner, Isobel; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David
The present study concerns longitudinal research on bullying perpetration and peer victimization. A focus is on school factors of school climate (academic support, group support) and school identification (connectedness or belonging), which are conceptualized as related but distinct constructs. Analysis of change on these factors as well as individual well-being across time contributes to understanding bullying behavior. Latent growth modeling was employed to examine the predictors of anxiety, depression, 2 school climate factors and school identification in understanding change in physical and verbal bullying behavior. The sample included 492 Australian school students (means age 15 years, 53.5% male) in Grades 7 to 10 who completed measures over 3 years. Academic support and group support were the strongest predictors of change in bullying and victimization. Positive change in school identification also predicted a decrease in bullying behavior over time. An increase in depression or anxiety across time predicted an increase in rates of both bullying and victimization over time. Future research should continue to examine the complex relationship between individual-psychological and social-psychological variables in impacting on incidence of school-based bullying. On a practical note, school-based intervention programs may benefit from an approach that aims to target the school climate, social identity with the school, and promote individual psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Tian, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Huebner, E Scott
This 6-week longitudinal study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model that may explain the link between school-related social support (i.e., teacher support and classmate support) and optimal subjective well-being in school among adolescents (n = 1316). Analyses confirmed the hypothesized model that scholastic competence partially mediated the relations between school-related social support and subjective well-being in school, and social acceptance moderated the mediation process in the school-related social support--> subjective well-being in school path and in the scholastic competence--> subjective well-being in school path. The findings suggested that both social contextual factors (e.g., school-related social support) and self-system factors (e.g., scholastic competence and social acceptance) are crucial for adolescents' optimal subjective well-being in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larisa Vladimirovna Kashkina
Full Text Available The relevance of the article is theoretical understanding of contemporary social processes in the company towns of the Arctic zone, and their impact on social well-being of the population.The articlepresents a theoretical analysis of the concept of “social well-being” and “company towns”, as well as an overview of the situation in today’s single-industry towns. Single-industry town, characterized by the presence of the main enterprise and original social environment, creates a special social space, which has a particular impact on the social well-being of the population in comparison with the classical city. Object of research: social wellbeing of the population of single-industry town. Subject of study: the impact of the social space of single-industry city on the social well-being of the population. Objective: to present the influence of particular social space single-industry city in modern society on the social well-being of different social groups single-industry town, and to identify changes in the dynamics of social well-being of the population in Novodvinsk 35 years. The article analyzes the results of the sociological study of social well-being of the population in the company towns of the Arctic region as an example of Novodvinsk.The main methods used in the study have become historical, systemic, socio-psychological, stratification, allowing to reveal the specifics of social well-being of the population. The empirical study was carried out using a questionnaire, content analysis, mass of research, testing, analysis, focus groups. The empirical study was carried out using questionnaires, mass research, focus group analysis, print media content analysis, archival documents. A mass study related to quantitative methods is used to interview a large number of respondents. The focus group method is a qualitative method of collecting information in a group of respondents from 8 to 10 people. The essence of the method is that the
Yildirim, Kamil; Arastaman, Gökhan; Dasci, Elif
Problem Statement: The quality of teaching at schools mostly depends on the teachers' competencies. One of these competencies is measurement and evaluation (MaE). Evaluation of the students' cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development requires skills and knowledge about various measuring tools and techniques. It is essential for a teacher to…
Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Greaves, Colin J; Farbus, Lou
Depression and social isolation affect one in seven people over 65 and there is increasing recognition that social isolation adversely affects long-term health. Research indicates that interventions, which promote active social contact, which encourage creativity, and which use mentoring, are more likely to positively affect health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a complex intervention for addressing social isolation in older people, embodying these principles: The Upstream Healthy Living Centre. Mentors delivered a series of individually-tailored activities, with support tailing off over time. Two hundred and twenty-nine participants were offered the Geriatric Depression Scale, SF12 Health Quality of Life, and Medical Outcomes Social Support scale at baseline, then 6 months and 12 months post intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 participants, five carers and four referring health professionals to provide a deeper understanding of outcomes. Data were available for 172 (75%) participants at baseline, 72 (53% of those eligible) at 6 months and 51 (55%) at 12 months. Baseline scores indicated social isolation and high morbidity for mental and physical health. The intervention was successful in engaging this population (80% of referrals were engaged in some form of activity). At 6 months, there were significant improvements in SF12 mental component, and depression scores, but not in perceived physical health or social support. At 12 months, there were significant improvements in depression and social support and a marginally significant improvement in SF12 physical component (p = 0.06), but the SF12 mental component change was not maintained. The qualitative data showed that the intervention was well-received by participants. The data indicated a wide range of responses (both physical and emotional), including increased alertness, social activity, self-worth, optimism about life, and positive changes in health
Valeeva, Rania F.
In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…
Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun
This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…
Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…
Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…
Weaver, S M; Clifford, E; Gordon, A G; Hay, D M; Robinson, J
Twenty couples who conceived their babies by in vitro fertilization/gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF/GIFT) were seen between 15 and 27 months postdelivery in order to evaluate social-emotional well-being and parental functioning. Emotional health and marital adjustment were assessed by standard questionnaires and compared with general population norms. Questionnaires measuring quality of life, parents' feelings about their babies and child-rearing attitudes were also administered. Scores from these were compared with those obtained from a group of parents who had conceived without medical assistance. Results indicated that IVF/GIFT parents were undifferentiated from the general population with respect to emotional health and marital adjustment. Also, relative to non-IVF parents, they gave higher positive ratings for their feelings about their babies and for one aspect of quality of life (feelings of freedom). Parenting attitudes for the two groups differed in only one respect, IVF/GIFT parents reported being more overprotective.
Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara
The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES, childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs, social support and behavioural factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n=12,981 of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress to social support and behavioural factors in adulthood ; (ii the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioural factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10, health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS in adulthood; (iii the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv the mediating role of adult social support and behavioural factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%, health (7.01%, and well-being (9.09%, as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%, health (10.60%, and well-being (20.60%, as compared to mother’s and father’s education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs
Park, Crystal L; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Mager Stellman, Jeanne
Research increasingly demonstrates that trauma exposure can have cumulative effects, yet much remains to be learned about effects of cumulative trauma, particularly regarding longer term adjustment. One such trauma, combat exposure, is insufficiently understood, especially for women, who are increasingly engaged in professional combat activities. The study comprised a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple aspects of current well-being in women approximately 25 years after their service in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Participants were 1374 women (78% military and 22% nonmilitary; mean age = 59.7). This study investigated the relations between three separate categories of trauma exposure (childhood, adulthood, and combat) and well-being and examined whether perceived social support at return from Vietnam moderated the association between combat exposure and well-being. While both childhood and adulthood trauma exposure related to midlife well-being, combat exposure still uniquely predicted outcomes. Further, postdeployment perceived social support moderated the association of combat and well-being: recollected higher perceived social support at homecoming buffered participants from the links between combat exposure and well-being. These results may have important implications for interventions to reduce the impact of traumatic experiences, particularly in light of the increasing exposure of women to direct combat events.
Full Text Available Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants’ socioeconomic status (SES increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one’s expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.
Van Dick, Rolf; Ketturat, Charlene; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas
We propose that resilience effectively helps people cope with stress, thus predominantly reducing the negative. However, we argue that individuals' social identification has the potential to contribute to their well-being, thus fostering the positive. A two-wave survey study of 180 students shows that resilience is more strongly (negatively) associated with ill-health (i.e. stress and depression), whereas social identification is more strongly (positively) related to well-being (i.e. satisfaction and work engagement). We believe that it is necessary to see these two routes to improving people's health as complementary, both in future research and for therapy and interventions.
Rolf Van Dick
Full Text Available We propose that resilience effectively helps people cope with stress, thus predominantly reducing the negative. However, we argue that individuals’ social identification has the potential to contribute to their well-being, thus fostering the positive. A two-wave survey study of 180 students shows that resilience is more strongly (negatively associated with ill-health (i.e. stress and depression, whereas social identification is more strongly (positively related to well-being (i.e. satisfaction and work engagement. We believe that it is necessary to see these two routes to improving people’s health as complementary, both in future research and for therapy and interventions.
Lai, C M; Mak, K K; Watanabe, H; Jeong, J; Kim, D; Bahar, N; Ramos, M; Chen, S H; Cheng, C
This study examines the associations of Internet addiction with social anxiety, depression, and psychosocial well-being among Asian adolescents. A self-medication model conceptualizing Internet addiction as a mediating role in relating depression and social anxiety to negative psychosocial well-being was tested. A cross-sectional survey. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 5366 adolescents aged 12-18 years from six Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Philippines) completed a questionnaire with items of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD), Self-Rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA-SR) in the 2012-2013 school year. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and subjective psychosocial well-being. Significant differences on the scores of IAT, SAS-A, CESD, and HoNOSCA-SR across the six countries were found. The proposed self-medication model of Internet addiction received satisfactory goodness-of-fit with data of all countries. After the path from social anxiety to Internet addiction had been discarded in the revised model, there was a significant improvement of the goodness-of-fit in the models for Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. Depression and social anxiety reciprocally influenced, whereas depression associated with poorer psychosocial well-being directly and indirectly through Internet addiction in all six countries. Internet addiction mediated the association between social anxiety and poor psychosocial well-being in China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erfani, Seyedezahra Shadi; Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak
We aimed to explore and examine how and in what ways the use of social network sites (SNSs) can improve health outcomes, specifically better psychological well-being, for cancer-affected people. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with users of the Ovarian Cancer Australia Facebook page (OCA Facebook), the exemplar SNS used in this study. Twenty-five women affected by ovarian cancer who were users of OCA Facebook were interviewed. A multi-theory perspective was employed to interpret the data. Most of the study participants used OCA Facebook daily. Some users were passive and only observed created content, while other users actively posted content and communicated with other members. Analysis showed that the use of this SNS enhanced social support for users, improved the users' experiences of social connectedness, and helped users learn and develop social presence, which ultimately improved their psychological well-being. The strong theoretical underpinning of our research and empirically derived results led to a new understanding of the capacity of SNSs to improve psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence showing how the integration of these tools into existing health services can enhance patients' psychological well-being. This study also contributes to the body of knowledge on the implications of SNS use for improving the psychological well-being of cancer-affected people. This research assessed the relationship between the use of SNSs, specifically OCA Facebook, and the psychological well-being of cancer-affected people. The study confirmed that using OCA Facebook can improve psychological well-being by demonstrating the potential value of SNSs as a support service in the healthcare industry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Broughton, Sharon; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn
Drawing on the Strengthening Capacity to Limit Intrusion theory, we tested whether intrusion (i.e. unwanted interference from coercive control, custody and access difficulties and mother's depressive symptoms) predicted family health and well-being after separation from an abusive partner/father, and whether social support moderated intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Experiences of coercive control and the negative consequences related to those experiences have been documented among women who have separated from an abusive partner. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 154 adult, Canadian mothers of dependent children who had separated from an abusive partner and who participated in Wave 2 of the Women's Health Effects Study. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test whether intrusion predicts family health and well-being as well as whether social support moderated this relationship. Families were found to experience considerable intrusion, yet their health and well-being was similar to population norms. Intrusion predicted 11·4% of the variance in family health and well-being, with mother's depressive symptoms as the only unique predictor. Social support accounted for an additional 9% of explained variance, but did not buffer intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Although women had been separated from their abusive partners for an average of 2·5 years, the majority continued to experience coercive control. On average, levels of social support and family functioning were relatively high, contrary to public and academic discourse. In working with these families postseparation, nurses should approach care from a strength-based perspective, and integrate tailored assessment and intervention options for women and families that address both depression and social support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Choi, Jounghwa; Kim, Jang Hyun; Han, Hae Lin
This study examined the relationships among social media use for information, self-status seeking and socializing, body image, self-esteem, and psychological well-being, and some cultural effects moderating these relationships. Americans (n = 502) and Koreans (n = 518) completed an online survey. The main findings showed that (a) social media use for information about body image is negatively related to body satisfaction in the United States and Korea, while social media use for self-status seeking regarding body image is positively related to body satisfaction only in Korea; and (b) body satisfaction has direct and indirect positive effects on psychological well-being manifested in similar ways in the United States and Korea. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Patton, George C; Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B; Thomas, Lyndal; Butler, Helen; Glover, Sara; Catalano, Richard; Bowes, Glenn
We sought to test the efficacy of an intervention that was designed to promote social inclusion and commitment to education, in reducing among students health risk behaviors and improving emotional well-being. The design was a cluster-randomized trial in 25 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. The subjects were 8th-grade students (aged 13 to 14 y) in 1997 (n=2545) and subsequent 8th-grade students in 1999 (n=2586) and 2001 (n=2463). The main outcomes were recent substance use, antisocial behavior, initiation of sexual intercourse, and depressive symptoms. At 4-year follow-up, the prevalence of marked health risk behaviors was approximately 20% in schools in the comparison group and 15% in schools in the intervention group, an overall reduction of 25%. In ordinal logistic regression models a protective effect of intervention was found for a composite measure of health risk behaviors in unadjusted models (odds ratio [OR]= 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 0.50, 0.95) and adjusted models (OR= 0.71; CI =0.52, 0.97) for potential confounders. There was no evidence of a reduction in depressive symptoms. The study provides support for prevention strategies in schools that move beyond health education to promoting positive social environments.
Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi; Kemer, Gülşah; Pope, Amber L; Moe, Jeffry L
Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Rand, Kathryn; Vallis, Michael; Aston, Megan; Price, Sheri; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Rehman, Laurene; Kirk, Sara F L
In this research, we explored the psychological, emotional, and social experiences of individuals living with obesity, and perceptions of health care providers. We conducted a theoretical thematic analysis using two theoretical frameworks applied to transcripts from a previous qualitative study. Themes from a mental well-being framework were subsequently categorized under five environmental levels of the Social-Ecological Model (SEM). Key mental well-being themes appeared across all levels of the SEM, except the policy level. For the individual environment, one main theme was food as a coping mechanism and source of emotional distress. In the interpersonal environment, two themes were (a) blame and shame by family members and friends because of their weight and (b) condemnation and lack of support from health professionals. In the organizational environment, one main theme was inadequate support for mental well-being issues in obesity management programmes. In the community environment, one major theme the negative mental well-being impact of the social stigma of obesity. An overarching theme of weight stigma and bias further shaped the predominant themes in each level of the SEM. Addressing weight stigma and bias, and promoting positive mental well-being are two important areas of focus for supportive management of individuals living with obesity.
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...
Rea, Jennifer K.
The two studies presented in this dissertation provide an understanding of young adults' perspective financial socialization processes and how the experiences influence a conceptualization of financial well-being and their choice of romantic relationship status (Study 1: N = 31, Study 2: N = 549). Study 1 has adapted Gudmunson and Danes' (2011)…
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie
This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…
Sherman, Paul David
The relatively unfamiliar pedagogy of Soka (value creating) education is analysed for its capacity to promote well-being and social justice, using the well-known Capability Approach (CA) as a comparator. Various aspects of Soka education correspond favourably with the CA, indicating its potential as a credible and constructive approach for…
Pieloch, Kerrie A.; Marks, Amy K.; García Coll, Cynthia
This study aimed to explore commonalities among discrimination, stereotyping, and peer-related social experiences of children of immigrants, and to see if these experiences might relate to children's school-based well-being. Two age-based cohorts of 294 children and their immigrant parents from Portugal, the Dominican Republic, and Cambodia were…
Hanna, Emily; Ward, L Monique; Seabrook, Rita C; Jerald, Morgan; Reed, Lauren; Giaccardi, Soraya; Lippman, Julia R
Although Facebook was created to help people feel connected with each other, data indicate that regular usage has both negative and positive connections to well-being. To explore these mixed results, we tested the role of social comparison and self-objectification as possible mediators of the link between Facebook use and three facets of psychological well-being: self-esteem, mental health, and body shame. Participants were 1,104 undergraduate women and men who completed surveys assessing their Facebook usage (minutes, passive use, and active use), social comparison, self-objectification, and well-being. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, testing separate models for women and men. Models for each gender fit the data well. For women and men, Facebook use was associated with greater social comparison and greater self-objectification, which, in turn, was each related to lower self-esteem, poorer mental health, and greater body shame. Mediated models provided better fits to the data than models testing direct pathways to the mediators and well-being variables. Implications are discussed for young people's social media use, and future directions are provided.
Savi Çakar, Firdevs; Tagay, Özlem
This research is a descriptive study based on the testing of a structural model developed by considering the effects of perceived social support and subjective well-being on adolescents' risky behaviors, and the possible mediating role of self-esteem. Participants consisted of 676 high school students attending formal education institutions,…
Polus Barbara I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.
Full Text Available Social isolation and exclusion are associated with poor health status and premature death. A number of related isolation factors, inadequate transportation system and restrictions in individuals’ life space, have been associated with malnutrition in older adults. Since eating is a social event, isolation can have a negative effect on nutrition. Cultural involvement and participation in interactive activities are essential tools to fight social isolation, and they can counteract the detrimental effects of social isolation on health. To provide data supporting the hypothesis that encouraging participation might represent an innovative preventive and health promoting strategy for healthy living and aging, we developed an ad hoc questionnaire to investigate the relationship between cultural participation, well-being, and resilience in a sample of residents in the metropolitan area of Naples. The questionnaire includes a question on adherence to diet or to a special nutritional regimen; in addition, the participants are asked to mention their height and weight. We investigated the relationship between BMI, adherence to diet, and perceived well-being (PWB and resilience in a sample of 571 subjects over 60 years of age. Here, we present evidence that engagement into social and cultural activities is associated with higher well-being and resilience, in particular in females over 60 years of age.
Hurt, Lisa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Lucas, Patricia Jane; Watson, Debbie; Mann, Mala; Griffiths, Lucy J; Ginja, Samuel; Paljarvi, Tapio; Williams, Jo; Bellis, Mark A; Lingam, Raghu
Experiences in the first 1000 days of life have a critical influence on child development and health. Health services that provide support for families need evidence about how best to improve their provision. We systematically reviewed the evidence for interventions in high-income countries to improve child development by enhancing health service contact with parents from the antenatal period to 24 months postpartum. We searched 15 databases and trial registers for studies published in any language between 01 January 1996 and 01 April 2016. We also searched 58 programme or organisation websites and the electronic table of contents of eight journals. Primary outcomes were motor, cognitive and language development, and social-emotional well-being measured to 39 months of age (to allow the interventions time to produce demonstrable effects). Results were reported using narrative synthesis due to the variation in study populations, intervention design and outcome measurement. 22 of the 12 986 studies identified met eligibility criteria. Using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group criteria, the quality of evidence overall was moderate to low. There was limited evidence for intervention effectiveness: positive effects were seen in 1/6 studies for motor development, 4/11 for language development, 4/8 for cognitive development and 3/19 for social-emotional well-being. However, most studies showing positive effects were at high/unclear risk of bias, within-study effects were inconsistent and negative effects were also seen. Intervention content and intensity varied greatly, but this was not associated with effectiveness. There is insufficient evidence that interventions currently available to enhance health service contacts up to 24 months postpartum are effective for improving child development. There is an urgent need for robust evaluation of existing interventions and to develop and evaluate novel interventions to enhance
Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina
Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.
Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina
Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed. PMID:24847296
K. Ludwigs (Kai)
textabstractIn 2013 the OECD published a guideline that represents the gold standard for measuring subjective well-being in greater detail to collect data in the quality needed as a basis for efficient decisions to improve subjective well-being and the evaluation of those decisions to enable
Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.
The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…
Full Text Available CONTEXT : Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with social stigma attached to it. Various problems which are social and economic in nature are faced by TB patient. Therefore , it is essential to explore the overall effect of MDR - TB/TB on health and patients perception of Well - being. AIMS : To Document the effect of MDR - TB/TB on social , functional and economic well - being of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A Cross - sectional study , Conveniently Recruited 68 MDR - TB Patients and 136 non - MDR - TB Patients (from Rural as well as urban Area of Surat District diagnosed by CBNAAT were interviewed for investigating the effect of Tuberculosis. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A pre - tested standardized semi - structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected about socio - demographic profile of patients and interpreted in table. Data about effect of MDR - TB/TB was collected on Likert Scale and Frequency was calculated and Data wa s plotted on multiple bar charts. RESULTS : As compared to healthy status in the past , 93% MDR - TB and 82% TB patients have decreased ability to do work , about half of MDR - TB Patients and TB Patients have detiorated relations with family members , 67% of stud y participants have developed disharmonious relations with neighbor’s , 55% of Study participants have decreased income , 88% of study participants have decreased performance in day to day activities and 78% of study participants have faced discordial and di srespectful behavior from co - workers. CONCLUSION : Working ability more detiorated in MDR - TB patients while rest of the effect on social , functional and economic well - being is same in both TB and Multi Drug Resistant TB patients. This study emphasizes very clearly that social stigma still persist in community about Tuberculosis which needs to be eliminated in community by behavior change communication by health workers at all levels of health care.
Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron
The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.
Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee
This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.
Full Text Available Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood. Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture. Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.
Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii
A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrey O. Podoplekin
Full Text Available The article represents a generalized data from sociological survey of social-psychological well-being of the rural population of the coastal areas in Arkhangelsk region (included into the Russian Arctic zone held in 2015. The data shows a critical level of social pessimism, assurance of residents in continuation of negative social-economic dynamics, deficiency of motivation and readiness for active participation and inclusion into the development of territories. Such a status is based on a deep degradation of local industries, infrastructures and social sphere, which has been confirmed by statistic data. The revealed indicators explain high migration preparedness, especially in groups of working ages, proceeding, in the middle-term prospective, to the risk of depopulation and disintegration of social carcass in the coastal areas which, in their turn, possess a significant resource potential. At that, residential population on these areas considered as strategic factor from the perspective of Russian geopolitical interests in the Arctic. A positive trend may be provided through implementation of spatial approach to the social-economic development, which has been already applied in activities held by the Russian State Commission on the Arctic Development. With that there is obvious relevance of correction of the Russian legislation toward transformation of residential population into the beneficiary party of the macro-regional development, which may be provided by establishing of special regimes and preferences in spheres of natural resource use, tax assessment, entrepreneurship and crediting for all groups indigenous (resident population, including aboriginal people of the North.
Antonius J. van Rooij
Full Text Available Objective: There have long been indications that those with problems controlling their Internet use manifest those problems in relation to specific applications. The current study empirically explores the option of abandoning a unified approach to problematic ‘Internet use’, by splitting the concept into more specific application level measurement. Method: The current study used self-report survey data, collected from Dutch adolescents (aged 12-15, N=3945. Two Structural Equation Models predicted either problematic Internet use (model 1 or both problematic game use and problematic social media use (model 2. Problematic use of the Internet/games/social media was assessed with three abbreviated 6-item versions of the CIUS. Predictors included computer-activity use type in hours per week, depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and general life-satisfaction. Results: Problematic Internet use was associated with both social and gaming activities, as well as depressive mood. In the split model, problematic social media use was associated with three types of social, Internet behavior (social networking, Twitter, and instant messenger and depressive mood, while problematic gaming was associated with both online (Internet and offline gaming, as well as by gender (male and depressive mood. Conclusions: The more specific problematic social media use and problematic game use measures provide a less ambiguous and clearer picture that also reveals the role of gender within problematic game use. This provides some evidence to support splitting up measures of problematic Internet use into more specific measures in the future.
Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher
The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils...... national objectives for pupils' well-being; 2) the Danish newspaper A4's interactive, online mapping of pupils' well-being at all Danish schools, developed from the same numbers (accessed through their juridical right to access government files) but using different calculative techniques and aimed...
This study used self-report questionnaires to investigate emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to happiness and well-being. Previous research has supported the links between well-being and life satisfaction to EI. This study aimed to look specifically at associations between the full version of the ‘Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire’ (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009) for trait EI and an external measure of happiness. A student sample (N=187) completed 4 questionnaires online; The TEIQue f...
Chong, Eddie S K; Zhang, Yin; Mak, Winnie W S; Pang, Ingrid H Y
Social media are found to facilitate social information exchange among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who are subjected to social stigma. This study tested the protective role of LGB-tailored social media uses and gratifications in promoting LGB group membership, which we hypothesized to reduce LGB stigma and enhance mental health among LGB individuals in Hong Kong. Based on a sample of 233 Chinese LGB individuals in Hong Kong, structural equation modeling showed evidence for our hypotheses, χ(df=62)(2)= 88.20, GFI = 0.95, CFI = 0.98, NNFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.04. Community surveillance, identity expression, and emotional support on social media may promote mental health by instilling a sense of group membership and reducing stigma. Social media may build camaraderie and bolster resilience among LGB individuals that may otherwise be difficult in conservative regions.
Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.
Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Yeoh, Ken Kyid; Panarello, Bianca
Previous empirical studies have shown that both spiritual well-being (SWB) and death anxiety (DA) significantly affect the mental health of patients with acute diseases. In this regard, our paper contributes to the extant literature by scrutinizing the conditional relationship between SWB and DA as well as the various mechanisms underpinning such a relationship in patients with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). A descriptive, correlational methodology was utilized. Our main sample consisted of 300 patients with acute myocardial infraction who were hospitalized in a specialized medical institution in Iran throughout a two-month period (i.e. August-October 2015). Patients completed Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) and Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Even though our study showed that the relationship between SWB and DA in patients with AMI is non-significant, we found that (1) single patients with higher SWB have lower DA, (2) single patients with higher SWB as well as social support have significantly lower DA, and (3) for single men/men without social support, there is a negative relationship between SWB and DA. The relationship between SWB and DA is influenced by factors such as sex, marital status and social support. In addition, the specific nature of this relationship (i.e. strength and sign) is dependent upon the sociodemographic characteristics of patients as well as other contextual influences. Result revealed that although relationship between SWB and DA is non-significant, this is influenced by factors such as sex and social support. In addition, the specific nature of this relationship (i.e. strength and sign) is dependent upon the sociodemographic characteristics of patients as well as other contextual influences.
Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Holmberg, Teresa; Johansen, Christoffer; Stock, Christiane; Laursen, Bjarne; Zinckernagel, Line; Øllgaard, Anne Louise; Ingholt, Liselotte
The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were selected to either implement the intervention or continue with normal practice for comparison. In the baseline survey conducted 2011-2012, 2,329 students from four intervention schools and 3,371 students from six comparison schools answered a computer-based questionnaire during class, representing 73% and 81% of eligible students, and 22% of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing appropriate evaluation strategies. To address difficulties in implementing settings-based interventions, as highlighted in prior research, the strategy was to involve intervention schools in the development of the intervention. Baseline differences will be included in the effectiveness analysis, so will the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. ISRCTN57822968. Date of registration: 16/01/2013.
Jones, Mat; Kimberlee, Richard; Deave, Toity; Evans, Simon
Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes-especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context.
Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold
Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5-10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.
Okeke, Bernedette Okwuchukwu
This study examined the relative efficacy of social support seeking (SSS) and self-efficacy building (SEB) in the management of emotional well-being of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. It was based at the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) center in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state, being the first and the largest teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of treatment and a control group was used. The columns have two levels of gender being male and female caregivers. One-hundred and sixty-five (165) caregivers who were taking care of people that are suffering from HIV/AIDS were purposively selected and randomly assigned to the treatment groups and control. The treatment was carried out for a period of eight weeks. Two null hypotheses were tested, both at .05 levels of significance. Data were collected with the use of standardized intruments rating scale; social support scale, general self-efficacy scale and emotional well-being scale. ANCOVA was used to establish significant treatment effects with the pretest as covariate. Even though SSS and SEB were both found to be effective in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal caregivers in this study when compared to the controls, SSS was significantly more effective than SEB in achieving this goal. Since the HIV/AIDS patients cannot be adequately cared for in the hospital settings due to severe shortages of material, personnel and time, serious efforts should be made by the three levels of the health care system viz: the primary, secondary and tertiary health care systems, to encourage the employment of the psychological management of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. Also, the psychologists, clinical psychologists and the significant others should be encouraged to employ this psychological management in the care of HIV/AIDS informal caregivers.
Full Text Available Teaching behavior has important implications for students’ emotional well-being. Multiple models suggest students’ perceptions of teaching behaviors are more critical than other measures for predicting well-being, yet student-report instruments that measure concrete and specific teaching behavior are limited. The purpose of the present studies is to develop an instrument to assess students’ perceptions of concrete and specific teaching behavior and to test which teaching behavior is associated students’ well-being. Construct validity and internal consistency for the 37-item Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ-S, composed of instructional, negative teaching, socioemotional, and organizational behavior were examined using data from two independent samples (Study 1: n = 703; Study 2: n = 822. The factor structure was stable across both samples and internal consistencies ranged from .77 to .97. Results indicated student-ratings of teaching behavior were associated with positive and negative affect in students.
The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.
Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler
The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.
The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being
Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.
The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being
Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler
The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256
Low-income Caribbean transmigrant women face unique health challenges during pregnancy that set forth multidimensional implications for the design of mobile health (mHealth). Acknowledgment of the unique health needs of low-income Caribbean immigrant women in the United States and what that entails regarding technology design remains rarely examined in the literature of mHealth technologies. The goal of this study was to reveal the needs and gaps in mHealth interventions for pregnant immigrant women not yet realized in this field. These understandings reveal design opportunities for mHealth. The use of the qualitative participatory action research approach of codesign workshops in this study resulted in design solutions by the participants after reflecting on their earlier focus group discussions. The highlights are not the resulting designs per se but rather the inferences derived from the researcher reflecting on these designs. The designs exposed two themes relevant to this paper. First, the participants desired the inclusion and rebuilding of social and organizational relationships in mHealth. The resulting designs formulate an understanding of the women's health-related social support needs and how technology can facilitate them. Second, the participants wanted entertainment with an element of social participation incorporated in mHealth pregnancy management interventions. This brings attention to the role entertainment can add to the impact mHealth can deliver for pregnancy well-being. The study concluded with an examination of social and entertainment design implications that reveal pregnant immigrant women's virtual health-related sharing habits, choice of sharing interaction scenarios during pregnancy (eg, local, long distance, one-way, two-way, and many-many), and choice of sharing media (eg, text, voice, and video). Additionally, the study revealed exclusions to social sharing capabilities in health technologies for these women. ©Hana Al
Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B
Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed.
Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Francis, Suzanna C
Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sun, Hua-Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chow, Eric P F; Li, Tong; Xian, Yun; Lu, Yi-Hua; Tian, Tian; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei
% CI 52.4% to 66.8%) and 75.0% (95% CI 69.0% to 80.2%) at 12 months after treatment initiation, respectively. MMT has significantly reduced criminal activity, and improved employment rate and social well-being, of clients of the MMT programme. MMT is an effective measure to help drug users to resume societal and familial functions in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Background: Indias older population is projected to increase up to 96 million by 2011 with older people accounting for 18% of its population by 2051. The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of older adults in developing countries. Objectives: To examine age and socio-economic changes on a range of key domains in self-reported health and well-being amongst older adults. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 5,430 adults aged 50 and over using a shortened version of the SAGE questionnaire to assess self-reported assessments (scales of 1–5 of performance, function, disability, quality of life and well-being. Self-reported responses were calibrated using anchoring vignettes in eight key domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal relationships, sleep/energy, affect, and vision. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index and WHO health scores were calculated to examine for associations with socio-demographic variables. Results: Disability in all domains increased with increasing age and decreasing levels of education. Females and the oldest old without a living spouse reported poorer health status and greater disability across all domains. Performance and functionality self-reports were similar across all SES quintiles. Self-reports on quality of life were not significantly influenced by socio-demographic variables. Discussion: The study provides standardised and comparable self-rated health data using anchoring vignettes in an older population. Though expectations of good health, function and performance decrease with age, self-reports of disability severity significantly increased with age, more so if female, if uneducated and living without a spouse. However, the presence or absence of spouse did not significantly alter quality of life self-reports, suggesting a possible protective effect provided by traditional joint family structures in India, where older
McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R
Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kuppens, Toon; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R
Level of formal education is an important divide in contemporary societies; it is positively related to health, well-being, and social attitudes such as tolerance for minorities and interest in politics. We investigated whether education-based identification is a common underlying factor of these education effects. Indeed, education-based identification was stronger among the higher educated, especially for identification aspects that encompass education-based group esteem (i.e., the belief that one's educational group is worthy and that others think so, too). Furthermore, while group esteem had beneficial effects across educational levels, aspects of identification that were unrelated to group esteem had positive effects for the higher educated but not for the less educated. Thus, the less educated do not benefit from the psychologically nourishing effect of identification that exists for other groups. The stigma and responsibility related to low education could be a common explanation for a wide range of outcomes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Walters, Kate; Kharicha, Kalpa; Goodman, Claire; Handley, Melanie; Manthorpe, Jill; Cattan, Mima; Morris, Steve; Clarke, Caroline S; Round, Jeff; Iliffe, Steve
With population ageing, research is needed into new low-cost, scalable methods of effective promotion of health and wellbeing for older people. We aimed to assess feasibility, reach and costs of implementing a new tailored computer-aided health and social risk appraisal system in primary care. Design: Feasibility study. Five General Practices in London (Ealing) and Hertfordshire, United Kingdom (UK) Participants: Random sample of patients aged 65 + years. The Multi-dimensional Risk Appraisal for Older people (MRA-O) system includes: 1) Postal questionnaire including health, lifestyle, social and environmental domains; 2) Software system generating a personalised feedback report with advice on health and wellbeing; 3) Follow-up of people with new concerning or complex needs by GPs or practice nurses. Feasibility of implementation; participant wellbeing, functional ability and quality of life; social needs, health risks, potential lifestyle changes; and costs of implementation. Response rates to initial postal invitations were low (526/1550, 34%). Of these, 454/526 (86%) completed MRA-O assessments. Compared to local UK Census data on older people, participants were younger, more were owner-occupiers and fewer were from ethnic minority groups than expected. A range of problems was identified by participants, including pain in last week (269/438, 61.4%), low physical activity (173/453, 38.2%), sedentary lifestyle (174/447, 38.3%), falls (117/439, 26.7%), incontinence (111/441 25.2%), impaired vision 116/451 (25.7%), impaired hearing (145/431, 33.6%), depressed mood (71/451, 15.7%), impaired memory (44/444 9.9%), social isolation (46/449, 10.2%) and loneliness (31/442, 7.0%). Self-rated health was good/excellent in 312/437 (71.4%), and quality of life and well-being were slightly above age-specific population norms. Implementation costs were low. Practices reviewed medical records of 143/454 (31.5%) of participants as a consequence of their responses, and actively
Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping
Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
Bethell, Christina D; Solloway, Michele R; Guinosso, Stephanie; Hassink, Sandra; Srivastav, Aditi; Ford, David; Simpson, Lisa A
A convergence of theoretical and empirical evidence across many scientific disciplines reveals unprecedented possibilities to advance much needed improvements in child and family well-being by addressing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), promoting resilience, and fostering nurturance and the social and emotional roots of healthy child development and lifelong health. In this article we synthesize recommendations from a structured, multiyear field-building and research, policy, and practice agenda setting process to address these issues in children's health services. Between Spring of 2013 and Winter of 2017, the field-building and agenda-setting process directly engaged more than 500 individuals and comprised 79 distinct agenda-setting and field-building activities and processes, including: 4 in-person meetings; 4 online crowdsourcing rounds across 10 stakeholder groups; literature and environmental scans, publications documenting ACEs, resilience, and protective factors among US children, and commissioning of this special issue of Academic Pediatrics; 8 in-person listening forums and 31 educational sessions with stakeholders; and a range of action research efforts with emerging community efforts. Modified Delphi processes and grounded theory methods were used and iterative and structured synthesis of input was conducted to discern themes, priorities, and recommendations. Participants discerned that sufficient scientific findings support the formation of an applied child health services research and policy agenda. Four overarching priorities for the agenda emerged: 1) translate the science of ACEs, resilience, and nurturing relationships into children's health services; 2) cultivate the conditions for cross-sector collaboration to incentivize action and address structural inequalities; 3) restore and reward for promoting safe and nurturing relationships and full engagement of individuals, families, and communities to heal trauma, promote resilience, and prevent
Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P
In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA
Canaday, D C; Salak-Johnson, J L; Visconti, A M; Wang, X; Bhalerao, K; Knox, R V
The effects of room temperature and light intensity before breeding and into early gestation were evaluated on the reproductive performance and well-being of gilts housed individually in crates. In eight replicates, estrus was synchronized in mature gilts (n = 198) and after last feeding of Matrix were randomly assigned to a room temperature of 15°C (COLD), 21°C (NEUTRAL), or 30°C (HOT) and a light intensity of 11 (DIM) or 433 (BRIGHT) lx. Estrous detection was performed daily and gilts inseminated twice. Blood samples were collected before and after breeding for determination of immune measures and cortisol concentrations. Gilt ADFI, BW, and body temperature were measured. On d 30 postbreeding, gilts were slaughtered to recover reproductive tracts to evaluate pregnancy and litter characteristics. There were no temperature × light intensity interactions for any response variable. Reproductive measures of follicle development, expression of estrus, ovulation rate, pregnancy rate (83.2%), litter size (14.3 ± 0.5), and fetal measures were not affected by temperature or lighting (P > 0.10). Gilts in COLD (37.6°C) had a lower (P postural changes (P 0.10) of light or interaction with temperature on other immune cells or measures. These results indicate that temperatures in the range of 15 to 30°C or light intensity at 11 to 433 lx do not impact reproduction during the follicular phase and into early gestation for mature gilts housed in gestation crates. However, room temperature does impact physiological, behavioral, and immune responses of mature gilts and should be considered as a potential factor that may influence gilt well-being during the first 30 d postbreeding.
Mayr, Toni; Ulich, Michaela
Compared with the traditional focus on developmental problems, research on positive development is relatively new. Empirical research in children's well-being has been scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically based instrument for practitioners to observe and assess preschool children's well-being in early…
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Steele, Liza G.; Lynch, Scott M.
This paper examines the consequences of China’s dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and li...
Mills, Peter R
There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB) assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing.Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors) participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36) and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) as part of the validation process. The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes) and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4). Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more likely to achieve workplace productivity standards than
Mills Peter R
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. Methods We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing. Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36 and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ as part of the validation process. Results The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4. Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more
Salsman, John M; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Peterman, Amy H; Heinemann, Allen W; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David
To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool.
The complexity of the components and their interactions that characterize children’s health and well-being are not adequately captured by current public health paradigms. Children are exposed to combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors from their built, natural,...
Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, R.H.; Koenig, C.; Anselmann, V.
Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses’ well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of
The thesis aimed to examine the significance of psychosocial factors (culture, self-construal, psychological well-being, and personality) in predicting SNS usages. Three quantitative studies were conducted. The first study identified cross-cultural differences in SNS usages between Malaysia, South Korea and China, and found the significance of the self-construal in predicting SNS usages. The second study revealed the significance of the severity of depression and OCD symptoms in predicting pa...
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on child well-being. In this paper, we identify the causal effect of child care subsidies on child development by exploiting geographic variation in the d...
Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke
This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to
Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Torres-Pereda, Ma. Del Pilar; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María
BACKGROUND: In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA) aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size) to form the Interven...
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.
Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Torres-Pereda, Ma Del Pilar; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María
In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA) aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size) to form the Intervention (OA aged 70-74 residing in rural localities, expenses (β = 0.11, CI95% 0.05;0.18). Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment. These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being. This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare. It is recommendable that governments should invest efforts towards universalizing the non-contributory pension programs in order to ensure a basic income for the elderly.
Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram
This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.
Irvin, Veronica L.; Sun, Qiankun; Breen, Nancy
Abstract Purpose: This study explored the utility of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) to compare health-related outcomes among gay men, lesbians, and heterosexuals who reported being in a legally recognized partnership. Methods: We regressed sexual identity and marriage/legally recognized partnership status on seven different outcomes related to health insurance coverage, medical services access and use, and general health and well-being using CHIS data collected between 2009 and 2013. Results: There were 1432 respondents who identified as gay, lesbian, or homosexual, and 67,746 who identified as heterosexual. The percentage of participants who reported being married/legally partnered was 54.06% for heterosexual women, 52.93% for heterosexual men, 38.83% for lesbians, and 23.56% for gay men. Legally partnered/married gay and lesbian respondents were more likely to have health insurance and use healthcare than their counterparts not in such partnerships; few trends were statistically significant. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report continuous health insurance coverage, a usual medical care source, and at least one provider visit within the past 12 months. We found statistically significant poorer health status outcomes among lesbians in legally recognized partnerships compared to married heterosexual women. Conclusions: Lesbians in legally recognized partnerships did not fare as well as married heterosexual women. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships fared better than married heterosexual men on some measures. CHIS questionnaire structures limited our sample and analyses. We recommend that CHIS and other researchers ask partnered status-, marriage-, and sexual identity-related questions en bloc to ensure more robust representation, analyses, recommendations, and policy resolutions. PMID:28207297
van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR
In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of
Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.; Weyusya, J.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Bartholomew, L.K.
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve
Elena M. Zubieta
Full Text Available La salud refiere no sólo al estado completo de bienestar físico y mental sino también social incorporando a la armonía con el medio ambiente como una necesidad crucial del bienestar. Desde una perspectiva psicológica y social, el bienestar no consiste sólo en la ausencia de síntomas o emociones positivas sino también que la persona se valore a sí misma, tenga relaciones positivas con otros y crea que controla su ambiente (Bilbao Ramírez, 2008. Tomando a la satisfacción con la vida, el bienestar psicológico y el bienestar social como indicadores de salud mental (Keyes, 2005¹, se realizó un estudio empírico con el objetivo de explorar en los niveles de bienestar de estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Los jóvenes estudiantes de la muestra presentan niveles apropiados de satisfacción vital y bienestar psicológico aunque un cambio se produce en la percepción del bienestar social. Se detecta un importante déficit en la percepción de progreso y cambio social, en la creencia de que la sociedad controla su destino, sabe donde va y traza intencionalmente el horizonte hacia donde quiere llegar en el futuro; en su capacidad para producir bienestar.Health in not only related to physical and mental status but also social, integrating the harmony with environment as a critical factor in well being. From a psycho-sociological perspective, well being is not only conceived in terms of symptoms absence or lack of positive emotions but also in the extent that individuals value themselves, experience positive relationships with others and feel control of their environment (Bilbao Ramírez, 2008. Taking satisfaction with life and psychological and social well being as mental health indicators (Keyes, 2005² an empirical study was carried out with the objective of exploring well being levels in a convenient sample of college students from Buenos Aires city. Convergent validity between dimensions was also tested. Youth
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size to form the Intervention (OA aged 70-74 residing in rural localities, <2500 inhabitants and Control groups (OA aged 70-74, in localities with 2501-2700 inhabitants. Baseline data collection was conducted in 2007 where 5,465 OA were interviewed. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2008, and it was possible to interview 5,270 OA, with a response rate of 96%. A difference-in-difference linear probability model with individual fixed effect was used to estimate the impact of the program on mental well-being indicators. In 2009 a qualitative component was designed to explore possible causal pathways of such effect. RESULTS: After a year of exposure, the program had a significant effect on reduction of depressive symptoms (β = -0.06, CI95% -0.12; -0.01 and an increase in empowerment indicators: OA participated in important household decisions (β = 0.09, CI95% 0.03;0.15; and OA participated in household decisions pertaining to expenses (β = 0.11, CI95% 0.05;0.18. Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being. This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare. It is recommendable that governments should invest efforts towards universalizing the non-contributory pension programs in order to ensure a basic
Erhart, Michael; Rajmil, Luis; Herdman, Michael; Auquier, Pascal; Bruil, Jeanet; Power, Mick; Duer, Wolfgang; Abel, Thomas; Czemy, Ladislav; Mazur, Joanna; Czimbalmos, Agnes; Tountas, Yannis; Hagquist, Curt; Kilroe, Jean
Background To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a sample of 22,830 European children and adolescents aged 8–18 and their parents (n = 16,237). Correlation with the KIDSCREEN-52 and associations with other generic HRQoL measures, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status were examined. Score differences by age, gender, and country were investigated. Results Correlations between the 10-item KIDSCREEN score and KIDSCREEN-52 scales ranged from r = 0.24 to 0.72 (r = 0.27–0.72) for the self-report version (proxy-report version). Coefficients below r = 0.5 were observed for the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions Financial Resources and Being Bullied only. Cronbach alpha was 0.82 (0.78), test–retest reliability was ICC = 0.70 (0.67) for the self- (proxy-)report version. Correlations between other children self-completed HRQoL questionnaires and KIDSCREEN-10 ranged from r = 0.43 to r = 0.63 for the KIDSCREEN children self-report and r = 0.22–0.40 for the KIDSCREEN parent proxy report. Known group differences in HRQoL between physically/mentally healthy and ill children were observed in the KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores. Associations with self-reported psychosomatic complaints were r = −0.52 (−0.36) for the KIDSCREEN-10 self-report (proxy-report). Statistically significant differences in KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores were found by socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Conclusions Our results indicate that the KIDSCREEN-10 provides a valid measure of a general HRQoL factor in children and adolescents, but the instrument does not represent well most of the single dimensions of the original KIDSCREEN-52. Test–retest reliability was slightly below a priori defined thresholds. PMID:20668950
Full Text Available A city as a type of a human settlement is characterized by high population density, welldeveloped infrastructure, comfortable living conditions. However, a city is a source of social problems due to high population density, limited resources and conflicts between indigenous population and newcomers. The article analyzes the development of research about the city, provides an assessment of the scope of the historical urban studies in the development of solutions to contemporary problems of urban space. Methodological resource of historical urban studies allows fully exploring the city as a set of historically interconnected spaces and social processes. The analysis of the problem field of historical urban studies at various stages of its formation allowed tracing the evolution of ideas about the city as an object of scientific knowledge, to identify future prospects of research on conditions of Russian urban development, to improve the comfort of living in them.
Full Text Available Cities today play strategic roles in modernization processes as well as in the organization and operation of global economy. Big cities are the places where the conditions of modernisation, economic and social development, the operating conditions of global economy, the educated and qualified middle-class, members of the economic, political and cultural elite are concentrated. Meanwhile modern urban spaces are rather controversial. A variety of social problems, the traditional and new structures of local social inequalities, the historical and present day poverty, traditional and modern crime, environmental problems are all present. Various urban problems were also present in the historically changing stages of urban development. Taking the actual historical and social conditions into account, theories, criticisms, and various scientific approaches offered differentiated solutions - mainly based on spatial principals - to manage urban tensions. As urban conflicts keep reproducing and new tensions keep appearing these tools do not seem to succeed in managing these tensions, which is probably due to the one-dimensional aims of intervention. Management proposals regarding particular urbanisation stages were mainly based on spatial principals, they were one-dimensional, and they were not accompanied with schemes targeting structural effects. The aims of this study to present the various urban problems connected to the different urbanisation stages, as well as the proposals based on spatial principles which were aspiring to solve these problems and to evaluate these proposals. A further aim is to describe a complex structural management theory, which is very promising from the aspect of structural effects but lack the spatial approach. Finally this study aims to present a research whose aspiration is to connect the two different approaches empirically.
Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Erhart, M.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Auquier, P.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Abel, T.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.
Background: To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods: The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a
Nislin, M.; Sajaniemi, N.; Sims, M.; Suhonen, E.; Maldonado, E. F.; Hyttinen, S.; Hirvonen, A.
The aim of this study was to examine early childhood professionals' (ECPs) work engagement, burnout and stress regulation in integrated special day-care groups. The participants consisted of 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care groups in Helsinki, Finland. ECPs' work-related well-being was assessed using self-report questionnaires that…
environment. In video surveillance, the behavior of humans and animals is monitored based on extremes: event is present/event is not present, objects behave normally/objects behave abnormally, action 1/action 2/action 3, etc. In nature, the motion of humans and animals is continuous with transitions from one...... action to another. The second aim of this thesis is to propose a method to monitor motion as a continuous process using common classification methods....... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insu...
Background The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Methods and design Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group ‘Customized Care’. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as “How do you want to live your life?”. The intervention helps people to find their ‘passion’, i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Discussion
Н П Нарбут
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a three-year study conducted by the Sociology Chair of the RUDN University in cooperation with foreign colleagues to compare the worldview priorities of the today’s student youth. Due to the article size limitations the authors divided the data into two parts: in the first part, they focus on the identification of the values that serve as reference points specifying the so-cial action limits and criteria for assessing events and situations. The data does not allow for broad gen-eralizations due to the non-equivalence of the questionnaires used in three countries, but points to a number of characteristics that make the Russian youth look more similar to their Czech or Kazakhstan peers than to themselves a decade ago. Such a conclusion is based on the analysis conducted according to the thematic structure of the questionnaire. Thus, the article presents the educational values of students (prag-matic-instrumental perception of the higher education, labor values (a mixture of optimism and pessimism when assessing chances to find a job after graduation, and different attitudes to the combination of study and work, interpersonal interaction features (a high credit of trust in parents, especially in a difficult situation, does not depend on the self-perception and the circle of personal responsibility, political values (the ratio of the lack of political activity and interest in politics, and the level of social trust differ despite the same leaders of national pride, general value priorities (attitudes towards religion, interpretations of the life success and qualities necessary for achieving it, the horizons of planning and problems (assessing one’s genera-tion in terms of actual threats.
Casas, Ferran; Baltatescu, Sergiu; Bertran, Irma; Gonzalez, Monica; Hatos, Adrian
This paper presents results from two samples of adolescents aged 13-16 from Romania and Spain (N = 930 + 1,945 = 2,875). The original 7-item version of the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI) was used, together with an item on overall life satisfaction (OLS) and a set of six items related to satisfaction with school. A confirmatory factor analysis of…
Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger Cm
Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and educational levels did not influence
Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.
multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Ferguson, Christopher J.; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M.
Objective: There have long been indications that those with problems controlling their Internet use manifest those problems in relation to specific applications. The current study empirically explores the option of abandoning a unified approach to problematic ‘Internet use’, by splitting the concept into more specific application level measurement. Method: The current study used self-report survey data, collected from Dutch adolescents (aged 12-15, N=3945). Two Structural Equation Models p...
Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier
A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...
Li, Xing; Muchie, Mammo
The key theoretical incentive of this paper is to seek how Amartyr Sen’s contribution on the conceptualization of development is to be taken forward. Sen has brought us an appropriate starting point for further research with his broad alternative development thinking. This paper is part of the on...
Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…
PERCEPCIONES DE BIENESTAR SOCIAL, ANOMIA, INTERÉS E IMPOTENCIA POLÍTICA EN RELACIÓN CON LAS ACTITUDES HACIA LA DEMOCRACIA/ PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL WELL-BEING, ANOMIE, POLITICAL INTEREST AND POWERLESSNESS IN RELATION WITH ATTITUDES TOWARDS DEMOCRACY
Yunuen Ochoa Madrigal***
Full Text Available RESUMENEste estudio empírico de corte transversal pone a prueba el supuesto de que las percepciones de bienestar social,anomia, interés político e impotencia política condicionan las actitudes hacia la democracia. Se tomó el modelo de cincodimensiones de Keyes (1998 para medir el bienestar social y se midió el constructo anomia desde la perspectiva psicosocialde Srole (1956. La muestra conformada por 568 sujetos mayores de edad de diferentes estados de México contestó unabatería que contenía cuatro cuestionarios: La Escala de Actitudes hacia la Democracia de Morales, Las Escalas de BienestarSocial de Keyes, La Escala de Anomia de Srole, La adaptación al español de la Escala de Impotencia Política y un ítem devalor único sobre Interés por la Política tomado de la Encuesta Social Europea 2006. Las correlaciones de bienestar social einterés por la política son positivas para la aceptación de la democracia. Los resultados muestran que a mayor percepciónde anomia e impotencia política mayor rechazo de la democracia.ABSTRACTThis empirical and transversal paper tests the hypothesis that perceived social well-being, anomie, political interest, andpolitical powerlessness condition attitudes towards democracy. We adopted the Keyes' five-dimension model to measuresocial well-being and the Srole's (1956 psychosocial perspective for anomie. A sample of 568 legally adult subjects ofdifferent states of Mexico filled out a battery containing four questionnaires: Morales' Attitudes Towards Democracy Scale,Keyes' Social Well-being Scales, Srole Anomie Scale, an adaptation into Spanish language of The Powerlessness Scale, andone item of unique value for Political Interest taken from the 2006 European Social Survey. Correlations between social wellbeing,political interest and acceptance of democracy were positives. Results show that higher perception of anomie andpolitical powerlessness indicates more rejection of democracy.
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...
Selman, L.; Speck, P.; Gysels, M.; Agupio, G.; Dinat, N.; Downing, J.; Gwyther, L.; Mashao, T.; Mmoledi, K.; Moll, T.; Mpanga Sebuyira, L.; Ikin, B.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.
Background Patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa experience high levels of spiritual distress with a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Locally validated measurement tools are needed to identify patients’ spiritual needs and evaluate
Beaumont, Elaine.; Durkin, Mark.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Carson, Jerome.
Background: Prolonged deficiency in self-care strategies puts counsellors and psychotherapists at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue. Aim: To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing and burnout in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. Method: A quantitative survey using four validated data collection instruments: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental We...
Growiec, Katarzyna; Growiec, Jakub
This paper provides evidence that bridging and bonding social capital as well as social trust may interdependently affect individuals' earnings and subjective well-being. Based on cross-sectional World Values Survey 2000 data on individuals from Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs), we show that majority of citizens of these countries seem to fall in a "low trust trap" where deficits of bridging social capital and trust reinforce each other in lowering individuals' incomes and well-...
Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a serious pregnancy complication with short- and long-term health consequences. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood. Animal models are the basis for understanding the causes of IUGR and for developing useful therapeutic strategies. Here, we aimed to ascertain the in utero growth of fetuses from NK (natural killer cells/MC (mast cells-deficient mothers that give birth to growth-restricted pups and to determine the time point at which IUGR starts. We used high frequency ultrasound imaging to follow-up fetal and placenta size and employed Doppler measurements to document blood supply to the fetus in females that were deficient for NK cells and MCs. In mice lacking NKs and MCs, we observed significantly reduced implantation sizes from mid gestation onward, which was further associated with smaller placentas. Additionally, NK/MC-deficiency was associated with absent and reversed end diastolic flow in umbilical arteries of the fetuses and an increased systolic/diastolic ratio as well as an elevated resistance index. Together, our results indicate that NKs/MCs promote blood flow, placental growth, and subsequent fetal development. The results of this study offer new insights as to how fetal growth is affected in vivo in NK/MC-deficient mice, whose pups are growth restricted at birth. The use of IUGR models and modern technologies enabling the in vivo follow-up of fetal development are important tools for understanding mechanisms behind pregnancy complications that in the future may lead to the development of effective therapies.
Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S
BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408
Paulo Alexandre Soares Moreira
Full Text Available Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the description of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents’ composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M=15.44, SD=1.731. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed.Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents’ wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices.
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.
Melzer, Silvia; Muffels, R.J.A.
German reunification provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of migration on subjective well-being (SWB) on the basis of longitudinal pre- and post-migration data. Our main goal is to assess the effects of adaptation, social comparison and economic integration on the change in SWB
Weiss, Laura Anne; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Background: The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve
Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
King, Ronnel B; Datu, Jesus Alfonso
Student well-being has mostly been studied as an individual phenomenon with little research investigating how the well-being of one's classmates could influence a student's well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine how the aggregate well-being of students who comprise a class could predict students' subsequent well-being (Time 2 well-being) after controlling for the effects of prior well-being (Time 1 well-being) as well as key demographic variables such as gender and age. Two studies among Filipino secondary school students were conducted. In Study 1, 788 students from 21 classes participated; in Study 2, 404 students from 10 classes participated. For Study 1, questionnaires assessing students' life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect were administered twice seven months apart. For Study 2, the well-being questionnaires were administered twice, three months apart. Hierarchical linear modeling was used with level 1 (Time 1 individual well-being, gender, and age) and level 2 (class well-being) predictors. Results across the two studies provided converging lines of evidence: students who were in classes with higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect were also more likely to have higher life satisfaction and positive affect at Time 2. The study indicated that the well-being of a student partly depends on the well-being of their classmates providing evidence for the social contagion of well-being in the classroom context. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessment of What/For What? Teachers' and Head Teachers' Views on Using Well-Being and Involvement as a Screening Measure for Conducting Baseline Assessment on School Entry in English Primary Schools
Guimaraes, Sofia; Howe, Sally; Clausen, Sigrid Brogaard; Cottle, Michelle
Baseline assessment has recently been trialled as part of an accountability measure in English primary schools. The research presented in this colloquium examines the views of teachers related to using well-being and involvement indicators as a starting point for baseline assessment. The findings suggest that the focus on well-being was welcomed…
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life
Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.
Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta
Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.
Full Text Available Background: The role and effects of people’s spiritual well-being have received more attention in recent years. Knowing the factors related to spiritual well-being, especially in students as the educated class and future builders of society, is too important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of education on spirituality through social media in the spirituality well-being of public health students of Isfahan University of medical science. Methods: A semi-experimental, pre-test, post-test study was conducted on 50 under- graduate public health students (3 men, 47 women; age range 18-30 years of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences through convenience and purposive sampling. The educational content of spirituality education was used to promote and improve spiritual well-being, being sent by using one of the mobile phone applications. Using spiritual well-being questionnaire, the level of the individuals’ spiritual well-being before and after the educational was evaluated. To analyze the data in this study, descriptive statistics and t-test were use SPSS software was used to analyze the data and the significance level was considered lower than 0.05%. Result: In total, 50 students including 3 men and 47women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 22.02±3.78. About 68% of the students were single and the remaining were married. The score of the participants’ spiritual well-being was 96.5 before the intervention and it promoted to 103.3 after the intervention. The result of the analysis by t-test on the two groups showed that spirituality education can cause a significant increase in peoples’ spiritual well-being (P<0.001. Conclusion: After the educational intervention, the level of people’s spiritual well-being increased significantly. As a result, spirituality education causes conditions to improve the peoples’ spiritual well-being.
Shakya, Holly B
Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.
Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan
Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.
“Damp in bathroom. Damp in back room. It's very depressing!” exploring the relationship between perceived housing problems, energy affordability concerns, and health and well-being in UK social housing
Boomsma, Christine; Pahl, Sabine; Jones, Rory V.; Fuertes, Alba
Social housing residents often struggle with achieving adequate levels of warmth in their home on a limited household budget. Additionally, other housing problems such as damp are common. Previous research has found a link between housing problems and poor health and reduced well-being, but this relationship is complex and poorly understood. A survey among UK social housing residents (N=536) investigated the association between cold and damp housing, as well as the role of energy affordability concerns in the relationship between housing problems and health. The findings indicated that struggles with keeping warm related to a cluster of damp and mould issues rather than any one specific issue. In describing these problems householders expressed a sense of frustration and helplessness. Support was found for an indirect effect on health whereby households experiencing cold, damp or mould issues reported more difficulty with affording their energy bills, these affordability concerns in turn related to poor health and well-being. The effects were found to be more consistent and stronger for men compared to women. Policies aimed at reducing housing problems should consider the important role of affordability concerns and the need for households to regain control of their energy bills. - Highlights: • Housing problems common in social housing could have negative health impacts. • We examine these housing problems and what may underlie the association with health. • Problems with keeping warm relate to a range of condensation, damp and mould issues. • Households with housing problems report more energy affordability concerns. • These concerns in turn were found to relate to poor health and reduced well-being.
Vivat, B.; Young, T. E.; Winstanley, J.; Arraras, J. I.; Black, K.; Boyle, F.; Bredart, A.; Costantini, A.; Guo, J.; Irarrazaval, M. E.; Kobayashi, K.; Kruizinga, R.; Navarro, M.; Omidvari, S.; Rohde, G. E.; Serpentini, S.; Spry, N.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Yang, G. M.
The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188
Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S
Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M
The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan sumber student well-being pada remaja Jawa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kuantitatif dan didukung dengan kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian di Banyumas dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan skala student well-being dan openquesioner sumber student well-being serta panduan wawancara. Analisis data kuantitatif menggunakan deskriptif. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1 Sumber-sumber student well-being adalah dimensi hubungan sosial, kognitif, emosi dan spiritual. 2 Faktor penghambat tercapainya student well-being adalah jika ada masalah dalam dimensi sosial, kognitif, emosi, fisik dan spiritual.
Grunseit, Anne; Richards, Justin; Merom, Dafna
Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of "parkrun", a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI) were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community). Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18-24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women's personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men's from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.
Beaumont, Elaine; Durkin, Mark; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Carson, Jerome
compassion fatigue and burnout can impact on the performance of midwives, with this quantitative paper exploring the relationship between self-compassion, burnout, compassion fatigue, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion for others, professional quality of life and well-being of student midwives. a quantitative survey measured relationships using questionnaires: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) Short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; (4) Compassion For Others Scale. a purposive and convenience sample of student midwives (n=103) studying at university participated in the study. just over half of the sample reported above average scores for burnout. The results indicate that student midwives who report higher scores on the self-judgement sub-scale are less compassionate towards both themselves and others, have reduced well-being, and report greater burnout and compassion fatigue. Student midwives who report high on measures of self-compassion and well-being report less compassion fatigue and burnout. student midwives may find benefit from 'being kinder to self' in times of suffering, which could potentially help them to prepare for the emotional demands of practice and study. developing, creating and cultivating environments that foster compassionate care for self and others may play a significant role in helping midwives face the rigours of education and clinical practice during their degree programme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of psychological characteristics of one-parent families. The family, in which a child is brought by one parent, now is becoming an important independent object of socio-psychological research. According to authors’ opinion, the subject of importance is not only the specifics of individual psychologi- cal characteristics of single-parent families, but also the interaction of these impor- tant characteristics. The authors chose the following socio-psychological variables for investigation: the mother’s perception of psychological well-being of her child, the nature of her coping strategies and style of upbringing. The authors revealed a variety of social and psychological characteristics of single-parent families. Thus, the parent strategy of positive reformulation of problems is involved as a way to see the positive aspects of the situation in the family and the relationship with the child on case of the lack of consistency in style of education and lack of inhibitions; and active coping strategies — with a focus on promotion rather than punishment in the child's behavior regulation. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project № 14-18-00598 «Patterns and mechanisms of positive socialization in modern children and teenagers».
Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.
In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of
Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,
Lucette, A; Brédart, A; Vivat, B; Young, T
Spiritual well-being is increasingly recognised as an important aspect of patients' quality of life when living with a potentially life-limiting illness such as cancer. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a measure for assessing spiritual well-being cross-culturally for people receiving palliative care for cancer. The pilot-testing phase of the study explored potential problems related to the content and administration of a provisional version of this measure. The French version was pilot-tested with 12 patients in a palliative and supportive day care unit in Paris. Participants were asked to complete the measure and the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL before being interviewed about their responses. The administration of the measure enabled participants to express the difficulties and existential concerns they experienced. The items were not considered intrusive, despite the sensitive topic of the measure. This article considers difficulties with items pertaining to 'religion' and 'spirituality' in the context of French culture. Overall, this measure appears to enhance holistic care, by providing caregivers with a means of broaching spirituality issues, a topic otherwise difficult to discuss in the context of palliative care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The child protection system in Australia includes out-of-home care (OoHC for children and young people at risk of harm and neglect. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are 9 times more likely to be placed in care than non-Aboriginal young people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015. Australia’s history of colonization and subsequent policies have caused trauma to individuals, families, and communities and resulted in poor physical and mental health and mistrust of services. This review was undertaken to identify programs and policies currently in place that aim to improve the mental health and well-being of this vulnerable population. It provides an analysis of both the strengths of the current system as well as what has been inadequately addressed based on literature in the area.By incorporating an Aboriginal perspective, this review focuses on social, emotional, and spiritual well-being (SESWB and the aspects of a child’s life and community that promote this. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO publications. The review identified nine programs or policies that are designed to improve the SESWB of Aboriginal young people in OoHC in local and international settings. These are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle, cultural support plans, Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs, family group decision-making, therapeutic care, and Panyappi Mentoring Program. Given that culturally competent service provision is important to SESWB, the review concludes that an increase in monitoring and evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of programs and ensure their implementation and sustainability when warranted. Policy and research work is needed to adapt and devise programs promoting the SESWB of Aboriginal young people (at both the
In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...
This research examines local perceptions of social well - being in two forest - dependent communities near Zahamena National Park (ZNP), Madagascar. Key informant interviews were conducted to observe how local context, including community and ecological factors, influenced perceptions of social well - being. Overall ...
Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W
Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.
Chico Librán, Eliseo
This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.
Cecilia Cassol Dalmolin
Full Text Available This study aims to verify the prevalence of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and the therapeutic interaction between these at the Integrated Health and Social Well Being Center (Cisbes located in the town of Santa Maria/RS. For this purpose, a descriptive survey of the therapeutic practices used in the said service during the period from January to July 2005 was carried out, along with a survey of the user profile, using sociodemographic variables. The results show that 1456 people were undergoing treatment during the time of research. Out of these people, 78% (1140 received psychopharmacological treatment, 9% (132 received psychotherapy and 13% (184 had therapeutic interaction. It was seen that the average user age was 36, most were married, 75% lived with family members, 69% were women and 51% had basic schooling. The study looks at factors that may be associated to the results obtained, both in relation to the mental health care model in Brazil and also the possible difficulties faced by the mental health services in the public network.
A good society is the goal for social policy. Recent years have seen a growing awareness that gross domestic product (GDP) alone does not measure this. Happiness and well-being have increasingly been seen as elements that should influence welfare policies. This review article provides an overview...... of many of the ways to measure well-being and happiness. It attempts to cover three distinct, but interrelated subjects. First, why and what can be used to complement GDP as measures for societal development. Second, is there a relation between well-being, happiness and central social policy areas? Third......, whether knowledge on what makes people happy could inform policymakers in their decisions. The article discusses the many new attempts to measure societal development, and the fact that there are so many that decision makers and citizens are drowning by numbers and thereby not able to grasp whether...
Full Text Available This research aims at describing students’ well-being assessment at two private secondary schools in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia. The subjects of the research were 42 secondary school students in the area. This is an evaluative research by means of quantitative approach. The data collecting technique employed a focus group discussion (FGD while the instrument used an FGD guide book based on a School Well-being Model (Konu and Rimpela, 2002. The data were analyzed quantitatively by means of thematic analysis. The research finding showed that the students’ school well-being was psychologically high at dimension of health status, but low at dimension of having, loving, and being. Another important finding is that there was a tendency of verbal, physical, as well as sexual bullying done by their classmates and teachers personally.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin
Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......-being is an inclusive good, a good constituted by other things that are good in and for themselves. Then, I will put forward a case against Scanlon’s challenge by (1) showing that inclusiveness, when properly understood, does not lead to the conclusion Scanlon is led to and (2) showing that on at least the reading...
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque
Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…
van Eerde, W.; Sirois, F.M.; Pychyl, T.A.
This chapter provides an overview of the issues that are important to procrastination and well-being at work. In comparison with academic procrastination, many more issues need to be taken into consideration. These are discussed with the help of a conceptual framework that identifies characteristics
Erectile function and assessments of erection hardness correlate positively with measures of emotional well-being, sexual satisfaction, and treatment satisfaction in men with erectile dysfunction treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra).
Montorsi, Francesco; Padma-Nathan, Harin; Glina, Sidney
We aimed to determine whether erectile function (EF) and assessments of erection hardness correlate positively with measures of psychosocial outcomes (ie, emotional well-being, sexual satisfaction, and satisfaction with erectile dysfunction [ED] treatment) in men treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer Inc, New York, NY). Data were collected from 33 worldwide phase 2, 3, and 4 sildenafil clinical trials, which included almost 10,000 men with ED. Most of these trials were randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled (n = 27) and were undertaken to assess doses of 50 mg adjustable to 25 mg or 100 mg, depending on efficacy and tolerability (n = 32). Doses were taken approximately 1 hour before anticipated sexual activity but not more often than once daily. EF was assessed with use of the EF domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and with assessments of erection hardness (Erection Hardness Grading Scale [EHGS] and IIEF Q2 [the frequency of erections hard enough for penetration]). Change (baseline to end point) in emotional well-being in men treated for ED was assessed with the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire, which consisted of the Confidence domain (ie, the Self-Esteem subscale and Overall Relationship subscale) and the Sexual Relationship domain. End point treatment satisfaction (overall, speed of onset, and duration of action) was assessed with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS). The IIEF was used to assess change and end point sexual satisfaction by means of the Intercourse Satisfaction domain, Q7 (frequency of satisfactory sexual intercourse), and the Overall Satisfaction domain (ie, Q13, satisfaction with sex life, and Q14, satisfaction with sexual relationship). In men treated with sildenafil for ED, scores for measures of EF (IIEF EF domain, IIEF Q2) and the percentage of erections graded completely hard and fully rigid (EHGS grade 4) correlated positively with scores for
Vivat, B; Young, T E; Winstanley, J; Arraras, J I; Black, K; Boyle, F; Bredart, A; Costantini, A; Guo, J; Irarrazaval, M E; Kobayashi, K; Kruizinga, R; Navarro, M; Omidvari, S; Rohde, G E; Serpentini, S; Spry, N; Van Laarhoven, H W M; Yang, G M
The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188 Christian; 50 Muslim; 156 with no religion-completed a provisional 36-item measure of SWB plus the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (PAL), then took part in a structured debriefing interview. All items showed good score distribution across response categories. We assessed scale structure using principal component analysis and Rasch analysis, and explored construct validity, and convergent/divergent validity with the PAL. Twenty-two items in four scoring scales (Relationship with Self, Relationships with Others, Relationship with Someone or Something Greater, and Existential) explained 53% of the variance. The measure also includes a global SWB item and nine other items. Scores on the PAL global quality-of-life item and Emotional Functioning scale weakly-moderately correlated with scores on the global SWB item and two of the four SWB scales. This new validated 32-item SWB measure addresses a distinct aspect of quality-of-life, and is now available for use in research and clinical practice, with a role as both a measurement and an intervention tool. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán
with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; S?, Laura; Oliveira, Jo?o T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participate...
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article studies the link between people's subjective well-being, defined as life satisfaction, and productivity in the framework of efficiency analysis. We adopt Data Envelopment Analysis to compute productive efficiency indices using European Social Survey and AMECO data for 20 European countries. While accounting for reverse causality, we find significant efficiency gains when subjective well-being is an input to production. This supports the view that promoting subjective well-being r...
Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.
There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...
Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J
The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.
Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P
Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.
Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.
Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.
Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)