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Sample records for measuring nuclear transparency

  1. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p,2p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure ... Nuclear; color transparency; protons; alternating gradient synchrotron; large angle. ..... Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Multi-particle Dynamics.

  2. Measurement of Nuclear Transparency for the A(e,e'π+) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clasie, B.; Seely, J.; Qian, X.; Kramer, K.; Arrington, J.; El Fassi, L.; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H. C.; Gaskell, D.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the A(e,e ' π + ) process in 2 H, 12 C, 27 Al, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets. These measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory over a four momentum transfer squared range Q 2 =1.1 to 4.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The nuclear transparency was extracted as the super-ratio of (σ A /σ H ) from data to a model of pion-electroproduction from nuclei without π-N final-state interactions. The Q 2 and atomic number dependence of the nuclear transparency both show deviations from traditional nuclear physics expectations and are consistent with calculations that include the quantum chromodynamical phenomenon of color transparency

  3. Measurement of Nuclear Transparency for the A(e,e' pi+) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Clasie; X. Qian; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Boeglin; P. Bosted; A. Bruell; M. E. Christy; E. Chudakov; W. Cosyn; M. M. Dalton; A. Daniel; D. Day; D. Dutta; L. El Fassi; R. Ent; H. C. Fenker; J. Ferrer; N. Fomin; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. Gaskell; C. Gray; T. Horn; G. M. Huber; M. K. Jones; N. Kalantarians; C. E. Keppel; K. Kramer; A. Larson; Y. Li; Y. Liang; A. F. Lung; S. Malace; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. G. Meekins; T. Mertens; G. A. Miller; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Monson; T. Navasardyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; A. K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; A. W. Rauf; V. M. Rodriquez; D. Rohe; J. Ryckebusch; J. Seely; E. Segbefia; G. R. Smith; M. Strikman; M. Sumihama; V. Tadevosyan; L. Tang; V. Tvaskis; A. Villano; W. F. Vulcan; F. R. Wesselmann; S. A. Wood; L. Yuan; X. C. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the A(e,e' pi + ) process in 2 H, 12 C, 27 Al, 63 Cu and 197 Au targets. These measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory over a four momentum transfer squared range Q 2 = 1.1 - 4.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The nuclear transparency was extracted as the super-ratio of σ A σ H from data to a model of pion-electroproduction from nuclei without pi-N final state interactions. The Q 2 and atomic number dependence of the nuclear transparency both show deviations from traditional nuclear physics expectations, and are consistent with calculations that include the quantum chromodynamical phenomenon of color transparency

  4. Measuring nuclear transparency from exclusive vector meson production in lepton-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, G.Y. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive {rho}{sup 0} meson production from E665 at Fermilab are reported. The data were collected on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead targets with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production channels as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. Ideas of systematic studies of color transparency in exclusive vector meson production at CEBAF are discussed.

  5. Measuring nuclear transparency from exclusive vector meson production in lepton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, G.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ 0 meson production from E665 at Fermilab are reported. The data were collected on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead targets with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production channels as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. Ideas of systematic studies of color transparency in exclusive vector meson production at CEBAF are discussed

  6. Measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ0 meson production in muon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, G.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive incoherent ρ 0 meson production off deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead, normalized to hydrogen, and coherent ρ 0 meson production off calcium and lead, normalized to carbon, in deep-inelastic muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were collected with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ0 meson production in muon-nucleus scattering at 470 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.; Aied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Averill, D.A.; Baker, M.D.; Baller, B.R.; Banerjee, A.; Bhatti, A.A.; Bratzler, U.; Braun, H.M.; Breidung, H.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T.J.; Clark, H.L.; Conrad, J.M.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dietrich, F.S.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Faller, F.; Fang, G.Y.; Figiel, J.; Finlay, R.W.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Griffioen, K.A.; Guo, R.S.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hantke, D.; Hicks, K.H.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Jin, Z.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kinney, E.R.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kunori, S.; Lancaster, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Madden, P.; Magill, S.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Otten, R.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Siegert, G.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Spentzouris, P.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R.A.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilson, R.; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S.A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhao, T.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear transparencies measured in exclusive incoherent ρ 0 meson production from hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead in muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were obtained with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the nuclear transparencies are observed as the virtuality of the photon increases, in qualitative agreement with the expectations of color transparency

  8. Exploring Quantitative Framework to Evaluate Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeemin; Yim, Mansung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a definition of nuclear transparency is elaborated and ways to represent a country's nuclear transparency are examined. For evaluating nuclear transparency, it is necessary to define three elements first; an information seeker who wants to see, an information seek whom an information seeker wants to see, and information related to nuclear materials and activities. The States with high capacity of civilian nuclear power had a tendency to follow IAEA safeguards agreements well. And it means that their levels of the transparency are relatively high. Besides, the data of international assurances is one of the good indicators to confirm States' transparency. The current study explored the use of two measures, IAEA safeguards and voluntary reporting as a way to represent nuclear transparency. Using these measures seemed to agree with the notion that nuclear transparency is important in the success of civilian nuclear power development

  9. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  10. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  11. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  12. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p, 2p) reactions at large Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure the transparency of nuclei in the (p, 2p) quasi-elastic scattering process near 90 deg in the pp center-of-mass. The incident momenta went from 6 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which has more complete kinematic definition of quasi-elastic events. E850 covers a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provides more information regarding the nature of the unexpected fall in the transparency above 9 GeV/c. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. We use the transparencies measured in the five nuclei from Li to Pb to set limits on the rate of expansion for protons involved in quasi-elastic scattering at large momentum transfer. (author)

  13. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  14. Transparency in Nuclear Regulation: Trends and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Seong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Recently, improving transparency (or openness) has been one of important issues related to nuclear safety worldwide. As for the transparency in nuclear regulatory activities in Korea, openness has been declared as one of five principles of the nuclear regulation in the 'nuclear safety policy statement' announced in 1994. Transparency has been discussed and emphasized in various international meetings such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, OECD/NEA meetings, etc. For example, Working Group on Public Communication of nuclear regulatory organizations (WGPC) of the OECD/NEA/CNRA held a workshop on 'the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities' in May 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. In this paper, definition of transparency and its international trends ranging from a general administration to nuclear safety activities are discussed based on the results of meetings and workshops held so far. Measures for improvement associated with transparency are also proposed

  15. Progress in Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for Nuclear Material Transparency Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, J.K.; White, G.K.

    2000-01-01

    Negotiations between technical representatives of the US and the Russian Federation in support of several pending nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements must take account of the need for assurances against the release of sensitive information. Most of these agreements involve storing nuclear material and in some cases nuclear components from stockpile weapons in specially designed containers. Strategies for monitoring the agreements typically include measuring neutron and gamma radiation from the controlled items to verify declared attributes of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will contain information about the design of the component being monitored, information considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. Safeguards have evolved to prevent disclosure of this information during inspections. These measures combine hardware, software, and procedural measures to contain the sensitive data, presenting only the results needed for verification. Custom features preserve data security and guard against disclosure in case of failure. This paper summarizes the general problem and discusses currently developing solutions for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It argues for the simplest possible implementation of several key system components

  16. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ( 31 P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the 31 P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. 1 H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T 1 and T 2 with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T 1 or T 2 , consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T 1 relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine γ-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T 1 with increasing magnetic field

  18. Transparency in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with transparency schemes based on sharp cutoff models are discussed. The soft spheres model of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been used to explore the influence of the realistic nuclear density geometry on transparency. An average nuclear transparency and an average reaction transparency are defined and their dependence on target and projectile dimensions and on the hadron-nucleon collision cross section are described. The results are expected to be valid for projectile energies above several hundred MeV/nucleon through the ultrarelativistic regime. For uniform (hard sphere) nuclear profiles, methods for obtaining effective total transparencies are suggested

  19. A study on enhancing policy transparency in the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, S. W. [Korea Institute for National Unification, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Enhancing transparency in the nuclear field is a pending issue for the South Korea's nuclear community. International suspicions and mistrust of ROK's nuclear activities have been obstacles to the developments of South Korea's nuclear industry. South Korea's efforts have not been sufficient enough to ensure international community that its nuclear program will be used solely for peaceful purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a positive and creative research on the issue of transparency and provide policy options that are conducive to developing of South Korea's nuclear industry. Based on an in-depth study on transparency of national policies, this study presents a package of detail policy measures that can contribute to enhancing transparency in the nuclear filed. 75 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  20. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a unique opportunity to serve as an international cooperative test bed for developing and demonstrating technologies and processes in a fully operational repository system setting. To address the substantial national security implications for the US resulting from the lack of integrated, transparent management and disposition of nuclear materials at the back-end of the nuclear fuel and weapons cycles, it is proposed that WIPP be used as a test bed to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable the transparent and proliferation-resistant geologic isolation of nuclear materials. The objectives of this initiative are to: (1) enhance public confidence in safe, secure geologic isolation of nuclear materials; (2) develop, test, and demonstrate transparency measures and technologies for the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle; and (3) foster international collaborations leading to workable, effective, globally-accepted standards for the transparent monitoring of geological repositories for nuclear materials. Test-bed activities include: development and testing of monitoring measures and technologies; international demonstration experiments; transparency workshops; visiting scientist exchanges; and educational outreach. These activities are proposed to be managed by the Department of Energy/Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) as part of The Center for Applied Repository and Underground Studies (CARUS)

  1. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation

  2. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation.

  3. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  4. Q2 Dependence of Nuclear Transparency for Incoherent ρ0 Electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Arrington; Frank Dohrmann; Ahmed El Alaoui; Don Geesaman; Kawtar Hafidi; Roy Holt; Harold Jackson; David Potterveld; Brahim Mustapha; Paul Reimer; Elaine Schulte; Krishni Wijesooriya; Maurik Holtrop; Jacques Ball; Michel Garcon; Jean Laget; Franck Sabatie; Michel Guidal; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Borissov, A.; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Stepan Stepanyan; Lawrence Weinstein

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of exclusive incoherent electroproduction of ρ 0 (770) meson from 2 D, 12 C, and 63 Cu targets up to Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 are proposed using the CLAS detector. The objective of these measurements is to determine the Q 2 dependence of the nuclear transparency ratio for the two nuclear targets: 12 C and 63 Cu at fixed coherence length of quark-antiquark fluctuations of the virtual photon. A sizeable rise of the nuclear transparency is predicted and can be measured in this experiment. A relatively large increase of the nuclear transparency can be considered as a signature of the onset of color transparency

  5. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  6. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of Nuclear Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Tazaki, Makiko; Keeney, Robin; Puckett, John; Stanbro, William; Nakhleh, Charles

    1998-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet no.21, which was signed in February 1996, 'The Joint Research on 'Transparency' in Nuclear Nonproliferation' under the 'Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation.' The scope of the research was a fundamental study on transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability of nuclear energy from a nuclear nonproliferation viewpoint. The research encompassed three main topics: the policy environment of transparency, the development of transparency options, and technical options for transparency. Each side performed independent research then joint workshops were held to exchange information and views. This paper summarizes the results of these workshops. (author)

  7. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, R.; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakhleh, C.; Puckett, J.; Stanbro, W.

    1999-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ''The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation'' under the ''Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation''. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ''Development of Transparency Options.'' The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ''Technical Options for Transparency,'' was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  8. Nuclear Transparency with the gamma + n -> pi- + p Process in 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Lingyan Zhu; John Arrington; Todd Averett; Elizabeth Beise; John Calarco; Ting Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Marius Coman; Benjamin Clasie; Christopher Crawford; Sonja Dieterich; Frank Dohrmann; Kevin Fissum; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Kawtar Hafidi; Jens-Ole Hansen; Douglas Higinbotham; Holt, R.J.; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaochao Zheng; Jiang, X.; Edward Kinney; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; John LeRose; Nilanga Liyanage; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Mitchell, J.; Sirish Nanda; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Paul Reimer; Bodo Reitz; Arunava Saha; Elaine Schulte; Charles Seely; Simon Sirca; Steffen Strauch; Vincent Sulkosky; Branislav Vlahovic; Lawrence Weinstein; Krishni Wijesooriya; Claude Williamson; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hong XIANG; Wang Xu; Zeng, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the fundamental process γ n → π - p in 4 He. These measurements were performed at Jefferson Lab in the photon energy range of 1.6 to 4.5 GeV and at θ cm π = 70 o and 90 o . These measurements are the first of their kind in the study of nuclear transparency in photoreactions. They also provide a benchmark test of Glauber calculations based on traditional models of nuclear physics. The transparency results suggest deviations from the traditional nuclear physics picture. The momentum transfer dependence of the measured nuclear transparency is consistent with Glauber calculations which include the quantum chromodynamics phenomenon of color transparency

  9. Nuclear transparency in 90 deg.c.m. quasielastic A(p,2p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, I.; Malki, A.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Asryan, G.; Barton, D.S.; Buktoyarova, N.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.S.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Averiche, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Shimanskiy, S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 deg. in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . Taking into account the motion of the target proton in the nucleus, the effective incident momenta extended from 5.0 to 15.8 GeV/c. First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. E850 covered a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provided more information regarding the nature of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90 deg. and the nuclear transparency deuterons were studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for lithium, aluminum, copper, and lead nuclei as well as for carbon. A determination of the (π + ,π + p) transparencies is also reported. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for carbon and aluminum increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is ∼80% of the constant A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to a value at least as small as that at 5.9 GeV/c, and is compatible with the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and strongly absorbed

  10. Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Durrant, S.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Marshak, M.; White, C.; Heppelmann, S.; Minor, E.D.; Wu, J.; Nicholson, H.; Sutton, C.S.; Russell, J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic (p,2p) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 (GeV/c) 2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θ c.m. =83.7 degree - 90 degree . The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c , the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θ c.m. ≅85 degree to θ c.m. ≅89 degree . At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θ c.m. . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Saclay transparency and nuclear safety report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Saclay CEA Centre, this report presents the various safety arrangements in the different basic nuclear installations it possesses. These arrangements can be administrative, technical, or related to emergency situations or to inspections. It describes the organisation of radioprotection in the Saclay CEA Centre, indicates highlights for 2009, and gives results of dose measurements performed on the personnel. It reports significant events regarding nuclear safety and radioprotection in the various installations, gives and comments release measurements results and their impact on the environment (gaseous and liquid releases). It gives an overview of radioactive wastes stored in the different installations

  12. Measures of transparency for decommissioning of test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrusenko, B. A.; Smirnov, V. G.; Sherbina, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents non-traditional directions of activity of the Institute specialists to solve complicated scientific and technical tasks within the framework of observance of international obligations on non-proliferation. In the latest time much attention is paid to the reaching of mutual confidence between sides during a control over the observance of agreements regarding disarmament. How can we demonstrate implementation of agreements to each of both sides, not having leakage of confidential or, so called, 'sensitive' information? That means to ensure 'transparency' of activity, not doing a damage to both sides. It is needed to note that the meaning of the above term can be substantially varied, depending on what field of activity it is used in. For instance, the meaning of the transparency measures adopted in joint program of RFNC and SNL for future control of disassembling of nuclear weapon is represented as ''...measures which can be taken for building of the confidence of both sides, assuring that these sides reach mutual understanding, and one side can inspect activity of another side as well as its outcomes which are a part of lifetime cycle of nuclear weapon. We consider this meaning to be acceptable for objectives and principles indicated in joint Russian-Kazakhstani activity on decommisioning of the test site. Hereafter in this paper we will use terminology on the transparency measures which is adopted for future control of the nuclear weapon disassembling. The transparency measures application distates a necessity of development of documentation drawing system of individual procedures and operations, which has 'sensitive' information and to which some transporancy measures, and be in accord with the existent legislation of Russia and Kazakhstan. There is an example of nuclear device (ND) destruction in a tunnel 108 located on the former Semipalatinsk test site, that represents experience gained by specialists of RFNC-RITP in the field of the

  13. Safeguards for nuclear material transparency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.A.; Wolford, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The US and the Russian Federation are currently engaged in negotiating or implementing several nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements. These involve placing nuclear material in specially designed containers within controlled facilities. Some of the agreements require the removal of nuclear components from stockpile weapons. These components are placed in steel containers that are then sealed and tagged. Current strategies for monitoring the agreements involve taking neutron and gamma radiation measurements of components in their containers to monitor the presence, mass, and composition of plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as well as other attributes that indicate the use of the material in a weapon. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will yield data containing information about the design of the weapon being monitored. In each case, the design data are considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. To prevent the disclosure of this information in a bilateral or trilateral inspection scenario, so-called information barriers have evolved. These barriers combine hardware, software, and procedural safeguards to contain the sensitive data within a protected volume, presenting to the inspector only the processed results needed for verification. Interlocks and volatile memory guard against disclosure in case of failure. Implementing these safeguards requires innovation in radiation measurement instruments and data security. Demonstrating their reliability requires independent testing to uncover any flaws in design. This study discusses the general problem and gives a proposed solution for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It uses historical examples to illustrate the evolution of other successful systems

  14. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  15. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  16. Transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector: report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Based on several meetings, hearings of many actors involved in matters of transparency and secrets concerning the nuclear activity, and visits of ships carrying nuclear materials, this report aims at examining and analysing means to reconcile the transparency of nuclear information intended for the public with the confidentiality essential to transport security or nuclear activities. The authors also aim at a better understanding of these both notions of transparency and secret with respect to a legal and regulatory framework. In the following part of this report, the authors analyse recommendations which have been made in the past, and their consequences. They discuss possible appeal ways in front of a refusal to issue nuclear information because it is classified as secret. Remaining difficulties are identified as well as ways to overcome them

  17. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  18. Common Practices of Transparency in the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee; Oh, Kju Myeng

    2010-01-01

    Along with greater access to information, particularly through the Internet, there is the increasing demand of the public for transparency, particularly in matters and decisions affecting their lives. The public demands to know more about Nuclear Regulatory Organization's (NROs) and their activities resulting in more interactions with the public to help make nuclear safety activities more understandable and transparent. As a general concept, 'transparency' means literally that something can be seen through. The definition tells us that it is, more actively, to provide the public with factual information about our activities, and to respond promptly to 'the public's right to know' about the information acquired by NROs. NROs around the world recognize the importance of openness and transparency to the success of their programs to protect public health and safety. All agree that good practice in transparency and being proactive with information help to protect against perceptions of secrecy and to instil public confidence and accountability in what they do. On the other hand, NROs face many challenges in their quest to be open and transparent with their stakeholders. government, nuclear operators, NGOs, media, our colleagues, and particularly with the general public. The most frequently identified challenge was striking the right balance between openness and security-related considerations with many responders citing the need to protect proprietary information whilst still accommodating the public's desire to be well informed. Other challenges include deciding how much transparency is needed to satisfy the public and how information, that is often highly technical and complex, can be presented in a meaningful way through the use of clear and simple language. In this paper, we summarize the survey results done by WGPC on relevant practices of NRO's flux of work concerning public communication matters. By comprehensively searching the international status, we may have

  19. The transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the French national plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR - Plan national de gestion des matieres et dechets nucleaires), its elaboration process, its content in terms of nuclear fuel cycle. Then, it describes the control by the ASN of the nuclear fuel cycle, the associated installations, the concerned transports, the 'cycle consistency' approach and its limitations. Propositions are stated aiming at the improvement of the transparency associated with the fuel cycle: to use the PNGMDR, to extend the investigation on the cycle consistency to imported materials and wastes, to improve the transparency on radioactive material transport

  20. report transparency and nuclear safety 2007- CISBIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of CISBIO, nuclear base installation, for the year 2007. CISBIO realizes at Saclay most of the radiopharmaceuticals and drugs distributed in France for the nuclear medicine. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ''transparency and irreversibility'' of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities

  2. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  3. Can transparency be measured - a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simple answer to this question is no. But if you define the expression and decide transparency actually is, the answer might be different. Transparency means different things in different places. In one country transparency meant almost total access to anything that a government authority has in its possession. In another country transparency is more strict access to certain decisions, decisions makers or documents written with the sole purpose of informing the public. What variables could be found in the word transparent, what is a transparent regulator? In this short presentation we will deal with some important settings or fundamental prerequisites for a regulator calling itself transparent. Perhaps we should look at them in order of importance. Some days it is difficult to do all at once. As a final point, if we as regulators wish to call ourselves transparent in a future with diminishing national borders, fast electronic communication and increasing world wide media impact, what does the world require from us as regulators? (author)

  4. A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-01-01

    A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

  5. New results of nuclear transparency to wide angle quasielastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasi-elastic (p, 2p) scattering in hydro- gen, deuterium and carbon at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center- of-mass scattering angles in the range 83.7 degrees to 90 degrees. We extracted the cross section ratios of quasi-elastic 12 C(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (C/H) and quasi-elastic D(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (D/H). The experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS accelerator using the EVA detector (experiment E850). For a detailed description of the experiment and the analysis. We determined that at incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c, the C/H ratio increases by a factor of 2 from θ cm = 89 degrees to θ cm 85 degrees, while at 7.5 GeV/c it is consistent with being flat. Further, at θ cm = 89 degrees the C/H ratio increases from 5.9 GeV/c to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%, while for lower θ cm the incoming momentum dependence is consistent with being flat. The rise of the C/H ratio with incoming momentum is similar to that observed in the previous measurement of the C/H ratio at θ cm near 90 degrees. The dependence of the C/H ratio on θ cm , was observed in our experiment for the first time. The D/H ratio does not depend on incoming momentum and θ cm Its absolute value is consistent with unity. The D/H ratio was measured in our experiment for the first time. The ratios discussed above are directly related to the nuclear transparency of 12 C and D. Nuclear transparency is a measure of the initial and final state interactions that the incoming and outgoing protons undergo before and after the main (p, 2p) reaction. The standard approach to nuclear transparency does not depend on the incoming momentum nor on θ cm in contradiction to the variation of the C/H ratio that we have observed. The incoming momentum dependence of the C/H ratio that we measured is similar to those of the inverse scaled pp differential cross section (s 10 (dσ/dt)) -1 where s and t are the Mandelstam variables

  6. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  7. Development of a nuclear fuel cycle transparency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Tracia L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle transparency can be defined as a confidence building approach among political entities to ensure civilian nuclear facilities are not being used for the development of nuclear weapons. Transparency concepts facilitate the transfer of nuclear technology, as the current international political climate indicates a need for increased methods of assuring non-proliferation. This research develops a system which will augment current non-proliferation assessment activities undertaken by U.S. and international regulatory agencies. It will support the export of nuclear technologies, as well as the design and construction of Gen. IV energy systems. Additionally, the framework developed by this research will provide feedback to cooperating parties, thus ensuring full transparency of a nuclear fuel cycle. As fuel handling activities become increasingly automated, proliferation or diversion potential of nuclear material still needs to be assessed. However, with increased automation, there exists a vast amount of process data to be monitored. By designing a system that monitors process data continuously, and compares this data to declared process information and plant designs, a faster and more efficient assessment of proliferation risk can be made. Figure 1 provides an illustration of the transparency framework that has been developed. As shown in the figure, real-time process data is collected at the fuel cycle facility; a reactor, a fabrication plant, or a recycle facility, etc. Data is sent to the monitoring organization and is assessed for proliferation risk. Analysis and recommendations are made to cooperating parties, and feedback is provided to the facility. The analysis of proliferation risk is based on the following factors: (1) Material attractiveness: the quantification of factors relevant to the proliferation risk of a certain material (e.g., highly enriched Pu-239 is more attractive than that of lower enrichment) (2) The static (baseline) risk: the

  8. No 2943. Project of law relative to nuclear transparency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This project of law comprises 5 titles dealing with: 1 - general dispositions: definition and scope of nuclear safety, security, radiation protection, operators liability, facilities in concern; 2 - the high nuclear safety authority: role and duties; 3 - public information in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection: information right of the public, local information commissions, high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information; 4 - basic nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive materials: applicable rules, police controls and measures, penal dispositions (investigations, sanctions); 5 - miscellaneous dispositions: changes made with respect to previous legislative texts. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety: transparency in radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondy, J.Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The supervision of industry and defence on French radiation protection and withhold information during public inquiries in nuclear facilities questions make organizations anxious. Two examples are given: the first one concerns the file presented by EDF in november 1998 to get new release authorizations on the st Alban site, some information about tritium lacked( thirty analysis on tritium lacked for impact studies) and tritium is an element that represents 99.99% of released radioactivity by the nuclear power plant in the Rhone river. The Crirad organization asked for the public inquiry canceling. In vain. The second example is relative to the reprocessing plant of La Hague; at the end of 1999 the Cogema wished to extend its fuel range and increase its treatment capacity then it dropped off a file of public inquiry that did not take into account the increase of radioactive releases. The operator did not want the file to wear on this aspect, it won one's case. (N.C.)

  10. Techniques for transparent lattice measurement and correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weixing; Li, Yongjun; Ha, Kiman

    2017-07-01

    A novel method has been successfully demonstrated at NSLS-II to characterize the lattice parameters with gated BPM turn-by-turn (TbT) capability. This method can be used at high current operation. Conventional lattice characterization and tuning are carried out at low current in dedicated machine studies which include beam-based measurement/correction of orbit, tune, dispersion, beta-beat, phase advance, coupling etc. At the NSLS-II storage ring, we observed lattice drifting during beam accumulation in user operation. Coupling and lifetime change while insertion device (ID) gaps are moved. With the new method, dynamical lattice correction is possible to achieve reliable and productive operations. A bunch-by-bunch feedback system excites a small fraction (∼1%) of bunches and gated BPMs are aligned to see those bunch motions. The gated TbT position data are used to characterize the lattice hence correction can be applied. As there are ∼1% of total charges disturbed for a short period of time (several ms), this method is transparent to general user operation. We demonstrated the effectiveness of these tools during high current user operation.

  11. Measurements of the Characteristics of Transparent Material Using Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital holography is applied to measure the characteristics of transparent material. A digital hologram recording system to measure the surface of transparent material was established, and the digital holograms of transparent object were obtained in high quality. For postprocessing of hologram, the least-squares phase unwrapping algorithm was used in phase unwrapping, and the phase reconstruction image of transparent object was obtained. The information of material surfaces was measured and the characteristic was presented in 3D visualization. The validation experiment was conducted by NanoMap 500LS system; the results of validation experiment are well satisfied with the measurement by digital holography, which proved the feasibility of digital holographic technology as a good measurement tool for transparent material.

  12. Public hearings as a transparency measure: The Valproate case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In line with increasing calls of transparency initiatives across European institutions, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will on September 26th 2017 host its first public hearing on the regulatory of a drug, namely Valproate. According to the EMA website, the public hearing is intended...... to “increase transparency by opening up the scientific evaluation process” and “[give citizens] a voice in the evaluation of medicines.” This conference paper will present the preliminary results from a rhetorical analysis of the public hearing as a transparency measure. What kind transparency does a public...

  13. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2001-11-01

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  14. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  15. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  16. No 2943. Project of law relative to nuclear transparency and safety; N. 2943. Projet de loi relatif a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This project of law comprises 5 titles dealing with: 1 - general dispositions: definition and scope of nuclear safety, security, radiation protection, operators liability, facilities in concern; 2 - the high nuclear safety authority: role and duties; 3 - public information in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection: information right of the public, local information commissions, high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information; 4 - basic nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive materials: applicable rules, police controls and measures, penal dispositions (investigations, sanctions); 5 - miscellaneous dispositions: changes made with respect to previous legislative texts. (J.S.)

  17. Measurement of transparency ratios for protons from short-range correlated pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O.; Hakobyan, H.; Shneor, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Weinstein, L. B.; Brooks, W. K.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Gilad, S.; Korover, I.; Beck, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Arrington, J. R.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear transparency, Tp (A), is a measure of the average probability for a struck proton to escape the nucleus without significant re-interaction. Previously, nuclear transparencies were extracted for quasi-elastic A (e ,e‧ p) knockout of protons with momentum below the Fermi momentum, where the spectral functions are well known. In this Letter we extract a novel observable, the transparency ratio, Tp (A) /Tp(12 C), for knockout of high-missing-momentum protons from the breakup of short-range correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in Al, Fe and Pb nuclei relative to C. The ratios were measured at momentum transfer Q2 ⩾ 1.5(GeV /c) 2 and xB ⩾ 1.2 where the reaction is expected to be dominated by electron scattering from 2N-SRC. The transparency ratios of the knocked-out protons coming from 2N-SRC breakup are 20-30% lower than those of previous results for low missing momentum. They agree with Glauber calculations and agree with renormalization of the previously published transparencies as proposed by recent theoretical investigations. The new transparencies scale as A - 1 / 3, which is consistent with dominance of scattering from nucleons at the nuclear surface.

  18. Digital Thickness Measurement of a Transparent Plastic Orthodontic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Hwan; Rhim, Sung-Han

    2018-05-01

    A transparent orthodontic device is used to move the teeth to the final calibration position to form a proper set of teeth. Because the uniform thickness of the device plays an important role in tooth positioning, the accuracy of the device's thickness profile is important for effective orthodontic treatment. However, due to the complexity of the device's geometry and the transparency of the device's material, measuring the complete thickness profile has been difficult. In the present study, a new optical scanning method to measure the thickness profile of transparent plastic orthodontic devices is proposed and evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The error of the new measurement method is less than ±18 μm. The new method can be used to measure the thickness of non-specific, multi-curved, transparent orthodontic devices.

  19. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map.

  20. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map

  1. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  2. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  3. Measuring and slowing decoherence in Electromagnetically induced transparency medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuker, M.; Firstenberg, O.; Sagi, Y.; Ben-Kish, A.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Davidson, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Electromagnetically induced transparency is a unique light-matter interaction that exhibits extremely narrow-band spectroscopic features along with low absorption. Recent interest in this phenomenon is driven by its possible applications in quantum information (slow light, storage of light), atomic clocks and precise magnetometers. The Electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon takes place when an atomic ensemble is driven to a coherent superposition of its ground state sub-levels by two phase-coherent radiation fields. A key parameter of the Electromagnetically induced transparency medium, that limits its applicability, is the coherence lifetime of this superposition (decoherence rate). We have developed a simple technique to measure decay rates within the ground state of an atomic ensemble, and specifically the decoherence rate of the Electromagnetically induced transparency coherent superposition. Detailed measurements were performed in a Rubidium vapor cell at 60 - 80 with 30 Torr of Neon buffer gas. We have found that the Electromagnetically induced transparency decoherence is dominated by spin-exchange collisions between Rubidium atoms. We discuss the sensitivity of various quantum states of the atomic ensemble to spin exchange decoherence, and find a set of quantum states that minimize this effect. Finally, we demonstrate a unique quantum state which is both insensitive to spin exchange decoherence and constitutes an Electromagnetically induced transparency state of the medium

  4. Transparency in nuclear warhead dismantlement -- Limited chain of custody and warhead signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiernan, G.; Percival, M.; Bratcher, L.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Safeguards, Transparency, and Irreversibility (STI) initiative is the development of a series of transparency measures that provide confidence that nuclear warheads are actually being dismantled and that the fissile material being removed from these dismantled weapons is not recycled into new production. A limited chain of custody (LCC) would follow a warhead from the time it is declared excess until it is actually dismantled and the fissile materials are stored. Measurement of warhead signatures is an option in LCC using radiation detection techniques to confirm that a warhead has been dismantled, without intrusive inspections within the dismantlement facility. This paper discusses LCC and warhead signatures as well as indicate first results of laboratory measurements related to warhead signatures

  5. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: Annual activity report (January 2010 - December 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the operation of the French 'High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety' (HCTISN), of its missions, its organisation and its means, the progress report presents the High Committee activity for 2010 with summaries of its report on the transparency of nuclear material and waste management, its meetings, its work groups, its visits and participations to other events

  6. Study of the Nuclear Transparency in $\\alpha$ + A Reactions at Energies $\\geq$ 12 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The question about transparency is crucial for heavy ion reaction studies. If the transparency is low at 10-15 GeV per nucleon then very large baryon densities can be achieved in this energy range, maybe enough to produce quark-gluon plasma in U+U collisions. We propose to measure, event by event, pseudo-rapidity and multiplicity distributions of singly charged relativistic particles (@b~$>$~0.7) globally and in selected regions of rapidity as well as multiplicities of recoiling protons (30-400~Me charged nuclear fragments. These studies will explore general features of @a+A reactions at energies @$>$~12~GeV/nucleon. The main goal of the experiment is to measure the transparency of nuclear matter in this energy range. The detector will be nuclear emulsion.

  7. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Annual activity report. June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document is the first activity report of the High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), created on June 18, 2008. The HCTISN is a French authority of information, dialogue and debate about the risks linked with nuclear activities and about their impacts on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. The committee has the ability to express his opinion and recommendations about any question on the above topics and to propose any measure aiming at warranting or improving the transparency in the nuclear domain. This activity report offers a synthetic overview of the actions already undertaken: the plutonium imports from UK, the contamination incident at the Socatri facility (a Areva-Eurodif daughter company located at the Tricastin site), and the dismantling strategy of basic nuclear facilities. It presents the composition, organization, missions and means of the Committee, the different working groups and the follow-up of the different recommendations emitted so far by the Committee. (J.S.)

  8. In-line measurement of transparent micro membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Jimmy; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a new measuring principle to bring down the time for quality assurance, and obtain larger uniformity of the end product, in a specific production line. The production concerns thin transparent micro membranes (approx 35 micron thickness) dispensed...... in micro cavities, each membrane consisting of several membrane layers. A quality control should be performed every time a new layer is dispensed. The paper describes a new way of measuring membrane thickness. The method was achieved through the use of a vision system, whereby the thickness of the thin...... transparent micro membrane is determined in terms of the light absorbance of the membrane substrate. The new and faster measuring method makes is possible to measure the thickness of individual membranes and perform a 100% quality control....

  9. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1992-08-01

    Data taking is now complete on a double beta decay experiment which has been carried out with collaborators from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the University of New Mexico, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and work is continuing on a second collaborative experiment, AGS experiment 850 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to study nuclear color transparency. In March, the experimental apparatus used to search for double beta decay in molybdenum 100 in the Consil silver mine in Osburn, Idaho was dismantled, and the data analysis is in its final stages. No evidence has been seen for the O + → O + mode of zero neutrino double beta decay collaborators with a 1σ lifetime limit of 3 x 10 22 years. This limit is 7.5 times greater than the limit we published previously in Physical Review Letters in 1989. Backgrounds have been simulated and fits are currently underway to a simulated O + → 2 + mode of zero neutrino double beta decay to improve on a very preliminary 1σ lifetime limit of 2.3 x 10 21 years presented at the April, 1992 meeting of the APS in Washington. A scintillating fiber detector with three Hamamatsu, H4140, 256 channel multianode phototubes has been built, instrumented, and tested in the May--July 1992 run in the EVA detector at Brookhaven Laboratory's AGS. Preliminary results from this detector have been disappointing. it is likely that the detector will have to be substantially redesigned before the 1993 AGS run

  10. Studies on Enhancing Nuclear Transparency in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is defined as ''a cooperative process of providing information to all interested parties so that they can independently assess the safety, security, and legitimate management of nuclear materials'' by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Since the Asia- Pacific region has a broad spectrum of nuclear development underway and planned in the future, nuclear transparency is recognized as essential to provide additional assurance and enhance confidence building in this area. It is expected that elevated nuclear transparency should also supplement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. With this recognition, JAEA has committed various studies and activities for enhancing regional nuclear transparency mainly with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. The efforts include concept study, development of secure data transmission technologies at the Experimental Fast Reactor ''Joyo'' for the use of regional nuclear transparency, and support for Council for Security and Cooperation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) to develop internet-based transparency tools. JAEA also organized several workshops to discuss with stakeholder organizations to build acceptance for transparency tools and activities. Based on the past studies, JAEA, jointly with SNL, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), initiated a new phase of study in 2011 to design and establish an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) which was defined as ''a communication platform on which nuclear nonproliferation experts can provide and/or receive relevant information in a practical and sustainable manner''. During the period of two-year study, partner organizations identified essential elements to establish ISF and developed the requirements. Currently, JAEA and KINAC are planning to implement demonstration of ISF under Asia Pacific

  11. Report on transparency and nuclear safety. Saclay 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the Saclay site, this report indicates the measures implemented regarding nuclear safety in the different Saclay basic nuclear installations, in terms of organization, general technical aspects, technical aspects associated with the different risks, emergency situation management, inspections, audits, and controls. It indicates the organisation of radiation protection, reports important events which occurred in 2010, and comments dose measurements performed on the different personnel (belonging to the CEA or out-sourced personnel). It reports and comments significant events about nuclear safety and radiation protection, and which occurred in the different installations. It reports and comments results of release measurements and of the impact of the centre on the environment (gas and liquid releases and their impacts on the environment, impacts due to radionuclide gas releases, gas and liquid radiological impact, chemical impact of gas and liquid releases, environment monitoring). It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the Saclay nuclear installations (measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably soils and waters, nature and quantities of stored wastes)

  12. Report on transparency and nuclear safety. Saclay 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the Saclay site, this report indicates the measures implemented regarding nuclear safety in the different Saclay basic nuclear installations, in terms of organization, general technical aspects, technical aspects associated with the different risks, emergency situation management, inspections, audits, and controls. It indicates the organisation of radiation protection, reports important events which occurred in 2009, and comments dose measurements performed on different personnel (belonging to the CEA or out-sourced). It reports and comments significant events about nuclear safety and radiation protection, and which occurred in the different installations. It reports and comments results of release measurements and of the impact of the centre on the environment (gas and liquid releases and their impacts on the environment, impacts due to radionuclide gas releases, gas and liquid radiological impact, chemical impact of gas and liquid releases, environment monitoring). It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the Saclay nuclear installations (measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably soils and waters, nature and quantities of stored wastes)

  13. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures in the different nuclear base installations (INB) of this site (measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits). It describes measures related to radiation protection: organisation, dosimetry results. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid, gaseous and chemical releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive waste management (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, type and quantities of wastes stored in INBs). It presents the different measures and actions related to information transparency

  14. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  15. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Saclay CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection (organisation, personnel dosimetry) and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2011. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid and gaseous releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, types and quantities of wastes stored in INBs

  16. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Grenoble CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection organisation and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2011. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid and gaseous releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, types and quantities of wastes stored in INBs)

  17. A-dependence of nuclear transparency in quasielastic A(e,e'p) at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.G.; Lorenzon, W.; Arrington, J.

    1994-01-01

    The A-dependence of the quasielastic A(e,e'p) reaction has been studied with 3 H, C, Fe, and Au nuclei at momentum transfers Q 2 = 1, 3, 5, and 6.8(GeV/c) 2 . The authors extract the nuclear transparency T(A,Q 2 ), a measure of the average probability of escape of a proton from a nucleus A. Several calculations predict a significant increase in T with momentum transfer, a phenomenon known as color transparency. No statistically significant rise is seen for any of the nuclei studied

  18. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Thursday, June 16, 2011. Transparency in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    In a first session dedicated to modalities of transparency in the field of nuclear safety, members of the French Parliament hear and discuss the interventions of representatives of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), AREVA, EDF, the CEA, the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). The second session addresses the improvement of transparency and comprised interventions by representatives of the OECD and of local commissions of information (ANCCLI)

  19. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2014 - Cadarache CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Cadarache CEA centre, of its activities and installations, gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Then it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2014 and have been declared to the ASN. Next, it discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre, indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and on the environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  20. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Saclay - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Saclay CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, technical general arrangements, technical arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and dosimetry results, internal dosimetry). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  1. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Grenoble CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  2. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Saclay CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  3. Measurement Of The β-ν Correlation In 6He Using A Transparent Paul Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Darius, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Labalme, M.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Rodriguez, D.

    2006-01-01

    The angular correlation between the electron and the neutrino in nuclear β-decay constitutes a sensitive observable to search for the existence of exotic couplings in the weak interaction. In this contribution, we describe the progress of the LPCTrap experiment, devoted to measure the β-ν angular correlation in the pure Gamow-Teller (GT) decay of 6He using a transparent Paul trap. We present a first coincidence spectrum, obtained during the commissioning run, which is the first β-recoil coincidence measurement obtained from any ion trap

  4. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of national nuclear transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, Y. L.; Kim, K. K.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. D.

    2007-12-01

    This study suggested the framework and the action plan in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through extra- contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies

  5. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of national nuclear transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, Y. L.; Kim, K. K.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. D

    2007-12-15

    This study suggested the framework and the action plan in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through extra- contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies.

  6. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 - CISBIO; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 - CISBIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of CISBIO, nuclear base installation, for the year 2007. CISBIO realizes at Saclay most of the radiopharmaceuticals and drugs distributed in France for the nuclear medicine. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Experiments on exclusive proton and pion scattering for nuclear filtering and color transparency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    The color transparency of pions in various nuclei has been measured and compared with the proton transparency. The measurement results are consistent with semi-classical predictions that the pion transparency is larger than the proton transparency at the same incident momentum and their ratio becomes larger as the nucleus becomes heavier. The energy dependence of the transparency has been studied based on the semi-classical theory and the result shows that the transparency can be written into two factors. The physics interpretations of the two factors have been discussed. A new experimental apparatus, the Exclusive Variable Apparatus (EVA) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, along with unique electronic techniques chosen for enabling the EVA trigger system to fulfill physics requirements of the experiment, have been described

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  9. The TSN bill concerning transparency and safety in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, M.; Lahorgue, M.B.; Strohl, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers together 3 articles whose common purpose is to shed light on the 13. June 2006 French law on transparency and safety in the nuclear sector. This law is fundamental because it gave, for the first time, the legal definitions of basic concepts like nuclear safety, public information or transparency. It also gave a series of principles on which the right in nuclear activities, has to rely: the principle of precaution, the principle of prevention, the principle of remedial action, the principle of who pollutes has to pay, and the principle of public information. The law gives also a clear scheme of the roles and responsibilities in the nuclear sector: the state, the government, the nuclear safety authority, the nuclear facility operator and the land (on which the nuclear facility stands) owner. (A.C.)

  10. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-10-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparancy is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determing σ sub(R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  11. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparency is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determining σ(sub R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  12. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Cadarache CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A first volume proposes a presentation of the Cadarache CEA centre, of its activities and installations, gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. It also reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and have been declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre, indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and on the environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. The second volume concerns some specific installations (INB 32 or ATPu, and INB 54 or LPC) which belong to AREVA NC. The same topics are addressed: presentation of the facilities, arrangements regarding safety and radiation protection, significant events related to safety and radiation protection, measurements of effluents and their impact on the environment, warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  13. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Grenoble CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Grenoble CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, human and organizational factors, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of radiological and chemical gaseous and liquid effluents, of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, waste production and removal, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  14. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  15. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Saclay; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Saclay for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially two public consultation on release authorizations and the Neurospin installations, the dismantling of the 49 nuclear installation, the shutdown of the learning reactor ULYSSE are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  17. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Grenoble; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Grenoble for the year 2007. Since 2002 the Passage project aims to realize the decontamination and the dismantling of old nuclear installations of the CEA Grenoble. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the year 2007 saw two main steps of the Passage project: the decommissioning of the Siloette reactor, a public consultation about the Lama laboratory dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  18. Enhancement of Nuclear Transparency of Pyroprocessing through Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Park, S. W.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, D. H.; Hurh, J. M.; Kim, I. T.; Kim, H. D.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-09-01

    - Analysis of international spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies and future collaboration · Collection of recent technology information of US, Japan and Europe · Discuss on future collaboration with US · Collection of active test results of other countries and compare with domestic results - Establishment of network regarding nuclear spent fuel treatment technology thru IPRC - Information exchange through international conference (IPRC) - Discuss with experts on active test results

  19. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e,e'K+) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman; Dutta, D.; Arrington, J.; Fassi, L. El; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H. C.; Gaskell, D.; Jones, M. K.; Lung, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from A(e,e ' K + ) measurements on 12 C, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets. The measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory and span a range in four-momentum-transfer squared Q 2 =1.1-3.0 GeV 2 . The nuclear transparency was defined as the ratio of measured kaon electroproduction cross sections with respect to deuterium (σ A /σ D ). We further extracted the atomic number (A) dependence of the transparency as parametrized by T=(A/2) α-1 and, within a simple model assumption, the in-medium effective kaon-nucleon cross sections. The effective cross sections extracted from the electroproduction data were found to be smaller than the free cross sections determined from kaon-nucleon scattering experiments, and the parameter α was found to be significantly larger than those obtained from kaon-nucleus scattering. We have included similar comparisons between pion- and proton-nucleon effective cross sections as determined from electron-scattering experiments and pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus scattering data.

  20. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  1. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. March 17, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 9 main topics: 1 - presentation by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) of a dismantling strategy for nuclear facilities, in particular taking into account a final state for the site and the information of populations; 2 - status of the next campaign of iodine tablets distribution; 3 - the management of ancient uranium mines and in particular the long-term environmental and health impact of mine tailings; 4 - the implementation of the high committee's recommendations; 5 - work progress of the working group on information transparency; 6 - Areva's invitation of the working group on information transparency to assist to the organisation of a Mox fuel convoy between Cherbourg and Japan; 7 - progress of the working group on the elaboration of a 'communication scale' comparable to the INES scale; 8 - presentation of the meetings organized by the ANCLI (French national association of local information commissions) about the implementation of the Aarhus convention; 9 - presentation by the IRSN (Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety) of its communication approach towards the public. (J.S.)

  2. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, defence in-depth, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings, issues related to transports, soil radiological assessment) and measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of radiological and chemical gaseous and liquid effluents, of surveys of the environment. It also evokes important events related to these measurement and survey processes, presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes: arrangements aimed at limiting the volume of warehoused wastes, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. The different arrangements regarding transparency and information are reviewed (TSN report, newsletter, and so on)

  3. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Saclay for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially two public consultation on release authorizations and the Neurospin installations, the dismantling of the 49 nuclear installation, the shutdown of the learning reactor ULYSSE are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Establishment of the International Nuclear Education/Training and its Cooperation Framework for Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.

    2009-02-01

    This project covered development and implementation of international nuclear education/training programs, cooperation for nuclear human resource development and education/training. provision of MS and PhD courses for qualified students from developing countries, and strengthening of infrastructure for the nuclear education/training. The WNU one week summer course was held for domestic future generation in nuclear field. NTC operated the ANENT web portal and cyber platform, supported training on their use, and prepared a KAERI-IAEA Practical Arrangement for the promotion of web-base nuclear education/training. For FNCA, an analysis was conducted on the need of nuclear education/training in South East Asian countries. The bilateral cooperation included cooperation with Vietnam. provision of Korean experience for nuclear power personnel from Egypt, and commencing of cooperation with South Africa. Also, NTC participated in GENEP for sharing Korean experience in the nuclear human resource development project. KAERI-UST MA and PhD courses with 3 foreign students started in spring 2008 and implemented. The courses were advance nuclear reactor system engineering, accelerator and nano-beam engineering, and radiation measurement science. 13 international nuclear education/training courses (IAEA, KOICA, RCARO and bilateral) were implemented for 226 foreign trainees. A reference education/training program was developed, which consisted of 15 courses that can be customized to learner levels and project stages of countries in question (e.g. Middle East. Africa). A textbook entitled 'Research Reactor Design, Management and Utilization' was developed presenting Korean experience with research reactors

  5. Budgetary Structure as a Determinant in Measuring Fiscal Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Furtado Mota

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available National and International research studies often relate fiscal transparency to political, socio-economic and fiscal variables. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze how budget execution (revenues and expenses influence active fiscal transparency in municipalities in the state of Paraiba. Thus, Focco-PB (Forum on Fighting Corruption Paraíba reports were analyzed, with a view to identifying the  Active Fiscal Transparency Index in Paraíba’s municipalities in relation to this study’s dependent variable. Subsequently, independent variables were collected (intergovernmental transfer revenue, individual per capita revenue, spending on human resources, education and health in the TCE / PB database. Initially, a Pearson correlation test was performed and later an analysis of panel data  with a fixed effect. Furthermore, descriptive analyses of the dependent variables in relation to data for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 were conducted. The results suggest that Income from Transfers and Health Expenditure  reflected a negative relation with respect to the Active Fiscal Transparency Index whilst (ITFA Individual Income Per Capita and Spending on Human Resources indicate a positive relation.   As proposed in this study, it can be concluded that most of the variables studied and which make up budgetary structure impact on the Active Fiscal Transparency Index in Paraíba’s municipalities.

  6. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  7. Measurements of β - ν angular correlations using a transparent Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, G.; Delahaye, P.; Le Brun, Ch.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Szerypo, J.; Tamain, B.

    1999-06-01

    The potentiality to search for physics beyond the Standard Model by means of precision measurements of β - ν angular correlations in nuclear β-decay is discussed. The possibility to reveal unexpected time reversal invariant tensor type contributions is investigated and the pure Gamow-Teller decay of 6 He is considered as a possible candidate. A new experimental method is proposed which is based on the use of a transparent Paul trap surrounded by detectors to directly record β-ion coincidences in an event-by-event mode. The experiment requires intense beams of radioactive nuclei like those which will become available at the Low Energy Facility near SPIRAL at GANIL. Such beams should preferably be efficiently cooled and bunched prior to their injection into the Paul trap. Estimates of the transmission figure required for the cooling and bunching system and of the measuring time to achieve a first step are presented. (author)

  8. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of April 29, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The committee members first discuss the report project concerning the State minister's and OPECST (parliamentary office of scientific and technological choices) chairman's submission regarding the transparency of the nuclear fuel cycle. They discuss the project of a portal web site gathering information on French nuclear power plant operations. They comment the 2009 ASN assessment on medical nuclear activities, the implementation of the Cancer Plan (presentation by the minister of public health, statements by the French nuclear safety authority or ASN, the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety or IRSN, and by associations of patients). They discuss the presentation by the ASN of a return on experience after the ATPu event and the presentation by the IRSN of technical form on the criticality risk. Other topics are addressed: extensions of storage sites under construction in La Hague, modification of the Grenelle II bill to improve public consultation in some procedures regarding base nuclear installations

  9. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    The pre-study report proposes that KASAM (Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, an independent committee attached to the Swedish Ministry of Environment) uses the RISCOM Model to support the transparency programme. Recurrent elements in the programme would then be: A clear description of background for the issue being addressed; Knowledge building activities; A hearing where the KASAM committee members and staff stretch the stakeholders. The transparency programme can combine the RISCOM Model with other approaches to citizen participation at occasions when this is deemed suitable. For example, focus groups, other forms of working groups and consensus conferences could be organized and linked to a 'RISCOM hearing'. Therefore, the pre-study report contains an overview section about methods for public participation. At this stage of the Swedish programme for nuclear waste management it is believed that KASAM can provide an arena for transparency which other stakeholders can trust not having hidden agendas or vested interested in the results. During the pre-study a number of stakeholders were approached to give their views about the format and contents of the transparency programme. The consultations showed great expectations on the programme and a large number of issues were raised that could be included in transparency creating activities. A typical activity will be relatively resource demanding, especially with respect to the time available for key stakeholders. Therefore, issues to be addressed must be critically prioritised. The pre-study report contains nine issues proposed for special efforts by KASAM: Deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal; Citizen participation and democracy; The roles of responsible authorities; Decommissioning of nuclear reactors; Site selection - on what basis?; Socioeconomic issues; Local environmental issues and regional environmental goals; Long term storage of spent nuclear fuel; Critical assumptions

  10. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. December 18, 2008 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 6 main topics: 1 - a presentation of nuclear medicine by Prof. Devaux, of its domains of application and the respect of radiation protection rules; 2 - the launching of a working group on the transparency/secrecy problem with nuclear activities; 3 - the elaboration of an environmental radioactivity index by the nuclear safety authority (ASN); 4 - the order addressed to the Cruas nuclear facility for the lack of standardized marking and maintenance of pipes used for the transport of explosive fluids; 5 - the consequences of the blocking of 2 fuel assemblies (out of 157) in the Tricastin reactor core; 6 - the flood at the Tricastin site, its origin and consequences. (J.S.)

  11. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  12. Effect of NN correlations on predictions of nuclear transparencies for protons, knocked out in high Q2 (e,e'p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.; Taragin, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    We study the transparency T of nuclei for nucleons knocked out in high-energy semi-inclusive (e,e'p) reactions, using an improved theoretical input, discussed by Nikolaev et al. We establish that neglect of NN correlations between the knocked-out and core nucleons reduces nuclear transparencies by ∼15 % for light, to ∼10% for heavy nuclei. About the same is predicted for transparencies, integrated over the transverse or longitudinal momentum of the outgoing proton. Hadron dynamics predicts a roughly constant T beyond Q 2 ∼2 GeV 2 , whereas for all targets the largest measured data point Q 2 =6.7 GeV 2 appears to lie above that plateau. Large error bars on those data points preclude a conclusion regarding the onset of colour transparency. (orig.)

  13. Topics in nuclear chromodynamics: Color transparency and hadronization in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    The nucleus plays two complimentary roles in quantum chromodynamics: (1) A nuclear target can be used as a control medium or background field to modify or probe quark and gluon subprocesses. Some novel examples are color transparency, the predicted transparency of the nucleus to hadrons participating in high momentum transfer exclusive reactions, and formation zone phenomena, the absence of hard, collinear, target-induced radiation by a quark or gluon interacting in a high momentum transfer inclusive reaction if its energy is large compared to a scale proportional to the length of the target. (Soft radiation and elastic initial state interactions in the nucleus still occur.) Coalescence with co-moving spectators is discussed as a mechanism which can lead to increased open charm hadroproduction, but which also suppresses forward charmonium production (relative to lepton pairs) in heavy ion collisions. Also discussed are some novel features of nuclear diffractive amplitudes--high energy hadronic or electromagnetic reactions which leave the entire nucleus intact and give nonadditive contributions to the nuclear structure function at low /kappa cur//sub Bj/. (2) Conversely, the nucleus can be studied as a QCD structure. At short distances, nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions necessarily involve hidden color, degrees of freedom orthogonal to the channels described by the usual nucleon or isobar degrees of freedom. At asymptotic momentum transfer, the deuteron form factor and distribution amplitude are rigorously calculable. One can also derive new types of testable scaling laws for exclusive nuclear amplitudes in terms of the reduced amplitude formalism

  14. Prospects for regional cooperation. Regional cooperation in remote monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have cooperated for a decade in development and testing of remote monitoring technologies in support of international safeguards. With this technology approaching maturity, the JAEA/SNL partnership now envisions regional cooperation to use these technologies to advance nuclear transparency and strengthen nonproliferation, as well. This presentation summarizes the technical evolution and notes the opportunity for regional cooperation to include institutions in the ROK, as well as Japan and the US. (author)

  15. HCTISN - High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety - Annual activity report - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This activity report first describes the Committee operation (missions, composition, organization and operation rules, and means). Then, it reports the Committee's activity during 2011: works related to the Fukushima accident, report and recommendations on transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector, report and recommendations on the search for a storage site for long life and low activity wastes, meetings and work-groups, and visits

  16. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework

  17. Committee for nuclear safety information and transparency. Activity annual report, June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the composition, organisation, missions and means of this institution, this report presents the main domain of activity (the transport of plutonium, the SOCATRI incident and submission to the State minister, the nuclear installation dismantling strategy), and the three working groups (transparency and secrets, Internet portal, environment radioactivity index). It reports the taking into account of recommendations previously expressed by the committee (about import and transport of plutonium between Great-Britain and France, about information of population and patients on radiological and nuclear medicine events)

  18. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James E.; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials conversion

  19. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Karita Research AB, Taeby (Sweden)), E-Mail: kjell.andersson@karita.se

    2009-12-15

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  20. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  1. Suggested Guidelines for Transparency and Participation in Nuclear Waste Management Programmes. Deliverable 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The ARGONA project intended to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. Thereby, studies have been done of the institutional and cultural context within which processes of participation and transparency take place in order to understand how the processes can be applied. The project also included studies of theory in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground, a number of case studies in Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden and UK, as well as implementation in Czech Republic to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. These proposed guidelines are thus the result of observations and conclusions made in these efforts, and should not be regarded as an attempt to give a comprehensive set of guidelines for nuclear waste management or even for the implementation of transparency and participation therein. However, it is the hope among the ARGONA participants that they can give relevant thoughts and stimulation to those involved in the nuclear waste management area, especially organizations that have, or may become, responsible for the implementation of processes of transparency and participation, such as implementing organizations, government agencies, regulators as well as regional and local communities. It should be recognized that some of the proposed guidelines may be more relevant for a certain type of bodies (such as an implementer) than for another type (such as local community) and vice versa. Some of the proposed guidelines are also relevant at broader societal level and for the European Union bodies. It will be up to the respective reader to judge the relevance for her or his organization. The suggested guidelines are followed by more detailed recommendations on how to combine the two basic forms of mediation that have been identified in ARGONA, namely mediation by demonstration and mediation by dialogue in Annex 1

  2. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties

  3. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  4. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. July 1, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 5 main points: 1 - radioactive waste management: status and steps of the June 28, 2006 law, ANDRA's projects of deep geologic disposal for long living/high-medium activity wastes and of low depth disposal for long living/low activity wastes, French nuclear safety authority (ASN) opinion about the sites choice, implementation of article 10 of the June 28, 2006 law relative to public information; 2 - progress of the working groups' works on transparency and secrecy, on the development of a communication scale, and on the creation of an Internet portal for the radio-ecological follow-up of nuclear sites; 3 - comments of the ASN's report on the nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2008; 4 - procedure of management of the radio-physicists shortage in order to warrant the patients' safety and information; 5 - miscellaneous points: project of European directive on nuclear safety, organisation of a visit day onboard of a ship for nuclear materials transportation, comments about the by-law from May 5, 2009, relative to the exemption to informing consumers about the addition of radionuclides to consumption and construction products. (J.S.)

  5. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. October 8, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 3 main points: 1 - the progress of the different working groups work: elaboration of a communication scale, comparable to the INES scale, for the evaluation of environmental radioactivity, the realisation of a web site for the HCTISN, the question of transparency and secrecy around the maritime transportation of radioactive materials after the visit by the High Committee of two ships from the British INS company; 2 - the management of radioactive wastes with the concept of storage reversibility: political, technical and decisional aspects, position of the National Evaluation Committee for the researches and studies relative to radioactive materials and wastes management (CNE), position of the ANCLI (French national association of local information commissions), debate; 3 - the shortage of radio-physicists in France and the information of populations and patients (declaration of incidents). Some miscellaneous points are reported as well: the first draft of the first annual report of the HCTISN, development of a societal approach for the research programs of the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), validation of a collaboration proposal with the ANCLI. (J.S.)

  6. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - 2015. Nuclear facilities exploited by CEA Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiberteau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the different basic nuclear installations (INB) of the Marcoule CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which were declared to the nuclear safety authority (ASN), and discusses how experience feedback has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the health, safety and work conditions committee (CHSCT) are given

  7. Measurement of color transparency by C(p,2p) reactions at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    The subject of color transparency, the enhancement of the ability of hadrons to penetrate nuclear matter by kinematic selection, is both interesting and controversial. The description of the collision of hadrons with nucleons inside nuclei, and the connection with initial and final state interactions involve fundamental questions of quantum mechanics, and nuclear and particle physics. Interest in color transparency was greatly increased by AGS Experiment 834 which observed dramatic changes with incident momentum for a variety of nuclei. A new experiment, E850, has studied the (p,2p) quasi-elastic reaction near 90 degree cm for momenta between 5.9 and 9 GeV/c. The quasi-elastic reaction was compared to the elastic reaction on free protons to determine the transparency. With limited statistics, but with better kinematic definition in a new detector, the authors have confirmed the rise in Carbon transparency ratio seen in Expt 834. The Tr(D/H) for deuterium is consistent with no energy dependence. Unlike the free dσ/dt for hydrogen, the dσ/dt from protons in a nucleus is consistent with the exact s -10 scaling. This suggests two components to the pp scattering amplitude; one small and perturbative, the other spatially large and varying, but filtered away by the nuclear matter in the Carbon nucleus. The plan is to complete the repairs of the superconducting solenoid early this fall, reassemble the detector, and collect data starting next spring

  8. Can the acceptance of nuclear reactors be raised by a simpler, more transparent safety concept employing improved containments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sociological and psychological findings are presented which describe problems society faces with risky technologies. It turns out that for a small but influential group of the society not only the risk, but also the transparency of the technology and the engineered safeguards are important. For this group an improvement of the transparency should raise the acceptance of the technology. However, for the majority of the public, broad discussions about a different more transparent safety concept could generate a feeling of insecurity, especially concerning existing nuclear power plants. In order to improve the transparency in engineered safeguards of nuclear reactors, four basic principles are introduced. Nuclear containments, which remain intact after failure of all emergency cooling systems resulting in a core meltdown accident with steam and hydrogen explosions, are in line with these principles. Such containments are under investigation in Germany right now. It is pointed out that the public should be informed prudently about this work to improve the containments, and the required transparency of the engineered safeguards should be underlined as a major goal. Vague descriptions, providing only superficially information about safer reactors, could easily cause misunderstandings. If one goes along this line a simpler and more transparent safety concept employing improved containments will have the potential to raise the acceptance of nuclear reactors. (orig.)

  9. Actions of the French Nuclear Safety Authority in response to the growth in public demand for environmental transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clipet, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Transparency and Security Act 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 (TSN Act) reinforces the integrated approach to nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental concerns. The TSN Act guarantees 'the public's right to reliable and accessible information on nuclear security' (Article 1). ASN fosters the implementation of this information right. Concerning the environment, it ensures that the available information is accessible and shared. This concern applies first to its own information media and actions, but also to the stakeholders. ASN makes sure that the licensees fulfill the transparency duty required by the TSN Act and is watchful concerning the effectiveness of means implemented for the public access to information. ASN also promotes good practices in its annual report for the public information. With regard to the environment, ASN actions are primarily focused on limiting and supervising the effluents discharges resulting from nuclear activities; monitoring radioactivity in the environment; and preventing and managing emergency situations. One of the recent significant contributions to providing the public with reliable, centralized information is the launch of www.mesure-radioactivite.fr. This web-site issued by the national network under the aegis of ASN, gives the public access to the results of radioactivity measurements carried out by certified laboratories. ASN seeks to involve the public in projects with an important impact on the environment. It considers the Local Information Committees (CLI) as an important contributor to the 'ecological democracy' and invites periodically their representatives to take part in ASN inspections. ASN also encourages public debates. Besides, this is one of the axis of its strategic plan 2010-2012. (author)

  10. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. November 20, 2009 meeting of the High Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment, and, depending on the events, some extraordinary meetings. This document is the proceedings of an extraordinary meeting about the information and transparency in relation with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at all stages of the fuel cycle. The reason of this meeting is a request from the French Minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea (MEEDDM) after the broadcast of a TV documentary entitled 'wastes: the nuclear industry nightmare' and the publication of a press article affirming that 'our nuclear wastes are hidden in Siberia'. The Minister expressed his wish to have the question of the international trade of nuclear materials examined by the HCTISN. The document is organized as follows: a first part presents the hearings of the general direction of energy and climate (DGEC), of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of EdF, of Areva, of the CEA, of the senior official for the defense and security of the MEEDDM, of Rosatom company and of Greenpeace organisation. A second part examines the incident which took place in October 2009 at the plutonium technology workshop (ATPu) of Cadarache, where about 22 to 39 kg of plutonium powder were discovered in the gloveboxes of this facility, decommissioned in 2005 and undergoing dismantlement today. This part presents the hearings of the CEA, of AREVA, of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the ASN, of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Areva and CEA, and of the local information commission (CLI) of Cadarache, in relation with

  11. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - 2013. Nuclear facilities exploited by CEA Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the different basic nuclear installations (INB) of the Marcoule CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2013 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  12. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  13. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  14. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina; Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  15. JAEA's efforts for regional transparency in the area of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffheins, Barbara; Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko

    2014-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has undertaken a joint R and D project with the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) for the purposes of developing an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) for regional nonproliferation cooperation since July 2011. This project builds on nearly twenty years of technical cooperation between JAEA, its predecessor organizations and the DOE including the activities to define, develop and test transparency technologies and other multilateral efforts. The objective of current project is to design a viable information sharing process to support the goals of building confidence in the peaceful nature of regional nuclear programs. At the end of a two-year-effort, project partners, JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), have defined the comprehensive requirements for an ISF that will ensure nonproliferation transparency success and sustainability. In October 2011, a parallel project with the similar title and objective was launched under the arrangement between the US DOE/NNSA and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Since then, JAEA, SNL, the Korea Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) have jointly carried out the project in a form of informal, multilateral cooperation. The project partners have identified needs and audience for ISF, and initiated the discussion to develop requirements for ISF through workshops, meetings, regular telephone conferences, etc. The activities include conducting a survey to identify stakeholders' needs and requirements for an ISF, launching a website to practice information sharing concepts, and presenting papers. This paper provides the historical context of the current project to establish ISF, and reports the progress to date and speculates on future directions. (author)

  16. Height measurement of transparent objects by adopting differential interference contrast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sheng-Kang; Liu, Ting-Kun; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the differential interference contrast (DIC) approach originally used for image enhancement to increase the contrast between a transparent object and the background is adopted for the dimension measurement of transparent structures. With the phase difference image retrieved using the DIC technique, the phase map of the examined object can be approximated by integrating the phase difference. The need of integration accuracy is much higher for measurement than for image enhancement. In this study, a modified Fourier phase integration is proposed to reduce the effects of noise on surface profile reconstruction. The simulation results show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the effects of noise. Experimental results are also conducted to study the feasibility of using the transmitted DIC with the proposed integration method for transparent object measurement. The results show that the height of a transparent structure measured using the DIC method is quite close to those measured using an atomic force microscope, while those measured using the white-light interference method result in a much larger measurement than all others.

  17. Water transparency measurements in the deep Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Anassontzis, E G; Belias, A; Fotiou, A; Grammatikakis, G; Kontogiannis, H; Koske, P; Koutsoukos, S; Lykoussis, V; Markopoulos, E; Psallidas, A; Resvanis, L K; Siotis, I; Stavrakakis, S; Stavropoulos, G; Zhukov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A long optical base line spectrophotometer designed to measure light transmission in deep sea waters is described. The variable optical path length allows measurements without the need for absolute or external calibration. The spectrophotometer uses eight groups of uncollimated light sources emitting in the range 370–530 nm and was deployed at various depths at two locations in the Ionian Sea that are candidate sites for a future underwater neutrino telescope. Light transmission spectra at the two locations are presented and compared.

  18. Transparent Higher Order Sliding Mode Control for Nonlinear Master-Slave Systems without Velocity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Valdovinos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparency has been a major objective in bilateral teleoperation systems, even in the absence of time delay induced by the communication channel, since a high degree of transparency would allow humans to drive the remote teleoperator as if he or she were directly interacting with the remote environment, with the remote teleoperator as a physical and sensorial extension of the operator. When fast convergence of position and force tracking errors are ensured by the control system, then complete transparency is obtained, which would ideally guarantee humans to be tightly kinaesthetically coupled. In this paper a model-free Cartesian second order sliding mode (SOSM PD control scheme for nonlinear master-slave systems is presented. The proposed scheme does not rely on velocity measurements and attains very fast convergence of position trajectories, with bounded tracking of force trajectories, rendering a high degree of transparency with lesser knowledge of the system. The degree of transparency can easily be improved by tuning a feedback gain in the force loop. A unique energy storage function is introduced; such that a similar Cartesian-based controller is implemented in the master and slave sides. The resulting properties of the Cartesian control structure allows the human operator to input directly Cartesian variables, which makes clearer the kinaesthetic coupling, thus the proposed controller becomes a suitable candidate for practical implementation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in a semi-experimental setup.

  19. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  20. 2007 transparency and nuclear safety report. CEA Cadarache. Volumes 1 + 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Cadarache site and of its nuclear installations, the first volume of this report describes the various measures concerning the site safety: safety organisation, general measures, measures related to various risks, control of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second level control, measures in basic nuclear installations. It describes the measures concerning the radioprotection on this site: organisation, significant facts, and dose measurement results. It describes significant events which occurred in relationship with nuclear safety and radioprotection, presents results of release measurements and of radiological and chemical assessments of the impact these releases on the environment. The report then describes measures implemented to limit the volume of stored radioactive wastes and also their impact on health and on the environment. It provides a series of tables indicating the nature and quantities of wastes which are stored in the different basic nuclear installations of Cadarache. It reports the recommendations expressed by the CHSCT (committee on hygiene, security and working conditions) after the 2006 report. The second volume proposes the same information for two specific nuclear installations belonging to Areva and located in Cadarache, the INB 32 and 54 (INB stands for basic nuclear installation), for which the significant events occurred on the 13. of March and on the 25. of May 2007. For these installations, release measurements concern gaseous and liquid releases

  1. Real-time environmental monitoring at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center. Using the internet to promote safety and environmental transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomatsu, Sheila; Nakashima Inoue, Naoko

    2000-12-01

    The report documents the results of an effort at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center (JNC/OEC) to provide via the Internet, in real-time, environmental monitoring data to promote safety and environmental transparency. Provided in Japanese as well as in English, the Internet site provides assurance that OEC nuclear operations are being conducted in a manner that is safe to both people in the surrounding area and the environment. This work conducted by Environmental Monitoring Team of the OEC Safety Administration Section fulfilled the assignment to release data real-time via the Internet tasked by the Information Disclosure Section of the JNC Headquarters Public Relations Division. The work conducted by the visiting exchange scientist fulfilled the experimental portion of Action Sheet 34 of the Agreement between JNC and DOE for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation. In Japan, the project for Action Sheet 34 Personnel Exchange on Remote Monitoring and Transparency' entailed both a study and an experiment on how remote monitoring technologies can be used to promote nonproliferation, environmental and safety transparency. Environmental airborne radionuclide monitoring falls under the definition of remote monitoring technology more broadly defined as 'remotely accessed unattended monitoring system technology'. (author)

  2. 2009 transparency and nuclear safety report. CEA Cadarache. Volumes 1 + 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Cadarache site and of its nuclear installations, the first volume of this report describes the various measures concerning the site safety (safety organisation, general measures, measures related to various risks, inspections, control of emergency situations, audits and second level control, measures in basic nuclear installations) and radioprotection (organisation, significant facts, dosimeter results). It describes significant events which occurred in relationship with nuclear safety and radioprotection, presents results of measurements of releases and of their impact on the environment (chemical and radiological assessment). Then after a description of measures to limit the volume of stored radioactive wastes and their impact on health and on the environment, tables indicate the nature and quantities of wastes which are stored in the different basic nuclear installations of Cadarache. The second volume proposes the same information for two specific nuclear installations belonging to Areva and located in Cadarache, the INB 32 and 54 (INB stands for basic nuclear installation) for which a significant event occurred on the 6 October 2009. For these installations, release measurements concern gaseous and liquid releases

  3. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  4. 1982 annual status report. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Measurement programme is briefly presented in this status report, it is divided in two main projects, Nuclear Data on the one hand (neutron data, non neutron nuclear data) and Nuclear Reference Materials and Techniques on the other (nuclear reference materials, samples and targets for nuclear measurements, development of reference techniques, study for the production of enriched actinide isotopes)

  5. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  6. Transparent Inflatable Column Film Dome for Nuclear Stations, Stadiums, and Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of previous articles, one of the authors published designs of the AB Dome which can cover a city, important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure. The AB Dome keeps the outside atmospheric conditions from the interior protecting a city from chemical, bacterial, and radioactive weapons (wastes. The design in this article differs from previous one as this design employs an inflatable columns which does not need an additional pressure (overpressure inside the dome and is cheaper in construction (no powered air pumping station and in operation (no special entrance airlock and permanent pumping expense. When dome is supported by columns, no overpressure is required inside the dome which is important when the dome covers a damaged nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor may produce radioactive gases and dust, and, as inflatable domes are not typically hermetically sealed, the increased pressure inside the dome can leak out gas and dust into the atmosphere. The suggested design does not have this drawback. Positive pressure gradients expel dust particles—neutral pressure gradients will not. (Negative pressure gradients may even be possible in certain configurations.

  7. A portable device for measuring donor corneal transparency in eye banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Mohit; Ferrari, Stefano; Ruzza, Alessandro; Pugliese, Mariarosaria; Ponzin, Diego; Salvalaio, Gianni

    2014-03-01

    To develop a portable device for measuring the donor corneal transparency and validate its efficacy for corneal evaluation in the eye-banks and for research. The transparency device (TD) has a light source, a detachable system for corneal insertion and a base for light transmission. The probe detects the transmitted light which is measured by a lux-meter. A contact lens was set as 'control' to reduce the light scattering concern, an empty petri-plate as 'blank' and the cornea as 'sample'. Two experts and non-experts (masked) observed the corneas for subjective analysis which was then compared using the TD. The parameters observed were scars, foreign-body, stromal-deformities, folds, thickness and opacity which were then converted to a relative overall percentage by the observer. Twenty corneas were evaluated for correlation, five tissues to obtain standard-deviation and twenty-four pairs for a comparative study. Experts mimicked the eye-banks with long-term experience while non-experts mimicked the emerging eye-banks. Subjective values by the experts closely resembled the measurements by TD. The average correlation between the experts and the non-experts to TD was 0.985 and 0.960 respectively. TD showed higher reproducibility than experts followed by the non-experts. The comparative study showed that increase in thickness reduces the transparency. TD is portable, easy, efficient, maintains sterility and less expensive hence the emerging eye-banks and researchers can use to raise their standards and evaluate the transparency for in vitro tests and comparative studies. The suitable transparency for the cornea deemed for clinical applications was found to be >75 %.

  8. A Cost-Effective Transparency-Based Digital Imaging for Efficient and Accurate Wound Area Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Nan; Li, Hong; Wu, Mo-Li; Wang, Shou-Yu; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Lv, De-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Wound measurement is an objective and direct way to trace the course of wound healing and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, the accuracy and efficiency of the current measurement methods need to be improved. Taking the advantages of reliability of transparency tracing and the accuracy of computer-aided digital imaging, a transparency-based digital imaging approach is established, by which data from 340 wound tracing were collected from 6 experimental groups (8 rats/group) at 8 experimental time points (Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 and 16) and orderly archived onto a transparency model sheet. This sheet was scanned and its image was saved in JPG form. Since a set of standard area units from 1 mm2 to 1 cm2 was integrated into the sheet, the tracing areas in JPG image were measured directly, using the “Magnetic lasso tool” in Adobe Photoshop program. The pixel values/PVs of individual outlined regions were obtained and recorded in an average speed of 27 second/region. All PV data were saved in an excel form and their corresponding areas were calculated simultaneously by the formula of Y (PV of the outlined region)/X (PV of standard area unit) × Z (area of standard unit). It took a researcher less than 3 hours to finish area calculation of 340 regions. In contrast, over 3 hours were expended by three skillful researchers to accomplish the above work with traditional transparency-based method. Moreover, unlike the results obtained traditionally, little variation was found among the data calculated by different persons and the standard area units in different sizes and shapes. Given its accurate, reproductive and efficient properties, this transparency-based digital imaging approach would be of significant values in basic wound healing research and clinical practice. PMID:22666449

  9. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of nuclear research and development transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. D.; Song, K. S.

    2008-12-01

    To devote efforts to international nuclear technology cooperation, the research team of this study surveyed the IAEA activities to find ones suitable for extra-contributions by Korea. Based on the survey, the team made inputs to the IAEA MSSP (Member State Support Program). After consultation with the IAEA secretariat, it was decided to hold a technical meeting for the Asia Pacific region in Korea during 2009. The Korean government contributed 93,000 dollars to the IAEA for this purpose. Also a workshop on the safeguards for a pyroprocessing was held in Korea during 2008. The financial contribution to the IAEA technical meeting is one of the efforts from Korea to increase its understanding on the transparency in domestic nuclear activities. The contribution to the workshop on the safeguards of a pyroprocessing is expected to be a seed for implementing a future domestic nuclear R and D plan. Also such a contribution will enhance its transparency in developing domestic nuclear fuel cycle technology. Further efforts are necessary to lead to safeguards technology development by contributing to future MSSPs on advanced fuel cycle facilities. It is recommended to continue these financial contributions including in-kind contributions to the IAEA by elaborating the accumulated experiences on nuclear transparency

  10. Transparency and nuclear safety. Report 2009. INBs of the Marcoule Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Marcoule Centre (missions, dismantling works, activities, Basic Nuclear Installations or INBs for 'installations nucleaires de base'), this report describes the various measures regarding security and radioprotection applied at Marcoule. It reports significant events which occurred in 2009 as far as nuclear security and radioprotection are concerned. It presents results of measurements of liquid and gaseous dismissals and of their impact on the environment. It indicates measures implemented for environmental control and management, and also to limit the volume and impacts on health and environment of radioactive wastes stored in the Centre installations

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Transparent Flexible Active Faraday Cage Enables In Vivo Capacitance Measurement in Assembled Microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Sezen, Serdar

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive micro-sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and pressure sensors are increasingly used in the modern electronic world. However, the in vivo use of capacitive sensing for measurement of pressure or other variables inside a human body suffers from significant errors due to stray capacitance. This paper proposes a solution consisting of a transparent thin flexible Faraday cage that surrounds the sensor. By supplying the active sensing voltage simultaneously to the deformable electrode of the capacitive sensor and to the Faraday cage, the stray capacitance during in vivo measurements can be largely eliminated. Due to the transparency of the Faraday cage, the top and bottom portions of a capacitive sensor can be accurately aligned and assembled together. Experimental results presented in the paper show that stray capacitance is reduced by a factor of 10 by the Faraday cage, when the sensor is subjected to a full immersion in water.

  13. Meeting of the high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Proceedings of the June 18, 2008 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 3 main topics: 1 - the organization and stakes of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, 2 - the plutonium imports and transports from England to France and their conformability with respect to the maritime, nuclear safety and nuclear security regulations, 3 - the role and operation of the HCTISN. This document is the proceedings of this meeting. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  15. Color transparency and suppression of high-pT hadrons in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The production length l p of a leading (large z h ) hadron produced in hadronization of a highly virtual high-p T parton is short because of the very intensive vacuum gluon radiation and dissipation of energy at the early stage of the process. Therefore, the main part of nuclear suppression of high-p T hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions is related to the survival probability of a colorless dipole propagating through a dense medium. This is subject to color transparency, which leads to a steep rise with p T of the nuclear ratio R AA (p T ), in good agreement with the recent data from the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). No adjustment, except for the medium density, is made, and the transport coefficient is found to be q 0 =0.8 GeV 2 /fm. This is close to the value extracted from the analysis of BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data for J/Ψ suppression, but is an order of magnitude smaller than the value found from jet quenching data within the energy loss scenario. Although the present calculations have the status of a postdiction, the mechanism and all formulas have been published, and are applied here with no modification, except for the kinematics. At the same time, p T dependence of R AA at the energy of RHIC is rather flat due to the suppression factor steeply falling with rising x T , related to the energy conservation constraints. This factor is irrelevant to the LHC data, since x T is much smaller.

  16. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  17. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  19. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  20. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  1. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - NBI operated by the CEA in Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Marcoule CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2010. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils)

  2. Measurements of void fraction in transparent two-phase flows by light extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoun, B.; El Beshbeeshy, M.; Bonazza, R.

    1998-01-01

    We report a technique for the measurement of the 2-D distribution of the line average void fraction in a two-phase flow with transparent gas and liquid components based on the Mie scattering induced by the gas bubbles on a collimated laser beam. The 2-D distribution of the line average of the interfacial area density is measured directly; the void fraction is deduced from it through an image processing algorithm. The technique is demonstrated with experiments in a pool of water injected with air and illuminated with a CW argon ion laser. (author)

  3. Law n. 2006-686 of the 13 June 2006 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 64 articles of the law n.2006-686 on the nuclear security. It concerns the regulation in matter of safety and transparency, the Authority of Nuclear Safety, the public information, the base nuclear installations and the radioactive substances transport, the risks prevention and the penalties. (A.L.B.)

  4. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Thursday, June 16, 2011. Transparency in nuclear safety; Comptes rendus de l' Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques. Jeudi 16 juin 2011. Transparence en matiere de surete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    In a first session dedicated to modalities of transparency in the field of nuclear safety, members of the French Parliament hear and discuss the interventions of representatives of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), AREVA, EDF, the CEA, the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). The second session addresses the improvement of transparency and comprised interventions by representatives of the OECD and of local commissions of information (ANCCLI)

  5. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec......, and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  6. Setting the light conditions for measuring root transparency for age-at-death estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Nogué-Navarro, Laia; Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-03-01

    Age-at-death estimation is one of the main goals in forensic identification, being an essential parameter to determine the biological profile, narrowing the possibility of identification in cases involving missing persons and unidentified bodies. The study of dental tissues has been long considered as a proper tool for age estimation with several age estimation methods based on them. Dental age estimation methods can be divided into three categories: tooth formation and development, post-formation changes, and histological changes. While tooth formation and growth changes are important for fetal and infant consideration, when the end of dental and skeletal growth is achieved, post-formation or biochemical changes can be applied. Lamendin et al. in J Forensic Sci 37:1373-1379, (1992) developed an adult age estimation method based on root transparency and periodontal recession. The regression formula demonstrated its accuracy of use for 40 to 70-year-old individuals. Later on, Prince and Ubelaker in J Forensic Sci 47(1):107-116, (2002) evaluated the effects of ancestry and sex and incorporated root height into the equation, developing four new regression formulas for males and females of African and European ancestry. Even though root transparency is a key element in the method, the conditions for measuring this element have not been established. The aim of the present study is to set the light conditions measured in lumens that offer greater accuracy when applying the Lamendin et al. method modified by Prince and Ubelaker. The results must be also taken into account in the application of other age estimation methodologies using root transparency to estimate age-at-death.

  7. Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main task of CBNM is defined as the specific programme Nuclear Measurements and Reference Materials. In the field of neutron data for standards, for fission and for fusion application, the nuclear charge distribution and odd-even effects for mass, charge and neutron number in the cold spontaneous fission of 252 Cf were determined. X- and γ-ray emission probabilities were evaluated in the frame of an IAEA coordinated Research Project. The subthermal fission cross section measurements of 235 U, 233 U and 239 Pu, were finalised. The dependence of the experimental weighting function of C 6 D 6 detectors on thickness of several 56 Fe samples was determined. Fusion data studies involved the development of a light-ion telescope with improved time - and energy resolution. Double differential cross-sections of 9 Be were analysed. Radionuclide metrology dealt with the response of silicon detectors, as well as with the standardization of 192 Ir sources. Project Reference Materials reports the EC Certification of nuclear reference materials 210 (PuO 2 ), 523 (Al), 525 (Nb) and 526 (Nb). Progress was achieved in the preparation of dried solid spikes of uranium and plutonium for undiluted reprocessing input solution analysis. 10 B and 6 Li deposits were prepared for a redetermination of the neutron lifetime. Preliminary studies on speciation of trace metals in biological fluids were successful. Radioactive waste barrels were analysed by γ-scanning and blood samples were irradiated with 0.6 MeV neutrons. Exploratory research resulted in first measurements of transition radiation properties

  8. When safety rhymes with transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Marion; Larroque, Damien; Vandermersch, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Transparency and Nuclear Safety Act, which took effect in 2006, requires each operator to document the measures taken to ensure nuclear safety and radiological protection and to list incidents and accidents as well as actions taken to protect the environment. This specifies the nature and limits of radioactive and non-radioactive releases, the quantity of waste to be stored at the facility, actions taken to limit waste volume, and effects on health and the environment, especially on soil and water. (authors)

  9. Measuring clinical trial transparency: an empirical analysis of newly approved drugs and large pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer E; Wilenzick, Marc; Ritcey, Nolan; Ross, Joseph S; Mello, Michelle M

    2017-12-05

    To define a series of clinical trial transparency measures and apply them to large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and their 2014 FDA-approved drugs. Cross-sectional descriptive analysis of all clinical trials supporting 2014 Food and Drugs Administration (FDA)-approved new drug applications (NDAs) for novel drugs sponsored by large companies. Data from over 45 sources, including Drugs@FDA.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, corporate and international registries; PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, corporate press releases, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings and personal communications with drug manufacturers. Trial registration, results reporting, clinical study report (CSR) synopsis sharing, biomedical journal publication, and FDA Amendments Acts (FDAAA) compliance, analysed on the drug level. The FDA approved 19 novel new drugs, sponsored by 11 large companies, involving 553 trials, in 2014. We analysed 505 relevant trials. Per drug, a median of 100% (IQR 86%-100%) of trials in patients were registered, 71% (IQR 57%-100%) reported results or shared a CSR synopsis, 80% (70%-100%) were published and 96% (80%-100%) were publicly available in some form by 13 months after FDA approval. Disclosure rates were lower at FDA approval (65%) and improved significantly by 6 months post FDA approval. Per drug, a median of 100% (IQR 75%-100%) of FDAAA-applicable trials were compliant. Half of reviewed drugs had publicly disclosed results for all trials in patients in our sample. One trial was uniquely registered in a corporate registry, and not ClinicalTrials.gov; 0 trials were uniquely registered in international registries. Among large pharmaceutical companies and new drugs, clinical trial transparency is high based on several standards, although opportunities for improvement remain. Transparency is markedly higher for trials in patients than among all trials supporting drug approval, including trials in healthy volunteers. Ongoing efforts to publicly track

  10. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine [WIBERA/PWIBERA/PriceWaterhouseCoopers Deutsche Rev., Hannover (Germany); Nies, Alexander [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the

  11. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine; Nies, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the statements in this paper must not be

  12. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  13. A hydrogen leak-tight, transparent cryogenic sample container for ultracold-neutron transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Stefan; Hingerl, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the number of extractable ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from converters based on solid deuterium (sD2) crystals requires a good understanding of the UCN transport and how the crystal's morphology influences its transparency to the UCNs. Measurements of the UCN transmission through cryogenic liquids and solids of interest, such as hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2), require sample containers with thin, highly polished and optically transparent windows and a well defined sample thickness. One of the most difficult sealing problems is that of light gases like hydrogen and helium at low temperatures against high vacuum. Here we report on the design of a sample container with two 1 mm thin amorphous silica windows cold-welded to aluminum clamps using indium wire gaskets, in order to form a simple, reusable, and hydrogen-tight cryogenic seal. The container meets the above-mentioned requirements and withstands up to 2 bar hydrogen gas pressure against isolation vacuum in the range of 10-5 to 10-7 mbar at temperatures down to 4.5 K. Additionally, photographs of the crystallization process are shown and discussed.

  14. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride for uric acid measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F Cardoso, Pedro Martins, Gabriela Botelho, Luis Rebouta, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez and Graca Minas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride (β-PVDF. If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  15. A hydrogen leak-tight, transparent cryogenic sample container for ultracold-neutron transmission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Stefan; Hingerl, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the number of extractable ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from converters based on solid deuterium (sD 2 ) crystals requires a good understanding of the UCN transport and how the crystal's morphology influences its transparency to the UCNs. Measurements of the UCN transmission through cryogenic liquids and solids of interest, such as hydrogen (H 2 ) and deuterium (D 2 ), require sample containers with thin, highly polished and optically transparent windows and a well defined sample thickness. One of the most difficult sealing problems is that of light gases like hydrogen and helium at low temperatures against high vacuum. Here we report on the design of a sample container with two 1 mm thin amorphous silica windows cold-welded to aluminum clamps using indium wire gaskets, in order to form a simple, reusable, and hydrogen-tight cryogenic seal. The container meets the above-mentioned requirements and withstands up to 2 bar hydrogen gas pressure against isolation vacuum in the range of 10 -5 to 10 -7 mbar at temperatures down to 4.5 K. Additionally, photographs of the crystallization process are shown and discussed.

  16. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) for uric acid measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Minas, Graca; Martins, Pedro; Rebouta, Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Botelho, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (β-PVDF). If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  17. Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTIN, LAURENCE; DAVIES, PETER; PREGENZER, ARIAN L.

    1999-01-01

    Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies

  18. Nuclear material measurement system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    The description of the activities developed at the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is done. The methods and techniques used for measuring and evaluating nuclear materials and facilities are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Holographic interferometry applied to the measurement of displacements of the interior points of transparent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C A; Gilbert, J A

    1976-09-01

    Utilizing the light scattering property of transparent media, holographic interferometry is applied to the measurement of displacement at the interior planes of three dimensional bodies. The use of a double beam illumination and the introduction of a fictitious displacement make it feasible to obtain information corresponding to components of displacement projected on the scattering plane. When the proposed techniques are invoked, it is possible to eliminate the use of a matching index of refraction fluid in many problems involving symmetrically loaded prismatic bodies. Scattered light holographic interferometry is limited in its use to small changes in the index of refraction and to low values of relative retardation. In spite of these restrictions, a large number of technical problems in both statics and dynamics can be solved.

  20. Waste Oriented Innovation Culture-Transparency-Public Trust Cycle : Success Key for Nuclear Facility Management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susetyo Hario Putero; Haryono B Santosa

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive matter that is a primary material in a nuclear facility, including nuclear power generation, is a part of hazardous materials. Its existence will lead a controversy, although the precise management system for handling it is available. Public sometimes reject the nuclear technology due to the lack of understanding and wrong perception on that technology, especially the radioactive waste treatment. So, strategies should be designed for correcting public perception, until public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology in Indonesia increase. The innovation development on radioactive waste management was studied by observing and interviewing managements and operators of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan. The constructing of concept was based on study result. Based on assumption that the current state of the radioactive waste treatment is suitable and there is serious improvement of technology, therefore systematic and precise oriented corrective efforts of public perception could be done. Transparency, intensive communication, and public participation that show responsible action for emerging mutual trust are basic of strategy that should be developed. High level public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology is expected to be able for stimulating and supporting sustainable technology innovation culture. (author)

  1. Criterion-free measurement of motion transparency perception at different speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Francesca; Ledgeway, Timothy; Webb, Ben S.

    2018-01-01

    Transparency perception often occurs when objects within the visual scene partially occlude each other or move at the same time, at different velocities across the same spatial region. Although transparent motion perception has been extensively studied, we still do not understand how the distribution of velocities within a visual scene contribute to transparent perception. Here we use a novel psychophysical procedure to characterize the distribution of velocities in a scene that give rise to transparent motion perception. To prevent participants from adopting a subjective decision criterion when discriminating transparent motion, we used an “odd-one-out,” three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Two intervals contained the standard—a random-dot-kinematogram with dot speeds or directions sampled from a uniform distribution. The other interval contained the comparison—speeds or directions sampled from a distribution with the same range as the standard, but with a notch of different widths removed. Our results suggest that transparent motion perception is driven primarily by relatively slow speeds, and does not emerge when only very fast speeds are present within a visual scene. Transparent perception of moving surfaces is modulated by stimulus-based characteristics, such as the separation between the means of the overlapping distributions or the range of speeds presented within an image. Our work illustrates the utility of using objective, forced-choice methods to reveal the mechanisms underlying motion transparency perception. PMID:29614154

  2. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  3. The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, Ariel; Dhawan, Suhail; Scolnic, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model based on baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background measurements, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03 ± 0.01 {({stat})} mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the ΛCDM model anchored by supernovae at z < 0.05. While there are known systematic uncertainties that combined could explain the observed offset, here we entertain the possibility that the discrepancy may instead be explained by scattering of supernova light in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We focus on two effects: Compton scattering by free electrons and extinction by dust in the IGM. We find that if the discrepancy is entirely due to dimming by dust, the measurements can be modelled with a cosmic dust density Ω _IGM^dust = 8 × 10^{-5} (1+z)^{-1}, corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 × 10-5 mag Mpc-1 in V band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  4. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-01-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented

  5. Technical Review of Operator's Destructive Analyses at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant: Strengthening the Transparency of the Operator's Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Katchi, T.; Niitsu, Y.; Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Toervenyi, A.; Sayama, H.; Hara, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant is a large-scale nuclear facility in Japan. For the purposes of process control, product management and nuclear material accountancy for safeguards purposes, the laboratory of the facility operator analyzes thousands of samples from various process streams and with a multitude of matrices. Transparency of operational procedures, quality control measures and sample analytical results among the facility operator and state and international safeguards authorities are required to assess the facility operator's measurement system, and thus to assure a credible safeguards approach. The facility operator, Japan Nuclear Fuel, Limited (JNFL), is engaged in continuous improvement of its nuclear material analyzes. For the declarations to the inspectorates, it is important that JNFL and the safeguards authorities be able to confirm that the analytical methods used by JNFL are reliable and meet the latest version of the International Target Values. Since 2012 JNFL, the IAEA and the SSAC have carried out several technical reviews of the destructive analysis (DA) processes as a means of strengthening the transparency of the DA measurement systems. The goal of the DA technical reviews is to (1) assess past commitments of the JNFL plan for analytical improvement, (2) review the JNFL Quality System by means of documentation reviews and in-field demonstrations, and (3) review the analytical performance of the JNFL lab through its own results or from inter-laboratory comparison exercises. Throughout this process, subject-matter experts from all organizations met with JNFL laboratory staff and discussed analytical concerns and solutions. The outcome of these technical reviews was a series of recommendations to JNFL for strengthening its plan for continuous improvement. This paper presents the methodology of the DA technical reviews, the communication scheme and some examples of the outcome for JNFL to improve its DA methods and analytical

  6. 1981 Annual status report. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Measurements programme is divided into two main projects, Nuclear Data on the one hand and Nuclear Reference Materials and Techniques on the other. In the former the JRC actions form part of world-wide sets of actions to establish reliable, and in many cases very precise, figures for important nuclear parameters - e.g. neutron interaction cross-sections, radio-nuclide half lives. In this work the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements (CBNM) pays particular attention to the specific needs of the Community and to complement similar actions undertaken in the laboratories belonging to the Member States. Concerning Nuclear Reference Materials and Techniques the actions are to provide materials to which analytical and other measurements carried out in the nuclear industry or by the nuclear community can be referred. The basic aim of the Nuclear measurement programme is therefore to develop nuclear metrology with special orientation towards satisfying the demands for basic nuclear data and for materials and methods or reference

  7. Case study on traceable, transparent documentation to support decision-making on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Andrews, R.W.; Sevougian, S.D.; Dockery, H.A.; Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Gaither, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    The recent assessment of the Yucca Mountain potential repository attempted to develop transparent and traceable documentation. The assessment was largely successful in this effort, providing meaningful graphics and easy to understand descriptions of the analyses for multiple audiences. While there are obviously many areas in the modeling and data collection that could be improved with sufficient resources, the document has been well received as an accurate, understandable assessment of the analyses. A few difficulties were encountered in the efforts to produce transparent and traceable documentation of the performance assessment analyses. Streamlining the text from a typical technical document to more of a layman's document, was not always easy. The data transfer steps that are proceduralized were not always smooth, as we worked out some of the bugs in the data transfer system. For some of the graphics, there was a mismatch between the analyst's hardware/software and the production hardware/software, causing difficulties in printing the graphics. One thing that was clear as the many organizations worked to pull the document together, is that relationships between people are still necessary in spite of all the technology brought to bear on the problem. A high level of cooperation and integration is necessary for the process to work smoothly. Significant effort is being made to continue to improve the processes that lead to traceability. Multiple teams are taking the sequencing of models/data apart and finding all of the transfers required as the project moves toward Site Recommendation and potential licensing. Likewise, the effort to achieve transparency is evolving and will improve with the next iteration of the analyses

  8. Psychophysical Measurements of Luminance Contrast Sensitivity and Color Discrimination with Transparent and Blue-Light Filter Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Júnior, Augusto Paranhos; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz; Castro, Leonardo Cunha; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure luminance contrast sensitivity and color vision thresholdfs in normal subjects using a blue light filter lens and transparent intraocular lens material. Monocular luminance grating contrast sensitivity was measured with Psycho for Windows (version 2.36; Cambridge Research Systems) at 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, and 30.0 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) in 15 normal subjects (eight female), with a mean age of 21.6 years (SD = 3.8 years). Chromatic discrimination was assessed with the Cambridge colour test (CCT) along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion axes. Both tests were performed in a darkened room under two situations: with a transparent lens and with blue light filter lens. Subjective impressions were taken by subjects regarding their visual experience under both conditions. No difference was found between the luminance contrast sensitivity measured with transparent and blue light filter. However, 13/15 (87%) of the subjects reported more comfortable vision with the blue filter. In the color vision test, tritan thresholds were significantly higher for the blue filter compared with the transparent filter (p = 0.003). For protan and deutan thresholds no differences were found. Blue-yellow color vision is impaired with the blue light filter, and no impairment occurs with the transparent filter. No significant differences in thresholds were found in the luminance contrast sensitivity comparing the blue light and transparent filters. The impact of short wavelength light filtering on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is also discussed.

  9. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  10. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Lewis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after

  11. Virtual experiment instrument of nuclear pulse measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Xiuliang; Yu Hong; Zhang Meiqin

    2009-01-01

    Study on the scheme of application of virtual instrument(VI) technique in measuring of nuclear pulse. The system of Counter based on technology of LabVIEW and NI company's products USB-6009-DAQ is developed. Virtual nuclear instrument-Virtual Counter is realized. This system extends the application of technology of virtual instrument. The experimental results indicate that the system of Counter had the good counting measuring function of Nuclear Pulse. (authors)

  12. The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, Ariel; Dhawan, Suhail; Scolnic, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmological model based on BAO and CMB results, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03± 0.01 {(stat)} mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the ΛCDM model anchored by supernovae at z measurements can be modeled with a cosmic dust density Ω _IGM^dust = 8 \\cdot 10^{-5} (1+z)^{-1}, corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 . 10-5 mag Mpc-1 in V-band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  13. Temperature measurement of {sup 6}He{sup + } ions confined in a transparent Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechard, X., E-mail: flechard@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F. [Universite de Caen, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN (France); Mery, A. [Universite de Caen, CIMAP, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN (France); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Universite de Caen, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN (France); Rodriguez, D. [Universitad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear (Spain); Velten, P. [Universite de Caen, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN (France)

    2011-07-15

    The LPCTrap setup is a transparent Paul trap dedicated to the measurement of the {beta}-{nu} correlation coefficient a{sub {beta}{nu}} in the {beta} decay of trapped radioactive nuclides. In a first experiment, the system has been used to record {approx}10{sup 5} coincidences between the {beta} particles and recoiling ions emitted from the decay of {sup 6}He{sup + } ions. The analysis of the collected data has already shown that the size of the {sup 6}He{sup + } ion cloud confined in the Paul trap is a critical parameter, potentially limiting the accuracy on the a{sub {beta}{nu}} measurement. We report here the precise determination of the trapped ion cloud temperature and size. This was performed by extracting the trapped ions toward a position sensitive micro channel plate detector at different phases of the RF driving field. We find a temperature T{sub exp} = 0.107(7) eV, consistent with the temperature values inferred using two other observables but 20% higher than the temperature T{sub sim} = 0.09 eV predicted by realistic simulations of the ions interacting with the H{sub 2} buffer gas.

  14. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of December 16, 2010; Haut Comite pour la Transparence et l'Information sur la Securite Nucleaire. Reunion du 16 decembre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The discussion between members dealt with the following topics: the committee' program and implication with respect to the ACN approach (Aarhus Convention and Nuclear), the main orientations of the Transparency and Secret work group, the hearing of actors involved in a Tritium contamination incident in Valduc. These actors belonged to the CEA, to the 2M Process company, to the Nuclear safety authority or ASN, to the Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety or IRSN, or to the Delegate to radiation protection and nuclear safety for installations of interest for the defence or DSND. Then the committee addressed the issue of old uranium mines and of places of use of uranium mining tailings. The committee members discuss the results of investigations performed around the Tricastin site (studies on cancers, on the presence of uranium in underground water sheets). Other topics are addressed: waste transportation to Germany, the French-British nuclear cooperation, the creation of a web site

  15. Electric field metrology for SI traceability: Systematic measurement uncertainties in electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher L.; Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Raithel, Georg

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between the Rabi frequency (ΩRF, related to the applied electric field) and Autler-Townes (AT) splitting, when performing atom-based radio-frequency (RF) electric (E) field strength measurements using Rydberg states and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. The AT splitting satisfies, under certain conditions, a well-defined linear relationship with the applied RF field amplitude. The EIT/AT-based E-field measurement approach derived from these principles is currently being investigated by several groups around the world as a means to develop a new SI-traceable RF E-field measurement technique. We establish conditions under which the measured AT-splitting is an approximately linear function of the RF electric field. A quantitative description of systematic deviations from the linear relationship is key to exploiting EIT/AT-based atomic-vapor spectroscopy for SI-traceable field measurement. We show that the linear relationship is valid and can be used to determine the E-field strength, with minimal error, as long as the EIT linewidth is small compared to the AT-splitting. We also discuss interesting aspects of the thermal dependence (i.e., hot- versus cold-atom) of this EIT-AT technique. An analysis of the transition from cold- to hot-atom EIT in a Doppler-mismatched cascade system reveals a significant change of the dependence of the EIT linewidth on the optical Rabi frequencies and of the AT-splitting on ΩRF.

  16. Improved method for measuring transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors infresh and saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Calix-Ponce, Helga N.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Amy, Gary L.; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors produced by phyto-/bacterio-planktons in fresh and marine aquatic environments are increasingly considered as a major contributor to organic/particulate and biological fouling in micro

  17. Improved method for measuring transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors infresh and saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors produced by phyto-/bacterio-planktons in fresh and marine aquatic environments are increasingly considered as a major contributor to organic/particulate and biological fouling in micro-/ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis membrane (RO) systems. However, currently established methods which are based on Alcian blue (AB) staining and spectrophotometric techniques do not measure TEP-precursors and have the tendency to overestimate concentration in brackish/saline water samples due to interference of salinity on AB staining. Here we propose a new semi-quantitative method which allows measurement of both TEP and their colloidal precursors without the interference of salinity. TEP and their precursors are first retained on 10kDa membrane, rinsed with ultra-pure water, and re-suspended in ultra-pure water by sonication and stained with AB, followed by exclusion of TEP-AB precipitates by filtration and absorbance measurement of residual AB. The concentration is then determined based on the reduction of AB absorbance due to reaction with acidic polysaccharides, blank correction and calibration with Xanthan gum standard. The extraction procedure allows concentration of TEP and their pre-cursors which makes it possible to analyse samples with a wide range of concentrations (down to <0.1mg Xeq/L). This was demonstrated through application of the method for monitoring these compounds in algal cultures and a full-scale RO plant. The monitoring also revealed that concentrations of the colloidal precursors were substantially higher than the concentration of TEP themselves. In the RO plant, complete TEP removal was observed over the pre-treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration and ultrafiltration) but the TEP precursors were not completely removed, emphasising the importance of measuring this colloidal component to better understand the role of TEP and acidic polysaccharides in RO membrane fouling.

  18. Flexural Capability of Patterned Transparent Conductive Substrate by Performing Electrical Measurements and Stress Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium–tin–oxide (ITO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays. However, the pattern effect is rarely investigated to estimate the mechanical reliability of ITO/PET films. Thus, this study examined the flexible content of patterned ITO/PET films with two different line widths by conducting bending tests and sheet resistance measurements. Moreover, a stress–strain simulation enabled by finite element analysis was performed on the patterned ITO/PET to explore the stress impact of stacked film structures under various levels of flexural load. Results show that the design of the ITO/PET film can be applied in developing mechanically reliable flexible electronics.

  19. Remote monitoring technologies and applications. JAEA-SNL technical cooperation experience in RM for nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, John

    2006-01-01

    In ten years of remote monitoring cooperation, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the JAEA (formerly JNC) have developed technology and demonstrated it at the Joyo Experimental Reactor. The program goals were to develop technology to support international safeguards, help evaluate and standardize the technologies for safeguards uses, and demonstrate them for potential regional cooperation. This paper described three generations of remote monitoring systems at the Joyo Fresh Storage and at one of the Joyo Spent Fuel Ponds. Communications and control methods within the facility and between the facility and the remote viewer have changed rapidly. The current configuration is similar to an international safeguards installation, but provides a foundation for transparency cooperation between the JAEA and SNL. Plans to expand this cooperation to other partners are noted. (author)

  20. Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar, E-mail: naviliat@nscl.msu.edu [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay provide sensitive means to determine the fundamental coupling of charged fermions to weak bosons and to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. I focus here on two topics related to precision measurements in beta decay, namely: (i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and (ii) selected measurements of time reversal violating correlations in nuclear and neutron decays. These topics complement those presented in other contributions to this conference.

  1. Laser measurements and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear states amenable to laser studies are reviewed with respect to their structure. Systematic predictions are made, e.g., for magnetic moments of parity-mixed intrinsic orbitals in the Ac isotopes and for the shape of the known high-spin isomers in the Pb region

  2. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  3. Cyber operations as nuclear counterproliferation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Roscini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent malware that allegedly targeted Iran’s nuclear programme, this article discusses the legality of inter-state cyber operations as measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons approaching the problem from the perspective of the law of State responsibility, in particular the circumstances precluding wrongfulness. After examining the role that cyber attacks and cyber exploitation can play in preventing nuclear proliferation, the article explores whether cyber operat...

  4. Temperature measurement in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degas, P.

    1986-12-01

    Some criterions, that the used sensors have to follow, are given together with the conditions they may encountered. They may be used in irradiation or safety test devices, in experiments concerning mock-up or plant element, or even in nuclear plants themselves. The most suitable sensor type are mentioned, with their characteristics and their fiability. Two use examples of temperature probes are given, chosen to illustrate two sensor types: thermocouples in Superphenix-1 and platinum resistance probes in research reactor Orphee [fr

  5. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of September 10, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After the approval of its rules of procedure and the designation of the High committee office, the members of the committee discuss the following topics: the High committee communication rules, various issues regarding radioactive wastes (activity of the low level waste work group, recent decisions made by the government on the process of selection of a low level waste storage site, perspectives and modalities of a public hearing organised by the committee according to the mission defined in the waste bill). Then, they discuss the environmental monitoring issue: organisation and strategy of radioactivity control in France by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) and by the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), assessment of the radio-ecological status at the vicinity of basic nuclear installations

  6. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  7. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  8. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  9. Neutron nuclear data measurements for criticality safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guber Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Joint Research Center Site Geel, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using metallic natural cerium and vanadium samples. Together with existing data, the measured data will be used for a new evaluation and will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

  10. Psycholinguistic measures for German verb pairs: Semantic transparency, semantic relatedness, verb family size, and age of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Eulitz, Carsten

    2018-06-18

    A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs. Additionally, we include the verb regularity of all verbs and two counts of verb family size for 184 base verbs, as well as estimates of age of acquisition and age of reading for 200 verbs. Together with lemma and type frequencies from public lexical databases, all measures can be downloaded along with this article. Statistical analyses indicate that verb family size, morphological complexity, frequency, and verb regularity affect the semantic transparency and relatedness ratings as well as the age of acquisition estimates, indicating that these are relevant variables in psycholinguistic experiments. Although lexical paraphrases, vector-based similarity measures, and semantic association ratings may deliver complementary information, the interrater reliability of the semantic association ratings for each verb pair provides valuable information when selecting stimuli for psycholinguistic experiments.

  11. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Partitioning of net carbon dioxide flux measured by automatic transparent chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, EA

    2018-03-01

    Mathematical model was developed for describing carbon dioxide fluxes at open sedge-sphagnum fen during growing season. The model was calibrated using the results of observations from automatic transparent chamber and it allows us to estimate autotrophic, heterotrophic and ecosystem respiration fluxes, gross and net primary vegetation production, and the net carbon balance.

  13. Hyperfine interactions measured by nuclear orientation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenier, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report concerns the use of hyperfine interaction to magnetism measurements and to the determination of the nuclear structure of Terbium isotopes by the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. In the first part we show that the rhodium atom does not support any localized moment in the chromium matrix. The hyperfine magnetic field at the rhodium nuclear site follows the Overhauser distribution, and the external applied magnetic field supports a negative Knight shift of 16%. In the second part we consider the structure of neutron deficient Terbium isotopes. We introduce a coherent way of evaluation and elaborate a new nuclear thermometer. The magnetic moments allows to strike on the studied states configuration. The analysis of our results shows a decrease of the nuclear deformation for the lighter isotopes [fr

  14. Mass-spectrometric measurements for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The need of an on-site inspection device to provide isotopic ratio measurements led to the development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer mounted in a van. This mobile laboratory has the ability, through the use of the resin bead technique, to acquire, prepare, and analyze samples of interest to nuclear safeguards. Precision of the measurements is about 1 to 2%

  15. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. November 20, 2009 meeting of the High Committee; Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire. Reunion du Haut comite, 20 novembre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment, and, depending on the events, some extraordinary meetings. This document is the proceedings of an extraordinary meeting about the information and transparency in relation with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at all stages of the fuel cycle. The reason of this meeting is a request from the French Minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea (MEEDDM) after the broadcast of a TV documentary entitled 'wastes: the nuclear industry nightmare' and the publication of a press article affirming that 'our nuclear wastes are hidden in Siberia'. The Minister expressed his wish to have the question of the international trade of nuclear materials examined by the HCTISN. The document is organized as follows: a first part presents the hearings of the general direction of energy and climate (DGEC), of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of EdF, of Areva, of the CEA, of the senior official for the defense and security of the MEEDDM, of Rosatom company and of Greenpeace organisation. A second part examines the incident which took place in October 2009 at the plutonium technology workshop (ATPu) of Cadarache, where about 22 to 39 kg of plutonium powder were discovered in the gloveboxes of this facility, decommissioned in 2005 and undergoing dismantlement today. This part presents the hearings of the CEA, of AREVA, of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the ASN, of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Areva and CEA, and of the local information commission (CLI) of Cadarache

  16. Law n. 2006-686 of the 13 June 2006 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear (1); Loi n. 2006-686 du 13 juin 2006 relative a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the 64 articles of the law n.2006-686 on the nuclear security. It concerns the regulation in matter of safety and transparency, the Authority of Nuclear Safety, the public information, the base nuclear installations and the radioactive substances transport, the risks prevention and the penalties. (A.L.B.)

  17. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  18. The LPCTrap experiment: measurement of the β-ν angular correlation in 6He using a transparent Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Blieck, J.; Durand, D.; Duval, F.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Labalme, M.; Lemiere, Y.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Rodriguez, D.; Thomas, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of the LPCTrap experiment, devoted to measure the β-ν angular correlation in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of 6 He. This measurement is motivated by the search for the presence of tensor type contributions to the weak interaction. The 6 He ions are confined in a novel transparent Paul trap. The β particles and the recoil ions are detected in coincidence to deduce the angular correlation parameter. The commissioning run performed in 2005 has given the proof of principle of this experiment. Up to 10 5 coincidences were recorded during a second run in 2006.

  19. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Näslund

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90. The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90, but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79. A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth.

  20. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  1. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. The measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.C.S.

    1974-01-01

    This research dealt with the measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes using the pulsed beam delayed-coincidence technique. Measurements were performed on isotopes in the f7/2 shell and specifically the isotopes of titanium and vanadium. Experimental investigations were also pursued in 59 Ni and 65 Zn. Several new lifetimes were determined and confirmation was obtained for some previous values which were measured with different techniques. More information was also obtained on certain levels where previous results are in disagreement. (author)

  3. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  4. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  5. The use of measurement uncertainty in nuclear materials accuracy and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alique, O.; Vaccaro, S.; Svedkauskaite, J.

    2015-01-01

    EURATOM nuclear safeguards are based on the nuclear operators’ accounting for and declaring of the amounts of nuclear materials in their possession, as well as on the European Commission verifying the correctness and completeness of such declarations by means of conformity assessment practices. Both the accountancy and the verification processes comprise the measurements of amounts and characteristics of nuclear materials. The uncertainties associated to these measurements play an important role in the reliability of the results of nuclear material accountancy and verification. The document “JCGM 100:2008 Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” - issued jointly by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and international organisations for metrology, standardisation and accreditation in chemistry, physics and electro technology - describes a universal, internally consistent, transparent and applicable method for the evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurements. This paper discusses different processes of nuclear materials accountancy and verification where measurement uncertainty plays a significant role. It also suggests the way measurement uncertainty could be used to enhance the reliability of the results of the nuclear materials accountancy and verification processes.

  6. The work of the High Commission for transparency and information on nuclear safety concerning the management of radioactive materials and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2011-01-01

    Created by law in June 2006, the High Committee for Transparency and Information about Nuclear Security (HCTISN) is a pluralist instance dedicated to information, consultation and debates on issues related to nuclear activities and their impacts on environment and health. Currently chaired by a honorary senator, the High committee is composed of about forty persons who meet at least every three months. The subject of sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste is one of the main topical issues examined by the High committee. Since 2009, a dedicated think-tank has been set up to deal with questions of information, consultation and transparency all along the decision making process for the creation of a new storage installation for radioactive waste. In 2010, the High committee has been mandated by the Ministry in charge of nuclear safety to draw up a report on the transparency in the field of management of waste and materials produced at each stage of fuel cycle. Management of radioactive waste continues to raise discussion and rich debates within the High committee. In 2011, the High committee's intentions are to organize public information, consultations and debates about sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. (author)

  7. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  8. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  9. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. September 23, 2008 meeting; Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire. Reunion du 23 septembre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 6 main points: 1 - the terms of the High Committee operation and the internal rules for the meetings; 2 - the plutonium imports and transportation between Great Britain and France (contracts status, ship safety report, plutonium grade, return of plutonium-derived wastes): hearing of Areva, of the general direction of infrastructures, transports and sea (DGITM), of Greenpeace organisation, debate; 3 - the follow-up of the July 7, 2008 incident at the Socatri facility (Tricastin site (France)) where the overflow of a storage tank led to the spillage of a uraniferous solution on the ground: hearing of Areva (remedial action, re-start up of the facility, environmental monitoring, communication and transparency), hearing of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the local commission of information (CIGEET), of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Socatri company, of the direction of civil safety (DSC), debate about the information dissemination around this incident; 4 - Opinion of the High Committee about the plutonium transportation between Great Britain and France, and about the Socatri incident; 5 - referral to the High Committee of the radioecological follow up of all nuclear sites and of the quality of the information given to the public: ASN's reports about the radioecological follow-up of surface and ground waters and of the ancient radioactive waste storage sites, ASND's answer (Nuclear safety authority of defense), IRSN

  10. Nuclear instrumentation for the industrial measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr

  11. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  12. Measurements Matter in Nuclear Safeguards & Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aregbe, Y.; Jakopic, R.; Richter, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Hult, M.

    2015-01-01

    The deliverable of any laboratory is a measurement result with stated uncertainty and traceability (ISO/IEC 17025: 2005). Measurement results, particularly in safeguards, have to be accurate, comparable and traceable to a stated reference, preferably to the SI. Results provided by operator-, safeguards- or network laboratories have to be in compliance with specific quality goals for nuclear material and environmental sample analysis. Metrological quality control tools are prerequisites to build up confidence in measurement results that have to be translated into meaningful safeguards conclusions or to demonstrate conformity of findings with declared processes. The European Commission—Joint Research Centre (EC–JRC) has dedicated facilities, laboratories and projects to provide certified nuclear reference materials (CRM), to develop reference methods and to organize inter-laboratory comparisons (ILC) in compliance with ISO Guide 34, ISO17025 and ISO17043, including respective training. Recent examples are: – cooperation with the JAEA to investigate on the application of Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) to quantify the amount of special nuclear material in particlelike debris of melted fuel as formed in the nuclear accident in Fukushima – training in metrology and gamma-ray spectrometry for EURATOM safeguards inspectors – development of uranium reference particle standards under a new EC support task to the IAEA. Currently, the JRC puts major efforts in producing CRMs and conformity assessment tools for “age-dating” of uranium and plutonium samples. They are needed for method validation in determining the date of the last chemical separation of uranium or plutonium from their daughter nuclides. These type of CRMs are not only needed in nuclear safeguards and forensics, but could support in the future a possible new type of “verification mechanism” as part of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT), since measurements and measurement standards

  13. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  14. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Neutron fluence measurement in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho L, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of present work is to determine the fluence of neutrons in nuclear facilities using two neutron detectors designed and built at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico. The two neutron detectors are of the passive type, based on solid state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTD). One of the two neutron detectors was used to determine the fluence distribution of the ports at the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Mark III, which belongs to ININ. In these facilities is important to know the neutron fluence distribution characteristic to carried out diverse kind of research activities. The second neutron detector was employed in order to carry out environmental neutron surveillance. The detector has the property to separate the thermal, intermediate and fast components of the neutron fluence. This detector was used to measure the neutron fluence at hundred points around the primary container of the first Mexican Nuclear Power plant 'Laguna Verde'. This last detector was also used to determine the neutron fluence in some points of interest, around and inside a low scattering neutron room at the 'Centro de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes' of the ININ, to know the background neutron field produced by the neutron sources used there. The design of the two neutron detector and the results obtained for each of the surveying facilities, are described in this work. (Author)

  16. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual progress report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1994-07-01

    During the past year, work has been nearly completed on a Physical Review paper with final results of a search for neutrinoless double-β decay of molybdenum 100 with collaborators from LBL, the University of New Mexico, and the Idaho Engineering Laboratory. Major part of this work was to carry out an extensive statistical analysis of the data. During the spring of 1994, Sean Sutton spent the majority of this time at Orsay, France working on NEMO 3, a next generation double-β decay experiment involving molybdenum 100 and other isotopes. Nicholson and Sutton have designed and built a scintillating fiber hadoscope used in the May--July AGS high energy physics run at BNL in AGS experiment 850 to measure color transparency. Professor Nicholson has had primary responsibility for the design, construction, and installation of this hodoscope and for overseeing the construction and installation of two scintillating counter upstream hodoscopes. To date, the fiber hodoscope had handled total beam rates exceeding 20 MHz with beam rates as high as 10 MHz on a single fiber. Light intensification and readout electronics to be used in the CsI(Tl) calorimeter in the SLAC B factory has just begun this summer

  17. Ar-41 measurements and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, J.J.; Rodriguez, M.; Ugarte, R.; Vigile, R.S.; Boutet, L.I.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    During the early phase of an emergency is necessary to confirm the release of radioactivity predictions made by the operator of the nuclear plant. In this context, it has begun measuring Ar-41 in the vicinity of a research reactor. Since the Ar-41 is produced in the reactor, it has been studied as a good way to validate the air dispersion model used in nuclear emergencies and to develop a method to improve the characterization of the release. For this latter purpose a pilot experiment was conducted to determine computational and experimental methods, the flux of 1.29 MeV of Ar-41 and compared to evaluate the accuracy of the assessments made. This paper describes meteorological forecasting systems used in the experiment, the estimate of the stability class and the concentration of nuclides using a calculation code developed by the ARN, as well as the methodology and equipment used for measurement in the field. (authors) [es

  18. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified

  19. Value measurement of nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.; Harris, G.I.; Schonbein, W.R.; Rashford, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty in measuring the benefit component for cost/benefit analysis of diagnostic procedures in medicine is portrayed as a complex issue relating the objective of intent to a classification of types of decisions a physician must make in evaluating a patient's problem. Ultimately, it seems desirable to develop measuring instruments such as attitude measurement tools by which the relative value of alternative diagnostic procedures could be measured in terms of what they contribute to diminishing the patient's personal perception of disease. Even without this idealized objective, it is reasonable to assume that diagnostic tests which do not contain information, defined as a change in the randomness of a state of knowledge, could not be expected to ultimately benefit the patient. Thus diagnostic information should provide a rational direction for the physician to modify the course of the patient's illness. Since information can be measured as a change in randomness of a knowledge state, we can determine the information content of a specific nuclear medicine procedure when faced with an array of diagnostic problems. These measurements remain to be made for clinical nuclear medicine procedures and are currently under study

  20. Edaq530: a transparent, open-end and open-source measurement solution in natural science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, Katalin; Makra, Peter; Gingl, Zoltan, E-mail: phil@titan.physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, Szeged, H6720 (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    We present Edaq530, a low-cost, compact and easy-to-use digital measurement solution consisting of a thumb-sized USB-to-sensor interface and measurement software. The solution is fully open-source, our aim being to provide a viable alternative to professional solutions. Our main focus in designing Edaq530 has been versatility and transparency. In this paper, we shall introduce the capabilities of Edaq530, complement it by showing a few sample experiments, and discuss the feedback we have received in the course of a teacher training workshop in which the participants received personal copies of Edaq530 and later made reports on how they could utilize Edaq530 in their teaching.

  1. A CD-ROM About Radiation Protection Aspects of a Nuclear Accident: Towards more Openness and Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the 'Prefet', the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the 'gendarmerie' and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described : professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different -backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical. players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the countermeasures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities? The CD-ROM should help in gradually building up a shared interpretation or culture of the nuclear risk. This forum should promote debate that is

  2. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance

  3. Measures to improve nuclear power project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinchao

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on correct application of ability level principle in setting organizational structure, the effective management system has been established, and 8 practical management regimes have been developed. Personnel training and management work shall be well done and enhanced. Experience feedback in construction management shall be well done for all systems. Exchange of construction and management techniques shall be actively carried out. All staff shall participate in safety management. KPI system is adopted for assessing stakeholders' project management method, and PDCA cycle is adopted for continued improved. Management level upgrading measures are proposed to ensure the smooth construction of nuclear power project. Setting forth and popularizing management theory can provide reference for and promote the smooth progress of various nuclear power projects. (author)

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of international consensus on the expression of uncertainty in measurements was recognised by the late 1970s and led, after the issuance of a series of rather generic recommendations, to the publication of a general publication, known as GUM, the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This publication, issued in 1993, was based on co-operation over several years by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the Organisation internationale de metrologie legale. The purpose was to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for harmonized reporting and the international comparison of measurement results. The need to provide more specific guidance to different measurement disciplines was soon recognized and the field of analytical chemistry was addressed by EURACHEM in 1995 in the first edition of a guidance report on Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements, produced by a group of experts from the field. That publication translated the general concepts of the GUM into specific applications for analytical laboratories and illustrated the principles with a series of selected examples as a didactic tool. Based on feedback from the actual practice, the EURACHEM publication was extensively reviewed in 1997-1999 under the auspices of the Co-operation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry (CITAC), and a second edition was published in 2000. Still, except for a single example on the measurement of radioactivity in GUM, the field of nuclear and radiochemical measurements was not covered. The explicit requirement of ISO standard 17025:1999, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration

  5. Nuclear Measurements, Evaluations and Applications - NEMEA-6. Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    NEMEA-6 brought together nuclear scientists from the new member states that joined the European Union since 2000, scientists from the 'old' member states and colleagues from Russia and Israel. About 30 papers were presented. Topics addressed during the workshop involved nuclear data needs and impact, nuclear data validation and benchmarks, the ANDES - Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability project, detectors and facilities, and measurements of nuclear data

  6. A measurement method for distinguishing the real contact area of rough surfaces of transparent solids using improved Otsu technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bao-Jiang; Yan Shao-Ze; Xiang Wu-Wei-Kai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of measuring the real contact area of transparent blocks based on the principle of total internal reflection is presented, intending to support the investigation of friction characteristics, heat conduction, and energy dissipation at the contact interface. A laser sheet illuminates the contact interface, and the transmitted laser sheet is projected onto a screen. Then the contact information is acquired from the screen by a camera. An improved Otsu method is proposed to process the data of experimental images. It can compute the threshold of the overall image and filter out all the pixels one by one. Through analyzing the experimental results, we describe the relationship between the real contact area and the positive pressure during a continuous loading process, at different loading rates, with the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material. A hysteresis phenomenon in the relationship between the real contact area and the positive pressure is found and explained. (paper)

  7. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual report, February 1, 1995 - January 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes progress in data analysis for a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of molybdenum 100 and related work, Brookhaven National Laboratory's Experiment 850 on color transparency, and work on Brookhaven's EVA detector and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's B factory experiment. 6 refs

  8. Temperature measuring element in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily measure the partial maximum temperature at a portion within the nuclear reactor where the connection with the external portion is difficult. Constitution: Sodium, potassium or the alloy thereof with high heat expansion coefficient is packed into an elastic vessel having elastic walls contained in a capsule. A piercing member formed into an acute triangle is attached to one end in the direction of expansion and contraction of the elastic container. The two sides of the triangle form an acute knife edge. A diaphragm is disposed within a capsule at a position opposed to the sharpened direction of the piercing member. Such a capsule is placed in a predetermined position of the nuclear reactor. The elastic vessel causes thermal expansion displacement depending on the temperature at a certain position, by which the top end of the pierce member penetrates through the diaphragm. A pierced scar of a penetration length depending on the temperature is resulted to the diaphragm. The length of the piercing damage is electroscopically observed and compared with the calibration curve to recognize the maximum temperature in the predetermined portion of the nuclear reactor. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Stopping Power Measurements: Implications in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Angulo; Thierry Delbar; Jean-Sebastien Graulich; Pierre Leleux

    1999-01-01

    The stopping powers of C, CH 2 , Al, Ni, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) for several light ions ( 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne) with an incident energy of 1 MeV/amu have been measured at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. Stopping powers are given relative to the one for 5.5 MeV 4 He ions with an uncertainty of less than 1%. We compare our results with two widely used semiempirical models and we discuss some implications in nuclear astrophysics studies

  10. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu Anamaria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some recent results of the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in the assurance of quality in radioactivity measurements for nuclear medicine. Three aspects are treated: (i) Participation of the RML in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP), E 2.10.05; (ii) Improvement of the secondary standard, based on a CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber; (iii) Implementation of the quality management, according to the SR EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. (authors)

  11. A shielded measurement system for irradiated nuclear fuel measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, W.R.; Aumeier, S.E.; Klann, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is driving a transition toward dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), toward characterization of INF for final disposition, and toward resumption of measurement-based material control and accountability (MC and A) efforts for INF. For these reasons, the ability to efficiently acquire radiological measurements of INF in a dry environment is important. The DOE has recently developed a guidance document proposing MC and A requirements for INF. The intent of this document is to encourage the direct measurement of INF on inventory within DOE. The guidance document reinforces and clarifies existing material safeguards requirements as they pertain to INF. Validation of nuclear material contents of non-self-protecting INF must be accomplished by direct measurement, application of validated burnup codes using qualified initial fissile content, burnup data, and age or by other valid means. The fuel units must remain intact with readable identification numbers. INF may be subject to periodic inventories with visual item accountability checks. Quantitative measurements may provide greater assurance of the integrity of INF inventories at a lower cost and with less personnel exposure than visual item accountability checks. Currently, several different approaches are used to measure the radiological attributes of INF. Although these systems are useful for a wide variety of applications, there is currently no relatively inexpensive measurement system that is readily deployable for INF measurements for materials located in dry storage. The authors present the conceptual design of a shielded measurement system (SMS) that could be used for this purpose. The SMS consists of a shielded enclosure designed to house a collection of measurement systems to allow measurements on spent fuel outside of a hot cell. The phase 1 SMS will contain 3 He detectors and ionization chambers to allow for gross neutron and gamma-ray measurements. The phase 2 SMS

  12. Optical measurement of acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation through transparent object

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Furusawa, Toshiaki; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.

  13. Nuclear accidents and safety measures of domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zurong; Che Shuwei; Pan Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the design standards for the safety of nuclear and radiation in nuclear power plants, the three accidents in the history of nuclear power are analyzed. And the main factors for these accidents are found out, that is, human factors and unpredicted natural calamity. By combining the design and operation parameters of domestic nuclear plants, the same accidents are studied and some necessary preventive schemes are put forward. In the security operation technology of domestic nuclear power plants nowadays, accidents caused by human factors can by prevented completely. But the safety standards have to be reconsidered for the unpredicted neutral disasters. How to reduce the hazard of nuclear radiation and leakage to the level that can be accepted by the government and public when accidents occur under extreme conditions during construction and operation of nuclear power plants must be considered adequately. (authors)

  14. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  15. Quadrupole moments measured by nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchta, H.

    1985-01-01

    Quadrupole interactions between the nuclei and solids have been studied with the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. The first series of measurements have been effected on the orientation of 195H g m and 197 Hg m , long lived daughter states in the 195 Au and 197 Au decay. The lifetimes of these states are of the same order as the spin-lattice relaxation time. The reorientation of the intermediate states has been taken into account extending the dipole relaxation mechanism to non-equidistant relaxing substates. The experimental nuclear quadrupole moments, thus deduced are slightly different from theoretical estimations. A new high precision method accessible to levels with 100 ns to 1 m lifetimes, the level mixing resonance on oriented nuclei (LMR/ON) has been elaborated in collaboration with LEUVEN university (Belgium). In this technique the nucleus is subject to a non colinear electric plus magnetic combined interaction. The quadrupole interaction of Ag[7/2, = 40 s] isomer with the electric field gradient in zinc has been established to better than 1% observing its level mixing resonances; and also the ratio of electric field gradients of silver in zinc to cadmium. The electric quadrupole moments of 106 Ag m , 107 Ag m and 109 Ag m have been established combining the level mixing resonances with classical low temperature quadrupole alignment measurements. The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on a semi-microscopical model using Yukawa potential [fr

  16. A three-dimensional strain measurement method in elastic transparent materials using tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuma Takahashi

    Full Text Available The mechanical interaction between blood vessels and medical devices can induce strains in these vessels. Measuring and understanding these strains is necessary to identify the causes of vascular complications. This study develops a method to measure the three-dimensional (3D distribution of strain using tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV and compares the measurement accuracy with the gauge strain in tensile tests.The test system for measuring 3D strain distribution consists of two cameras, a laser, a universal testing machine, an acrylic chamber with a glycerol water solution for adjusting the refractive index with the silicone, and dumbbell-shaped specimens mixed with fluorescent tracer particles. 3D images of the particles were reconstructed from 2D images using a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART and motion tracking enhancement. Distributions of the 3D displacements were calculated using a digital volume correlation. To evaluate the accuracy of the measurement method in terms of particle density and interrogation voxel size, the gauge strain and one of the two cameras for Tomo-PIV were used as a video-extensometer in the tensile test. The results show that the optimal particle density and interrogation voxel size are 0.014 particles per pixel and 40 × 40 × 40 voxels with a 75% overlap. The maximum measurement error was maintained at less than 2.5% in the 4-mm-wide region of the specimen.We successfully developed a method to experimentally measure 3D strain distribution in an elastic silicone material using Tomo-PIV and fluorescent particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that applies Tomo-PIV to investigate 3D strain measurements in elastic materials with large deformation and validates the measurement accuracy.

  17. Use of SSNTD for measuring nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakr, M H [Division of Baic Nucl. Sc., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) technique in nuclear reactions is reviewed. Special attention is given to the study of Makrofol-E films using a proposed optimum etching solution. The etching rate was 10.5 Mm/ hour. The energy resolution was measured and estimated to be 600 and 400 KeV in the energy ranges 1-2 MeV and 2-3 MeV respectively. Based on these results, the sensitivity threshold for gamma-particles in Makrofol-E is shifted up to 1 MeV, otherwise, there will be no discrimination between the etch - pits of gamma- particles with energies ranging from 0 to 1 MeV. The full angular distribution of the gamma-groups were measured in one run by means of a SSNTD sheel surrounding the target. A scattering chamber designed for gamma-particle angular distribution measurements is described. An example of the influence of energy loss in degrading Al foils in eliminating the energy angle dependence is given. The numerous curves of the range -energy dependence of gamma - particles in Makrofol - E after passing Al foils of different thicknesses are scaled in one schematic normograph. The later simplifies the process of choosing the suitable Al foil thickness or of determining the range- energy relation. The angular distributions of five gamma- groups from the {sup 56} Co (P, gamma) {sup 56} Fe reaction in the proton energy 1.6 -2.4 MeV have been measured using the designed chamber. A Makrofol - E film of 200 Mm thickness was exposed to the reaction products for 5 hours. This time was enough to get the angular distribution for (d/d) in the range 5-72 Mm barn/ster.

  18. Note: Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal effusivity of transparent liquids by a method free of fitting procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, R.; Marín, E.; Villa, J.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Domínguez Pacheco, A.; Hernández Garrido, S.

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper published in this journal [R. Ivanov et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 064902 (2015)], a methodology free of fitting procedures for determining the thermal effusivity of liquids using the electropyroelectric technique was reported. Here the same measurement principle is extended to the well-known photopyroelectric technique. The theoretical basis and experimental basis of the method are presented and its usefulness is demonstrated with measurements on test samples.

  19. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main passive nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - nondestructive nuclear measurement, needs and motivation: nuclear fuel cycle, nondestructive nuclear measurements (passive and active methods), comments; 2 - main passive nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: gamma spectroscopy (principle, detectors, electronic systems, data acquisition and signal processing, domains of application, main limitations), passive neutronic measurements (needs and motivations, neutron detectors, total neutronic counting, neutronic coincidences counting, neutronic multiplicities counting, comments). (J.S.)

  20. Opinion on the radio-ecological monitoring of waters around nuclear installations and on the management of old nuclear waste warehousing sites: 18 recommendations to improve information, transparency and dialogue with involved parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the different actors (agencies, institutions, companies) involved in the activities of the various French nuclear installations (base nuclear installations and those concerning the national defence), this report describes the radio-ecological monitoring performed around these nuclear sites: water surveillance on these sites and within their environment, regulatory requirements on effluents and surveillance, information provided by operators and by institutional organisations, assessment of the radio-ecological status of nuclear sites and of potential environmental and health impacts. It describes regulatory obligation in terms of public information, information and communication actions, and gives an assessment of the High committee about public information quality. It discusses ways to improve this quality for a higher transparency, to reinforce the role of local information commissions (CLI), and improve site monitoring. All these aspects are grouped in 18 recommendations

  1. Refractive Index of a Transparent Liquid Measured with a Concave Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the refractive index "n" of a substance or medium is part of every introductory physics course. Various approaches to determine this index have been developed over the years based on the different ways light reflects and transmits in the medium. In this paper, the authors would like to present a simple geometrical derivation of the…

  2. Aerosol measurements and nuclear accidents: a reconsideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within its radioactivity environmental monitoring programme, the Commission of the European Communities and in particular its Joint Research Centre wants to encourage the qualitative improvement of radioactivity monitoring. On 3 and 4 December 1987 an experts' meeting has been organized by the Ispra Joint Research Centre in collaboration with the Gesellschaft fuer Aerosolforschung, in order to discuss measuring techniques for radioactive aerosols in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. During the workshop, current practices in routine monitoring programmes in the near and far field of nuclear power plants were confronted with the latest developments in the metrology of aerosols and radioactivity. The need and feasibility of implementing advanced aerosol and radioactivity techniques in routine monitoring networks have been discussed. This publication gives the full text of 12 presentations and a report of the roundtable discussion being held afterwards. It does not intend to give a complete picture of all activities going on in the field of radioactive aerosol metrology; it rather collects a number of common statements of people who approach the problem from quite different directions

  3. A working group for Japanese nuclear data measurement network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2013-01-01

    A new working group in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee has been established to make a cooperative network among researchers involved in nuclear data measurements and to discuss the strategy for nuclear data measurements. The working group activities are reported. (author)

  4. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied

  5. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  6. Development of Measurement Techniques For Strengthening Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of nuclear safeguards is based on the accounting and control of nuclear materials, nuclear technologies and activities in a State in order to attain its ''Legal'' goals of the application of atomic energy. The present paper investigates the development in the measurement techniques used in the verification and control of NMs for the purpose of strengthening safeguards. Its focus is to review the recent nuclear measurement techniques used for the identification and verification of nuclear materials.The different levels of verification and the accuracy of these techniques are discussed. The implementation of stregthened safeguards; and nuclear materials verification and control in the world are mentioned. Also, the recently proposed measures to enhance the ability to detect undeclared nuclear materials, nuclear activities and facilities that would need advanced measurement techniques are indicated.

  7. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  8. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  9. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  10. Temperature measurements inside nuclear reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarassenko, Serge

    1969-11-01

    Non negligible errors may happen in nuclear reactor temperature measurements using magnesium oxide insulated and stainless steel sheathed micro-wire thermocouples, when these thermometric lines are placed under operational conditions typical of electrical power stations. The present work shows that this error is principally due to electrical hysteresis and polarization phenomena in the insulator subjected to the strong fields generated by common-mode voltages. These phenomena favour the unsymmetrical common-mode current flow and thus lead to the differential-mode voltage generation which is superposing on the thermoelectric hot junction potential. A calculation and an experimental approach make possible the importance of the magnesium oxide insulating characteristics, the hot junction insulation, the choice of the main circuits in the data processing equipment as well as the galvanic isolation performances and the common-mode rejection features of all the measurement circuits. A justification is thereby given for the severe conditions imposed for the acceptance of thermoelectric materials; some particular precautions to be taken are described, as well as the high performance characteristics which have to be taken into account in choosing measurement systems linked to thermometric circuits with sheathed micro-wire thermocouples. (author) [fr

  11. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso

    2013-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community

  12. Notice about the transparency of the management of nuclear materials and wastes produced at the different steps of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    On behalf of the French minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea, and of the President of the Parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices, the high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) has examined the question of the international trade in relation with uranium processing, and with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at the different steps of the fuel cycle. The HCTISN has audited the French nuclear operators and administrations in concern and has visited some enrichment facilities in France and in UK. The aim of this notice is to answer some questions debated today: should reprocessed uranium and depleted uranium be considered as radioactive wastes? Do we send radioactive wastes to Russia? Is the resort to Russia for uranium enrichment a secret? Is the information spread by nuclear actors in agreement with citizens' expectations? To answer these questions, the document makes first a detailed presentation of the French fuel cycle, of the main radioelements and different uranium compounds involved. Then, the conditions of storage and transport of reprocessed and depleted uranium are presented as well. A third part presents the stakes linked with uranium supplies and the French policy implemented to secure these supplies in an international context. The forth part presents the definitions and decision principles implemented by the French legislation concerning the radioactive wastes and valorisable materials. The regulatory context of the main countries where uranium trades take place is presented as well. This part refers to the national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) established in agreement with the program law from June 28, 2006 and relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The last part is devoted to the quality of the information delivered to citizens. It presents a status and the difficulties

  13. Increasing transparency of nuclear-warhead and fissile-material stocks as a step toward disarmament -- Proposals for the NPT PrepCom, Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    These proposals made by the International Panel on Fissile Materials IPFM at a conference in Geneva, Switzerland, in April 2013 discuss how increasing transparency can help disarmament efforts. After a short introduction to IPFM and its mission, the action plan on nuclear disarmament is looked at and the various nations involved are listed. A set of baseline declarations proposed are discussed. These include warhead stocks, potential new declarations and fissile material stocks. Monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Authority IAEA is also reviewed. Preparations for future declarations concerning warhead and delivery systems locations, stockpile histories and fissile material production and disposal aspects are reported on. Finally, co-operative verification projects, warhead dismantlement and past fissile material production are examined

  14. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  15. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  16. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  17. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  18. Mining and biodiversity offsets: a transparent and science-based approach to measure "no-net-loss".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virah-Sawmy, Malika; Ebeling, Johannes; Taplin, Roslyn

    2014-10-01

    Mining and associated infrastructure developments can present themselves as economic opportunities that are difficult to forego for developing and industrialised countries alike. Almost inevitably, however, they lead to biodiversity loss. This trade-off can be greatest in economically poor but highly biodiverse regions. Biodiversity offsets have, therefore, increasingly been promoted as a mechanism to help achieve both the aims of development and biodiversity conservation. Accordingly, this mechanism is emerging as a key tool for multinational mining companies to demonstrate good environmental stewardship. Relying on offsets to achieve "no-net-loss" of biodiversity, however, requires certainty in their ecological integrity where they are used to sanction habitat destruction. Here, we discuss real-world practices in biodiversity offsetting by assessing how well some leading initiatives internationally integrate critical aspects of biodiversity attributes, net loss accounting and project management. With the aim of improving, rather than merely critiquing the approach, we analyse different aspects of biodiversity offsetting. Further, we analyse the potential pitfalls of developing counterfactual scenarios of biodiversity loss or gains in a project's absence. In this, we draw on insights from experience with carbon offsetting. This informs our discussion of realistic projections of project effectiveness and permanence of benefits to ensure no net losses, and the risk of displacing, rather than avoiding biodiversity losses ("leakage"). We show that the most prominent existing biodiversity offset initiatives employ broad and somewhat arbitrary parameters to measure habitat value and do not sufficiently consider real-world challenges in compensating losses in an effective and lasting manner. We propose a more transparent and science-based approach, supported with a new formula, to help design biodiversity offsets to realise their potential in enabling more responsible

  19. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  20. Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates' tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Jun; Hirose, Euichi

    2017-01-01

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is useful in predator avoidance. Transparent materials can be detected visually using light reflected from their surfaces, with the different refractive indices between two media, i.e., tunic and seawater, being the measure of reflectance. A larger difference in refractive indices thus provides a larger measure of reflectance. We measured the refractive indices of the transparent tunic of Thetys vagina (salp: Thaliacea) and Rhopalae a sp. (ascidian: Ascidiacea) using an Abbe refractometer and an ellipsometer to estimate the light reflection at the tunic surface and evaluate the anti-reflection effect of the nipple array structure on the tunic surface of T. vagina . At D-line light (λ = 589 nm), the refractive indices of the tunics were 0.002-0.004 greater than seawater in the measurements by Abbe refractometer, and 0.02-0.03 greater than seawater in the measurements by ellipsometer. The refractive indices of tunics were slightly higher than that of seawater. According to the simulation of light reflection based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), light at a large angle of incidence will be completely reflected from a surface when its refractive indices are smaller than seawater. Therefore, the refractive index of integument is important for enabling transparent organisms to remain invisible in the water column. In order to minimize reflectance, the refractive index should be similar to, but never smaller than, that of the surrounding seawater. The simulation also indicated that the presence or absence of a nipple array does not cause significant difference in reflectance on the surface. The nipple array on the tunic of the diurnal salp may have another function, such as bubble repellence, other than anti-reflection.

  1. Past and present of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The history of advancement of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is looked back. It is presented that Japanese contribution to these advancement has been in no small quantities. The future view carrying the measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is also described. (M.H.)

  2. Noticeable aspects of selecting intervention measures for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Shi Yuanming

    1993-01-01

    Referring to the experience of intervention measures taken for protecting the public after Chernobyl accident and to recent knowledge of source terms of reactor accidents, the noticeable aspects of selecting of intervention measures for nuclear accidents is discussed

  3. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a 6 He nuclear radioactive beam (β emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction 6 + 209 Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  4. HCTISN - High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety, Plenary meeting of the 3 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Eric; Schilz, Fabien; Piketty, Laurence; Martelet, Bertrand; Quintin, Christophe; Gauthier, Florence; Charles, T.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers a set of Power Point presentations. The first one, proposed by the ANDRA, addresses the challenges related to the long term management of dismantling wastes (quantities, perspectives for planning, optimization and R and D investments, ANDRA's missions, R and D themes, industrial developments, service providing). The second one, proposed by AREVA, addresses the dismantling of Areva's nuclear sites (challenges and peculiarities, organisation, overview of the different current dismantling projects in France). The third one, proposed by the ASN, discusses the current status, perspectives and challenges of dismantling (dismantling definition, objectives and strategies, ASN missions for the regulation, authorization, control, public information, and crisis management regarding dismantling, regulatory context with its procedures and for waste management, and installations being currently dismantled). The fourth one, proposed by the CEA, addresses the dismantling of CEA nuclear installations (presentation, challenges, strategy, organisation and financing of the A and D process (cleaning up and dismantling) within the CEA, a focus on the case of CEA installations in Grenoble, the return on experience within the CEA, R and D for A and D programs). The sixth presentation by EDF addresses the program of deconstruction of EDF generation-1 nuclear power plants (legal and financial framework and governance, dismantling policy and strategy, management of deconstruction waste, dismantling program for first-generation reactors and focus on the Brennilis and Chooz reactors, industrial and social challenges of operational practices). Proposed by the ministry of Ecology, the next presentation addresses the safety of nuclear installations and the return on experience after the intrusion in Tricastin (overview of regulation, progress in the implementation of PCMNIT regulation - protection and control of nuclear materials, of their installations and transport - by

  5. Measures for reinforcing safety at the Ohma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Iwata, Kichisa; Koga, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. ('J-POWER') has been moving ahead with the Ohma Nuclear Power Project at Ohma-machi, Shimokita-gun in Aomori Prefecture and commenced the construction of an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) in May 2008. In light of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Incident, J-POWER has undertaken an investigation of various measures for reinforcing safety at the Ohma nuclear power plant. These measures include a range of anti-tsunami measures, measures to ensure emergency power sources and ultimate heat removal functions, and responses for severe accidents. While consistently and properly reflecting the necessary measures, J-POWER will continue to ensure the creation of a safe power plant. J-POWER intends to appropriately reflect at all times new standards of technology established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority and makes concerted efforts to build a safe nuclear power plant in which the local community can have confidence. (author)

  6. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Kronqvist

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE 0.95 and standard deviation (SD of nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.84, GE 0.89 showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area. This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas.

  7. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  8. Neutron flux measuring system for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Kazuo.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid the generation of an undesired scram signal due to abrupt changes in the neutron level given to the detectors disposed near the boundary between the moderator and the atmosphere. Constitution: In a nuclear reactor adapted to conduct power control by the change of the level in the moderator such as heavy water, the outputs from the neutron detectors disposed vertically are averaged and the nuclear reactor is scramed corresponding to the averaged value. In this system, moderator level detectors are additionally provided to the nuclear reactor and their outputs, moderator level signal, are sent to a power averaging device where the output signals of the neutron detectors are judged if they are delivered from neutrons in the moderator or not depending on the magnitude of the level signal and the outputs of the detectors out of the moderator are substantially excluded. The reactor interlock signal from the device is utilized as a scram signal. (Seki, T.)

  9. Structure for Transparency in Nuclear Waste Management. Comparative Review of the Structures for Nuclear Waste Management in France, Sweden and the UK. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, Raul [Syncho Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents a comparison of the structures for nuclear waste management in France, Sweden and the UK. The source materials for this comparison are studies carried out in each of these countries by Syncho Ltd. over the past 5 years. The Swedish structural review was sponsored by SKI and SSI, and carried out as a pilot study during the years 1996 and 1997 as part of the RISCOM Pilot Project. The structural reviews of the British and French nuclear waste management systems have been in progress for the past two years (2001-2002) within the framework of RISCOM II, sponsored by the European Union. This report offers preliminary comparative views of the three systems. As with each of the individual studies more work and information are necessary to confirm and strengthen the findings. To set the context for this report it is important to remind the reader that the study in Sweden was undertaken 5 years ago, that the French case took place at the same time of significant structural changes in the country's nuclear waste management system and that the British case was undertaken at the same time of a far-reaching Government consultation process. In all cases the number of people interviewed was small. In summary, comparing the structures for transparency suggests that once existing channels for transparency are diagnosed, it should be possible to use benchmarks of good practice in one country to design methods to improve participation and communications in others. The framework used in this report allows making comparisons beyond factual reports of similarities or differences. An important conclusion of this report is that the democratic deficits that we experience today as citizens in all societies can be ameliorated if sufficient attention is paid to producing requisite organisations, with adequate communications, capable of bridging the gaps between the silent majorities and those experts and politicians responsible for policy decisions. It is the wisdom

  10. Structure for Transparency in Nuclear Waste Management. Comparative Review of the Structures for Nuclear Waste Management in France, Sweden and the UK. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Raul

    2002-11-01

    This report presents a comparison of the structures for nuclear waste management in France, Sweden and the UK. The source materials for this comparison are studies carried out in each of these countries by Syncho Ltd. over the past 5 years. The Swedish structural review was sponsored by SKI and SSI, and carried out as a pilot study during the years 1996 and 1997 as part of the RISCOM Pilot Project. The structural reviews of the British and French nuclear waste management systems have been in progress for the past two years (2001-2002) within the framework of RISCOM II, sponsored by the European Union. This report offers preliminary comparative views of the three systems. As with each of the individual studies more work and information are necessary to confirm and strengthen the findings. To set the context for this report it is important to remind the reader that the study in Sweden was undertaken 5 years ago, that the French case took place at the same time of significant structural changes in the country's nuclear waste management system and that the British case was undertaken at the same time of a far-reaching Government consultation process. In all cases the number of people interviewed was small. In summary, comparing the structures for transparency suggests that once existing channels for transparency are diagnosed, it should be possible to use benchmarks of good practice in one country to design methods to improve participation and communications in others. The framework used in this report allows making comparisons beyond factual reports of similarities or differences. An important conclusion of this report is that the democratic deficits that we experience today as citizens in all societies can be ameliorated if sufficient attention is paid to producing requisite organisations, with adequate communications, capable of bridging the gaps between the silent majorities and those experts and politicians responsible for policy decisions. It is the wisdom of the

  11. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ρ0 electroproduction off nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLAS Collaboration; El Fassi, L.; Zana, L.; Hafidi, K.; Holtrop, M.; Mustapha, B.; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, H.; Zheng, X.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Arrington, J.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Laget, J. M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e‧ρ0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced ρ0's on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ρA interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (lc), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). While the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no lc dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included the color transparency effects.

  12. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs

  13. Prospects of Optical Single Atom Detection in Noble Gas Solids for Measurements of Rare Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep; Bailey, Kevin G.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Tang, Xiaodong

    2013-04-01

    Optical detection of single atoms captured in solid noble gas matrices provides an alternative technique to study rare nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics. I will describe the prospects of applying this approach for cross section measurements of the ^22Ne,,),25Mg reaction, which is the crucial neutron source for the weak s process inside of massive stars. Noble gas solids are a promising medium for the capture, detection, and manipulation of atoms and nuclear spins. They provide stable and chemically inert confinement for a wide variety of guest species. Because noble gas solids are transparent at optical wavelengths, the guest atoms can be probed using lasers. We have observed that ytterbium in solid neon exhibits intersystem crossing (ISC) which results in a strong green fluorescence (546 nm) under excitation with blue light (389 nm). Several groups have observed ISC in many other guest-host pairs, notably magnesium in krypton. Because of the large wavelength separation of the excitation light and fluorescence light, optical detection of individual embedded guest atoms is feasible. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Progress of Nuclear Data Measurement in China during 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigang, Ge; Xichao, Ruan

    2014-01-01

    The China nuclear data activities consists of nuclear data measurement and related measurement methods development, data evaluation and model study, data library establishment and library management, nuclear data benchmark and validation. The main activities are being carried out at China Nuclear Data Center (CNDC), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) and China Nuclear Data Coordination Network (CNDCN). More than 10 institutions and universities are involved in CNDCN. The facilities used for the nuclear data measurements and studies include the HI-13 tandem accelerator, 600 kV-Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, 5SDH-2 2x1.7 MV tandem accelerator and the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) at CIAE, The 4.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Peking University and 300 kV -Cockcroft-Walton accelerator at Lanzhou university. This document presents the recent Progress of Nuclear Data Measurement in China: - the fission yields of 235 U at 3 MeV neutrons measured at CIAE; - the nuclear data benchmark system improvement at CIAE. With the new nuclear data benchmark system, the integral measurements were carried out for Be, Ga, natural iron and liquid Pb-Bi alloy. - The measurements of the 57 Fe(n,α) 54 Cr and 63 Cu(n,α) 60 Co reactions at neutron energies of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 MeV at Peking University. Finally, the document describes the new facilities for Nuclear Data Measurement: the Back-n white neutron source of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), the neutron facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP-NF), and the multipurpose Cooling Storage Ring system, a new accelerator project planned at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CRS)

  15. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seugkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed.

  16. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seugkook

    2015-01-01

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed

  17. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main active nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - main active nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: active neutronic measurement (needs and motivations, physical principle, measurement of delayed neutrons following a continuous irradiation, measurement of prompt neutrons (differential die-away technique - DDT), measurement of prompt and delayed neutrons (Sphincs method), neutronic method coupled to gamma spectroscopy), measurement by induced photo-fissions (needs and motivations, physical principle); 2 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the modern society, there is increasing demands for greater transparency. It has been discussed with respect to corruption or ethics issues in social science. The need for greater openness and transparency in nuclear regulation is widely recognised as public expectations on regulator grow. It is also related to the digital and information technology that enables disclosures of every activity and information of individual and organisation, characterised by numerous 'small brothers'. Transparency has become a key word in this ubiquitous era. Transparency in regulatory activities needs to be understood in following contexts. First, transparency is one of elements to build public confidence in regulator and eventually to achieve regulatory goal of providing the public with satisfaction at nuclear safety. Transparent bases of competence, independence, ethics and integrity of working process of regulatory body would enhance public confidence. Second, activities transmitting information on nuclear safety and preparedness to be accessed are different types of transparency. Communication is an active method of transparency. With increasing use of web-sites, 'digital transparency' is also discussed as passive one. Transparency in regulatory process may be more important than that of contents. Simply providing more information is of little value and specific information may need to be protected for security reason. Third, transparency should be discussed in international, national and organizational perspectives. It has been demanded through international instruments. for each country, transparency is demanded by residents, public, NGOs, media and other stakeholders. Employees also demand more transparency in operating and regulatory organisations. Whistle-blower may appear unless they are satisfied. Fourth, pursuing transparency may cause undue social cost or adverse effects. Over-transparency may decrease public confidence and the process for transparency may also hinder

  19. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams; Medicion de secciones eficaces nucleares usando haces radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a {sup 6} He nuclear radioactive beam ({beta} emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction {sup 6} + {sup 209} Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  20. Through a glass darkly - the meaning of transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first discusses the word 'transparency'. It is a metaphor drawn from optics; it is a term used in social and political science; the international civil society organisation. 'Transparency International' sees it as the paradigm to fight corruption in the world. From this discussion, the paper offers a working definition applicable to a nuclear regulatory organisation. The paper describes a difference between having transparent process, which might be called passive transparency; and transparent engagement with stakeholders -- active transparency. It discusses some of the issues and problems that arise for a nuclear regulatory organisation seeking to operate transparently. Much of the difficulty with true transparency is that it reveals the 'untidiness' of life. 'We see now as through a glass darkly'. What is the general view of society and the cultural attitudes towards Government agencies revealing that they are not perfect'? Can you have a transparent nuclear regulator of a secretive industry and with other stakeholders having political agendas? How can a technical 'judgment call' ever be fully transparent? Can an active culture of transparency sometimes result in a mere public relations campaign? Can transparency in a nuclear regulatory create expectations amongst stakeholders that will prove impossible to meet? These questions are discussed with some real-life examples. The paper concludes with some suggested 'fundamentals' for transparency in nuclear regulatory organisations. (author)

  1. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  2. Compositions of nuclear maps with vector measures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the compositions of nuclear maps, between two locally convex spaces, with vector measures and measurable functions are investigated. The composition with a vector measure has improved variational properties and a precompact range. The measurability and integrability properties of the composition of ...

  3. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  4. Confirmatory measurements of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Williams, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmatory measurements have been considered to be interim measures until accountability measurements could be performed. When the objectives of the measurements are defined and, measurement techniques selected to attain these objectives, confirmatory type measurements can significantly increase the effectiveness of the safeguards system and in some cases may be preferred to accountability measurements for safeguards purposes. The use of fingerprint type confirmatory measurements can provide highly reliable data to ensure no diversion of SNM has occurred. These measurements can be made quickly to provide rapid assessments of SNM in shipping or storage containers. The use of fingerprint type measurements at SRP on enriched uranium shipments was shown to provide assurance at a high confidence level that no diversion of SNM could have occurred. The objective of the 10 day DOE requirement for accountability measurements is to provide a rapid assessment of SNM quantity for safeguards purposes. In cases where confirmatory or fingerprint measurements have provided assurance that no diversion has occurred, the safeguards system is not compromised by delay of the accountability measurements. The accountability measurements can then be performed for inventory purposes without undue time constraints in a more cost effective and efficient manner. 1 fig

  5. Measurements of nuclear properties of shielding materials and nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, J.

    1961-12-01

    The objective of this study was determine total cross sections in resonant, thermal and sub thermal neutron energy range, i.e. from few tens of electron volts to 10 -4 . First part of this report contains theoretical results which enable obtaining parameters of nuclides resonant level from experimental data. in some cases it is possible to calculate total scattering cross section, coherent and incoherent cross section. Second part covers the description of transmission method for measuring the total cross section

  6. Measuring strategy of Support Centre RIVM for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruppers, M.J.M.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1994-11-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986 and its consequences were reason for the Dutch government to evaluate and improve the facilities and the preparedness for nuclear emergency management in the Netherlands. The results of the evaluation have been elaborated in operational terms in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (EPR). During an accident with radioactive material the Technical Information Group (TIG) coordinates the measuring activities of the so-called Support Centres. According to the EPR, measuring activities of Support Centre RIVM are focussed on the collection and processing of data on emissions, concentrations, depositions and radiation doses from soil and air. This report describes the measuring strategy of RIVM for nuclear emergencies. The measuring strategy and the measuring plan, the latter deduced from the measuring strategy, concentrate on explicit answers to the following central questions: what has to be measured, by whom, where, when and how, and why? The demands of the TIG and the specification of tasks and operational facilities of Support Centre RIVM are considered as starting-points, limiting conditions and constraints for the measuring strategy. These items are converted to explicit choices for the measuring strategy and the default measuring plan. This report further includes a list of contacts of Support Centre RIVM with other (research) institutes, inside and outside the Netherlands, which may be relevant during a nuclear emergency. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  7. Handbook of nuclear safeguards measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.R.

    1983-09-01

    This handbook is intended to be a guide to the selection of methods for meeting specific measurement requirements. The information was compiled from a survey of production facilities, the literature, and current exchange programs. The survey included bulk measurements, chemical assay, sampling techniques, isotopic measurements, passive NDA, and active NDA

  8. Overview of nuclear data measurement facilities in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioux, P.; Rowlands, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    In 1992 EDF commissioned a review of activity in the fields of nuclear data for fission power technology applications in OECD countries. The review was carried out in cooperation with the consultants EUROGRAM. This paper presents a summary. The situation is of concern to the French nuclear industry because of the few measurement facilities which are now funded for work in the field and the reductions in the numbers of scientists expert in measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. There are requirements which justify work to improve knowledge of many items of nuclear data. To ensure maintenance of expertise the French Nuclear Industry has arranged for several young scientists to work with leading experts in the different fields. However, the problem of continued availability of facilities remains. (authors)

  9. Functional Measurements in Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M. J. [Institute of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    The strength of nuclear medicine lies in using the tracer method to acquire information about how an organ is or is not functioning as it should. This modality, therefore, focuses on physiological organ function for diagnoses and not on anatomical information such as X ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging. The three aspects involved in the process are: (i) choice of radioactive tracer, (ii) method of detection of the emissions from the tracer, and (iii) analysis of the results of the detection. The radioactive tracers on which nuclear medicine (or molecular imaging as it is increasingly being called) is based are designed to participate in or ‘trace’ a chosen function of the body. Their distribution is then found by detecting and locating the emissions, usually γ photons, of the radioactive tracer. The tracer may be involved in a metabolic process, such as iodine in the thyroid, or it may take part in a physiological process because of its physical make-up, such as macroaggregate of albumin (MAA) in the lungs.

  10. Legal framework to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a national and an international trend towards administrative transparency. This trend has not stopped at. the Swiss border. Some cantons of Switzerland have already introduced the transparency principle at the cantonal level. At the federal level, the Swiss Confederation introduced on 1 July 2006 the new Federal 'Freedom of Information Act'. Also the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (I-ISK) falls under this rule. Before introduction of this law on transparency. most of the documents of Swiss federal Administration were treated as confidential. Access rights to official documents were granted only on certain conditions and in special cases. But there is a general interest, that the public should have the possibility to ask to look at the files of the administration. Since years, the administration had no longer been able to hide behind secretiveness. For instance, the introduction of Internet brought a lot of transparency. The administration had to explain what sort of job it is actually doing and how it is doing. Also, the media were and are increasing their research for information. In this context, the new law on transparency ('Freedom of Information Act') is rather an evolution than a revolution. The Freedom of Information Act guarantees the public access to official documents. Most of the documents of the Federal Administration are public. This access can be limited, differentiated or refused in certain cases. That means that the principle of proportionality between private interests and public transparency has to be applied. The real challenge for the authority is the trade off between the public's right to access information and the industrial legitimate efforts to protect industrial and trade secrets. In the nuclear field, the international principle of transparency has also become an important national principle for Switzerland and FISK. The Swiss Nuclear Energy Act says that 'The relevant authorities shall regularly inform the general

  11. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  12. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-01

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation

  13. Fabrication of 4-cylinder transparent engine and measurement of the flame propagation behavior with high speed camera at idle condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, S.H. [Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, K.M. [Yonse University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    A transparent engine for visualization study is made using a production 4 cylinder engine. Flame propagation results from individual combustion cycles with high-speed cinematography are presented and discussed for idle condition. The flame propagation image and the in-cylinder pressure were obtained simultaneously, and the image processing software which can calculate the flame area and the flame center was developed. The flame propagation behavior of each cycle shows high cyclic variations, and there are linear correlation between flame area and the in-cylinder pressure. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  15. Direct measurement of erythrocyte deformability in diabetes mellitus with a transparent microchannel capillary model and high-speed video camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K; Sekizuka, E; Oshio, C; Minamitani, H

    2001-05-01

    To measure erythrocyte deformability in vitro, we made transparent microchannels on a crystal substrate as a capillary model. We observed axisymmetrically deformed erythrocytes and defined a deformation index directly from individual flowing erythrocytes. By appropriate choice of channel width and erythrocyte velocity, we could observe erythrocytes deforming to a parachute-like shape similar to that occurring in capillaries. The flowing erythrocytes magnified 200-fold through microscopy were recorded with an image-intensified high-speed video camera system. The sensitivity of deformability measurement was confirmed by comparing the deformation index in healthy controls with erythrocytes whose membranes were hardened by glutaraldehyde. We confirmed that the crystal microchannel system is a valuable tool for erythrocyte deformability measurement. Microangiopathy is a characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus. A decrease in erythrocyte deformability may be part of the cause of this complication. In order to identify the difference in erythrocyte deformability between control and diabetic erythrocytes, we measured erythrocyte deformability using transparent crystal microchannels and a high-speed video camera system. The deformability of diabetic erythrocytes was indeed measurably lower than that of erythrocytes in healthy controls. This result suggests that impaired deformability in diabetic erythrocytes can cause altered viscosity and increase the shear stress on the microvessel wall. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Nuclear instrument engineering - the measuring and informative basis of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.V.; Krasheninnikov, I.S.; Murin, I.D.; Stas', K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The cornerstones of developing nuclear instrument engineering in the USSR are shortly discussed. The industry is based on a well developed theory. A system approach is a characteristic feature of the present-day measuring and control systems engineering. Major functions of reactor instruments measuring different types of ionizing radiation are discussed at greater length. Nuclear measuring and control instruments and methods are widely used in different fields of science and technoloay and in different industries in the USSR. The efficient and safe operation of a nuclear facility is underlined to depend strongly upon a correlation between a technological process and the information and control system of the facility

  17. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1983 of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel (Belgium) researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment (linear accelerator). Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section

  18. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements. Special nuclear material accountability report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM(Special Nuclear Materials) accounting purposes are emphasized

  19. Measuring and improving the public perceptions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the public's perception on risk and benefit of nuclear power and to find ways to improve the perceptions. Latent Class Analysis is adopted for the perception measures, which quantify people's perception and reveal the perception structure. The measures resulted from Latent Class Analysis show that women perceive risks to be more existent and benefits to be less than men do. Moreover there is a tendency that if education level is high, perceived risk is low and perceived benefit is high. The perception of risk and benefit also depends on different channels through which people get information about nuclear energy. Comparing seven different information channels, the most effective ways of communicating with people to improve the risk and benefit perception of nuclear energy are found to be the visit to nuclear plants and the education through the regular schooling. Information dissemination through mass media is only effective to the benefit perception

  20. How is it possible to measure a nuclear temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for the measurement of nuclear temperatures are summarized. The concepts of hot nuclei and temperature are defined. The nuclear equation of state is presented. The statistical theory of hot nuclei decay properties is analyzed. The obtention of the excitation energy from the recoil velocity measurement is considered in the case of complete and incomplete fusion. The measurements of temperature and excitation energy from the properties of decay products are reviewed. The study shows that no measurement method is perfect. Moreover, it is necessary to select events for which the degree of dissipation of the incident energy is estimated

  1. In-vitro-measuring in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, F.

    1976-01-01

    The latest developments in in-vitro measuring are in the fields of sample preparation and data processing. They help to arrive at integrated systems enabling an almost complete automation, especially of radioimmunoassays. (orig.) [de

  2. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  3. Intelligent nuclear measuring system for multi detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujgiczer, A.; Solymosi, J.; Zsille, O.; Illes, Z.; Barnabas, I.; Ranga, T.; Lakatos, T.

    1998-01-01

    The measuring system can be used for recording gamma spectra and/or experimental beta-dispersion. Several environmental samples can be examined simultaneously, and the instrument can be used in the laboratory or in the field. Low cost multichannel analyzers using NaI(Tl) or plastic scintillators are interfaced to an IBM PC/AT, which controls the measurement, data processing, and data transmission and archiving. (M.D.)

  4. Impact of Precision Mass Measurements on Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Dilling, Jens; Litvinov, Yuri A

    2013-01-01

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of neutron and proton number, N and Z, respectively. The data obtained through mass measurements provide details of the nuclear interaction and thus apply to a variety of physics topics. Some of the most crucial questions to be addressed by mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides are, on the one hand, nuclear forces and structure, describing phenomena such as the so-called neutron-halos or the evolution of magic numbers when moving towards the borders of nuclear existence. On the other hand, the understanding of the processes of element formation in the Universe poses a challenge and requires an accurate knowledge of nuclear astrophysics. Here, precision atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis processes are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations.

  5. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for fusion power measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöstrand Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron measurements using neutron activation systems are an essential part of the diagnostic system at large fusion machines such as JET and ITER. Nuclear data is used to infer the neutron yield. Consequently, high-quality nuclear data is essential for the proper determination of the neutron yield and fusion power. However, uncertainties due to nuclear data are not fully taken into account in uncertainty analysis for neutron yield calibrations using activation foils. This paper investigates the neutron yield uncertainty due to nuclear data using the so-called Total Monte Carlo Method. The work is performed using a detailed MCNP model of the JET fusion machine; the uncertainties due to the cross-sections and angular distributions in JET structural materials, as well as the activation cross-sections in the activation foils, are analysed. It is found that a significant contribution to the neutron yield uncertainty can come from uncertainties in the nuclear data.

  6. Resolution proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks generated by the opening of the capital and the privatization of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The privatization of the French nuclear industry leads to three types of risks: the dilution of decision prerogatives (need of long-term investment for maintenance and safety purposes which are incompatible with immediate profits), incompatibility between private control and safety, and speculation (need of stable and durable financing for a sustainable safety). For these reasons, the French house of commons has created an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks linked with the capital opening and privatization of the French nuclear industry. (J.S.)

  7. Building, measuring and improving public confidence in the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    An important factor for public confidence in the nuclear regulator is the general public trust of the government and its representatives, which is clearly not the same in all countries. Likewise, cultural differences between countries can be considerable, and similar means of communication between government authorities and the public may not be universally effective. Nevertheless, this workshop identified a number of common principles for the communication of nuclear regulatory decisions that can be recommended to all regulators. They have been cited in particular for their ability to help build, measure and/or improve overall public confidence in the nuclear regulator. (author)

  8. The design of nuclear radiation measuring instrument of embedded network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqiang; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2009-01-01

    The design and realization of nuclear radiation measuring instrument is introduced. Due to the current nuclear instrument often used serial interface to communicate the PC, it is widely used for simple design and easy operation. However, as the demand of remote data acquisition and the call of sharing resources, the design of embedded the TCP/IP protocol stack into MCU, it may send the nuclear signal in Internet. Some devices that link each other with the network can be networked. The design is not only realizing remote data acquisition and sharing resources, but also reducing costs and improving the maintainability of the system. (authors)

  9. Measurement of nuclear moments and radii by collinear laser spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Geithner, W R; Lievens, P; Kotrotsios, G; Silverans, R; Kappertz, S

    2002-01-01

    %IS304 %title\\\\ \\\\Collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam has proven to be a widely applicable and very efficient tool for measurements of changes in mean square nuclear charge radii, nuclear spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Recent developments of extremely sensitive non-optical detection schemes enabled for some elements the extension of the measurements towards the very short-lived isotopes in the far wings of the ISOLDE production curves. The gain in sensitivity opens up new perspectives, particularly for measurements on lighter nuclei whose ground-state properties can be interpreted by large scale microscopic calculations instead of the more phenomenologic models used for heavier nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ For the sequence of argon isotopes $^{32-40}$Ar and $^{46}$Ar isotope shifts and nuclear moments were measured by optical pumping followed by state selective collisional ionization and detection of the $\\beta$-decay. Similarly, the low-background $\\alpha$-detection was used to extend earlie...

  10. Water vapor self-continuum absorption measurements in the 4.0 and 2.1 μm transparency windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, L.; Vasilchenko, S.; Mondelain, D.; Ventrillard, I.; Romanini, D.; Campargue, A.

    2017-11-01

    In a recent contribution [A. Campargue, S. Kassi, D. Mondelain, S. Vasilchenko, D. Romanini, Accurate laboratory determination of the near infrared water vapor self-continuum: A test of the MT_CKD model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121,13,180-13,203, doi:10.1002/2016JD025531], we reported accurate water vapor absorption continuum measurements by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at selected spectral points of 4 near infrared transparency windows. In the present work, the self-continuum cross-sections, CS, are determined for two new spectral points. The 2491 cm-1 spectral point in the region of maximum transparency of the 4.0 μm window was measured by OF-CEAS in the 23-52 °C temperature range. The 4435 cm-1 spectral point of the 2.1 μm window was measured by CRDS at room temperature. The self-continuum cross-sections were determined from the pressure squared dependence of the continuum absorption. Comparison to the literature shows a reasonable agreement with 1970 s and 1980 s measurements using a grating spectrograph in the 4.0 μm window and a very good consistency with our previous laser measurements in the 2.1 μm window. For both studied spectral points, our values are much smaller than previous room temperature measurements by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. Significant deviations (up to about a factor 4) are noted compared to the widely used semi empirical MT_CKD model of the absorption continuum. The measured temperature dependence at 2491 cm-1 is consistent with previous high temperature measurements in the 4.0 μm window and follows an exp(D0/kT) law, D0 being the dissociation energy of the water dimer.

  11. Highlighted requests of neutron nuclear data measurements for fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Highlighted requests were selected from lists of requests for neutron nuclear Data measurements. This work was made by WRENDA Working Group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee in response to an action of the NEANDC. This will be submitted to a NEA meeting on request lists. Compiled requests in this note correspond finally to the parts of the WRENDA 76/77 with some modifications and additional comments. (auth.)

  12. Recent advances in measurements of the nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Bency

    2007-01-01

    A short review of recent advances in measurements of the nuclear level density is given. First results of the inverse level density parameter - angular momentum correlation in a number of nuclei around Z∼50 shell region at an excitation energy around 0.3 MeV/nucleon are presented. Significant variations observed over and above the expected shell corrections are discussed in context of the emerging trends in microscopic calculations of the nuclear level density. (author)

  13. Measurement implications for effective testing in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaret, R.; Pawlowski, V.

    1983-01-01

    The primary thrust of this paper is to present an overview of the measurement concepts of reliability and validity. Techniques and issues are presented which will allow Nuclear Training Personnel to have greater confidence in the accuracy of scores obtained from in-house developed tests. While it is realized that the conditions under which tests are developed in Nuclear Training environments are less than ideal, the concepts and techniques addressed can be applied under any conditions

  14. Non-destructive measurement technologies for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    1998-04-01

    There are three aspects that need to be in place in order to maintain a valid safeguards system: (1) Physical protection; guarding the access to nuclear materials using physical protection and surveillance. (2) Accounting systems; computer based accounting systems that provide the current location of nuclear materials, quantities, and the uncertainty in the assayed values. (3) Measurement systems; detectors, data acquisition systems and data analysis methods that provide accurate assays of nuclear material quantities for the accounting system. The authors expand on this third aspect, measurement systems, by discussing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. NDA is defined as the quantitative or qualitative determination of the kind and/or amount of nuclear material in an item without alteration or invasion of the item. This is contrasted with destructive analysis which is the process of taking small samples from the item in question, analyzing those samples by chemical analysis, destroying the original nature of the samples in the process (hence the term destructive), and applying the results to the entire item. Over the past 30 years, numerous techniques, using the atomic and nuclear properties of the actinides, have been developed for reliable, rapid, accurate, and tamper-proof NDA of nuclear materials. The authors distinguish between two types of measurements: the first involving the detection of spontaneously emitted radiation, produced by the natural radioactive decay processes; the second involving the detection of induced radiation, produced by irradiating the sample with an external radiation source

  15. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  16. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  17. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  18. Nuclear isotope measurement in the Hanford environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, J.F.; Stoffel, J.J.; Kelley, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is located at the federal government's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, which was built during World War II as part of the secret Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb. Monitoring of the Site itself and surrounding environs for Hanford-related radionuclides has been a routine part of the operations since 1944. One of the most sensitive analytical methods used is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) with triple-sector mass spectrometers. Normal geometry instruments have an abundance sensitivity of 10 -9 for uranium while the authors' newest Triple-Sector Isotope Mass Spectrometer (TRISM), utilizing a new ion-optical design developed at PNL, has an abundance sensitivity of 10 -11 . In favorable cases, sensitivity is such that complete isotopic analyses are obtained on total samples in the femtogram range; and minor isotopes in the attogram range are measured

  19. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doizi, D.; Reymond la Ruinaz, S.; Haykal, I.; Manceron, L.; Perrin, A.; Boudon, V.; Vander Auwera, J.; tchana, F. Kwabia; Faye, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d'Investissement d'Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements) is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium) outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  20. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doizi D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d’Investissement d’Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  1. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  2. Nuclear decay data measurements at the INEL ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, R.C.; Helmer, R.G.; Putnam, M.H.; Struttmann, D.A.; Watts, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the use of the mass separation technique coupled on-line to a source of fission product nuclides has provided a wealth of new information on the nuclear decay properties of such nuclides. In addition to their relevance in basic studies of nuclear properties of neutron-rich nuclei, the fission product nuclides as a group, because of their intimate link with energy production in fission reactors, occupy a unique position in the field of applied nuclear decay data. Further, in addition to their critical role in nuclear reactor technology (decay heat source term, environmental concerns, etc.), such data have important applications in astrophysical calculations involving the rapid neutron capture process (r-process) of elemental synthesis in stellar environments. The scope of the nuclear decay data measurements being undertaken using the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) isotope separation on-line (ISOL) facility is focused on a systematic study of the gross nuclear decay properties of short-lived fission product isotopes, i.e., ground-state half-lives, beta-decay energies and beta-decay feeding (or beta-strength) distributions. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of new measurements of beta-decay energies and feeding distributions

  3. Measurement and control systems using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive Assay is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: interface of input/output (I/O) (hardware) and graphical interface (software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (set point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: to reject or to accept the analyzed material. The I/O interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical interface (software) is written in visual C++ language. (author)

  4. Portable apparatus for measurement of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus described is stated to be particularly applicable to the measurement of tritium contamination of a surface, although it may have other applications to the determination of radioactivity on surfaces. The mean range of a tritium β particle in air at normal atmospheric pressure is only 1.5 mm. and when monitoring such radiation with the apparatus it is necessary to exclude light. The apparatus comprises a plastic scintillator sheet located in the base of a housing, with a sealing ring mounted in the base so as to make a hermetic and light-tight seal between a support surface and the base of the housing. Photomultiplier means are optically coupled to the scintillator sheet to detect and amplify the scintillations, and a pump device is provided to reduce the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet to below atmospheric pressure. The scintillator sheet and the photomultiplier means are movable as one unit within the housing, the unit being arranged to be acted upon by atmospheric pressure so as to move the unit into an operative position against a spring when the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. A shutter is provided to prevent exposure of the scintillator sheet to light when the apparatus is not in use. (U.K.)

  5. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  6. International nuclear data measurement activities. Newsletter No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    A survey is presented for various laboratories where nuclear data measurement facilities are applied to measure specific data. The laboratories are located in France (2 laboratories), in Germany (4 laboratories), in Japan (10 laboratories), in Russia (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering), in Sweden (Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University), and in the USA (5 laboratories). Two international organizations are also included: Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, and Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. (R.P.)

  7. Emergency measures following hypothetical actions against nuclear facilities in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogani, A.; Tabet, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident a national emergency plan of protective measures for radiological emergencies has been set up in Italy to cope with nuclear risks which require actions at national level. Since most of the Italian nuclear installations are, at present, not operational, the most relevant nuclear risk sources identified in the national emergency plan stem from accidents in nuclear power plants near the Italian borders or aboard nuclearpropelled ships, or events related to the fall of nuclear-powered satellites and transportation of radioactive materials. The plan identifies a reference scenario for nation-wide emergency interventions and the proper structures to be involved in the radiological emergency. However, risks related to nuclear terrorism are not taken into account in the plan, whereas nuclear plants as well as nuclear materials and sources (in use in medical, scientific and industrial applications) are known to represent potential targets for hostile acts, potentially giving rise to harmful radioactive releases into the atmosphere. Along with four nuclear power plants, now undergoing a decommissioning procedure, several other nuclear facilities, such as provisional radioactive waste deposits or research centers, are present in Italy. Unfortunately not all of the radioactive waste inventory is conditioned in such a way to make a spread of radioactive contamination, as a consequence of a hostile action, unlikely; moreover, spent fuel elements are still kept, in some cases, inside the plant spent fuel storage pool. In this paper the hypothetical radiological impact of deliberate actions against some reference nuclear installations will be evaluated, together with its amplications for an appropriate profiling of the emergency countermeasures which could be required. Especially the case of a terrorism act against a spent fuel storage pool is worked out in some detail, as this event appears to be one of those with the most severe

  8. Entanglement measures in embedding quantum simulators with nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tao; Pedernales, Julen S.; Solano, Enrique; Long, Gui-Lu

    2018-02-01

    We implement an embedding quantum simulator (EQS) in nuclear spin systems. The experiment consists of a simulator of up to three qubits, plus a single ancillary qubit, where we are able to efficiently measure the concurrence and the three-tangle of two-qubit and three-qubit systems as they undergo entangling dynamics. The EQS framework allows us to drastically reduce the number of measurements needed for this task, which otherwise would require full-state reconstruction of the qubit system. Our simulator is built of the nuclear spins of four 13C atoms in a molecule of trans-crotonic acid manipulated with NMR techniques.

  9. Measuring air core characteristics of a pressure-swirl atomizer via a transparent acrylic nozzle at various Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun J.; Oh, Sang Youp; Kim, Ho Y.; Yoon, Sam S. [Dept. of Mechanical, Korea University Anamdong, 5-Ga, Sungbukgu, 136-713 Seoul (Korea); James, Scott C. [Thermal/Fluid Science and Engineering, Sandia National Labs, PO Box 969, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Because of thermal fluid-property dependence, atomization stability (or flow regime) can change even at fixed operating conditions when subject to temperature change. Particularly at low temperatures, fuel's high viscosity can prevent a pressure-swirl (or simplex) atomizer from sustaining a centrifugal-driven air core within the fuel injector. During disruption of the air core inside an injector, spray characteristics outside the nozzle reflect a highly unstable, nonlinear mode where air core length, Sauter mean diameter (SMD), cone angle, and discharge coefficient variability. To better understand injector performance, these characteristics of the pressure-swirl atomizer were experimentally investigated and data were correlated to Reynolds numbers (Re). Using a transparent acrylic nozzle, the air core length, SMD, cone angle, and discharge coefficient are observed as a function of Re. The critical Reynolds numbers that distinguish the transition from unstable mode to transitional mode and eventually to a stable mode are reported. The working fluids are diesel and a kerosene-based fuel, referred to as bunker-A. (author)

  10. The LPCTrap experiment: measurement of the {beta}-{nu} angular correlation in {sup 6}He{sup +} decay using a transparent Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, Ph., E-mail: velten@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Rodriguez, D.; Thomas, J. C. [Universite de Caen, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN (France)

    2011-07-15

    The LPCTrap experiment is devoted to the precise measurement of the {beta}-{nu} angular correlation parameter, a{sub {beta}{nu}}, in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of {sup 6}He{sup +}. This experiment is motivated by the search of the presence of tensor type contributions in the weak interaction. The radioactive source is confined in a transparent Paul trap installed at LIRAT, the low energy beam line of the SPIRAL facility. The {beta}-{nu} correlation is studied by measuring the time of flight of the recoil ions detected in coincidence with the {beta} particles. During the last experiment, a total of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} coincidence events have been recorded which would enable to determine the coefficient with a statistical uncertainty of 0.5%. The status of the analysis is presented in this contribution.

  11. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  12. What are the communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? Report from a Team Syntegrity Meeting. The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Espejo, Raul; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2003-09-01

    The Team Syntegrity Meeting is a special part of the project. It aims for increased awareness among key stakeholder groups in Europe about how nuclear waste decision processes should be developed in order to increase transparency and trust. Team Syntegrity is conducted with a special meeting format. The self-organisation of the meeting is a strong positive feature of the format. Instead of having a project leader setting the agenda, the participants formulate their own topics of relevance starting from an opening question. This report documents the meeting that was held in Lanaken, Belgium on 14-17 May 2002. The opening question for the meeting was: What are communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? There are different opinions about how communication on nuclear waste issues should be done. There are differences between stakeholder groups, and there are different approaches taken in various countries. Still it should be possible to reach a deeper understanding of social communications, that is, understanding the requirements to have effective communications between policy makers, experts and stakeholders. The aim was thus not to develop common views on the nuclear waste problem as such, but rather common grounds for developing procedures for effective communication. Hopefully, this meeting made some progress in this direction. The call for the Team Syntegrity (TS) Meeting resulted in 105 Statements of Importance given in Appendix 2. Following the TS format the meeting then formed its own agenda by first producing 30 Aggregated Statements of Importance (Appendix 3), which were grouped into 12 Consolidated Statements of Importance or topics. The group discussions were thus held under the twelve topics of: Consultation, communication and participation; Mutual learning; Roles and arenas; Heritage; Transparency; Wider context; Process; Risk; Institutional cultures

  13. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM accounting purposes are emphasized

  14. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  15. Non destructive nuclear measurements for control and characterization purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2002-01-01

    In this report for accreditation to supervise researches, the author proposes a large and rather precise overview of his research works which dealt with the upstream and downstream parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. After having discussed the different needs associated with non destructive nuclear measurements during the fuel cycle, the author describes his past research activities. In the following parts, he discusses control and characterization methods associated with the upstream and downstream parts of the fuel cycle: fuel density variation measurement, non destructive control of uranium-235 content of enriched uranium ingots, examination of induced photo-fissions in radioactive waste parcels, use of electron accelerator for simultaneous neutron and photon examination, measurement of the spatial distribution of the photonic component from the Mini Linatron, association of non destructive measurement techniques

  16. Development of simplified nuclear dry plate measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y; Ohta, I [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Tezuka, I; Tezuka, T; Makino, K

    1981-08-01

    A simplified nuclear dry plate measuring system was developed. The system consists of a microscope, an ITV camera, a monitor TV, an XY tracker and a micro-computer. The signals of the images of tracks in a nuclear dry plate are sent to the XY tracker, and shown on the monitor TV. The XY tracker displays a pointer on the monitor TV, and makes the output signal of its XY coordinate. This output signal is analyzed by the microcomputer. The software for the measuring process is composed of a program system written in BASIC and the machine language. The data in take, the expansion of the range of measurement and the output of analyzed data are controlled by the program. The accuracy of the measurement of coordinate was studied, and was about 0.39 micrometer for 10 micrometer distance.

  17. Measurement of C-14 distribution in forest around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Arakhatoon, Jahan

    2003-01-01

    A simple analytical method of C-14 measurement using fast bomb combustion and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been developed for measuring C-14 distribution in the terrestrial environment. Specific activities of C-14 in cedar leaves and soils collected from an area around nuclear facilities and control areas were measured using this method. Depth distribution of Cs-137 in soils was also measured at the same sampling sites and compared with the depth distribution of C-14. C-14 specific activity in cedar leaves examined around nuclear facilities exceeded that in the control areas by 8 to 30 mBq (g carbon) -1 . The depth distribution of C-14 in forest soil shows that C-14 has peak values in the top 10 cm of the soil profiles ascribed to the highest bomb C-14 level in the 1960's. The data were made available to assess the behavior of fallout C-14 in the surface environment. (author)

  18. A novel experimental technique of nuclear lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuminov, O.A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Giardina, G.; Taccone, A.; Vannini, G.; Moroni, A.; Ricci, R.A.; Vannucci, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper a new experimental method to measure nuclear reaction time in the 10 -15 -10 -10 s region is presented. Measurements of the lifetimes of low-lying and long-lived states of 19 F and 20 Ne decaying via α-channel were carried out with the aim of checking the feasibility of the method. The results obtained in this way are compared with the lifetimes known from different techniques. ((orig.))

  19. Integral tightness measurements at the Paks-1 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubner, R.; Techy, Z. (Villamosenergiaipari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-01-01

    The containment system experiments of the Paks-1 nuclear reactor are described. The integrated tightness measurements of the hermetic system were completed in 1982. The principles and methods and the evaluation of the results of the measurements are discussed. Some features of the filtration characteristics are demonstrated using relative values and a method enabling the description of the physical contents of the characteristics by flow technical functions is outlined.

  20. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  1. Creating internal culture to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, E.

    2007-01-01

    Among the keys to achieving public confidence, is openness and transparency to those one serves. As a Federal regulator entrusted by the American people to protect them against the hazards of radiation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recognizes the need for openness and a strong 'safety culture and climate' where there is a 'safety-first focus' by its employees as well as those it regulates. For the NRC and nuclear industry, safety culture is typically the assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisations and individuals which establishes nuclear safety as an overriding priority. Strong safety cultures include conservative decision making, strict adherence to procedures, questioning attitudes, and an environment in which employees feel free to raise safety concerns. A strong internal safety culture that is transparent to others helps the NRC to be more effective in carrying out its safety job to protect the public through its oversight of the nation's nuclear power plants and other civilian uses of nuclear energy. Creating the appropriate environment or culture and communicating NBC's contribution to safety can affect employee and ultimately public perceptions about the agency's commitment to safety in its daily activities. Where there is openness and transparency, trust and confidence are likely to follow. To assess and measure its safety culture, the NRC commissioned three independent surveys to be performed in conjunction with some use of focus groups over an 8-year period. The results identified strengths and weakness, and were compared to previous survey results as well as to other U.S. government organisations and national benchmarks. Perhaps the most surprising results came from the 2002 survey that found a third of NRC employees questioned the agency's commitment to safety, and almost half of the staff said that they did not feel it was safe to speak up in the agency. Some changes at the agency were made and the 2005 survey results showed

  2. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  3. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques; Medicion de fracciones de vacio por tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  4. A universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1988-01-01

    Genitron Instruments, Frankfurt/Main, committed themselves to revise the 'conventional' concept of counting tube metrology. The goal was to develop a modular system that would allow large-area measuring tasks. The contribution in hand explains this development, which consists of a highly integrated measuring head that can be combined with various detector types, and complemented by various system components, to form a universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation. This modular design concept is capable of fulfilling a multitude of tasks, ranging from single, specific applications to non-stop monitoring tasks within a large-area measuring network. (orig./DG) [de

  5. The optimization design of nuclear measurement teaching equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Rulong; Qiu Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    So far domestic student-oriented experimental nuclear measuring instruments are used only to measure object density, thickness or material level, and in the choice of sources activity is mostly about 10 mCi. this design will proposed a optimization program dealing with domestic situation. It discussed the radioactive sources activity, the structural design of sealed sources, such as the choice of the tested material in order to get a program optimization. The program used 1 mCi activity radioactive sources 137 Cs to reduce the radiation dose, and the measurement function was improved. So that the apparatus can measure density, thickness nad material level. (authors)

  6. Physical and measuring principles of nuclear well logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, U.; Winkler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the general task of nuclear geophysics as a special discipline of applied geophyscis, the essential physical problems of nuclear well logging techniques are considered. Particularly, the quantitative relationship between measured values and interesting geologic parameters to be determined are discussed taking into account internal and external perturbation parameters. Resulting from this study, the technological requirements for radiation sources and their shielding, for detectors, electronic circuits in logging tools, signal transmission by cable and recording equipment are derived, and explained on the basis of examples of gamma-gamma and neutron-neutron logging. (author)

  7. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  8. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  9. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  10. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  11. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  12. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  13. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  14. Radioactive Aerosol Size Distribution Measured in Nuclear Workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Oved, S.; German, U.

    2002-01-01

    Inhalation is the main route for internal exposure of workers to radioactive aerosols in the nuclear industry.Aerosol's size distribution and in particular its activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD)is important for determining the fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract and the resulting doses. Respiratory tract models have been published by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP).The former model has recommended a default AMAD of 1 micron for the calculation of dose coefficients for workers in the nuclear industry [1].The recent model recommends a 5 microns default diameter for occupational exposure which is considered to be more representative of workplace aerosols [2]. Several researches on radioactive aerosol's size distribution in nuclear workplaces has supported this recommendation [3,4].This paper presents the results of radioactive aerosols size distribution measurements taken at several workplaces of the uranium production process

  15. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  16. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  17. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  18. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  19. Application of smart transmitter technology in nuclear engineering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    By making use of the microprocessor technology, instrumentation system becomes intelligent. In this study a programmable smart transmitter is designed and applied to the nuclear engineering measurements. In order to apply the smart transmitter technology to nuclear engineering measurements, the digital time delay compensation function and water level change detection function are developed and applied in this work. The time compensation function compensates effectively the time delay of the measured signal, but it is found that the characteristics of the compensation function should be considered through its application. It is also found that the water level change detection function reduces the detection time to about 7 seconds by the signal processing which has the time constant of over 250 seconds and which has the heavy noise. (Author)

  20. Parameters affecting level measurement interpretation of nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.A.; Landat, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a level measurement technique commonly used in the measurement of radioactive liquids and equipment utilised by the inspectors for safeguards purposes. Some of the influencing parameters affecting the measurement results by this technique are characterised. An essential requisite for successful process operations in chemical facilities involving liquids generally require some physical measurements to be made in-line for both process and quality control in order to achieve the necessary final product specifications . In nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, the same objectives apply coupled however with an additional requirement of achieving nuclear material accountancy and control. In view of the strategic importance of some of the process vessels in nuclear facilities, accountancy has to be supported by volume and density measurements of low uncertainty. Inspectors therefore require instruments which are at the very least as good as or better than operator's equipment. The classical measurement technique and most widely applied for process liquids in nuclear installations is the bubbler probe or dip-tube technique. Here a regulated flow of air passes through tubes inserted to various depths into the vessel and pressure readings are measured which are a function of the presence of liquid height and density of solution in the tank. These readings, taken together with a pre-determined calibration curve are sufficient for the volume and amount of liquor in a tank to be quantified. All measurement equipment and instrumentation are long distances from the tank environment. The key physical parameter to measure at this location is therefore pressure. Equipment designed developed, commissioned and tested in the tank measurement facilities at Ispra and in nuclear installations in Europe, Japan and the USA, house digital pressure transducer modules with manufacture's declared features of better than 0.01% accuracy and long term stability of 0.01% full

  1. Measuring the residual stress of transparent conductive oxide films on PET by the double-beam shadow Moiré interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chiu, Hsuan-Yi; Chen, Guan-Jhen

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a measurement system which can fast and accurately analyze the residual stress of the flexible electronics. The transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using corresponding oxide targets on PET substrate. As we know that the shadow Moiré interferometry is a useable way to measure the large deformation. So we set up a double beam shadow Moiré interferometer to measure and analyze the residual stress of TCO films on PET. The feature was to develop a mathematical model and combine the image processing software. By the LabVIEW graphical software, we could measure the distance which is between the left and right fringe on the pattern to solve the curvature of deformed surface. Hence, the residual stress could calculate by the Stoney correction formula for the flexible electronics. By combining phase shifting method with shadow Moiré, the measurement resolution and accuracy have been greatly improved. We also had done the error analysis for the system whose relative error could be about 2%. Therefore, shadow Moiré interferometer is a non-destructive, fast, and simple system for the residual stress on TCO/PET films.

  2. What are the communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? Report from a Team Syntegrity Meeting. The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Espejo, Raul [Syncho Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wene, Clas-Otto [Wenergy, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    The Team Syntegrity Meeting is a special part of the project. It aims for increased awareness among key stakeholder groups in Europe about how nuclear waste decision processes should be developed in order to increase transparency and trust. Team Syntegrity is conducted with a special meeting format. The self-organisation of the meeting is a strong positive feature of the format. Instead of having a project leader setting the agenda, the participants formulate their own topics of relevance starting from an opening question. This report documents the meeting that was held in Lanaken, Belgium on 14-17 May 2002. The opening question for the meeting was: What are communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? There are different opinions about how communication on nuclear waste issues should be done. There are differences between stakeholder groups, and there are different approaches taken in various countries. Still it should be possible to reach a deeper understanding of social communications, that is, understanding the requirements to have effective communications between policy makers, experts and stakeholders. The aim was thus not to develop common views on the nuclear waste problem as such, but rather common grounds for developing procedures for effective communication. Hopefully, this meeting made some progress in this direction. The call for the Team Syntegrity (TS) Meeting resulted in 105 Statements of Importance given in Appendix 2. Following the TS format the meeting then formed its own agenda by first producing 30 Aggregated Statements of Importance (Appendix 3), which were grouped into 12 Consolidated Statements of Importance or topics. The group discussions were thus held under the twelve topics of: Consultation, communication and participation; Mutual learning; Roles and arenas; Heritage; Transparency; Wider context; Process; Risk; Institutional cultures

  3. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  4. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  5. THE NUCLEAR MATERIAL MEASUREMENT PROGRAM PLAN FOR GOSATOMNADZOR OF RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokov, Dmitry; Byers, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    As the Russian State regulatory agency responsible for oversight of nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A), Gosatomnadzor of Russia determines the status of the MC and A programs at Russian facilites by testing the nuclear material inventory for accounting record accuracy. Currently, Gosatomnadzor is developing and implementing an approach to planning and conducting MC and A inspections using non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments that will provide for consistent application of MC and A measurement inspection objectives throughtout Russia. This Gosatomnadzor NDA Program Plan documents current NDA measurement capability in all regions of Gosatomnadzor; provides justification for upgrades to equipment, procedures and training; and defines the inspector-facility operator interface as it relates to NDA measurement equipment use. This plan covers a three-year measurement program cycle, but will be reviewed and updated annually to ensure that adequate inspection resources are available to meet the demands of the inspection schedule. This paper presents the elements of this plan and describes the process by which Gosatomnadzor ensures that its NDA instruments are effectively utilized, procedures are developed and certified, and inspection personnel are properly trained to provide assurance that Russian nuclear facilities are in compliance with Russian MC and A regulations.

  6. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  7. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  8. I had a dream… Continuous InSAR measurement and transparent earth, the beauty of analogue modeling to assess direct model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Pansino, S.; Manta, F.; Tay Wen Jing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Have you ever dreamed about continuous, high resolution InSAR data? Have you ever dreamed about a transparent earth allowing you to see what is actually going on under a volcano? Well, you likely dreamed about an analogue facility that allows you to scale down the natural system to fit into a room, with a controlled environment and complex visualisation system. Analogue modeling has been widely used to understand magmatic processes and thanks to a transparent analogue for the elastic Earth's crust, we can see, as it evolves with time, the migration of a dyke, the volume change of a chamber or the rise of a bubble in a conduit. All those phenomena are modeled theoretically or numerically, with their own simplifications. Therefore, how well are we really constraining the physical parameters describing the evolution of a dyke or a chamber? Getting access to those parameters, in real time and with high level of confidence is of paramount importance while dealing with unrest at volcanoes. The aim of this research is to estimate the uncertainties of the widely used Okada and Mogi models. To do so, we design a set of analogue experiments allowing us to explore different elastic properties of the medium, the characteristic of the fluid injected into the medium as well as the depth, size and volume change of a reservoir. The associated surface deformation is extracted using an array of synchronised cameras and using digital image correlation and structure from motion for horizontal and vertical deformation respectively. The surface deformation are then inverted to retrieve the controlling parameters (e.g. location and volume change of a chamber, or orientation, position, length, breadth and opening of a dyke). By comparing those results with the known parameters, that we can see and measure independently, we estimate the uncertainties of the models themself, and the associated level of confidence for each of the inverted parameters.

  9. A Study of Hydraulic Properties in a Single Fracture with In-plane Heterogeneity: An Evaluation Using Optical Measurements of a Transparent Replica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Ssto, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Experimental examinations for evaluating fractures were conducted by using transparent replicas of a single fracture in order to obtain the fracture data to contribute to the methodology on how to improve the definition of representative parameter values used for a parallel plate fracture model. Quantitative aperture distribution and quantitative tracer concentration data at each point in time were obtained by measuring the attenuation of transmitted light through the fracture in high spatial resolution. The representative aperture values evaluated from the multiple different measurement methods, such as arithmetic mean of aperture distribution measured by the optical method, transport aperture evaluated from the tracer test, and average aperture evaluated from the fracture void volume measurement converged to a unique value that indicates the accuracy of this experimental study. The aperture data was employed for verifying the numerical simulation under the assumption of Local Cubic Law and showed that the calculated flow rate through the fracture is 10% . 100% larger than hydraulic test results. The quantitative tracer concentration data is also very valuable for validating existing numerical code for advection dispersion transport in-plane heterogeneous fractures

  10. A Study of Hydraulic Properties in a Single Fracture with In-plane Heterogeneity: An Evaluation Using Optical Measurements of a Transparent Replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Ssto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    Experimental examinations for evaluating fractures were conducted by using transparent replicas of a single fracture in order to obtain the fracture data to contribute to the methodology on how to improve the definition of representative parameter values used for a parallel plate fracture model. Quantitative aperture distribution and quantitative tracer concentration data at each point in time were obtained by measuring the attenuation of transmitted light through the fracture in high spatial resolution. The representative aperture values evaluated from the multiple different measurement methods, such as arithmetic mean of aperture distribution measured by the optical method, transport aperture evaluated from the tracer test, and average aperture evaluated from the fracture void volume measurement converged to a unique value that indicates the accuracy of this experimental study. The aperture data was employed for verifying the numerical simulation under the assumption of Local Cubic Law and showed that the calculated flow rate through the fracture is 10% . 100% larger than hydraulic test results. The quantitative tracer concentration data is also very valuable for validating existing numerical code for advection dispersion transport in-plane heterogeneous fractures

  11. Measurement of elastic light scattering from two optically trapped microspheres and red blood cells in a transparent medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Kauppila, Antti; Karmenyan, Artashes; Myllylä, Risto

    2011-09-15

    Optical tweezers can be used to manipulate small objects and cells. A trap can be used to fix the position of a particle during light scattering measurements. The places of two separately trapped particles can also be changed. In this Letter we present elastic light scattering measurements as a function of scattering angle when two trapped spheres are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. This setup is suitable for trapping noncharged homogeneous spheres. We also demonstrate measurement of light scattering patterns from two separately trapped red blood cells. Two different illumination schemes are used for both samples.

  12. A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritychenko Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.2(69 (km/sec/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 20 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.55 ± 1.51 × 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.

  13. Application of nuclear resonance scattering for in vivo measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Cohn, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear resonance scattering is applied in our laboratory to measure hepatic and cardiac iron overload. For iron analysis, a gaseous source of 4 mg MnCl 2 is introduced into an evacuated quartz vial. Following irradiation in a nuclear reactor, 56 Mn decays by beta emission to the 847-keV level of 56 Fe, which subsequently decays to the ground state of 56 Fe with a 7 ps half-life. The principal aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of the iron chelation therapy. Serial measurements over a time period of 6 to 12 months of a given patient will enable us to see how the iron is removed from the critical organs

  14. Technology development for nuclear material measurement and accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Lee, Yong Duk; Choi, Hyung Nae; Nah, Won Woo; Park, Hoh Joon; Lee, Yung Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The measurement techniques for Pu samples and spent fuel assembly were developed in support of the implementation of national inspection responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act promulgated in 1994 and a computer program was also developed to assess the total nuclear material balance by facility declared records. The results of plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution germanium detector with peak analysis codes (FRAM and MGA codes) were approached to within 1% {approx} 2% of error from chemical analysis values by mass spectrometry. A gamma-ray measurement system for underwater spent nuclear fuels was developed and tested successfully. The falsification of facility and state records can be traced with the help of the developed computer code against declared reports submitted by the concerned state. This activity eventually resulted in finding the discrepancy of accountability records. 18 figs, 20 tabs, 27 refs. (Author).

  15. Technology development for nuclear material measurement and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Lee, Yong Duk; Choi, Hyung Nae; Nah, Won Woo; Park, Hoh Joon; Lee, Yung Kil

    1994-12-01

    The measurement techniques for Pu samples and spent fuel assembly were developed in support of the implementation of national inspection responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act promulgated in 1994 and a computer program was also developed to assess the total nuclear material balance by facility declared records. The results of plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution germanium detector with peak analysis codes (FRAM and MGA codes) were approached to within 1% ∼ 2% of error from chemical analysis values by mass spectrometry. A gamma-ray measurement system for underwater spent nuclear fuels was developed and tested successfully. The falsification of facility and state records can be traced with the help of the developed computer code against declared reports submitted by the concerned state. This activity eventually resulted in finding the discrepancy of accountability records. 18 figs, 20 tabs, 27 refs. (Author)

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  17. Nuclear reactor, fuel assembly and neutron measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Murase, Michio; Zukeran, Atsushi; Moriya, Kimiaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor improved with the efficiency of used fuels and fuel economy by increasing a rated power and reducing exchange fuels. Namely, in a BWR type reactor at present, a thermal limit value is determined by conducting nuclear calculation of the reactor core based on data of reactor flow rate measurement and data of neutron flux measurement. However, since the neutron calculation of the reactor core is based on fuel assemblies while the points for the neutron measurement are present at the outside of the fuel assemblies, errors are caused. A margin including the errors has been used as a thermal limit value during operation. In the present invention, neutron fluxes in the fuel assembly as a base of the nuclear calculation can be measured by the same number of neutron detector tubes, but the number of the measuring points is increased to four times. With such procedures, errors caused by the difference of the neutron calculation and values at neutron measuring points can be reduced. As a result, a margin of the thermal limit value is reduced to increase the degree of freedom of reactor operation. Then, the economical property of the reactor operation can be improved. (N.H.)

  18. Nuclear abundance measurements inside MIR and ISS with Sileye experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolino, M.

    In this work we present measurements of cosmic ray nuclear abundances above 150 MeV/n performed inside Mir space station between 1998 and 2000. Data have been obtained with SilEye-2 detector, a 6 plane silicon strip detector telescope designed to measure environmental radiation and investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon. In standalone mode, SilEye-2 is capable to measure LET distribution spectra and identify nuclear species with energy above 100 MeV/n: a total of 100 sessions comprising more than 1000 hours of observation were perfomed in the years 1998-2000, recording also several Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Cosmic ray abundances inside a spacecraft can differ from the primary component due to interaction with the interposed material of the hull and the instruments. We report on LET measurements and relative abundances from Boron to Iron measured in different regions and at different geomagnetic cutoffs, in solar quiet conditions and during SEP events, showing how the composition varies in these different situations. We also report on preliminary results on cosmic ray measurements inside ISS (27/4/2002 - 4/5/2002) obtained with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment.

  19. Passive measurements of mixed-oxide fuel for nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Jennifer L.; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Chichester, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We present new results on passive measurements and simulations of mixed-oxide fuel-pin assemblies. Potential tools for mixed-oxide fuel pin characterization are discussed for future nuclear-nonproliferation applications. Four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors coupled with an accurate pulse timing and digital, offline and optimized pulse-shape discrimination method were used. Measurement analysis included pulse-height distributions to distinguish between purely fission neutron sources and alpha-n plus fission neutrons sources. Time-dependent cross-correlation functions were analyzed to measure the fission neutron contribution to the measured sample's neutron source. The use of Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX-PoliMi is discussed in conjunction with the measurements

  20. A digital method for period measurements in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim, Sergio Gorretta

    1971-02-01

    The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)

  1. Evaluation of microcomputer assisted system for nuclear emulsion measurement, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Tezuka, Ikuo; Izawa, Kazuo.

    1983-01-01

    In the reaction of hardrons of several hundreds GeV/c, charm particles with from 10 -12 to 10 -13 second lifetime and beauty particles of shorter lifetime are generated. For directly observing these particles, the experiment using a system which combines nuclear emulsion and an electronic counter is carried out. The authors have engaged in the development of a nuclear emulsion analyzing system since several years ago, and recently developed a program for that system, and made measurement using the program, as one of the works to participate in the NA-19 hybrid experiment of this type, which is a high energy experiment implemented with the CERN accelerator using 350 GeV/c π - beam. In this report, first the outline of NA-19 experiment, next the corresponding of counter coordinates to nuclear emulsions, and the search for candidate events, in which two or more muons exist, that passed iron and tungsten dampers, are described. Further, the measuring programs XPRED 5 and CRS 34 and the relationship between these programs and measuring procedure and the evaluation for them are described at the end. The present program allows the measurement of generated secondary particles without any trouble up to the distance of 5 mm downstream from the collision point. It was also found that the program was applicable to the measurement of the decay phenomena and kink of the particles expected in the measurement of short-life particles. The system capability of estimating the position of target particles within 10 μm greatly contributes to this. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Neutron fluence measurement in nuclear facilities.; Medicion de flujos de neutrones en instalaciones nucleares.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho L, M E

    1997-12-01

    The objective of present work is to determine the fluence of neutrons in nuclear facilities using two neutron detectors designed and built at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico. The two neutron detectors are of the passive type, based on solid state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTD). One of the two neutron detectors was used to determine the fluence distribution of the ports at the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Mark III, which belongs to ININ. In these facilities is important to know the neutron fluence distribution characteristic to carried out diverse kind of research activities. The second neutron detector was employed in order to carry out environmental neutron surveillance. The detector has the property to separate the thermal, intermediate and fast components of the neutron fluence. This detector was used to measure the neutron fluence at hundred points around the primary container of the first Mexican Nuclear Power plant `Laguna Verde`. This last detector was also used to determine the neutron fluence in some points of interest, around and inside a low scattering neutron room at the `Centro de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes` of the ININ, to know the background neutron field produced by the neutron sources used there. The design of the two neutron detector and the results obtained for each of the surveying facilities, are described in this work. (Author).

  3. Situation of the environmental surveillance and situation of the water table and rivers labelling around nuclear sites and old radioactive waste storages. Report for the high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The High Committee for the openness and information on nuclear safety (H.C.T.I.S.N.) requested a study at I.R.S.N. concerning the situation of the surveillance of media and their quality and the diffusion of this information near the public, the identification of ground water or rivers that would present a radiological or chemical labelling, the link of these elements with the future national network of the radioactivity measurement in environment. This assessment must also allow to take stock of the situation relative to the surveillance of the quality of ground water that flow out of the level of old radioactive waste storages, especially registered in the ANDRA inventory. I.R.S.N. chose to limit its contribution: to the sites housing nuclear base installations and nuclear base installations that have been classified secret that come under the Minister in charge of energy; to old radioactive wastes storages located in these installations. (N.C.)

  4. Report to the President of the Republic related to the decree nr 2016-128 of February 10, 2016 bearing various measures regarding nuclear issues. Decree nr 2016-128 of February 10, 2016 bearing various measures regarding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollande, Francois; Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene

    2016-01-01

    In its first part, this official document describes the objectives and contents of the different chapters and articles of a decree which is related to the application of some articles contained by the law on energy transition and for a green growth (the decree builds up the second part of the document). It notably addresses the transposition of the 2011/70/EURATOM, directive, the adaptation of existing laws to this transposition, the definition of a procedure of reclassification of materials into radioactive wastes, and the strengthening of administrative and penal sanctions, measures related to nuclear safety and transparency, the creation of a system for the safety control of radioactive sources by the ASN, activities related to the Public Health Code

  5. Procedures for field measurements in the case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.

    2000-01-01

    Very simplified, reduced and shorted procedures for main objectives of emergency field monitoring in case of nuclear accident are given only. They could be implemented in Croatia using resources nowadays available. Procedures for gamma/beta dose rates in plume and ground deposition survey and unknown situation evaluation, procedures for alpha and gamma/beta surface contamination measurement, field personnel/equipment contamination and decontamination measurement as well as for in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements are presented. Purpose, short discussion, general precautions and limitations as well as basic equipment and supplies needed are given for all of procedures discussed also. Only measuring steps are given with more details in form of short and clear instructions. (author)

  6. NEWSdm: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search with directional measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Crescenzo A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs. The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a challenging strategy to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor and provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is strongly limited by the small achievable detector mass. We present an innovative directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching a position resolution of the order of 10 nm.

  7. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  8. NEWSdm: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search with directional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Crescenzo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a challenging strategy to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor and provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is strongly limited by the small achievable detector mass. We present an innovative directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching a position resolution of the order of 10 nm.

  9. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  10. Gradually, the industry world opens for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article comments some noticeable evolutions of various industrial sectors towards information transparency. It indicates the four types of structures which exist in France for local information on nuclear installations (CLI and CI), on waste processing installations (CSS), and on industrial pollutions (SPPPI), comments the efforts made by the different actors and industries of the French nuclear sector (public debates, visits, legal framework, local commissions of information, authorities like ASN and IRSN), addresses the case of chemical industry (a slow implementation of transparency due to a different and more spread organisation), and outlines that the oil and gas industry presents less opportunities for a dialogue

  11. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  12. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  13. Nuclear Measurement Technologies and Solutions Implemented during Nuclear Accident at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morichi, M.; Toubon, H.; Bronson, Frazier; Venkataraman, Ram; Beaujoin, J.; Dubart, P.

    2013-06-01

    Fukushima accident imposed a stretch to nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast concept development, fast system integration, deployment and start-up in a very short time frame. This paper is describing the Nuclear Measurement that AREVA-BUNM (CANBERRA) has realized and foresight at Fukushima accident site describing the technical solution conceived developed and deployed at Fukushima NPP for the process control of the treatment system of contaminated water. A detailed description of all levels design choices, from detection technologies to system architecture is offer in the paper as well as the read-out and global data management system. This paper describes also the technical choices executed and put in place to overcome the challenges related to the high radiological contamination on site. (authors)

  14. The influence of target properties on nuclear spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.; Vieu, C.; Lagrange, J.M.; Pautrat, M.; Vanhorenbeeck, J.; Passoja, A.

    1988-01-01

    A broad review of different kinds of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy measurements particularly influenced by the target properties is outlined. To illustrate such an influence a few typical examples of in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, performed at the Orsay MP Tandem accelerator, are reported. In particular several applications of the recoil ion catcher method in the study of short-lived nuclear isomers (with half-lives between ten and few hundred nanoseconds) are briefly described. This method is operated mostly with a pulsed heavy ion beam, bombarding a thin self-supported target but avoiding hitting the catcher foil. Moreover, the time of flight filtering properties of this experimental device is improved by a fast detection of compound nucleus deexcitation (performed with an array of several BaF 2 crystals). This kind of measurement shows clearly the importance of the target qualities as well as the need of good focusing properties and time structure for the accelerated particle beam. Finally, the required characteristics of the targets and recoil stopper foils needed for these measurements (and similar ones performed with the recoil ion shadow method) are analyzed in detail for a few typical experimental arrangements. (author). Abstract only

  15. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  16. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Pozzo, Renato del; Mola, Jairo

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  17. Signal validation in nuclear power plants using redundant measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glockler, O.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Morgenstern, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principles of a multivariable signal validation software system utilizing redundant sensor readings of process variables in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The technique has been tested in numerical experiments, and was applied to actual data from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The simultaneous checking within one redundant measurement set, and the cross-checking among redundant measurement sets of dissimilar process variables, results in an algorithm capable of detecting and isolating bias-type errors. A case in point occurs when a majority of the direct redundant measurements of more than one process variable has failed simultaneously by a common-mode or correlated failures can be detected by the developed approach. 5 refs

  18. Medical measures in case of nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Laender governments of the Federal Republic of Germany are of the opinion that within the framework of precautionary disaster control, plans have to be set up dealing with nuclear disasters that seem improbable but cannot be completely excluded. Accordingly, recommendations presented by the Federal Government and the Laender governments have been combined into a framework disaster control scheme where the competencies for activities and measures lie with the several Laender governments, as given by the Basic Law. A further recommendation deals with the medical care and service in case of a nuclear disaster, and the practical guide presented here is intended to give the information and instructions needed in order to comply with the legal framework. A working group has been set up in order to work out the rules and facts for optimum medical care. The activities are planned to be based on an emergency station responsible for medical examination, treatment, and transfer of victims. The practical guide has been discussed by the 'Committee for disaster control in the vicinity of nuclear installations' of the SSK, has been approved of by the supreme Land authorities of the Laender concerned, and has been passed by the SSK at its 63rd meeting. With 5 figs., 6 tabs [de

  19. Isotopic characterization of targets for nuclear measurements at CBNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear measurements for which ''nuclear'' targets are prepared are almost always isotope-specific i.e. they are normally related to a particular nuclide in the target. The amount of this nuclide must be accurately assessed. There are essentially two ways to determine the number of atoms of this particular nuclide. (1) By determination of the amount of element, to which the nuclide belongs, on the target via classsical means; weighing substraction of impurities, calculation of element amount using known of the chemical compound in which the element is incorporated and, finally, measurement of the isotopic composition in order to determine the fraction of the nuclide concerned in the element. An alternative way may be to perform an elemental assay on the target followed by determination of the isotopic composition. (2) Another approach is isotope dilution mass spectrometry where a change in the isotopic composition of the ''target'' is induced by adding a known number of atoms (called ''spike'') of the element with a quite different composition. Measurement of the resulting change in isotopic composition yields directly the number of atoms of the nuclide under investigation. The method is highly selective, accurate and isotope-specific. (orig.)

  20. Recent developments in the measurements of nuclear shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayajulu, D.R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The electric quadrupole moment of the excited state of a nucleus plays a significant role in giving information on the shape of the nucleus and hence most of the investigations on nuclear shapes require the correct knowledge about and the accurate measurement of the quadrupole moments of the excited states of the nuclei. In this paper, general considerations in the measurement of a quadrupole moment are given. The quadrupole moment is defined as positive for oblate and negative for prolate nuclear shapes. Two approaches are given for measurement of the external field gradient. The first approach is by Mossbauer effect and time differential and integral perturbed angular correlation method. These methods are useful in determining the quadrupole moments of both excited and ground states of nuclei. The second approach is by the coulomb excitation reorientation method. This method is found suitable for states of life time -9 sec; still recent is the reorientation precession effect method which has also been found to be successful for some polarized nuclei. A typical example of the coulomb excitation of the first 2 states of Sm 150 by 56 MeV O 16 projectiles is shown. The limitations of these methods are also mentioned. It is concluded that the reorientation precession technique and the transient electric field gradient precession will be of practical use for states through out the periodic table. Future plans and new experiments proposed are indicated. (A.K.)

  1. Measuring nuclear power plant output by neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovkin, V.A.; Kodanev, S.A.; Panashchenko, N.S.; Sokolov, D.A.; Solov'yanov, O.M.; Tverdovskii, N.D.; Yarichin, A.D.; Ketov, S.N.; Kopeikin, V.I.; Machulin, I.N.; Mikaelyan, L.A.; Sinev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Neutrino emission from a reactor is inseparably linked with the fission process of heavy nuclei: each fission contributes a specific amount to the overall power output and gives rise to neutrinos which are emitted by the fission fragments created. Using a detector to record the neutrino flux gives a curve for the number of nuclei undergoing fission and the reactor power output. The question of whether it is practically possible to make use of neutrino emission from reactors was first posed in the mid-70s in connection with preparations for neutrino research at the Roven nuclear power plant (RAES) and in 1986 at an IAEA symposium on the topic of guarantees. Since 1982, research has been carried on at RAES on the fundamental properties and interactions of neutrinos. Based on this research and in parallel with it, in 1983 specialists from the Kurchatov Nuclear Power Institute and RAES jointly conducted an experiment which demonstrated in principle the possibility of remotely measuring reactor power output using the neutrino emission. This experiment had extremely limited statistics and is of interest today as the first demonstration of practical usage of neutrino emission from a reactor. At present the statistics for detecting neutrino events have increased tenfold and experience in lengthy measurements has been accumulated. This allows better analysis for the possibilities of the method. This paper reviews neutrino detection, theoretical bases of the method, determining the fission scale values for converting a number of neutrinos into power output, and measuring the power output

  2. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  3. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 14, Safety protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents can be caused by three type of errors: failure of reactor components including (1) control and measuring instrumentation, (2) errors in operation procedure, (3) natural disasters. Safety during reactor operation are secured during its design and construction and later during operation. Both construction and administrative procedures are applied to attain safe operation. Technical safety features include fission product barriers, fuel elements cladding, primary reactor components (reactor vessel, primary cooling pipes, heat exchanger in the pump), reactor building. Safety system is the system for safe reactor shutdown and auxiliary safety system. RA reactor operating regulations and instructions are administrative acts applied to avoid possible human error caused accidents [sr

  4. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  5. Vibrations measurement at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomoni, R.C.; Belinco, C.G.; Pastorini, A.J.; Sacchi, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    After the modifications made at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator to reduce its vibration level produced by electromagnetic phenomena, it was necessary to perform measurements at the new levels, under different areas and power conditions. To this purpose, a work was performed jointly with the 'Vibrations Team' of the ANSALDO Company (the generator constructor) and the Hydrodynamic Assays Division under the coordination and supervision of the plant's electrical maintenance responsible. This paper includes the main results obtained and the instrumentation criteria and analysis performed. (Author)

  6. Intercomparison of 131I activity measurements in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. Y.; Yang, H. K.; Lim, C. I.; Lee, H. K.; Jeong, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using a dose calibrator have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. To minimise the radiation dose to patients with radionuclides, it is necessary to ensure that the sample administered is accurately assayed. Recognizing the importance of intercomparison in nuclear medicine and the need to make access to activity standards traceable to the international measurement system, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), started an intercomparison program in 2002. This program was initiated by survey to all nuclear medicine centres regarding general information about their dose calibrators, radioisotopes etc. 71 nuclear medicine centres (79 dose calibrators) participated in the intercomparison program with 131 I isotope. To assess the accuracy of clinical measurements of the activity of 131 I solutions and to determine the reason for the disagreement, an intercomparison was conducted using 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial with a total activity in the region of 10 -20 MBq. The reference time of decay for all solutions was 0:00 on 25 September 2002. The half-life used was 8.04 days. For the evaluation of solution in KFDA, a sealed, high pressure and re-entrant ionisation chamber, NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrators were used. The verification of our calibration quality was by means of a comparison with the Korea Primary Standard Laboratory (KRISS). The activity ratio of KFDA to KRISS for the 131 I solutions is 1.011. The difference between the value quoted by the clinic, A hospital and the value obtained by the KFDA, A KFDA , is expressed as a percent deviation, i.e. DEV(%) 100x(A hospital -A KFDA )/A KFDA . From the data obtained it was found that 61% of the calibrators showed a deviation within +/-5%; 23% had a deviation in the range 5% 131 I solution activity measurements, using dose calibrators in Koreas, and also to provide the participants with a traceable standard to

  7. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  8. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  9. National audit of radioactivity measurements in Nuclear Medicine Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Babu, D.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Routine activity measurements of radiopharmaceutical solutions in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) are carried out with the help of radionuclide calibrators (RC). These solutions are either ingested or injected to the patient for diagnosis or therapy. However, for the realization of an optimized examination, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined accurately before administering it to patients. The primary standards are maintained by Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division. National audit programmes of Iodine -131 activity measurements with RCs are conducted biannually to establish traceability to national standards and to check the status of nuclear medicine practice followed at the NMC. The results of fifteenth audit of 131 I activity measurements with RC are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to two hundred and thirty three NMCs in-the country. One hundred and nine NMC's agreed for participation and accordingly, glass vials containing radioactive 131 I solution of nominal activity of 100 MBq were procured from Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with high pressure re-entrant gamma ionisation chamber (GIC), a secondary standard maintained by this laboratory. The sensitivity coefficient of GIC is traceable to the primary standard. The standardized radioactive solution of 131 I in glass vial was sent to each participant. Measurements results were reported in the reporting form sent. This audit was conducted in four schedules in Jan 2013. One hundred and sixty six results were received from one hundred and nine participants as many participants took measurements on more than one isotope calibrator

  10. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  11. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  12. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  13. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  14. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  15. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  16. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  17. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  18. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  19. Device for measuring flow rate in a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, Jiro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To always calculate core flow rate automatically and accurately in BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Jet pumps are provided to the recycling pump and to the inside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. The jet pumps comprise a plurality of calibrated jet pumps for forcively convecting the coolants and a plurality of not calibrated jet pumps in order to cool the heat generated in the reactor core. The difference in the pressures between the upper and the lower portions in both of the jet pumps is measured by difference pressure transducers. Further, a thermo-sensitive element is provided to measure the temperature of recycling water at the inlet of the recycling pump. The output signal from the difference pressure transducer is inputted to a process computer, calculated periodically based on predetermined calculation equations, compensated for the temperature by a recycling water temperature signal and outputted as a core flow rate signal to a recoder. The signal is also used for the power distribution calculation in the process computer and the minimum limit power ratio as the thermal limit value for the fuels is outputted. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Measurements using a silicon detector near the Fukushima nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Uchinori, Yu.; Kitamura, H.

    2011-01-01

    The massive tsunami hit the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant after the Tohoku earthquake on March 11 th , 2011. Emergency electric systems of diesel electric machines stopped and during several days later the hydrogen exploded due to over-heated reactors at units 1, 3 and 4. In addition, serious damage was caused in a fuel nuclear storage of unit 2. As a result of these accidents, an extremely large amount of radioisotopes were spread in air, soil, tap water, seawater and food around large areas in East Japan.First, this presentation reports about radiation measurements with the silicon detector Liulin at the J-village, a base of emergency workers, located 20 km from Fukushima Daiichi from March 23 rd , 2011 to August 5 th , 2011. Comparison of measurements with the same device at some other locations (Chiba city, Moscow, board of aircraft) before and after the accident will be presented. Second, the presentation describes our efforts to develop a new portable gamma camera based on Medipix to locate radiation hotspots at Fukushima prefecture. (authors)

  1. Protecting agriculture against nuclear radiations: conception and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann Hans-Joerg

    1997-01-01

    In case of atomic and chemical (AC) accident or attacks the agriculture is severely affected. This became clearly after the Chernobyl disaster, after which the authorities mobilized and increased the efforts to protect the agriculture. In Switzerland the Federal Commission for AC protection has undertaken the necessary actions in collaboration with the Federal Office for Agriculture. The protection of agriculture against radioactive fallout has many aspects. One of these concerns the requirement of informing farmers with all the necessary instruction to ensure the protection of rural population and animals, foods and forages, to make them able to take essential protection measures without exterior assistance, and to provide the agriculture buildings with simple and durable tools necessary in case of emergency intervention. To implement these requirements on Confederation level educational programs were developed to instruct agriculture agents and advisors on basic notions of radioactivity and radiation protection. These programs are thought to make the farmer aware with the implications of nuclear chemical and nuclear menace and the measures of protecting its enterprise by own means. Special instructions are to be applied by the enterprise chiefs to ensure first that the personnel protection is the top priority and then how to minimize and limit the damage produced by the radiation accident

  2. A digital instrument for reactivity measurements in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for digital determination of the reactivity in nuclear reactors is described. It is based on the CAMAC standard apparatus, suitable for the use of pulse or current type neutron detectors and operates with prompt response and an output signal proportional to the core neutron flux. The measured data of neutron flux and reactivity can be registered by a digital display unit, an indicator, or, by request of the operator, a paper type punch. The algorithms used for reactivity calculation are considered and the results of numerical studies on those algorithms are discussed. The instrument has been used for determining the reactivity of the control elements in the fast-thermal assembly ANNA and in the research reactor MARIA. Some results of these measurements are given. (author)

  3. Digital instrument for reactivity measurements in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwaszczewski, S [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1979-07-01

    An instrument for digital determination of the reactivity in nuclear reactors is described. It is based on the CAMAC standard apparatus, suitable for the use of pulse or current type neutron detectors and operates with prompt response and an output signal proportional to the core neutron flux. The measured data of neutron flux and reactivity can be registered by a digital display unit, an indicator, or, by request of the operator, a paper type punch. The algorithms used for reactivity calculation are considered and the results of numerical studies on those algorithms are discussed. The instrument has been used for determining the reactivity of the control elements in the fast-thermal assembly ANNA and in the research reactor MARIA. Some results of these measurements are given.

  4. DA and NDA measurement of nuclear materials Mayak reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Lelyuk, G.A.; Sazhnov, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of nuclear material (NM) analysis and their quality assurance at the laboratory of RT-1 plant of PA Mayak are reviewed as applicable to the NM control and accounting system. The impact of analysis quality on the NM control and accounting system quality is analyzed. It has been shown that major component of the inventory difference for plutonium is caused by the errors of its measurement in the initial solution. The expedience of decreasing this error from 5 % to 1-1.5 % has been substantiated. Errors of plutonium detection on the other flows of NM at the facility prove to be acceptable for the NM control and accounting system. Accuracy of uranium concentration measurements proved to be satisfactory for all NM flows [ru

  5. Risk Informed Approach for Nuclear Security Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance to States for developing a risk informed approach and for conducting threat and risk assessments as the basis for the design and implementation of sustainable nuclear security systems and measures for prevention of, detection of, and response to criminal and intentional unauthorised acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. It describes concepts and methodologies for a risk informed approach, including identification and assessment of threats, targets, and potential consequences; threat and risk assessment methodologies, and the use of risk informed approaches as the basis for informing the development and implementation of nuclear security systems and measures. The publication is an Implementing Guide within the IAEA Nuclear Security Series and is intended for use by national policy makers, law enforcement agencies and experts from competent authorities and other relevant organizations involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of nuclear security systems and measures related to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control

  6. Quality assurance for radioactive measurement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine continues to grow around the world, owing in part to a number of successful programmes carried out by the IAEA to enhance the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Member States. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes to ensure the safe application of radiopharmaceuticals has, however, been variable in many Member States. One possible reason is the lack of a unified set of principles regarding the establishment of such programmes. This publication addresses the issue of QA programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine. A group of experts consulted by the IAEA recommended in 2002 that unified principles concerning QA and quality control (QC) procedures for the measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine be developed because of its importance in controlling the safety and effectiveness of the use of radiopharmaceuticals. This publication is the result of advice provided to the IAEA by experts in the fields of radionuclide metrology, medical physics and radiopharmacy. This report can be considered to be a more detailed and updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-602, Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments, published in 1991. Advances in the field of nuclear instrumentation since that report was published, particularly in imaging, and the increased emphasis on QA and QC prompted the need for an update. Moreover, it was realized that the activity measurement and imaging aspects had each become so specialized as to be better treated in separate publications. The present report focuses on the factors affecting radioactivity measurement and the implementation of QA and QC programmes to ensure accurate and consistent results. The IAEA has developed a safety standard on The Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3), which replaces the IAEA publications on QA issued as Safety Series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). In GS-R-3, the management system is described as a set of

  7. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  8. Cultivation of nuclear safety culture in Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wei; Tang Yanzhao

    2004-01-01

    Probed into the concept and developing phases of safety couture in the management of nuclear power station, especially analyzed the background and the road of cultivating nuclear safety culture in GNPS, highlighted the core concept of GNPS nuclear safety culture, presented GNPS safety culture indicators, summarized the major measures taken by GNPS, depicted the propagandizing process of transparency in GNPS, and systematically appraised the effect of GNPS in implementing nuclear safety culture. (authors)

  9. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism and the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material threaten the security of all States. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The possibility that nuclear and other radioactive material may be used for terrorist acts cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material, and to establish capabilities for detection and response to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Through its nuclear security programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This approach recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material; national response plans; and contingency measures. Within its nuclear security programme, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking; and to detect and respond to nuclear security events. This is an Implementing Guide on nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The objective of the publication is to provide guidance to Member States for the

  10. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  11. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  12. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  13. Development of methods for measuring materials nuclear characteristics, Phases, I, II, II and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglic, R.

    1963-04-01

    This report contains the following phases of the project 'measurement of nuclear characteristics of reactor materials': nuclear performances of the neutron chopper; method for measuring total effective cross sections by transmission method on the chopper; review of methods for measuring activation cross sections; measurement of neutron spectra of the RA reactor and measurement of total effective cross section of gold by using the chopper

  14. Performance measures for aging of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant licenses are granted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a 40-year term. There is at present consideration being given to extending the authorized service lifetime beyond that, perhaps for a total of 60 or 70 years total. A logical concern for such a length of operation is whether the plant ages in such a way as to be significantly less safe as it gets older. As a corollary to this, there would be the question as to how to measure a diminution in plant safety. Each operating utility has, of course, ways to observe the plant performance. It has maintenance and surveillance programs which are used for this purpose. The NRC maintains a presence at each operating plant in the form of resident inspectors. The NRC also receives utility reports which may then be used to synthesize operating performance. It also reviews plant performance directly through what is known as the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP). In the paper the various data management programs used by the NRC will be described. The results of each program is presented, and observations are made as to the potential effect of age on safety performance. It is also necessary to define the size of the population being examined. There are at present 109 operating reactors. The age distribution is used to normalize the data. Some of the indicators discussed in this paper are concerned more with the indirect effect of aging, such as inadvertent shutdown. The regulated industry maintains a program known as the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) to which the electric utilities participate in a voluntary manner. Data from NPRDS can be accessed to observe the direct aging effect; this is not covered in this paper. To the degree that plant operating staff learns how to cope with aging equipment and operate in a safe manner nonetheless, the performance indicators would not fully reflect the aging effect

  15. Measuring strategy in case of a nuclear emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieringer, J.; Bieringer, P.

    2003-01-01

    In the case of a nuclear emergency situation there are other demands -compared to normal operation - of kind, availability in time and volume of information providing the description of the radiological situation and allowing the recommendation of countermeasures in time. These requirements depend on the different phases of the emergency situation and the intense operation, respectively. In the first phase e. g. even before the radioactive release starts, information from the nuclear power plant is needed besides weather forecasts, trajectories and prognoses about the expected external dose and the contamination. In addition fast available results from dose rate measurements and information about the radionuclide spectrum are necessary. The aim is to get an overview about the actual radiological situation and its possible development in time in order to introduce countermeasures, where necessary. In the second phase, short time after the distribution of the radioactive substances has stopped, measurements according to Paragraph 3 of the precautionary radiation protection law (StrVG) are of primary interest, especially the determination of the contamination of human food and animal feed. In this phase after the end of the deposition process, where the spectrum of the deposited radionuclides is known, the behaviour of the external dose as a function of time can be well predicted. In the third phase, this means weeks after the emergency situation, the measurements are used to observe the activity concentrations in different media on a long time scale. In the beginning (phase one and two) the availability of information in time is of great importance. With increasing time this shifts more and more to the diversity of the analysed media. (orig.)

  16. TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S./Russian HEU Purchase Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

    2005-01-01

    By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% 235 U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of inprocess containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine 235 U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site

  17. Interpretation of strain measurements on nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, S.I.; Engbaek, P.

    1979-11-01

    Selected results from strain measurements on 4 nuclear pressure vessels are presented and discussed. The measurements were made in several different regions of the vessels: transition zones in vessel heads, flanges and bottom parts, nozzels, internal vessel structure and flange bolts. The results presented are based on data obtained by approximately 700 strain-gauges, and a comprehensive knowledge of the quality obtained by such measurements is established. It is shown that a thorough control procedure before and after the test as well as detailed knowledge of the behaviour of the signal from the individual gauges during the test is necessary. If this is omitted, it can be extremely difficult to distinguish between the real structural behaviour and a malfunctioning of a specific gauge installation. In general, most of the measuring results exhibit a very linear behaviour with a negligible zeroshift. However, deviations from linear behaviour are observed in several cases. This nonlinearity can be explained by friction (flange connections) or by gaps (concentrical nozzles) in certain regions, whereas local plastic deformations during the first pressure loadings of the vessel seem to be the reason in other regions. (author)

  18. Use of mathematical modeling in nuclear measurements projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Menaa, N.; Mirolo, L.; Ducoux, X.; Khalil, R. A.; Chany, P.; Devita, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of nuclear measurement systems is not a new concept. The response of the measurement system is described using a pre-defined mathematical model that depends on a set of parameters. These parameters are determined using a limited set of experimental measurement points e.g. efficiency curve, dose rates... etc. The model that agrees with the few experimental points is called an experimentally validated model. Once these models have been validated, we use mathematical interpolation to find the parameters of interest. Sometimes, when measurements are not practical or are impossible extrapolation is implemented but with care. CANBERRA has been extensively using mathematical modeling for the design and calibration of large and sophisticated systems to create and optimize designs that would be prohibitively expensive with only experimental tools. The case studies that will be presented here are primarily performed with MCNP, CANBERRA's MERCURAD/PASCALYS and ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting Software). For benchmarking purposes, both Monte Carlo and ray-tracing based codes are inter-compared to show models consistency and add a degree of reliability to modeling results. (authors)

  19. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, W.R.; Nauman, W.J.; Vollmer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  20. Changing methodology for measuring airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requires that measurements of airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities be performed following outdated methods contained in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities. Improved methods are being introduced via two paths. First, the ANSI standard is being revised, and second, EPA's equivalency granting process is being used to implement new technology on a case-by-case or broad basis. The ANSI standard is being revised by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The revised standard includes updated methods based on current technology and a performance-based approach to design. The performance-based standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. Progress in revising the standard is discussed. The US Department of Energy recently received approval from the USEPA for an alternate approach to complying with air-sampling regulations. The alternate approach is similar to the revised ANSI standard. New design tools include new types of sample extraction probes and a model for estimating line-losses for particles and radioiodine. Wind tunnel tests are being performed on various sample extraction probes for use at small stacks. The data show that single-point sampling probes are superior to ANSI-Nl3.1-1969 style multiple-point sample extraction probes

  1. Measurement of hydrogen in BCN films by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Haruyuki; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst., of Ishikawa, Kanazawa (Japan); Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is a very common contaminant in carbon films. It can strongly influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the films. The analysis of hydrogen is therefore a crucial problem produce the films with the properties required. Ion beam techniques using nuclear reactions are effective for the quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration. A specially designed spectrometer is employed for the detailed determination of hydrogen concentrations by detecting 4.43MeV {gamma}-rays from the resonant nuclear reactions {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C at the 6.385MeV. In this study, the BCN films were formed on silicon substrate by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), in which boron and carbon were deposited by electron beam heating of B{sub 4}C solid and nitrogen was supplied by ion implantation simultaneously. The concentrations of hydrogen in BCN films were measured using RNRA. The mechanical properties of BCN films were evaluated using an ultra-micro-hardness tester. It was confirmed that the hardness of BCN films increased with increasing the concentration of hydrogen. (author)

  2. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 2.2 μm transparency window: High sensitivity measurements and spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Vasilchenko, S.; Reynaud, C.; Béguier, S.; Čermák, P.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.

    2017-01-01

    The weak absorption spectrum of water vapor in the important 2.2 μm transparency window is investigated with very high sensitivity. Overall, about 400 absorption lines were measured by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) in five spectral intervals: 4248.2–4257.3, 4298.4–4302.6, 4336.8.5-4367.5, 4422.4-4441.2 and 4514.6-4533.7 cm"−"1. The achieved sensitivity of the recordings (noise equivalent absorption, α_m_i_n, on the order of 2×10"−"1"0 cm"−"1) allowed detecting transitions with intensity values down to 1×10"−"2"8 cm/molecule, more than one order of magnitude better than previous studies by Fourier Transform spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignment was performed on the basis of variational calculations and of previously determined empirical energy values. Most of the newly assigned lines correspond to transitions of the ν_1, ν_3 and 3ν_2 bands of H_2"1"7O in natural isotopic abundance. Fourteen energy levels of H_2"1"7O, H_2"1"8O and HD"1"8O are newly determined. An accurate and complete spectroscopic database is constructed for natural water in the 4190–4550 cm"−"1 region (2.39–2.20 µm). The list includes about 4500 transitions with intensity greater than 1×10"−"2"9 cm/molecule, for the six most abundant isotopologues in natural isotopic abundance. Line positions were obtained by difference of empirical energy values determined from literature data and complemented with the present CRDS results. The list is made mostly complete by including weak transitions not yet detected, with positions calculated from empirical levels and variational intensities. The variational intensities computed by a collaboration between the University College London and the Institute of Applied Physics in Nizhny Novgorod are found to improve significantly previous results by Schwenke and Partridge. Examples of comparison of the constructed line list to CRDS spectra and to simulations

  3. From nuclear installation to greenfield site. SCK-CEN develops a new measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses a new measurement method that has been developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This measurement technique is based on on-site gamma ray spectrometry in combination with modelling and is employed for directing the flow of demolition materials in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  4. Measurements of nuclear data and possibility to construct the nuclear data production facility based on electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Won; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moo Hyun; Kim, Gui Nyun; Lee, Young Seok; Kang, Heung Sik [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang(Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to construct an infrastructure to produce nuclear data, we studied three main items; (1) Study on the possibility to construct a facility for nuclear data production, (2) Production of nuclear data for nuclear power plant, and (3) Pulsed neutron source based on a 100-MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). We confirmed the possibility to build a nuclear data production facility utilizing a 100-MeV electron linac at PAL and manpower who wanted to participate the nuclear data production experiments. In order to measure the nuclear data for nuclear power plant, we used several nuclear data production facilities in abroad. We measured total cross sections and neutron caprure cross sections for {sup nat}Dy and {sup nat}Hf using the pulsed neutron facility in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The neutron capture cross sections for {sup 161,162,163,164}Dy were measured at KURRI in the neutron energy region between 0.001 eV and several tens keV, and at the fast neutron facility in Tokyo Institute of Technology in the neutron energy region between 10 keV and 100 keV. We also measured the neutron capture cross sections and gamma multiplicity of {sup 232}Th at the IBR30 in Dubna, Russia. We have construct a pulsed neutron source using a 100-MeV electron linac at PAL. We measured neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectra in order to check the characteristics of the pulsed neutron source. We also measured a neutron total cross sections of W and Cu. The pulsed neutron facility can be utilized in the education facility for nuclear data production and the test facility for the R and D purpose of the nuclear data production facility. 29 refs., 57 figs., 22 tabs. (Author)

  5. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety. Meeting of the High Committee on the 15 September 2011. Plenary meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After the opinion of the High Committee on public inquiries, several Power Point contributions are proposed. They respectively propose a presentation of the itinerant exhibition 'Radioactivity from Homer to Oppenheimer', an assessment of nuclear material stocks and flows for 2009 and 2010 (depleted uranium, recycled uranium, plutonium, uranium and plutonium exports, materials generated by the supply of the EDF fleet), a presentation of the Generation IV International Forum (with a presentation of the six concepts for fourth generation nuclear reactor: sodium fast neutrons, lead fast neutrons, gas fast neutrons, very high temperature and gas, super-critical water, molten salts), a discussion on the interest of fourth generation reactors and their associated fuel cycle (the example of ASTRID), several discussions (by EDF, by the ASN, by the IRSN) on an operation accident in the CENTRACO base nuclear installation in September 2011), and a description of the participation of the Gravelines Local Information Commission to the nuclear crisis exercise in January 2011

  6. Annual report 89. Central Bureau for nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report covers CBNM's activities during the second year of the multiannual programme 1988-91. Its contents and form reflect the change in the role and in the working conditions of the Joint Research Center of which CBNM is an institute. The main task of CBNM as covered by the European Communities Framework Programme is defined as the specific programme Nuclear Measurements and Reference Materials. The activities of the CBNM - like for the other institutes of the JRC - are only in part funded as Specific Programme. A small proportion of the specific programme budget is allotted to Exploratory Research, in preparation of possible extensions of existing competences or of potential new activities. Parts of the funding are coming from Support to Other Commission Services and from Work for Third Parties on the basis of contracts. 36 contributions have been presented during a series of international conferences; 24 articles have been submitted for publication in scientific/technical journals

  7. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  8. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  9. Non-Proliferation, the IAEA Safeguards System, and the importance of nuclear material measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this project is to explain the contribution of nuclear material measurements to the system of international verification of State declarations and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  11. Legal measures for improving public acceptance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti de Veses y Puig, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author of this paper considers that public acceptance of nuclear projects would be greatly enhanced by appropriate information on topics concerning safety of nuclear installations supplied through specialised institutions set up by the governments. In this context the author refers to the 1980 Spanish Act setting up the Nuclear Safety Council, one of whose tasks is to inform the public, and finally, the 1981 Act establishing a specific tax on electrical generation, including nuclear electricity. (NEA) [fr

  12. Transparency demonstration of underground radiation and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, Barry D.; Hofer, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    One of the legacies of the nuclear weapon and nuclear power cycles has been the generation of large quantities of nuclear waste and fissile materials. As citizens of this planet, it is everyone's responsibility to provide for safe, secure, transparent, disposal of these waste nuclear materials. The Sandia Cooperative Monitoring Center sponsored a Transparency Monitoring Workshop where the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was identified as a possible transparency demonstration test bed. Three experiments were conceived as jumpstart activities to showcase the effective use of the WIPP infrastructure as a Transparency Demonstration Test Bed. The three experiments were successfully completed and demonstrated at the International Atomic Energy Association sponsored International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver Colorado November 1999. The design and coordination of these efforts is the subject of this paper

  13. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  14. Fission gas release in LWR fuel measured during nuclear operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Skattum, E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fuel behavior experiments are being conducted in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor in Halden, Norway, to measure the release of Xe, Kr, and I fission products from typical light water reactor design fuel pellets. Helium gas is used to sweep the Xe and Kr fission gases out of two of the Instrumented Fuel Assembly 430 fuel rods and to a gamma spectrometer. The measurements of Xe and Kr are made during nuclear operation at steady state power, and for 135 I following reactor scram. The first experiments were conducted at a burnup of 3000 MWd/t UO 2 , at bulk average fuel temperatures of approx. 850 K and approx. 23 kW/m rod power. The measured release-to-birth ratios (R/B) of Xe and Kr are of the same magnitude as those observed in small UO 2 specimen experiments, when normalized to the estimated fuel surface-to-volume ratio. Preliminary analysis indicates that the release-to-birth ratios can be calculated, using diffusion coefficients determined from small specimen data, to within a factor of approx. 2 for the IFA-430 fuel. The release rate of 135 I is shown to be approximately equal to that of 135 Xe

  15. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  16. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  17. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  18. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  19. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures

  20. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  1. National assembly constitution of the 4. of october 1958 eleventh legislature. Law project relative to the openness and safety in nuclear matter; Assemblee Nationale constitution du 4 octobre 1958 onzieme legislature. Projet de loi relatif a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This law project is the first text submitted to the Parliament in order to given a general frame to nuclear activities. It refers to principles of other activities areas such precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and public information principle. It extends the information right of citizens by creating an access right to information held by the operators of nuclear activities. A transparency high committee about nuclear safety is created whom mission is to contribute to public information on nuclear activities and to guarantee its quality and reliability. (N.C.)

  2. Openness and transparency: the road to public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaczko, G.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop on transparency of Nuclear Regulatory Activities was held from 22 to 24 May 2007, in Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan. The first session was devoted to clarifying the concept of transparency as used in the field of nuclear safety regulation. This document is the presentation of the chairman of the session and offers a global evaluation of the session. (A.L.B.)

  3. Project report about the motives of the future law project 'security and nuclear clearness'; Projet d'expose des motifs du futur projet de loi ''securite et transparence nucleaire''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    This project aims to prevent the hazards in relation with nuclear activities for man and his environment, as well to reinforce information on risks associated to these activities and on measures taken to avoid them. (N.C.)

  4. Topical understandings of nuclear material measurement · accountancy and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Muraoka, Susumu; Osabe, Takeshi; Terada, Hiromi; Shimizu, Kenichi; Ohtani, Tetsuo; Fujimaki, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Tadatsugu; Shinohara, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear material measurement is an important measure to determine the amount of nuclear material of each stage such as receipt, shipment, inventory and hold-up. The material accountancy based on the material balance among the measurements is a measure to control of nuclear material. The material accountancy, from the technical aspect, can be used as promising measures for purposes from operator's level to state's level such as the nuclear safety, property control and environmental preservation other than safeguards measures only to conclude no diversion of nuclear material. This paper discusses various purposes of nuclear material measurements and clarifies the certain function such as quality assurance to be expected at each purpose. Based on the discussion, critical points for the quality assurance of each stage are studied. (author)

  5. A Study on intelligent measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Desheng; Wu Xiaohong

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere is an important subject for nuclear survey. Based on the relations between nuclear explosion equivalent and the minimum illuminance time of light radiation from nuclear explosion. The method of RC differential valley time detection and mean-time taking is presented the method, using a single-chip computer as a intelligent part, can realize intelligent measurement of minimum illuminance time with high reliability and low power consumption. This method provides a practical mean for quick, accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

  6. Nuclear transition moment measurements of neutron rich nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Krzysztof

    2009-10-01

    The Recoil Distance Method (RDM) and related Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) are well-established tools for lifetime measurements following nuclear reactions near the Coulomb barrier. Recently, the RDM was implemented at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University using NSCL/K"oln plunger device and a unique combination of the state-of-the-art instruments available there. Doppler-shift lifetime measurements following Coulomb excitation, knock-out, and fragmentation at intermediate energies of ˜100 MeV/u hold the promise of providing lifetime information for excited states in a wide range of unstable nuclei. So far, the method was used to investigate the collectivity of the neutron-rich ^16,18,20C, ^62,64,66Fe, ^70,72Ni, ^110,114Pd isotopes and also of the neutron-deficient N=Z ^64Ge. A significant fraction of these experiments was performed using NSCL's Segmented Germanium Array instrumented with the Digital Data Acquisition System which enables gamma-ray tracking. The impact of GRETINA and gamma-ray tracking on RDM and DSAM studies of neutron-rich nuclei will be discussed.

  7. Low-level radon measurements by nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E. M.; Goksel, S. A.; Alkan, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the work to be described here we have developed a passive nuclear track dosimeter to measure the integrated value of indoor radon (Rn-222) over a long period of time. Passive radon dosimeter which we have developed in our laboratories makes use of two small pieces of CR-39 plastic (Allyl diglycol carbonate) as detectors for registering tracks of alpha particles emitted by radon. These CR-39 plastic detectors are fixed on the inside bottom of a cup-shaped polystrene enclosure which is closed at the top by a tissue permeable for gases only. CR-39 detectors exposed to radon gas in the indoor air for a period of six months then are removed and chemically etched to make the alpha particle tracks visible under the microscope. The counts of tracks are evaluated to determine the radon concentration in the air in comparison with the number of tracks produced by a known concentration of radon gas. By using the passive dosimeters developed and the chemical etching procedure descriped here, measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 45 houses in different districts of the city of Istanbul. In this pilot experiment mean radon concentrations between 0.7 and 3.5 pCi/l have been found in these houses. In order to improve the counting of alpha tracks produced on the detectors a prototype electrochemical etching system in addition to chemical etching, is being developed. (author)

  8. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mason, Peter, E-mail: peter.mason@ch.doe.gov [New Brunswick Laboratory (DOE/NBL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards

  9. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Mason, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards authorities

  10. Burnup verification measurements at a US nuclear utility using the FORK measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.; Bosler, G.E.; Walden, G.

    1993-01-01

    The FORK measurement system, designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards program, has been used to examine spent reactor fuel assemblies at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station. The FORK system measures the passive neutron and gamma-ray emission from spent fuel assemblies while in the storage pool. These measurements can be correlated with burnup and cooling time, and can be used to verify the reactor site records. Verification measurements may be used to help ensure nuclear criticality safety when burnup credit is applied to spent fuel transport and storage systems. By taking into account the reduced reactivity of spent fuel due to its burnup in the reactor, burnup credit results in more efficient and economic transport and storage. The objectives of these tests are to demonstrate the applicability of the FORK system to verify reactor records and to develop optimal procedures compatible with utility operations. The test program is a cooperative effort supported by Sandia National Laboratories, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Duke Power Company

  11. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinnan, C

    2001-01-01

    Space-derived transparency will become a common means of monitoring, preventing, and mitigating crises, verifying compliance with treaties and law, and enabling confidence and security building measures...

  12. A Study on Appropriate Measures Against In-and-out Nuclear Environmental Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Kyu; Kim, Jae Rok; Hwang, Kyung Ho; Choi, Yoon Seok [KANS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Seung Gi [UMI Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shi Hwan [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jang Soo [Korean Nuclear Socierty, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To derive appropriate measures against current issues in Korea nuclear community, nuclear senior's forum meetings have been held several times during the study year 2009. Some key issues have been discussed among nuclear seniors including persons in charge of many nuclear organizations, and opinion leaders. Followings are discussed issues and the relevant measures: - To pre-occupy the world market of nuclear power generation following arrangements are essential: diversifying trade commodities, developing export business models, privatising the nuclear industrial organization, simplifying nuclear export window, and putting the retired nuclear scientists to practical use. - To develop future nuclear systems the following arrangements are required: Setting-up detailed milestones, amending the ROK-US nuclear cooperation agreement so as to enable R and D company relations between the two countries, and securing R and D fund as well as a site available for verification of the future nuclear system technology. - To rectify the future nuclear cooperation agreement viable between ROK and US, it would be essential to some basic achievements in pyro-processing technology, and on such a firm ground a strategic cooperation proposal might be effective in line with negotiation between the programmatic prior-consent and the joint determination. - For the effective way of attaining public acceptance, development of creative communication model reflecting the nation's cultural characteristics is required as well as procurement of reliability in communication. These derived policy related measures would be useful for the future nuclear policy development in this country

  13. A Study on Appropriate Measures Against In-and-out Nuclear Environmental Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Kyu; Kim, Jae Rok; Hwang, Kyung Ho; Choi, Yoon Seok; Ro, Seung Gi; Kim, Shi Hwan; Nam, Jang Soo

    2009-12-01

    To derive appropriate measures against current issues in Korea nuclear community, nuclear senior's forum meetings have been held several times during the study year 2009. Some key issues have been discussed among nuclear seniors including persons in charge of many nuclear organizations, and opinion leaders. Followings are discussed issues and the relevant measures: - To pre-occupy the world market of nuclear power generation following arrangements are essential: diversifying trade commodities, developing export business models, privatising the nuclear industrial organization, simplifying nuclear export window, and putting the retired nuclear scientists to practical use. - To develop future nuclear systems the following arrangements are required: Setting-up detailed milestones, amending the ROK-US nuclear cooperation agreement so as to enable R and D company relations between the two countries, and securing R and D fund as well as a site available for verification of the future nuclear system technology. - To rectify the future nuclear cooperation agreement viable between ROK and US, it would be essential to some basic achievements in pyro-processing technology, and on such a firm ground a strategic cooperation proposal might be effective in line with negotiation between the programmatic prior-consent and the joint determination. - For the effective way of attaining public acceptance, development of creative communication model reflecting the nation's cultural characteristics is required as well as procurement of reliability in communication. These derived policy related measures would be useful for the future nuclear policy development in this country

  14. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destouches Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  15. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed

  16. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J.; Ambers, Scott D.

    2011-01-14

    The Next Generation Safeguard Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S Department of Energy is supporting a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins with non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. The following 14 NDA techniques are being studied: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Gamma, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, and Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis. Understanding and maturity of the techniques vary greatly, ranging from decades old, well-understood methods to new approaches. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that had not previously been studied for SNF assay or similar applications. Since NRF generates isotope-specific signals, the promise and appeal of the technique lies in its potential to directly measure the amount of a specific isotope in an SNF assay target. The objectives of this study were to design and model suitable NRF measurement methods, to quantify capabilities and corresponding instrumentation requirements, and to evaluate prospects and the potential of NRF for SNF assay. The main challenge of the technique is to achieve the sensitivity and precision, i.e., to accumulate sufficient counting statistics, required for quantifying the mass of Pu isotopes in SNF assemblies. Systematic errors, considered a lesser problem for a direct measurement and only briefly discussed in this report, need to be evaluated for specific instrument designs in the future. Also, since the technical capability of using NRF to measure Pu in SNF has not been established, this report does not directly address issues such as cost, size

  17. Study on highly reliable digital communication technology of reactor nuclear measuring equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengfei; Huang Xiaojin

    2007-01-01

    To meet the need of highly reliable of reactor nuclear measuring equipment, in allusion to the idiographic request of nuclear measuring equipment, the actual technical development and the application in industrial field, we design a kind of redundancy communication net based on PROFIBUS, and a kind of communication interface module based on redundancy PROFIBUS communication, which link the nuclear measuring equipment and PROFIBUS communication net, and also lay a foundation for advanced research. (authors)

  18. Survey of methods and measurements of nuclear reactor time and frequency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1961-11-01

    Methods of measuring reactivity effects in nuclear reactors are described and the main control engineering analytical problems in nuclear reactors are detailed. A description of the use of reactor models and adaptive control in improving the economy of power producing nuclear reactors is included. (author)

  19. Measures for human resources assure in nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvanov, B.; Kostadinova, K.; Marinov, L.

    2009-01-01

    The planned and undertaken measures like: Council of Ministers Decree on the provision and training of personnel for nuclear energy; development of regional nuclear technology and training center for development and deployment of nuclear technology and education and training; establishment of a national system for providing and maintaining of nuclear education quality; creation of a national nuclear research program within framework of Scientific Research Fund ect. The assessment of the future human resources needs in nuclear energy sector for period 2009-2013, as well as the opportunities for training, education and qualification of the personnel are presented

  20. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water