WorldWideScience

Sample records for measuring multiple environmental

  1. A multiplicative environmental DEA approach to measure efficiency changes in the world's major polluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Roshdi, Israfil; Smyth, Russell

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiplicative environmental data envelopment analysis (ME-DEA) approach to measure the performance of 46 countries that generate most of the world's carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. In the model, we combine economic (labour and capital), environmental (freshwater) and energy inputs with a desirable output (GDP) and three undesirable outputs (CO_2, methane and nitrous oxide emissions). We rank each country according to the optimum use of its resources employing a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. By computing partial efficiency scores for each input and output separately, we thus identify major sources of inefficiency for all sample countries. Based on the partial efficiency scores obtained from the model, we define aggregate economic, energy and environmental efficiency indexes for 2002, 2007 and 2011, reflecting points in time before and after the official enactment of the Kyoto Protocol. We find that for most countries efficiency scores increase over this period. In addition, there exists a positive relationship between economic and environmental efficiency, although, at the same time, our results suggest that environmental efficiency cannot be realized without first reaching a certain threshold of economic efficiency. We also find support for the Paradox of Plenty, whereby an abundance of natural and energy resources results in their inefficient use. - Highlights: • This study proposes a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. • We examine how countries utilize energy, labour, capital and freshwater over time. • We measure how efficiently countries minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. • Results support the Paradox of Plenty among 46 countries in 2002, 2007 and 2011. • Countries richest in oil and gas exhibited the worst energy efficiency.

  2. EPA True NO2 ground site measurementsmultiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurementsmultiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  3. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A.; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest. PMID:23999551

  4. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  5. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  6. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  7. Multiple-pollutant cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation measures in the UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curves can inform integrated environmental policy. ► We incorporated the co-effects on NH 3 , NO 3 − , P and sediment, as monetary values, into the UK GHG MACC. ► Adding co-effects modifies the GHG MACC, though with little impact unless using high damage values. ► Further research is needed on the co-effects of GHG mitigation measures and on damage values. ► Analysis should focus on the co-effects of measures that are slightly above or below the threshold. -- Abstract: This paper develops multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve analysis to identify an optimal set of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures considering the trade-offs and synergies with other environmental pollutants. The analysis is applied to UK agriculture, a sector expected to make a contribution to the national GHG mitigation effort. Previous analyses using marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) have determined the sector's GHG abatement potential based on the cost-effectiveness of a variety of technically feasible mitigation measures. Most of these measures have external effects on other pollution loads arising from agricultural activities. Here the monetary values of four of the most important impacts to water and air (specifically ammonia, nitrate, phosphorous and sediment) are included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. The resulting multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve (MP MACC) informs the design of sustainable climate change policies by showing how the MP MACC for the UK agriculture can differ from the GHG MACC. The analysis also highlights research gaps, and suggests a need to understand the wider environmental effects of GHG mitigation options and to reduce the uncertainty in pollutant damage cost estimates

  8. Multiple intelligences: Can they be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Tirri; Petri Nokelainen; Erkki Komulainen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about issues relating to the assessment of multiple intelligences. The first section introduces the authors’ work on building measures of multiple intelligences and moral sensitivities. It also provides a conceptual definition of multiple intelligences based on Multiple Intelligences theory by Howard Gardner (1983). The second section discusses the context specificity of intelligences and alternative approaches to measuring multiple intelligences. The third section analyses the ...

  9. Passive neutron-multiplication measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnay, A.S.; Barnett, C.S.; Spracklen, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed an instrument to measure neutron multiplication by statistical analysis of the timing of neutrons emitted from fissionable material. This instrument is capable of repeated analysis of the same recorded data with selected algorithms, graphical displays showing statistical properties of the data, and preservation of raw data on disk for future comparisons. In our measurements we have made a comparison of the covariance to mean and Feynman variance to mean analysis algorithms to show that the covariance avoids a bias term and measures directly the effect due to the presence of neutron chains. A spherical assembly of enriched uranium shells and acrylic resin reflector/moderator components used for the measurements is described. Preliminary experimental results of the Feynman variance to mean measurements show the expected correlation with assembly multiplication

  10. Evaluation of the Environmental Scoring System in Multiple Child Asthma Intervention Programs in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Nath, Anjali; Guo, Jing; Bhaumik, Urmi; Chin, May Y; Dong, Sherry; Marshall, Erica; Murphy, Johnna S; Sandel, Megan T; Sommer, Susan J; Ursprung, W W Sanouri; Woods, Elizabeth R; Reid, Margaret; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2018-01-01

    To test the applicability of the Environmental Scoring System, a quick and simple approach for quantitatively measuring environmental triggers collected during home visits, and to evaluate its contribution to improving asthma outcomes among various child asthma programs. We pooled and analyzed data from multiple child asthma programs in the Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, collected in 2011 to 2016, to examine the association of environmental scores (ES) with measures of asthma outcomes and compare the results across programs. Our analysis showed that demographics were important contributors to variability in asthma outcomes and total ES, and largely explained the differences among programs at baseline. Among all programs in general, we found that asthma outcomes were significantly improved and total ES significantly reduced over visits, with the total Asthma Control Test score negatively associated with total ES. Our study demonstrated that the Environmental Scoring System is a useful tool for measuring home asthma triggers and can be applied regardless of program and survey designs, and that demographics of the target population may influence the improvement in asthma outcomes.

  11. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Political measures for promoting environmental technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Environmental technology can contribute to solving many environmental challenges and to industrial development. Measures to support the development and use of such technologies can be regulatory, economic or administrative, and usually one needs to use a combination of different measures in order to reach both a better environment and industrial development. For industrial development other measures than those administered by environmental authorities will be of importance. The environmental authorities therefore need to acquire knowledge about these measures and the bodies administering them, and develop an operative cooperation with these actors

  13. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  14. Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification

  15. Improved environmental and forensics measurements using multiple ion counters in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.A.; Richter, S.; Schwieters, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A new detector system designed for isotope ratio mass spectrometers provides improved precision on measurements of samples with very low amounts ( -11 grams) of analyte. An array of continuous dynode electron multipliers has been installed on a new ThermoFinnigan MAT Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer acquired by the New Brunswick Laboratory. These ion counters are modifications of miniaturized, commercially-available continuous dynode electron multipliers. They can be readily installed to replace individual Faraday cups in a multi-detector mass spectrometer or bundled together and located along the detector plane with a set of Faraday cups. On the New Brunswick Laboratory mass spectrometer, nine Faraday cups, one conventional discrete dynode electron multiplier, and seven miniaturized ion counters were installed. Six of the small ion counters were bundled together and positioned on the high mass side of the Low 4 Faraday cup. One additional ion counter was positioned on the low mass side of the Low 4 Faraday cup. This arrangement allows for the simultaneous measurement of all uranium (including 233 U) or plutonium (including 244 Pu) isotopes, and allows for the measurement of larger 238 U intensities on the Faraday cup if needed. Unit mass spacing of U, Pu, or other actinides is readily achieved by the use of a mass dispersion zoom lens. The advantage of multiple ion counting is the simultaneous collection of isotopes. It overcomes many of the problems such as transient signal variation in sample emission and ionization. For a given sample, multiple ion counting generates a greater number of counts for each isotope relative to single detector ion counting and provides improved counting statistics by a factor of two or more. Initial tests indicate that the multiple ion counters exhibit high counting efficiency, a dark noise of less than 10 counts per minute and typically less than 1 count per minute, and show linear response characteristics over

  16. Environmental Audit of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This document contains the findings identified during the Environmental Audit of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), conducted from December 2 to 13, 1991. The Audit included the EML facility located in a fifth-floor General Services Administration (GSA) office building located in New York City, and a remote environmental monitoring station located in Chester, New Jersey. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is the responsibility of the DOE Headquarters Office of NEPA Oversight. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local requirements; applicable DOE Orders; and internal facility requirements was addressed

  17. Ensuring comparability of data generated by multiple analytical laboratories for environmental decision making at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.; Campbell, B.A.; Danahy, R.J.; Dugan, T.A.; Tomlinson, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility located 17 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1952 until 1989, the Fernald site provided high-purity uranium metal products to support US defense programs. In 1989 the mission of Fernald changed from one of uranium production to one of environmental restoration. At Fernald, multiple functional programs require analytical data. Inorganic and organic data for these programs are currently generated by seven laboratories, while radiochemical data are being obtained from six laboratories. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) programs have been established to help ensure comparability of data generated by multiple laboratories at different times. The quality assurance program for organic and inorganic measurements specifies which analytical methodologies and sample preparation procedures are to be used based on analyte class, sample matrix, and data quality requirements. In contrast, performance specifications have been established for radiochemical analyses. A blind performance evaluation program for all laboratories, both on-site and subcontracted commercial laboratories, provides continuous feedback on data quality. The necessity for subcontractor laboratories to participate in the performance evaluation program is a contractual requirement. Similarly, subcontract laboratories are contractually required to generate data which meet radiochemical performance specifications. The Fernald on-site laboratory must also fulfill these requirements

  18. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  19. Environmental efficiency with multiple environmentally detrimental variables : estimated with SFA and DEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Lovell, C.A.K.; Thijssen, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate comprehensive environmental efficiency measures for Dutch dairy farms. The environmental efficiency scores are based on the nitrogen surplus, phosphate surplus and the total (direct and indirect) energy use of an unbalanced panel of dairy farms. We define

  20. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  2. Measuring multiple residual-stress components using the contour method and multiple cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pagliaro, Pierluigi [U. PALERMO; Zuccarello, Bernardo [U. PALERMO

    2009-01-01

    The conventional contour method determines one component of stress over the cross section of a part. The part is cut into two, the contour of the exposed surface is measured, and Bueckner's superposition principle is analytically applied to calculate stresses. In this paper, the contour method is extended to the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts with subsequent applications of superposition. The theory and limitations are described. The theory is experimentally tested on a 316L stainless steel disk with residual stresses induced by plastically indenting the central portion of the disk. The stress results are validated against independent measurements using neutron diffraction. The theory has implications beyond just multiple cuts. The contour method measurements and calculations for the first cut reveal how the residual stresses have changed throughout the part. Subsequent measurements of partially relaxed stresses by other techniques, such as laboratory x-rays, hole drilling, or neutron or synchrotron diffraction, can be superimposed back to the original state of the body.

  3. Quantum theory of multiple-input-multiple-output Markovian feedback with diffusive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, A.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback control engineers have been interested in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) extensions of single-input-single-output (SISO) results of various kinds due to its rich mathematical structure and practical applications. An outstanding problem in quantum feedback control is the extension of the SISO theory of Markovian feedback by Wiseman and Milburn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993)] to multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Here we generalize the SISO homodyne-mediated feedback theory to allow for multiple inputs, multiple outputs, and arbitrary diffusive quantum measurements. We thus obtain a MIMO framework which resembles the SISO theory and whose additional mathematical structure is highlighted by the extensive use of vector-operator algebra.

  4. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  5. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  6. Environmental pollution measurements and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, M.

    1994-01-01

    This book gives the interested layman an insight into fundamental processes of ecology and closes the gap between theory and practice. The practical part shows how measuring instruments for environmental applications work, how errors of measurement can be avoided, and how to make use of the measured results. (orig./EF) [de

  7. Measuring environmental attitudes of elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Benjamin; George H. Moeller; Douglas A. Morrison

    1977-01-01

    A modified semantic differential was developed to measure environmental attitudes of sixth-graders. Classes were selected to represent different socioeconomic and residence backgrounds and degrees of previous exposure to structured environmental programs. Results indicate that: exposure to environmental education fosters favorable environmental attitudes; socioeconomic...

  8. Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Fox

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Roy Fox1, Tara Sampalli1, Jonathan Fox11Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, NS, CanadaAbstract: The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study

  9. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  10. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  11. Environmental radioactivity measurement. Ispra 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Risposi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1990 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are give on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, HTO and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  12. Measurement of environmental radioactivity in Toki district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    When the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, expressed the hope to move into Toki district, the environmental problems accompanying the movement were discussed. The effect of the radioactivity leaking from the nuclear facility on human bodies must be far smaller than that of natural radiation, and for the purpose, the amount and fluctuation range of the natural radiation in the district must be known. The initial objectives of this cooperative research were to study on environmental radiation and to make a Geiger counter for the measurement. In 1981, a scintillation counter will be completed, and using a multi-channel pulse height analyzer, the nuclides which are the source of environmental radiation emission will be identified, and the tritium in natural water will be detected. Thus, the evaluation of environmental radiation can be carried out, and the situation before the movement of the research facility can be grasped. In this paper, the natural radioactivity in earth, atmosphere and water and cosmic ray, artificial radioactivity, and environmental radiation exposure dose are reported. Also, the manufacture of a GM counter measuring instrument and the measurements of cosmic ray background, typical earth samples and environmental radioactivity with the GM counter are reported. The related data are attached. (Kako, I.)

  13. Association Between Cognitive Complaints and Vulnerability to Environmental Distraction in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, John J; Randolph, Jennifer S; Wishart, Heather A

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report cognitive dysfunction, although neuropsychological evaluation findings may not correlate with subjective concerns. One factor that may explain this lack of correspondence is the controlled testing environment, which differs from busier settings where cognitive lapses are noted to occur. This study used a novel environmental manipulation to determine whether individuals with MS who report cognitive dysfunction are more vulnerable to the effects of auditory distraction during neuropsychological testing. Twenty-four individuals with clinically definite MS or clinically isolated syndrome were administered a cognitive battery during two counterbalanced auditory conditions: quiet/standard condition, and distraction condition with random office background noise. Participants were divided into high versus low cognitive complaint groups using a median split analysis of Perceived Deficits Questionnaire responses. Participants with more cognitive complaints showed a decrement in performance on the oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test during the distraction condition while those with fewer cognitive complaints demonstrated stable performance across conditions. These findings remained significant after controlling for education, premorbid intellect, fatigue, and depressed mood. These results suggest that individuals with MS with more cognitive complaints are vulnerable to environmental distraction, particularly regarding processing speed. Incorporating random environmental noise or other distraction conditions during selected measures may enhance the ecological validity of neuropsychological evaluation results in MS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Measuring Values in Environmental Research: A Test of an Environmental Portrait Value Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Four human values are considered to underlie individuals’ environmental beliefs and behaviors: biospheric (i.e., concern for environment), altruistic (i.e., concern for others), egoistic (i.e., concern for personal resources) and hedonic values (i.e., concern for pleasure and comfort). These values are typically measured with an adapted and shortened version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), to which we refer as the Environmental-SVS (E-SVS). Despite being well-validated, recent research has indicated some concerns about the SVS methodology (e.g., comprehensibility, self-presentation biases) and suggested an alternative method of measuring human values: The Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). However, the PVQ has not yet been adapted and applied to measure values most relevant to understand environmental beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, we tested the Environmental-PVQ (E-PVQ) – a PVQ variant of E-SVS –and compared it with the E-SVS in two studies. Our findings provide strong support for the validity and reliability of both the E-SVS and E-PVQ. In addition, we find that respondents slightly preferred the E-PVQ over the E-SVS (Study 1). In general, both scales correlate similarly to environmental self-identity (Study 1), energy behaviors (Studies 1 and 2), pro-environmental personal norms, climate change beliefs and policy support (Study 2). Accordingly, both methodologies show highly similar results and seem well-suited for measuring human values underlying environmental behaviors and beliefs. PMID:29743874

  15. Measuring the environmental literacy of teachers | Swanepoel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crucial role that teachers' environmental literacy plays in realising the goals of environmental education and the importance of the ability, to determine their level of environmental literacy, are argued. A measuring instrument was developed in this regard and was applied to a sample of teachers. An analysis of the results ...

  16. Multiple Social Networks, Data Models and Measures for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Social Network Analysis is a discipline defining models, measures, methodologies, and algorithms to study multiple social networks together as a single social system. It is particularly valuable when the networks are interconnected, e.g., the same actors are present in more than one...

  17. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  18. Measuring the environmental awareness of young farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountios, G.; Ragkos, A.; Padadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2017-09-01

    Young farmers in Europe, especially the beneficiaries of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funding schemes, are considered as the ones who could ensure the sustainability of the European Model of Agriculture. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, aversion of depopulation of rural areas and environmental protection constitute some of the key objectives of the CAP and young farmers are expected to play a role to all of them. This study proposes a way of measuring the potential of young farmers to contribute to the latter objectives of the CAP by estimating their environmental attitudes. Data from a questionnaire survey of 492 Greek young farmers were used to design a latent construct measuring their environmental attitudes. The latent construct was designed by means of an Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) using the responses to a set of 12 Likert-scale items. The results the EFA yielded a latent construct with three factors related to "Environmental pollution and policies (EPP)", "Environmental factors and food quality (EFF)" and "Farming practices and the environment". These results were validated through a CFA where 8 items in total were categorized in the three factors (latent variables). The utilization of the latent construct for the effective implementation of CAP measures could ameliorate the relationships of agriculture and environment in general.

  19. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed

  20. Measurements of environmental gamma-ray spectra using a multi-element TL dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1986-12-01

    A method to estimate the energy distribution and dose of environmental gamma radiation was developed using a multielement TL dosemeter. Experimentally obtained energy responses from a multi-element TL dosemeter with different kinds of filters were used to calculate the energy distribution and related dose by the SAND-II computer code. The code was originally developed to estimate the neutron flux using a multiple foil activation method. Measurements were made at several locations with the multi-element TL dosemeter and comparisons were made with results from a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and a high-pressure ionization chamber. (author)

  1. Environmentally development sustainable Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Pinzon, Hector Jaime

    1996-01-01

    One of the topics of more present time in the national and international environment has to do with the environment and all circumstances that surround it. The public accountants are involved direct or indirectly with the environmental handling, this profession has a great incidence in many aspects of this topic. The environmental development has to do with several such aspects as inequality and poverty, the incalculable human resource, the same environment, the social, political and cultural aspects and some indicators that have to do with the same development. All the proposals that they have to do with the environmental development they don't stop to be simply index normalized, it is to include non-monetary elements of the well being toward the leading of the development politicians. Such events as environmental costs, environmental control, industrial processes, human resources and others of great importance possess continuous and permanent relationship with the public accounting. For this reason it has been to analyze environmental aspects, with the purpose of investigating what documentation and advances exist in other countries, to be able to show some light to the interested, and this way to develop some hypotheses that can be in turn elements of integration technician-accountant jointly. The measurements of the entrance and the total product of nation, they give an extremely imperfect indication of their well -being. Besides the holes so well well-known of their covering, as the domestic work not remunerated, it is necessary to know at least another group of information to be able to emit a conclusive trial about the tendencies of the human well-being

  2. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal scale dependent interactions between multiple environmental disturbances in microcosm ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Aurélie; Pennekamp, Frank; Lemoine, Mélissa; Petchey, Owen L

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods, and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience, and return time). We tested whether multiple disturbances combine in a dominant, additive, or interactive fashion, and compared the predictability of dissolved oxygen across scales. Carbon enrichment and shading reduced oxygen concentration in the short term (i.e. resistance); although no other effects or interactions were statistically significant, resistance decreased as the number of disturbances increased. In the medium term, only enrichment accelerated recovery, but none of the other effects (including interactions) were significant. In the long term, enrichment and shading lengthened return times, and we found significant two-way synergistic interactions between disturbances. The best performing model (dominant, additive, or interactive) depended on the temporal scale of response. In the short term (i.e. for resistance), the dominance model predicted resistance of dissolved oxygen best, due to a large effect of carbon enrichment, whereas none of the models could predict the medium term (i.e. resilience). The long-term response was best predicted by models including interactions among disturbances. Our results indicate the importance of accounting for the temporal scale of responses when researching the effects of environmental disturbances on ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley

  4. Measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara Batista de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient (α) in pure isobutane obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by one electrode (anode) of high resistivity glass (ρ = 2 x 10 12 Ω.cm). The method applied was the Pulsed Townsend, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam onto a metallic electrode (cathode). The electric currents measured with the chamber operating in both ionization and avalanche regimes were used to calculate the gaseous multiplication coefficient by the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields. The validation of the technique was provided by the measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The α coefficients in isobutane were measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td. The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte software (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available in the literature, recently obtained in our group. This comparison showed that the results are concordant within the experimental errors. (author)

  5. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML`s mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues.

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML's mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues

  7. Disability outcome measures in multiple sclerosis clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reingold, Stephen C; Polman, Chris H

    2012-01-01

    Many of the available disability outcome measures used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis are insensitive to change over time, inadequately validated, or insensitive to patient-perceived health status or quality of life. Increasing focus on therapies that slow or reverse disability...... recommend practical refinements. Conversely, although substantial data support the multiple sclerosis functional composite as an alternative measure, changes to its component tests and scoring method are needed. Novel approaches, including the use of composite endpoints, patient-reported outcomes...... progression makes it essential to refine existing measures or to develop new tools. Major changes to the expanded disability status scale should be avoided to prevent the loss of acceptance by regulators as a measure for primary outcomes in trials that provide substantial evidence of effectiveness. Rather, we...

  8. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  9. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1977 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishement. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  10. Measurements of environmental radioactivity, Ispra 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1988 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  11. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1977-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1976 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establisment. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  12. Modern systems for environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Borodeanu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The system for environmental radioactivity measurements with automatic data transmission represents a better solution for nuclear safety assurance. The 'intelligent probe' will be of real use for surveying the environmental radioactivity. The probes work independently. They measure the dose rate and store the data in their internal memory. Many such probes can be spread all over a large area. They are able to measure dose rate from the background level up to high catastrophic levels. A central computer 'asks' periodically the probes to send their stored data. This computer stores the data from many probes over a long time. It can show in 'windows' manner the dose rate from any probe (either in a numerical or graphical way), the position on a map of every probe and the corresponding results of the measurements. In can alert, if an alarm threshold is crossed or it can print on a printer the data for any single probe. (author)

  13. Measurement of neutron multiplication in Pb by Mn foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuan; Liu Rong; Guo Haiping; Jiang Wenmian; Shen Jian

    1994-01-01

    The Leakage neutron multiplication in bulk lead has been measured using the total absorption detector and relative method. The polyethylene sphere of 138 cm in diameter is used as the moderator and total absorption detector. The measured results from 55 Mn foils and 6 Li glass are compared. The neutron multiplication is 1.74 with the lead shell of 23.1 cm thick. The measured result is consistent with the calculated one with ANISN code and ENDF/B-6 evaluated data within the experimental error. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  14. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  15. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M. [eds.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues.

  16. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues

  17. Measuring mid-rapidity multiplicity in PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanova, Aneta; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; PHOBOS Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques have been developed by PHOBOS for measuring the multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions. We will discuss one of these techniques (the 'Tracklet' method) which utilizes two-hit tracks which intersect at the reconstructed collision vertex position. The physics that comes from these measurements can give valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms of particle production over a center of mass energy range of surdSNN = 19.6 GeV to the maximum RHIC energy of surdSNN = 200 GeV.

  18. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  19. The French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunet, P.

    2010-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident in 1986, the government began to implement mechanisms to ensure the quality of measurements of environmental radioactivity and to assure the transparency of information on environmental radioactivity monitoring results. Within this context, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (RNM), is created in 2002 under the Public Health Code. This network is developed under the auspices of ASN in collaboration with IRSN and in partnership with government departments, major nuclear licensees, health agencies and environmental protection associations. In order to centralize information on environmental radioactivity and to provide access to measurement results, a single database that includes an the results of measurements of radioactivity in the environment on the national territory is build and a new web-site www.mesure-radioactivite.fr is launched. It provides quick and easy access to this database. The quality of measurements is performed by a laboratory system through an ASN decision. Novel initiative in Europe, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity web-site gives the user keys to understand the measurement results on the radiological state of the environment. The site will be improved over the time taking into account the feedback of the users. (author)

  20. Institutional Fit and River Basin Governance: a New Approach Using Multiple Composite Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion that effective environmental governance depends in part on achieving a reasonable fit between institutional arrangements and the features of ecosystems and their interconnections with users has been central to much thinking about social-ecological systems for more than a decade. Based on expert consultations this study proposes a set of six dimensions of fit for water governance regimes and then empirically explores variation in measures of these in 28 case studies of national parts of river basins in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa drawing on a database compiled by the Twin2Go project. The six measures capture different but potentially important dimensions of fit: allocation, integration, conservation, basinization, participation, and adaptation. Based on combinations of responses to a standard questionnaire filled in by groups of experts in each basin we derived quantitative measures for each indicator. Substantial variation in these measures of fit was apparent among basins in developing and developed countries. Geographical location is not a barrier to high institutional fit; but within basins different measures of fit often diverge. This suggests it is difficult, but not impossible, to simultaneously achieve a high fit against multiple challenging conditions. Comparing multidimensional fit profiles give a sense of how well water governance regimes are equipped for dealing with a range of natural resource and use-related conditions and suggests areas for priority intervention. The findings of this study thus confirm and help explain previous work that has concluded that context is important for understanding the variable consequences of institutional reform on water governance practices as well as on social and environmental outcomes.

  1. Environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercise 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    In a recent national intercomparison exercise, 49 laboratories involved in making environmental radioactivity measurements took part in the analysis of samples supplied by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom. There were two sets of samples; one containing pure β-emitters and one containing β/γ-emitters. Two thirds of the participants measured the β/γ-emitter sample only, the remainder measured both. The results are presented. (author)

  2. A heuristic approach using multiple criteria for environmentally benign 3PLs selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, Elif

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining competitiveness in an environment where price and quality differences between competing products are disappearing depends on the company's ability to reduce costs and supply time. Timely responses to rapidly changing market conditions require an efficient Supply Chain Management (SCM). Outsourcing logistics to third-party logistics service providers (3PLs) is one commonly used way of increasing the efficiency of logistics operations, while creating a more "core competency focused" business environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient. Due to recent environmental regulations and growing public awareness regarding environmental issues, 3PLs need to be not only efficient but also environmentally benign to maintain companies' competitiveness. Even though an efficient and environmentally benign combination of 3PLs can theoretically be obtained using exhaustive search algorithms, heuristics approaches to the selection process may be superior in terms of the computational complexity. In this paper, a hybrid approach that combines a multiple criteria Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Linear Physical Weighting Algorithm (LPPW) to be used in efficient and environmentally benign 3PLs is proposed. A numerical example is also provided to illustrate the method and the analyses.

  3. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  4. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1997-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  5. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  6. Teaching environmental physics with a field measurement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Johan; Dynefors, Bertil; Kuehlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    With 15 years of experience of teaching environmental physics, we still need to develop our curriculum. In this paper we present our findings from teaching environmental physics in close association with mathematical statistics in an applied field measurement campaign. Here not only environmental physics is taught, but also the concept of experimental planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of a field measurement campaign. The field measurement gives the students the opportunity to follow the whole process starting from experimental planning, including formulating the questions to answer, through design of the experiment, sample collection, analysis, and evaluation, together with the writing of a final report. All possible aspects of the problem that the students are working on can be carefully investigated, but the emphasis has been on understanding the whole process of carrying out a field campaign. This holistic view gives the students more interest in and better motivation for exploring the subject. This course gave the students insight into the field of interdisciplinary environmental research, promoted their creativity, and also gave the teachers a feeling of satisfaction

  7. COMPASS hadron multiplicity measurements and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is an experiment located at CERN SPS accelerator. For the results presented in this paper a 160 GeV positive muon beam was impinging on 6 LiD target. The COMPASS spectrometer was designed to reconstruct scattered muons and charged hadrons in a wide kinematic range. COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (N)LO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic scattering

  8. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    respond to these new challenges, the Modified Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for the design optimization of a biomass to bio-refinery logistic system that considers the simultaneous maximization of the total profit and the minimization of three environmental impacts is presented. Sustainability balances economic, social and environmental goals and objectives. There exist several works in the literature that have considered economic and environmental objectives for the presented supply chain problem. However, there is a lack of research performed in the social aspect of a sustainable logistics system. This work proposes a methodology to integrate social aspect assessment, based on employment creation. Finally, most of the assessment methodologies considered in the literature only contemplate deterministic values, when in realistic situations uncertainties in the supply chain are present. In this work, Value-at-Risk, an advanced risk measure commonly used in portfolio optimization is included to consider the uncertainties in biofuel prices, among the others.

  9. Political measures for promoting environmental technology; Virkemidler for aa fremme miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Environmental technology can contribute to solving many environmental challenges and to industrial development. Measures to support the development and use of such technologies can be regulatory, economic or administrative, and usually one needs to use a combination of different measures in order to reach both a better environment and industrial development. For industrial development other measures than those administered by environmental authorities will be of importance. The environmental authorities therefore need to acquire knowledge about these measures and the bodies administering them, and develop an operative cooperation with these actors.

  10. Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.; Bogen, D.C.; Knutson, E.O.

    1990-11-01

    Volume 1 of this manual documents the procedures and existing technology that are currently used by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. A section devoted to quality assurance has been included. These procedures have been updated and revised and new procedures have been added. They include: sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications. 228 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs. (FL)

  11. Disability and Fatigue Can Be Objectively Measured in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Motta

    Full Text Available The available clinical outcome measures of disability in multiple sclerosis are not adequately responsive or sensitive.To investigate the feasibility of inertial sensor-based gait analysis in multiple sclerosis.A cross-sectional study of 80 multiple sclerosis patients and 50 healthy controls was performed. Lower-limb kinematics was evaluated by using a commercially available magnetic inertial measurement unit system. Mean and standard deviation of range of motion (mROM, sROM for each joint of lower limbs were calculated in one minute walking test. A motor performance index (E defined as the sum of sROMs was proposed.We established two novel observer-independent measures of disability. Hip mROM was extremely sensitive in measuring lower limb motor impairment, being correlated with muscle strength and also altered in patients without clinically detectable disability. On the other hand, E index discriminated patients according to disability, being altered only in patients with moderate and severe disability, regardless of walking speed. It was strongly correlated with fatigue and patient-perceived health status.Inertial sensor-based gait analysis is feasible and can detect clinical and subclinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

  12. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  13. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  14. Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatersleben, B.C.M.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Measures of proenvironmental behavior in psychological studies do not always reflect the actual environmental impact of a person or household. Therefore, the results of these studies provide little insight into variables that could be helpful in reducing household environmental impact. In this

  15. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): evaluation of 114 measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, A. C. Jr; Carter, R. C.; Kennedy, R. S.; Harbeson, M. M.; Krause, M.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Program was to identify a set of measures of human capabilities for use in the study of environmental and other time-course effects. 114 measures studied in the PETER Program were evaluated and categorized into four groups based upon task stability and task definition. The Recommended category contained 30 measures that clearly obtained total stabilization and had an acceptable level of reliability efficiency. The Acceptable-But-Redundant category contained 15 measures. The 37 measures in the Marginal category, which included an inordinate number of slope and other derived measures, usually had desirable features which were outweighed by faults. The 32 measures in the Unacceptable category had either differential instability or weak reliability efficiency. It is our opinion that the 30 measures in the Recommended category should be given first consideration for environmental research applications. Further, it is recommended that information pertaining to preexperimental practice requirements and stabilized reliabilities should be utilized in repeated-measures environmental studies.

  16. Improving the surface metrology accuracy of optical profilers by using multiple measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Huang, Qiushi; Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-10-01

    The performance of high-resolution optical systems is affected by small angle scattering at the mid-spatial-frequency irregularities of the optical surface. Characterizing these irregularities is, therefore, important. However, surface measurements obtained with optical profilers are influenced by additive white noise, as indicated by the heavy-tail effect observable on their power spectral density (PSD). A multiple-measurement method is used to reduce the effects of white noise by averaging individual measurements. The intensity of white noise is determined using a model based on the theoretical PSD of fractal surface measurements with additive white noise. The intensity of white noise decreases as the number of times of multiple measurements increases. Using multiple measurements also increases the highest observed spatial frequency; this increase is derived and calculated. Additionally, the accuracy obtained using multiple measurements is carefully studied, with the analysis of both the residual reference error after calibration, and the random errors appearing in the range of measured spatial frequencies. The resulting insights on the effects of white noise in optical profiler measurements and the methods to mitigate them may prove invaluable to improve the quality of surface metrology with optical profilers.

  17. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  18. Measuring happiness in individuals with profound multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Joseph A; Circo, Deborah K

    2015-12-01

    This quantitative study assessed whether presentation of preferred items and activities during multiple periods of the day (and over multiple days) increased indices of happiness (over time/sustained) in individuals with PMD. A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to measure changes in indices of happiness of the participants. Participants were recruited from an adult day activity program specializing in providing assistance to individuals with disabilities. For Mary, baseline indices of happiness were 26.67% of intervals, increasing 6.76% during intervention to 33.43%. For Caleb, baseline indices of happiness were 20.84% of intervals, increasing 6.34% during intervention to 27.18%. For Mark, baseline indices of happiness were 40.00% of intervals, increasing 12.75% during intervention to 52.75%. Overall interobserver agreement was 82.8%, with interobserver agreement observations occurring during 63.04% of the observations. The results of the investigation demonstrated that presenting preferred items and activities increased the indices of happiness compared to baseline rates of indices of happiness. Results may have been more robust if the participants were assessed for overall responsiveness patterns prior to the initiation of measurement of indices of happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of air ion measurement in environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the methods employing the measuring of naturally created air ions. The amount and mobility distribution of these ions offer hidden information about air pollution. On the other hand, the natural air ions are active in some environmental processes and they should be considered as an immediate environmental factor

  20. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Arstila, Kai.; Nordlumd, K.; Knapp, James Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements are studied by comparing two Monte Carlo simulation codes, representing different approaches to obtain acceptable statistics, to experimental spectra measured from a HfO 2 sample with a time-of-flight-ERD setup. The results show that both codes can reproduce the absolute detection yields and the energy distributions in an adequate way. The effect of the choice of the interatomic potential in multiple scattering effects is also studied. Finally the capabilities of the MC simulations in the design of new measurement setups are demonstrated by simulating the recoil energy spectra from a WC x N y sample with a low energy heavy ion beam.

  2. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  3. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  4. Expected precision of neutron multiplicity measurements of waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1995-01-01

    DOE facilities are beginning to apply passive neutron multiplicity counting techniques to the assay of plutonium scrap and residues. There is also considerable interest in applying this new measurement technique to 208-liter waste drums. The additional information available from multiplicity counting could flag the presence of shielding materials or improve assay accuracy by correcting for matrix effects such as (α,n) induced fission or detector efficiency variations. The potential for multiplicity analysis of waste drums, and the importance of better detector design, can be estimated by calculating the expected assay precision using a Figure of Merit code for assay variance. This paper reports results obtained as a function of waste drum content and detector characteristics. We find that multiplicity analysis of waste drums is feasible if a high-efficiency neutron counter is used. However, results are significantly poorer if the multiplicity analysis must be used to solve for detection efficiency

  5. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  7. Patient Satisfaction Measurement in Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David L; Adamo, Philip; Cloeren, Marianne; Hegmann, Kurt T; Martin, Douglas W; Levine, Michael J; Olson, Shawn M; Pransky, Glenn S; Tacci, James A; Thiese, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    : High patient satisfaction is a desirable goal in medical care. Patient satisfaction measures are increasingly used to evaluate and improve quality in all types of medical practices. However, the unique aspects of occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) practice require development of OEM-specific measures and thoughtful interpretation of results. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine has developed and recommends a set of specific questions to measure patient satisfaction in OEM, designed to meet anticipated regulatory requirements, facilitate quality improvement of participating OEM practices, facilitate case-management review, and offer fair and accurate assessment of OEM physicians.

  8. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  9. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  10. How much do we value the environment? The acceptation of environmental policy and environmental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, S.; Verhue, D.; Adriaansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Several surveys were conducted to investigate the public opinion in the Netherlands on the environment. The subjects investigated were: climatic change, air pollution, biodiversity, noise and soil pollution, and nature in the Netherlands. Special attention was paid to the willingness of the Dutch to accept specific environmental measures and a marketing strategy for new environmental policy. The purpose of the surveys is to broaden the support of the Dutch people for the environmental policy [nl

  11. Assessment of environmental measures in the Dutch Tax Plan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The environmental measures that were included in the Dutch Tax plan 2008 have been evaluated for their CO2 effects. In addition, the effects on NOx and PM10 emissions have been quantified. They are the following measures: (1) Environmental differentiation of cars Clean and efficient; (2) Adjustment of addition for private use of company cars; (3) Additional financial burden environment unfriendly fuels/energy; (4) Introduction of air passenger tax (350 million euro) (5) Shift from BPM1 to MRB2; (6) Balancing energy tax for sustainably generated electricity for small consumers; (7) Introduction of packaging tax; (8) Adjustment of the tariff of waste for shredder. The effects of measures 2,7 and 8 have not been assessed by MNP (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency). [mk] [nl

  12. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  13. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  14. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  15. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  16. Multiple Measures Accountability Systems: A Perspective from Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In response to Bae's (2018) "Redesigning systems of school accountability: A multiple measures approach to accountability and support," this commentary expands on some key considerations for states and school districts as they seek different ways to support school improvement while also addressing the competing demands of educators,…

  17. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Macotela

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD. Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance.

  18. Progress in the methods for analyses and measurements of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The tenth seminar on environment of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences was held in Chiba on December 9 and 10, 1982, under the joint auspices with Japan Health Physics Society. The recent progress of the measuring techniques for environmental radiation substances is remarkable. The Japanese data on environmental radiation presented to the UN Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation have obtained very high esteem because the data have been reliable due to the progress of measuring techniques. However, this field is in steady progress and changes rapidly, therefore, this seminar was planned. In this report, the history of the analysis and measurement of environmental radioactivity, the method of sampling and pretreatment operation for such environmental specimens as gaseous radionuclides, atmospheric floating dust, soil, agricultural products, sea water and sea bottom sediment, marine life, foods and living bodies, the progress of chemical separation process, the automation of analysis and measurement, the progress of the analysis of low level nuclides with long half-value period, the manual for the analysis and measurement, the quality of the analysis and measurement and its assurance are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Measurement uncertainties of long-term 222Rn averages at environmental levels using alpha track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 250 replicate measurements of outdoor Rn concentration integrated over quarterly periods were made to estimate the random component of the measurement uncertainty of Track Etch detectors (type F) under outdoor conditions. The measurements were performed around three U mill tailings piles to provide a range of environmental concentrations. The measurement uncertainty was typically greater than could be accounted for by Poisson counting statistics. Average coefficients of variation of the order of 20% for all measured concentrations were found. It is concluded that alpha track detectors can be successfully used to determine annual average outdoor Rn concentrations through the use of careful quality control procedures. These include rapid deployment and collection of detectors to minimize unintended Rn exposure, careful packaging and shipping to and from the manufacturer, use of direct sunlight shields for all detectors and careful and secure mounting of all detectors in as similar a manner as possible. The use of multiple (at least duplicate) detectors at each monitoring location and an exposure period of no less than one quarter are suggested

  20. The use of Tritium measurements for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.; Carrere, D; Simeon, C.

    1987-05-01

    Impact studies, compulsory for large installations and land use, require an environmental monitoring program throughout the plant operation. Therefore, and in appliance with the specific regulations concerning them, industrial plants of the nuclear fuel cycle must ensure environmental monitoring including measurements both on the air and water vectors and on the receiving compartments, i.e. food chains and consumers. The development of fine methods in order to assess the limiting capacity of the environment and evaluate the fate of the releases requires to have sensitive bioindicators. For radioactive releases, this is the case of tritium: following the fate of hydrogen, it combines with the vegetal or animal organic molecule, and therefore presents a biological half-life longer than in the elemental water on which measurements were carried out systematically up to now. The interest of measuring organically bound tritium in food chains is presented, and the corresponding technique is described [fr

  1. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  2. Motivating factors in hospital environmental management programs: a multiple case study in four private Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krüger

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental responsibility has been a widespread and relatively recent research theme in the healthcare sector. Considering that the greater life expectancy increases the need for healthcare services and that these services produce negative environmental externalities on human health, it is important to understand the relationship between environmental responsibility and the healthcare sector. This article aims to investigate what motivates hospital managers to adopt environmental responsibility programs and to identify the actions implemented by them. A multiple case study was conducted involving four Brazilian hospitals based in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The results indicate that the main drivers are competitive, ethical and regulatory and that the competitive and regulatory motivators have the potential to establish a baseline for environmental performance that varies across ownership type (public or private. The results also indicate that the comprehensiveness of environmental actions is related to organizational resilience and to the motivators that drive hospitals to adopt those actions. Two conceptual models are proposed to illustrate these findings and offer bases for further research.

  3. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  4. A model for measuring the environmental sustainability of events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Antonio; Massei, Gianluca; Paolotti, Luisa; Rocchi, Lucia; Schiavi, Federico

    2018-01-15

    Like all human activities, events can generate significant pressures on environmental resources, unless they are well-managed and monitored. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to develop models that can measure their environmental sustainability. Although increasing attention is being paid to this sector, there is currently no standard protocol or method to assess the eco-sustainability of events. This article presents an innovative assessment procedure to measure the environmental sustainability of events. It is based on several indicators, combined by means of a multi-criteria approach and aggregated into a final index, which we called METER (Measuring Events Through Environmental Research). The METER index uses nine major operational categories, divided in sub-categories and detailed items, which cover all the main aspects concerning environmental sustainability of an event and are evaluated for all its phases, i.e. planning, organisation, implementation, post event. The index is fairly analytical, and is thus able to represent the numerous aspects to be taken into consideration in the environmental assessment of an event. At the same time, it is simple to apply and user-friendly, thanks to its graphics and effective communication of the web platform within it is implemented. Moreover, METER is based on a participatory approach using the bottom-up model and on the principle of subsidiarity. All official international documents regarding sustainable development now require subsidiarity. However, it is not being currently applied as part of any certification or with any evaluation tool. Therefore, although the index is still a prototype, it represents an innovation in the field of environmental management. A simple exemplary case is presented, about a European Spring School held at University of Perugia (Italy) in 2014, in which the application of METER showed a sustainability assessment score of 638 points out of 1000, with an excellent management

  5. Measurements of fusion neutron multiplication in spherical beryllium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Moellendorff, U. von; Alevra, A.; Klein, H.

    1996-01-01

    New results of spherical-shell transmission measurements with 14-MeV neutrons on pure beryllium shells up to 17 cm thick are reported. The spectral flux above 3 MeV was measured using a liquid scintillation detector. At 17 cm thickness, also the total neutron multiplication was measured using a Bonner sphere system. The results agree well with calculations using beryllium nuclear data from the EFF-1 or the ENDF/B-Vi library. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  7. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  8. Pollution control and environmental management measures in NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Modern industrial activities have severely interfered with the natural environment either through deforestation or through discharge of solid and liquid effluents and gaseous emissions. Power generation, though important in achievement economic self-reliance, has interface with the natural surroundings with serious impacts the world over. National Thermal Power Corporation shares the concern for environmental issues for sustainable growth of power sectors and has been incorporating various environmental protection measures in all its business decisions and activities

  9. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J.M., E-mail: verbeke2@llnl.gov; Glenn, A.M., E-mail: glenn22@llnl.gov; Keefer, G.J., E-mail: keefer1@llnl.gov; Wurtz, R.E., E-mail: wurtz1@llnl.gov

    2016-07-21

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  10. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  11. Factors underlying farmers’ intentions to perform unsubsidised agri-environmental measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van William F.A.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Berendse, Frank; Snoo, de Geert R.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades there is a growing body of literature on how to enhance farmers’ participation in voluntary subsidised agri-environmental programmes. However, additional unsubsidised agri-environmental measures that farmers perform are often ignored. The willingness to perform these

  12. Cosmic-ray contribution in measurement of environmental gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Kazunori; Honda, Kouichirou; Miyano, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays several kinds of dosimeters are being used for environmental gamma-ray monitoring. However the results measured by those instruments are not always in good agreement. It may be caused from the different characteristics of dosimeters. In particular the different responses of the instruments to cosmic-rays give significant influence on the results. Environmental radiation measurements at various altitudes on Mt. Fuji were carried out using a scintillation spectrometer with 3''φ spherical NaI(Tl), a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), an air-equivalent ionization chamber (IC), thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD), radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLD) and NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters so that the response characteristics of these instruments to cosmic-rays could be clarified. Cosmic-ray contributions for all instruments were correlated with counting rate over 3 MeV by the spectrometer. Each contribution can be estimated by measurement of the counting rate. Conversion factors (nGy/h/cpm) for IC, PIC, TLD, RPLD and NaI survey meters (TCS166 and TCS121C) were 0.33, 0.32, 0.25, 0.24, 0.06 and -0.01, respectively. Self-doses of these instruments were estimated by measurements at Nokogiriyama facilities of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. Self-doses for TLD and RPLD were approximately 6 nGy/h. The self dose effect should be taken into consideration in environmental dose measurements. These data are expected to be useful in estimating the cosmic-ray contribution and self-dose in the measurement of environmental gamma-ray dose. (author)

  13. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  14. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  15. Neurally based measurement and evaluation of environmental noise

    CERN Document Server

    Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with methods of measurement and evaluation of environmental noise based on an auditory neural and brain-oriented model. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) mechanisms for signals arriving at the two ear entrances. Even when the sound pressure level of a noise is only about 35 dBA, people may feel annoyed due to the aspects of sound quality. These aspects can be formulated by the factors extracted from the ACF and IACF. Several examples of measuring environmental noise—from outdoor noise such as that of aircraft, traffic, and trains, and indoor noise such as caused by floor impact, toilets, and air-conditioning—are demonstrated. According to the noise measurement and evaluation, applications for sound design are discussed. This book provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in a wide range of fields, such as the automotive, railway, and electronics industries, and soundscape, architec...

  16. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. ► Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. ► The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. ► The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. ► Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying

  17. Atom localization and center-of-mass wave-function determination via multiple simultaneous quadrature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, Joerg; Qamar, Shahid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    We discuss localization and center-of-mass wave-function measurement of a quantum particle using multiple simultaneous dispersive interactions of the particle with different standing-wave fields. In particular, we consider objects with an internal structure consisting of a single ground state and several excited states. The transitions between ground and the corresponding excited states are coupled to the light fields in the dispersive limit, thus giving rise to a phase shift of the light field during the interaction. We show that multiple simultaneous measurements allow both an increase in the measurement or localization precision in a single direction and the performance of multidimensional measurements or localization. Further, we show that multiple measurements may relax the experimental requirements for each individual measurement

  18. Simultaneous Treatment of Missing Data and Measurement Error in HIV Research Using Multiple Overimputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Hogger, Sara; Johnson, Leigh F; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Bärnighausen, Till; Heumann, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Both CD4 count and viral load in HIV-infected persons are measured with error. There is no clear guidance on how to deal with this measurement error in the presence of missing data. We used multiple overimputation, a method recently developed in the political sciences, to account for both measurement error and missing data in CD4 count and viral load measurements from four South African cohorts of a Southern African HIV cohort collaboration. Our knowledge about the measurement error of ln CD4 and log10 viral load is part of an imputation model that imputes both missing and mismeasured data. In an illustrative example, we estimate the association of CD4 count and viral load with the hazard of death among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy by means of a Cox model. Simulation studies evaluate the extent to which multiple overimputation is able to reduce bias in survival analyses. Multiple overimputation emphasizes more strongly the influence of having high baseline CD4 counts compared to both a complete case analysis and multiple imputation (hazard ratio for >200 cells/mm vs. <25 cells/mm: 0.21 [95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.24] vs. 0.38 [0.29, 0.48], and 0.29 [0.25, 0.34], respectively). Similar results are obtained when varying assumptions about measurement error, when using p-splines, and when evaluating time-updated CD4 count in a longitudinal analysis. The estimates of the association with viral load are slightly more attenuated when using multiple imputation instead of multiple overimputation. Our simulation studies suggest that multiple overimputation is able to reduce bias and mean squared error in survival analyses. Multiple overimputation, which can be used with existing software, offers a convenient approach to account for both missing and mismeasured data in HIV research.

  19. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  20. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  1. A novel approach to reduce environmental noise in microgravity measurements using a Scintrex CG5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Atkins, Phillip; Rodgers, Anthony; Metje, Nicole; Goncharenko, Yuriy; Chapman, David

    2018-05-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of microgravity measurements for surveying purposes are affected by two main sources of noise; instrument noise from the sensor and electronics, and environmental sources of noise from anthropogenic activity, wind, microseismic activity and other sources of vibrational noise. There is little information in the literature on the quantitative values of these different noise sources and their significance for microgravity measurements. Experiments were conducted to quantify these sources of noise with multiple instruments, and to develop methodologies to reduce these unwanted signals thereby improving the accuracy or speed of microgravity measurements. External environmental sources of noise were found to be concentrated at higher frequencies (> 0.1 Hz), well within the instrument's bandwidth. In contrast, the internal instrumental noise was dominant at frequencies much lower than the reciprocal of the maximum integration time, and was identified as the limiting factor for current instruments. The optimum time for integration was found to be between 120 and 150 s for the instruments tested. In order to reduce the effects of external environmental noise on microgravity measurements, a filtering and despiking technique was created using data from noisy environments next to a main road and outside on a windy day. The technique showed a significant improvement in the repeatability of measurements, with between 40% and 50% lower standard deviations being obtained over numerous different data sets. The filtering technique was then tested in field conditions by using an anomaly of known size, and a comparison made between different filtering methods. Results showed improvements with the proposed method performing better than a conventional, or boxcar, averaging process. The proposed despiking process was generally found to be ineffective, with greater gains obtained when complete measurement records were discarded. Field survey results were

  2. Some problems of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yongqian; Zhu Qingfu; Hu Dingsheng; He Tao; Yao Shigui; Lin Shenghuo

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives experiment theory and experiment method of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in the nuclear critical safety. The measured parameter by source multiplication method actually is a sub-critical with source neutron effective multiplication factor k s , but not the neutron effective multiplication factor k eff . The experiment research has been done on the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment assembly. The k s of different sub-criticality is measured by neutron source multiplication experiment method, and k eff of different sub-criticality, the reactivity coefficient of unit solution level, is first measured by period method, and then multiplied by difference of critical solution level and sub-critical solution level and obtained the reactivity of sub-critical solution level. The k eff finally can be extracted from reactivity formula. The effect on the nuclear critical safety and different between k eff and k s are discussed

  3. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  4. RNM and CRITER projects: providing access to environmental radioactivity measurements during crisis and in peacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Couvez, C.; Manificat, G. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (France)

    2014-07-01

    The multiplicity of actors and sources of information makes it difficult to centralize environmental radioactivity measurements and to provide access to experts and policy makers, but also to the general public. In the event of a radiological accident, many additional measures will also be carried out in the field by those involved in crisis management. In order to answer this problem, two projects were launched by IRSN with the aim of developing tools to centralize information on environmental radioactivity in normal situation (RNM project: National network of radioactive measurements) and during radiological crisis (CRITER project: Crisis and field). The RNM's mission is to contribute to the estimation of doses from ionizing radiation to which people are exposed and to inform the public. In order to achieve this goal, this network collects and makes available to the public the results of measurements of environmental radioactivity obtained in a normal situation by the French stakeholders. More than 18,000 measurements are transmitted each month by all producers to the RNM. After more than 4 years of operation, the database contains nearly 1,200,000 results. The opening in 2010 of the public web site (www.mesure-radioactivite.fr) was also a major step forward toward transparency and information. In case of radiological emergency, IRSN's mission is to centralize and process at the national level, in a database, all the results of measurements or analysis by all stakeholders throughout the crisis, in order to precisely determine the radiological situation of the environment, before, during and after the event. The project CRITER therefore involves the collection of all possible data from all potential sources, transmission, organization, and the publication of the measurements in crisis or post-accident situation. The emergency nature of the situation requires a transmission in near real-time data, facilitated by the development of automatic sensors. For

  5. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  6. Multi-detector environmental radiation monitor with multichannel data communication for Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.D.; Ratheesh, M.P.; Prakasha, M.S.; Salunkhe, S.S.; Vinod Kumar, A.; Puranik, V.D.; Nair, C.K.G.

    2011-01-01

    A solar powered system for online monitoring of environmental radiation with multiple detectors has been designed, developed and produced. Multiple GM tube detectors have been used to extend the range of measurement from 50 nano Gy/hr to 20 Gy/hr and to enhance the reliability of the system. Online data communication using GSM based and direct LAN based communication has been incorporated. Options for use of power supply from mains powered and battery powered have been enabled. Care has been taken to make it weather-proof, compact, elegant and reliable. The development is a part of the ongoing program of country-wide deployment of radiation monitors under 'Indian Environmental Radiation MOnitoring Network' (IERMON). (author)

  7. Measurement of subcritical multiplication by the interval distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The prompt decay constant or the subcritical neutron multiplication may be determined by measuring the distribution of the time intervals between successive neutron counts. The distribution data is analyzed by least-squares fitting to a theoretical distribution function derived from a point reactor probability model. Published results of measurements with one- and two-detector systems are discussed. Data collection times are shorter, and statistical errors are smaller the nearer the system is to delayed critical. Several of the measurements indicate that a shorter data collection time and higher accuracy are possible with the interval distribution method than with the Feynman variance method

  8. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J.G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D.S.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J.G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Duren, M.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fasching, D.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferguson, D.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M.J.; Fisher, S.M.; Flammer, J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fohlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gapienko, V.A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J-C.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gieraltowski, G.F.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.P.; Golovnia, S.N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L.S.; Goncalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P.A.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Gorski, B.T.; Goryachev, V.N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gouanere, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafstrom, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O.G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, P.L.Y.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Grivaz, J.F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Gruwe, M.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V.J.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V.N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, C.J.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K.; Hart, J.C.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B.M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heldmann, M.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henss, T.; Hernandez Jimenez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higon-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homer, R.J.; Homma, Y.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horton, K.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hott, T.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.A.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Howell, D.F.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S.C.; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T.B.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Imbault, D.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishii, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.K.; Jankowski, E.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jez, P.; Jezequel, S.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M.D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L.G.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.W.; Jones, T.J.; Jonsson, O.; Joo, K.K.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P.M.; Joseph, J.; Ju, X.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kadlecik, P.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagoz, M.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karr, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; 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Rossi, E.; Rossi, L.P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rottlander, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rust, D.R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N.C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schoning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  9. Measurement of environmental impacts of telework adoption amidst change in complex organizations. AT and T survey methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkyns, Robert; Blazek, Michele; Roitz, Joseph [AT and T, 179 Bothin Road, 94930 Fairfax, CA (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Telecommuting practices and their environmental and organizational performance impacts have stimulated research across academic disciplines. Although telecommuting trends and impact projections are reported, few true longitudinal studies involving large organizations have been conducted. Published studies typically lack the research design elements to control a major confounding variable: rapid and widespread organizational change. Yet social science 'Best Practices' and market research industry quality control procedures exist that can help manage organizational change effects and other common sources of measurement error. In 1992, AT and T established a formal, corporate-wide telecommuting policy. A research and statistical modeling initiative was implemented to measure how flexible work arrangements reduce automotive emissions. Annual employee surveys were begun in 1994. As telecommuting benefits have been increasingly recognized within AT and T, the essential construct has been redefined as 'telework.' The survey's scope has expanded to address broader organization issues and provide guidance to multiple internal constituencies. This paper focuses upon the procedures used to reliably measure the adoption of telework practices and model their environmental impact, and contrasts those procedures with other, less reliable methodologies.

  10. Goal specificity: a proxy measure for improvements in environmental outcomes in collaborative governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer C; Koontz, Tomas M

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The findings of this study offer empirical evidence that collaborative processes have a measurable, beneficial effect on environmental outcomes. Through the use of a unique paired-waterbody design, our dataset reduced the potential for confounding variables to impact our environmental outcome measurements. The results of a path analysis indicate that the output of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is significantly related to watershed partnerships' level of attainment of their environmental improvement goals. The action of setting specific goals (e.g. percentage of load reductions in pollutant levels) is fostered by sustained participation from partnership members throughout the lifecycle of the collaborative. In addition, this study demonstrates the utility of logic modeling for environmental planning and management, and suggests that the process of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is a useful proxy measure for reporting progress towards improvements in environmental outcomes when long-term environmental data are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Software support for environmental measurement in quality at educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pauliková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysed theme of this article is based on the training of environmental measurements for workplaces. This is very important for sustainable quality in technical educational institutions. Applied kinds of software, which are taught at technical educational institutions, have to offer the professional and methodical knowledge concerning conditions of working ambient for students of selected technical specialisations. This skill is performed in such a way that the graduates, after entering the practical professional life, will be able to participate in solutions for actual problems that are related to environmental protection by means of software support. Nowadays, during the training processit is also obligatory to introduce technical science. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts it is possible to say that information technology support for environmental study subjects is a relevant aspect, which should be integrated into the university educational process. There is an effective progress that further highlights the focus on the quality of university education not only for environmental engineers. Actual trends require an increasing number of software/hardware educated engineers who can participate in qualitative university preparation, i.e.IT environmentalists. The Department of Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, TechnicalUniversity in Košice, Slovakia is an institution specified and intended for quality objectivisation. This institution introduced into the study programmes (“Environmental Management” and “Technology of Environmental Protection” study subjects with the software support, which are oriented towards outdoor and indoor ambient and in this way the Department of Process and Environmental Engineering is integrated effectively and intensively into the area of measurement training with regard to the requirement of quality educational processes.

  12. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  13. Field Measurement of Surface Ship Magnetic Signature Using Multiple AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    been equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer and used to perform preliminary magnetic field measurements. Measurements of this type will be...mounted on the AUVs, shown in Fig. 1, was a three-axis fluxgate type [16] magnetometer with a range of ±100,000 nT and a sensitivity of 100μV/nT. The...surface ship. The system will employ a formation of multiple AUVs, each equipped with a magnetometer . The objective is to measure total magnetic

  14. Measurements of 14 MeV neutron multiplication in spherical beryllium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Alevra, A.V.; Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Klein, H.; Klein, H.; Tayama, R.

    1995-01-01

    New results of spherical-shell transmission measurements with 14MeV neutrons on pure beryllium shells up to 17cm thick are reported. The total leakage neutron multiplications were measured using a Bonner sphere system. Independently, the leakage neutron spectra were measured over the entire energy range, 15MeV to thermal energies, by proton-recoil and time-of-flight methods. The total leakage multiplications are in excellent agreement with three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations using beryllium nuclear data based on the Young and Stewart evaluation. The leakage in the evaporation energy window confirms the Be(n,2n) cross-section of the Young and Stewart evaluation rather than that used in the ENDF/B-VI library. At energies below 1keV, a surplus of leakage neutrons over the calculation is found for smaller beryllium thicknesses. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  17. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  18. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  19. Measuring multiple nano-textured areas simultaneously with imaging scatterometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Skovlund; Hansen, Poul Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    and areas with defects can be avoided. These advantages make imaging scatterometry a very effective and user-friendly characterization method and allow us to determine the homogeneity of a nano- Textured surface by performing pixel-wise analyses. In the analysis an inverse modelling approach is used, where...... measured diffraction efficiencies are compared to simulated diffraction efficiencies using a least-square fitting approach. We demonstrate an imaging scatterometry setup built into an optical microscope. The setup is capable of measuring multiple 2D gratings with pitches of 200 nm simultaneously...

  20. Environmental gamma-ray dose measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) and environmental radiation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Seiko

    1999-01-01

    It is important to evaluate environmental gamma-ray exposure both at work and home in order to assess people's collective dosages. Environmental gamma radiation was measured for air-absorbed dose with a thermoluminescence dosemeter at various points in the workplace and Ningyotoge, and workplace radiation characteristics were analyzed. From the results, the public dose due to gamma rays generated artificially was assessed to be sufficiently lower than the annual limit. For indoor environments of the workplace, the maximum dosage rate among measured values was 97 nGy/h and the minimum value was 70 nGy/h, the average over one year was 83 nGy/h. The average annual outdoor dosage for a year was 82 nGy/ h. In Ningyotoge, the maximum was 103 nGy/h, minimum 60 nGy/h, and average 88 nGy/h. These values depend on the nature of the soil and weather factors, showing higher values in the summer than in the winter in the workplace. There was no significant difference in the dosage rate in houses and the workplace. (author)

  1. Responses of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to biological and environmental variations measured with a versatile Fluorescence Auto-Measurement Equipment (FAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we examine responses of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to biological and environmental variations measured with a versatile Fluorescence Auto-Measurement Equipment (FAME). FAME was developed to automatically and continuously measure chlorophyll fluorescence (F) of a leaf, plant or canopy in both laboratory and field environments, excited by either artificial light source or sunlight. FAME is controlled by a datalogger and allows simultaneous measurements of environmental variables complementary to the F signals. A built-in communication system allows FAME to be remotely monitored and data-downloaded. Radiance and irradiance calibrations can be done online. FAME has been applied in a variety of environments, allowing an investigation of biological and environmental controls on F emission.

  2. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 2, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.

  3. Environmental radiation measurements using lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; McKinlay, A.F.; Richards, D.J. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is involved in a large scale environmental survey of radiation levels in homes throughout the United Kingdom. Passive radon and gamma ray dosemeters are posted to a representative sample of households. Lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters are used to assess natural gamma radiation and are left in the measurement location for a period of six months before being returned to the Board for processing. As a preliminary to the national survey, the Board has been engaged on several limited surveys in regions of igneous and sedimentary geology. Experience gained in these limited surveys and from standardisation studies using environmental dosemeters are reported.

  4. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  5. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Biyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple and affordable “Disposable electrode printed (DEP-On-Go” sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, “DEP-On-Go” was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD, rapid (within 5 min, and reliable detection limit (ppb levels performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings.

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1980-March 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in India, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes dealing with global movement of radioactive debris from nuclear tests, vertical distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the lower stratosphere at the end of 1980, stratospheric radionuclide and trace gas inventories, plutonium isotopes in stratospheric filtered air, sulfur dioxide measurements in New York City, estimates of lead, manganese, aluminum and iron in atmospheric deposition at American Samoa, chemical composition of deposition at seven US locations, intercomparison of trace element analyses of commercially available reference materials, evaluation of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, and quality control assessments of radionuclide analyses of surface air filters, biological and deposition samples and of chemical analyses of precipitation. Subsequent sections include tabulations of Sr-90 fallout, chemical constituents of wet and dry deposition, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, Sr-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk and tap water, and Cs-137 in Chicago foods. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented

  7. The uses of neutron capture γ-rays in environmental pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Abdel-Samad, M.A.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Hassan, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy facility using an isotopic neutron source, 252 Cf, has been installed and used for investigation of some environmental samples. The facility is designed and calibrated for measurement of the prompt γ-ray spectra due to thermal neutron capture. Qualitative analysis studies of some local environmental samples have been carried out using some developed analytical programs. The experimental results of the environmental pollutant analysis are discussed. (author)

  8. Gas Flaring, Environmental Pollution and Abatement Measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of gas flaring on the oil bearing enclave of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, was examined with a view to evaluating the abatement measures put in place by the Federal government of Nigeria and the oil producing companies. Primary and secondary information and data were analyzed during the study.

  9. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  10. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  11. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume

  12. Environmental Measurements Laboratory annual report, calendar year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.

    1981-05-01

    The 1980 Annual Report is presented as a series of abstracts, organized by broad programmatic headings under the five technical Laboratory Divisions and one Branch. In addition, a short section appears at the end of the report describing the organization, staff, outside activities and our publications and presentations for the year. Research performaed by the Environmental Studies Division is reported under the following categories: high altitude sampling program, deposition and surface air, and the biosphere. Measurement methods research and air quality field studies are reported by the Aerosol Studies Division. The Radiation Physics Division reported research on radiation transport theory, radiation dosimetry, environmental radioactivity, and the assessment of non-nuclear energy technologies. Research in the Analytical Chemistry Division is reported on quality assurance, analytical support of research projects, analytical development for research projects, and programmatic research. The Instrumentation Division reported research on the development of instrumentation in various categories. The Applied Mathematics Branch reported results of programs for aerosol studies, analytical chemistry, environmental studies, and radiation physics

  13. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  14. Environmental radioactivity measurements in north-western Greece following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.; Stamoulis, K.; Papachristodoulou, C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in north–western Greece was assessed through an environmental monitoring programme activated by the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Ioannina. Measurements of 131 I were carried out in atmospheric particulate, ovine milk and grass samples. In daily aerosol samplings, radioiodine was first detected on March 25-26, 2011 and reached maximum levels, up to 294 μBq m -3 , between April 2 and April 4, 2011. In ovine milk samples, 131 I concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 2.7 Bq L -1 between April 2 and April 6, 2011, while an average activity of 2.7 Bq kg -1 was measured in grass samples on April 4, 2011. The 134,137 Cs isotopes were below detection limits in all samples and could only be determined in the air, by analysis of multiple daily filters. A maximum average activity concentration of 137 Cs amounting to 24 μBq m -3 was measured during the period from April 5 to April 9, 2011, with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio being close to unity. Activity concentrations were consistent with measurements conducted in other parts of the country and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. The committed effective dose to the whole body and to the thyroid gland from inhalation of 131 I was estimated for the adult and infant population and was found to be of no concern for the public health. (author)

  15. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  16. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental matrix standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of emerging contaminants of concern as many studies have now demonstrated that these compounds are bioaccumulative, persistent and increasing in concentration in the environment. PBDEs are being detected in almost every environmental sample examined, and they have even been measured in samples collected in the Arctic, further demonstrating their persistence and potential for long range transport. More and more studies are continuing to examine the fate and transport of these flame retardant compounds in environmental samples and as such, reference materials are needed to provide quality control on these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supports a national Standard Reference Material (SRM) program for measurement of organic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs and chlorinated pesticides in environmental matrices. This current study was undertaken to provide reference measurements for PBDEs in selected SRMs that are currently used by various laboratories throughout the United States. These SRMs include matrices such as marine mammal blubber, lake trout tissue, mussel tissue, sediment, house dust and human serum. We report here reference values for 22 PBDE congeners that have been quantified in these seven types of SRMs.

  17. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shared-Environmental Contributions to High Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...

  19. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Socioeconomic status was measured at individual level (income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered

  20. Tentative reference method for measurement of tritium in environmental waters. Environmental monitoring series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of tritium in potable and nonpotable environmental water is described. Water samples are treated with sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate and then a water fraction is separated from interferences by distillation. Two distillation procedures are described, a simple aqueous distillation for samples from potable water sources, and an aqueous-azeotropic-benzene distillation for nonpotable water sources. Alliquots of a designated distillate fraction are measured for tritium activity by liquid scintillation detection. Distillation recovery and counting efficiency factors are determined with tritium standards. Results are reported in picocuries per milliliter

  1. Analysis of the environmental conditions at Gale Crater from MSL/REMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Torre-Juarez, M. de la; Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Renno, N.; Lemmon, M.

    2016-07-01

    The environmental conditions at Gale Crater during the first 1160 sols of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission are assessed using measurements taken by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on-board the MSL Curiosity rover. REMS is a suite of sensors developed to assess the environmental conditions along the rover traverse. In particular, REMS has been measuring atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature, relative humidity, UV radiation flux and wind speed. Here we analyze processed data with the highest confidence possible of atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature and relative humidity. In addition, we estimate the daily UV irradiation at the surface of Gale Crater using dust opacity values derived from the Mastcam instrument. REMS is still in operation, but it has already provided the most comprehensive coverage of surface environmental conditions recorded by a spacecraft landed on Mars. (Author)

  2. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D.

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a 'sink' for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico

  3. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part I. The indicator of correlation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two criteria for correlating measured frequency responses from multiple sensors and proposes to use them as indicators for structural damage detection. The first criterion is a global shape correlation (GSC) function that is sensitive to mode shape differences but not to relative scales. The second criterion, a global amplitude correlation (GAC) function, is based on actual response amplitudes. Both correlation criteria are a function of frequency and uniquely map a set of complex responses to a real scalar between zero and unity. The averaged integrations of GSC and GAC functions along the frequency points over the measurement range, also called damage indicators, are used to describe the correlation between two sets of vibration data. When a structure state remains unchanged, both correlation criteria are as close to unity simultaneously. Otherwise, the correlation with the reference data will be decreased with changes of structure states. Using GSC and GAC functions has the advantage of being able to deal with incomplete measurements. Also, all available response data are used and hence there is no critical selection of frequency points for damage detection. The above correlation criteria were applied to a bookshelf structure and various cases such as undamaged states, damage locations (single and multiple), damage levels, as well as environmental variability are discussed. As expected, it was found that indicators of correlation criteria were able to identify all various cases correctly. (orig.)

  4. Non-destructive isotopic uranium assay by multiple delayed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.N.; Tsagas, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The high accuracy and precision required in nuclear safeguards measurements can be achieved by an improved neutron activation technique based on multiple delayed fission neutron counting under various experimental conditions. For the necessary ultrahigh counting statistics required, cyclic activation of multiple subsamples has been applied. The home-made automated flexible analytical system with neutron flux and spectrum differentiation by irradiation position adjustment and cadmium screening, permits the non-destructive determination of the U235 abundance and the total U element concentration needed in nuclear safeguards sample analysis, with a high throughout and a low operational cost. Careful experimental optimization led to considerable improvement of the results

  5. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  6. Knowing the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in childhood: a contribution of the theory of multiple intelligence for environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Nicollier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded in the cognitive sciences and represents a comprehensive inquiry into children's environmental knowledge. It started with an investigation of a specific situation: studying an urban population – stigmatized by a history of local environmental destruction, unconsciously wrought upon an area that is nowadays acknowledged as a natural biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT, that describes the presence of several intelligences in human beings, including a naturalist intelligence, this study aimed at improving the understanding of abilities related to environmental knowledge and the differentiation of such abilities from other ways of knowing usually valued in mainstream education. Forty-five (45 students of a primary school located in south Bahia, Brazil, their teachers, and their parents participated in this investigation between 2002 to 2004. Results suggest that the cognitive domains which are subjacent to environmental knowledge are place specific and need to be stimulated in primary schools by formulating more attractive, efficient, and innovative environmental educational methodologies.

  7. Sampling and measurement of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Goles, R.W.; Kaye, J.H.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The volatile and semivolatile long-lived man-made radionuclides 3 H, 14 C, 79 Se, 85 Kr, 99 Tc, 129 I, 135 Cs, and 137 Cs are of concern in operation of nuclear facilities because they are difficult and expensive to contain and once emitted to the environment they become permanent ecological constituents with both local and global distributions. Species-selective sampling and analytical methods (radiochemical, neutron activation, and mass spectrometric) have been developed for many of these nuclides with sensitivities well below those required for radiation protection. These sampling and analytical methods have been applied to the measurement of current environmental levels of some of the more ecologically important radionuclides. The detection and tracing of long-lived radionuclides is being conducted in order to establish base-line values and to study environmental behavior. This paper describes detection and measurement techniques and summarizes current measurement results

  8. Effects of (α,n) contaminants and sample multiplication on statistical neutron correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Hansen, G.E.; Robba, A.A.; Pratt, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The complete formalism for the use of statistical neutron fluctuation measurements for the nondestructive assay of fissionable materials has been developed. This formalism includes the effect of detector deadtime, neutron multiplicity, random neutron pulse contributions from (α,n) contaminants in the sample, and the sample multiplication of both fission-related and background neutrons

  9. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  10. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  11. Environmental determinants and spatial mismatch of mammal diversity measures in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Maya, J.F.; Arias-Alzate, A.; Granados-Peña, R.; Mancera-Rodriguez, N.J.; Ceballos, G.

    2016-07-01

    Including complementary diversity measures into ecological and conservation studies should improve our ability to link species assemblages to ecosystems. Recent measures such as phylogenetic and functional diversity have furthered our understanding of assemblage patterns of ecosystems and species, allowing improved inference of ecosystem function and conservation. We evaluated spatial patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of mammals in Colombia and identified their main environmental determinants, as well as interrelationships and spatial mismatch between the three measures. We found significant effects of elevation and precipitation on species richness, slope and species richness on phylogenetic diversity, and slope and phylogenetic diversity on functional diversity. We also identified a spatial mismatch of the three measures in some areas of the country: 12% of the country for species richness and 14% for phylogenetic and functional diversity. Our results highlight the importance of including species relationships within environmental drivers with biogeographical and distribution analyses and could facilitate selection of priority areas for conservation, especially when mismatch occurs between measures. (Author)

  12. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  13. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-07-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. The spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  14. Guidelines for defining and documenting data on costs of possible environmental protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, I.; King, K.; Boyd, R.; Bouscaren, R.; Pacyna, J. [AEA Technology Environment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The Guidelines are intended to promote good practice in the documenting and use of data on the costs of possible environmental protection measures in the context of international data comparisons. The minimum information needed to describe the cost of an environmental protection measures is: details of pollution source; details of the environmental protection measure and its performance characteristics; how costs are defined; the year to which data apply; indications of data uncertainty; how pollutants are defined; and reference to data sources. Guidelines are given for these seven items. These are followed by descriptions of various methods of data processing - dealing with information; calculating annual costs; discount/interest rates; and additional issues relating to the implementation of cost data. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 apps.

  15. The comparison of environmental effects on michelson and fabry-perot interferometers utilized for the displacement measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical structure of general commercial interferometers, e.g., the Michelson interferometers, is based on a non-common optical path. Such interferometers suffer from environmental effects because of the different phase changes induced in different optical paths and consequently the measurement precision will be significantly influenced by tiny variations of the environmental conditions. Fabry-Perot interferometers, which feature common optical paths, are insensitive to environmental disturbances. That would be advantageous for precision displacement measurements under ordinary environmental conditions. To verify and analyze this influence, displacement measurements with the two types of interferometers, i.e., a self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercial Michelson interferometer, have been performed and compared under various environmental disturbance scenarios. Under several test conditions, the self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer was obviously less sensitive to environmental disturbances than a commercial Michelson interferometer. Experimental results have shown that induced errors from environmental disturbances in a Fabry-Perot interferometer are one fifth of those in a Michelson interferometer. This has proved that an interferometer with the common optical path structure will be much more independent of environmental disturbances than those with a non-common optical path structure. It would be beneficial for the solution of interferometers utilized for precision displacement measurements in ordinary measurement environments.

  16. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  17. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN ch /dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  20. Measurement of the charged particle multiplicity of weakly decaying B hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    From the $Z$ decays recorded in 1994 and 1995 by the DELPHI detector at LEP, the charged particle multiplicity of weakly decaying $B$ hadrons was measured to be: \\begin{center} $4.97 \\pm 0.03 \\pm 0.06 \\, ,$ \\end{center} \

  1. Development of a simplified method for Tritium measurement in the environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H.; Iida, T.; Koganezawa, T.; Kakiuchi, M.; Satake, H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japan the tritium concentrations in the environmental water figure out at approximately 0.5-2Bq/kg-H 2 O and tends to get a little lower than at the moment. The least detectable limit enabled to count by the liquid scintillation counter attained to merely 0.4Bq/kg-H 2 O. It can survey that it is likely to have been impossible to immediately measure a tritium concentration in an environmental water by the liquid scintillation method. Although there can be some alternative methods, the liquid scintillation together with electrolysis enrichment must be the most effective measurement because we do not need to change any useful managements. We already reported that an immediate counting by the liquid scintillation method for the measurement of environmental samples such as rain, river and tap waters, the membrane filtration was an available alternative way to the distillation of the low level water samples

  2. Measurements of environmental neutrons in Penin. Shimokita 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwaya, Hiroaki; Onodera, Tsuyoshi; Narumi, Tomoko

    2004-01-01

    NPO Foundation Informing and Region Creating Group for Resource Recycling-type Society (EGG=Environmental Guardian of Gaia) authorized by Aomori Prefecture in September 2000 has performed a fixed site measurement of environmental neutrons under instruction of Prof. Kazuhisa Komura, Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL), Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University since 2001. With a strong conviction that a level of a region does not go beyond a level of intelligence of residents of the region, the NPO EGG reports results of the measurements of environmental neutrons in the Peninsula Shimokita to pupils of junior high school who bear the future of Aomori Prefecture. It is one of our activities for elevating safety we create to relief. The measurements are not a daily monitoring for us at present, but correspond to the well known long-term measurements over several ten years of carbon dioxide in the air at Hawaii by Dr. Keeling, which are made for our children and grandchildren. The EGG has organized Gaia Aomori Energy Forum 2002 (keynote address: Hiranuma Minister of Economy and Industry) at Rokkasho Village and Mutsu City in Peninsula Shimokita, Gaia Aomori Energy Forum 2003 (keynote address: Hiranuma Minister of Economy and Industry) at Rokkasho Village and Mutsu City in Penin. Shimokita. The result of measurements was regarded to reasonably constant in the range of error in measurement. The numerical values are comparable to the results of measurement in Tatsunokuchi. The measurements were made in similar way in 2003 as well as in 2002. The results of measurements was regarded to reasonably constant in the range of error in measurement. The numerical values are comparable to the results of measurement in Tatsunokuchi. The EGG has thought that development of new energies should be proceeded with in addition to the practical use of the nuclear energy for preservation of the global environment. In order to prevent a mishandling in the processing in the nuclear

  3. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes

  4. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, F.; Bilberg, A.; Stenager, E.; Rabotti, C.; Zhang, B.; Mischi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is reported as the most common symptom by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The physiological and functional parameters related to fatigue in MS patients are currently not well established. A new wearable wireless body measurement system, named Fatigue Monitoring System (FAMOS), was

  5. Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Using Geostatistics and Fine Scale Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No-Wook Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A geostatistical downscaling scheme is presented and can generate fine scale precipitation information from coarse scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. Within the geostatistical framework, the TRMM precipitation data are first decomposed into trend and residual components. Quantitative relationships between coarse scale TRMM data and environmental variables are then estimated via regression analysis and used to derive trend components at a fine scale. Next, the residual components, which are the differences between the trend components and the original TRMM data, are then downscaled at a target fine scale via area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components are finally added to generate fine scale precipitation estimates. Stochastic simulation is also applied to the residual components in order to generate multiple alternative realizations and to compute uncertainty measures. From an experiment using a digital elevation model (DEM and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the geostatistical downscaling scheme generated the downscaling results that reflected detailed characteristics with better predictive performance, when compared with downscaling without the environmental variables. Multiple realizations and uncertainty measures from simulation also provided useful information for interpretations and further environmental modeling.

  6. Weighted least-square approach for simultaneous measurement of multiple reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shouhong; Bills, Richard E.; Freischlad, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    Phase shifting interferometry (PSI) is a highly accurate method for measuring the nanometer-scale relative surface height of a semi-reflective test surface. PSI is effectively used in conjunction with Fizeau interferometers for optical testing, hard disk inspection, and semiconductor wafer flatness. However, commonly-used PSI algorithms are unable to produce an accurate phase measurement if more than one reflective surface is present in the Fizeau interferometer test cavity. Examples of test parts that fall into this category include lithography mask blanks and their protective pellicles, and plane parallel optical beam splitters. The plane parallel surfaces of these parts generate multiple interferograms that are superimposed in the recording plane of the Fizeau interferometer. When using wavelength shifting in PSI the phase shifting speed of each interferogram is proportional to the optical path difference (OPD) between the two reflective surfaces. The proposed method is able to differentiate each underlying interferogram from each other in an optimal manner. In this paper, we present a method for simultaneously measuring the multiple test surfaces of all underlying interferograms from these superimposed interferograms through the use of a weighted least-square fitting technique. The theoretical analysis of weighted least-square technique and the measurement results will be described in this paper.

  7. Measurement of environmental tritium for isotope hydrology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA Division of Research and Laboratories gains valuable hydrological information from studies of the concentration of environmental tritium in precipitation, surface and groundwater samples from various sites around the world. This photo story shows the steps in the measurement of these very low levels of tritium in water as performed in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the Agency. (author)

  8. Four-channel high speed synchronized acquisition multiple trigger storage measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jian; Wang Wenlian; Zhang Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    A new storage measurement system based on the CPLD, MCU and FLASH (large-capacity flash memory) is proposed. The large capacity storage characteristic of the FLASH MEMORY is used to realize multi channel synchronized acquisition and the function of multiple records and read once. The function of multi channel synchronization, high speed data acquisition, the triggering several times, and the adjustability of working parameters expands the application of storage measurement system. The storage measurement system can be used in a variety of pressure and temperature test in explosion field. (authors)

  9. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring; Umweltradioaktivitaet. Messung und Ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  10. Environmental coefficients of the free-field sensitivity of measurement microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras-Rosell, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of measurement microphones, both pressure and free field, is affected by changes in the environmental conditions, mainly temperature and static pressure. Static pressure and temperature coefficients for the pressure sensitivity have been the object of previous studies focused...... on Laboratory Standard microphones and few working standard microphones. The literature describes frequency dependent values for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. However, there is no description of the environmental coefficients of the free-field sensitivity though there have been...... some implementations that attempt to take care of the differences between the coefficients for the two types of sensitivities. Measuring the coefficients in a free field poses some challeng; it is not so easy to change neither the static pressure nor the temperature inside anechoic room within...

  11. Report on the results of the third intercomparison study of thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific laboratories within the Member States of the European Communities have a continuing interest in the use and development of both thermoluminescent dosimeters and thermoluminescence measurement techniques for the assessment of exposure from environmental gamma radiation. In the United Kingdom, for example, environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters have been developed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and used in a national survey of indoor radiation exposure. Other laboratories in various Member States are currently involved in similar studies of natural radiation exposure or are using thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental measurements at reactor sites. Therefore, it is appropriate that such laboratories have facilities within the European Community for standardization and intercomparison of their environmental measurement techniques

  12. Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict Obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures: Environmental Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Arteaga, S Sonia; Berrigan, David; Ballard, Rachel M; Gorin, Amy A; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Pratt, Charlotte; Reedy, Jill; Zenk, Shannon N

    2018-04-01

    There is growing interest in how environment is related to adults' weight and activity and eating behaviors. However, little is known about whether environmental factors are related to the individual variability seen in adults' intentional weight loss or maintenance outcomes. The environmental domain subgroup of the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project sought to identify a parsimonious set of objective and perceived neighborhood and social environment constructs and corresponding measures to include in the assessment of response to adult weight-loss treatment. Starting with the home address, the environmental domain subgroup recommended for inclusion in future weight-loss or maintenance studies constructs and measures related to walkability, perceived land use mix, food outlet accessibility (perceived and objective), perceived food availability, socioeconomics, and crime-related safety (perceived and objective) to characterize the home neighborhood environment. The subgroup also recommended constructs and measures related to social norms (perceived and objective) and perceived support to characterize an individual's social environment. The 12 neighborhood and social environment constructs and corresponding measures provide a succinct and comprehensive set to allow for more systematic examination of the impact of environment on adults' weight loss and maintenance. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  13. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed in this paper to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. Finally, the spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  14. Expansion of the Variational Garrote to a Multiple Measurement Vectors Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Stahlhut, Carsten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of sparse signals in underdetermined systems is the focus of this paper. We propose an expanded version of the Variational Garrote, originally presented by Kappen (2011), which can use multiple measurement vectors (MMVs) to further improve source retrieval performance. We show its...

  15. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  16. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  17. Environmental determinants and spatial mismatch of mammal diversity measures in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González–Maya, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Including complementary diversity measures into ecological and conservation studies should improve our ability to link species assemblages to ecosystems. Recent measures such as phylogenetic and functional diversity have furthered our understanding of assemblage patterns of ecosystems and species, allowing improved inference of ecosystem function and conservation. We evaluated spatial patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of mammals in Colombia and identified their main environmental determinants, as well as interrelationships and spatial mismatch between the three measures. We found significant effects of elevation and precipitation on species richness, slope and species richness on phylogenetic diversity, and slope and phylogenetic diversity on functional diversity. We also identified a spatial mismatch of the three measures in some areas of the country: 12% of the country for species richness and 14% for phylogenetic and functional diversity. Our results highlight the importance of including species relationships within environmental drivers with biogeographical and distribution analyses and could facilitate selection of priority areas for conservation, especially when mismatch occurs between measures.

  18. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  19. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  20. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations.

  1. Measuring Geographic Inequalities: Dealing with Multiple Health Resources by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available. The objective of this study is to develop a measure of the geographic inequality in the case of multiple health resources. The measure uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric method of production function estimation, to transform multiple resources into a single virtual health resource. The study shows that the DEA originally developed for measuring efficiency can be used successfully to measure inequality. For the illustrative purpose, the inequality measure is calculated for the Czech Republic. The values of separate Robin Hood Indexes (RHIs) are 6.64% for physicians and 3.96% for nurses. In the next step, we use combined RHI for both health resources. Its value 5.06% takes into account that the combinations of two health resources serve regional populations. PMID:29541631

  2. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  3. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background Newer behavior genetic methods can better elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). However, no study to date has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risks with the purpose of delineating how general G-E mechanisms influence the development of INT disorders. Methods The sample consisted of 1315 male and female twin pairs participating in the age 17 assessment of the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Quantitative G-E interplay models were used to examine how genetic and environmental risk for INT disorders changes as a function of environmental context. Multiple measures and informants were employed to construct composite measures of INT disorders and 6 environmental risk factors including: stressful life events, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliation, and academic achievement and engagement. Results Significant moderation effects were detected between each environmental risk factor and INT such that in the context of greater environmental adversity, nonshared environmental factors became more important in the etiology of INT symptoms. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the interpretation that environmental stressors have a causative effect on the emergence of INT disorders. The consistency of our results suggests a general mechanism of environmental influence on INT disorders regardless of the specific form of environmental risk. PMID:19594836

  4. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  5. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  6. Neural nets for the plausibility check of measured values in the integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, G.

    2003-01-01

    Neural nets to the plausibility check of measured values in the ''integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, IMIS'' is a research project supported by the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. A goal of this project was the automatic recognition of implausible measured values in the data base ORACLE, which measured values from surveillance of environmental radioactivity of most diverse environmental media contained. The conversion of this project [ 1 ] was realized by institut of logic, complexity and deduction systems of the university Karlsruhe under the direction of Professor Dr. Menzel, Dr. Martin Riedmueller and Martin Lauer. (orig.)

  7. Neutron multiplicities as a measure for scission time scales and reaction violences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, K.; Scobel, W.; Sprute, L.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the temporal evolution of the fusion-fission reactions 32 S + 197 Au, 232 Th measured for 838 MeV projectiles by means of the neutron clock method. The results confirm existent precision lifetime versus fissility data. The total neutron multiplicity as a measure of the initial excitation energy E * is compared with the folding angle method. (author). 13 refs, 8 figs

  8. Measuring Corporate Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a model for measuring sustainable value which would complexly assess environmental, social, and corporate governance contribution to value creation. In the paper the concept of the Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is presented. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is based on the Sustainable Value Added model and combines weighted environmental, social, and corporate governance indicators with their benchmarks determined by Data Envelopment Analysis. Benchmark values of indicators were set for each company separately and determine the optimal combination of environmental, social, and corporate governance inputs to economic outcomes. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added methodology is applied on real-life corporate data and presented through a case study. The value added of most of the selected companies was negative, even though economic indicators of all of them are positive. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is intended to help owners, investors, and other stakeholders in their decision-making and sustainability assessment. The use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors helps identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and provides a more sophisticated insight into it than the one-dimensional methods based on economic performance alone.

  9. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-07-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.

  10. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  11. Multiple imputation to account for measurement error in marginal structural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Westreich, Daniel; Crane, Heidi; Eron, Joseph J.; Mathews, W. Christopher; Moore, Richard; Boswell, Stephen L.; Lesko, Catherine R.; Mugavero, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marginal structural models are an important tool for observational studies. These models typically assume that variables are measured without error. We describe a method to account for differential and non-differential measurement error in a marginal structural model. Methods We illustrate the method estimating the joint effects of antiretroviral therapy initiation and current smoking on all-cause mortality in a United States cohort of 12,290 patients with HIV followed for up to 5 years between 1998 and 2011. Smoking status was likely measured with error, but a subset of 3686 patients who reported smoking status on separate questionnaires composed an internal validation subgroup. We compared a standard joint marginal structural model fit using inverse probability weights to a model that also accounted for misclassification of smoking status using multiple imputation. Results In the standard analysis, current smoking was not associated with increased risk of mortality. After accounting for misclassification, current smoking without therapy was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6, 2.3)]. The HR for current smoking and therapy (0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.7)) was similar to the HR for no smoking and therapy (0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusions Multiple imputation can be used to account for measurement error in concert with methods for causal inference to strengthen results from observational studies. PMID:26214338

  12. Multiple Imputation to Account for Measurement Error in Marginal Structural Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Westreich, Daniel; Crane, Heidi; Eron, Joseph J; Mathews, W Christopher; Moore, Richard; Boswell, Stephen L; Lesko, Catherine R; Mugavero, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Marginal structural models are an important tool for observational studies. These models typically assume that variables are measured without error. We describe a method to account for differential and nondifferential measurement error in a marginal structural model. We illustrate the method estimating the joint effects of antiretroviral therapy initiation and current smoking on all-cause mortality in a United States cohort of 12,290 patients with HIV followed for up to 5 years between 1998 and 2011. Smoking status was likely measured with error, but a subset of 3,686 patients who reported smoking status on separate questionnaires composed an internal validation subgroup. We compared a standard joint marginal structural model fit using inverse probability weights to a model that also accounted for misclassification of smoking status using multiple imputation. In the standard analysis, current smoking was not associated with increased risk of mortality. After accounting for misclassification, current smoking without therapy was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6, 2.3]). The HR for current smoking and therapy [0.4 (95% CI = 0.2, 0.7)] was similar to the HR for no smoking and therapy (0.4; 95% CI = 0.2, 0.6). Multiple imputation can be used to account for measurement error in concert with methods for causal inference to strengthen results from observational studies.

  13. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  14. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.

  15. A two-stage DEA approach for environmental efficiency measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Malin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The slacks-based measure (SBM) model based on the constant returns to scale has achieved some good results in addressing the undesirable outputs, such as waste water and water gas, in measuring environmental efficiency. However, the traditional SBM model cannot deal with the scenario in which desirable outputs are constant. Based on the axiomatic theory of productivity, this paper carries out a systematic research on the SBM model considering undesirable outputs, and further expands the SBM model from the perspective of network analysis. The new model can not only perform efficiency evaluation considering undesirable outputs, but also calculate desirable and undesirable outputs separately. The latter advantage successfully solves the "dependence" problem of outputs, that is, we can not increase the desirable outputs without producing any undesirable outputs. The following illustration shows that the efficiency values obtained by two-stage approach are smaller than those obtained by the traditional SBM model. Our approach provides a more profound analysis on how to improve environmental efficiency of the decision making units.

  16. Use of Statistics for Data Evaluation in Environmental Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman

    2001-01-01

    Counting statistics will give a correction on environmental radioactivity measurement result. Statistics provides formulas to determine standard deviation (S B ) and minimum detectable concentration (MDC) according to the Poisson distribution. Both formulas depend on the background count rate, counting time, counting efficiency, gamma intensity, and sample size. A long time background counting results in relatively low S B and MDC that can present relatively accurate measurement results. (author)

  17. Treatment and reporting of uncertainties for environmental radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations for a practical and uniform method for treating and reporting uncertainties in environmental radiation measurements data are presented. The method requires that each reported measurement result include the value, a total propagated random uncertainty expressed as the standard deviation, and a combined overall uncertainty. The uncertainty assessment should be based on as nearly a complete assessment as possible and should include every conceivable or likely source of inaccuracy in the result. Guidelines are given for estimating random and systematic uncertainty components, and for propagating and combining them to form an overall uncertainty

  18. Practice and experience in traceability of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijian

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects on radioactivity measurement traceability and summarizes the work on quality assurance of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples in the laboratory, including transfer of standards, preparation of reference materials, and calibration of efficiency for volumse surces with Ge(Li) spectrometer. Some practical activitis regarding intercomparison of radioactivity measurements and other traceabillity-related activities are also described. Some sugestions relating to performing quality assurance are made

  19. Environmental assessment and planning theory: four short stories about power, multiple rationality, and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper engages with recent debates in the environmental assessment (EA) literature about the lessons that can be learned from planning theory. It argues that the current communicative turn in EA, echoing a similar shift in planning thought in the 1990s, has failed to benefit from this earlier experience. Instead of following this trend, the paper examines EA from a perspective which is more closely aligned with some of the critics of the communicative approach, and which combines concepts of power, rationality, value and ethics in a different way. First, the paper briefly sets out how planning theory has engaged with these concepts. It then argues that EA needs to engage with competing multiple rationalities, and the inescapable presence of value conflicts within EA. It then turns to recent debates in EA to show how the question of value has become a very difficult issue for EA theorists. These issues are then explored by looking at four cases where environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) become dramatic sites of struggle, in very different ways: where the boundaries between facts, boundaries, and opinions are defined through power struggles; where SEA is used as a process of brokerage between a fragile coalition of interests; where power defines rationality in the construction of an SEA instrument; and where EIA is challenged from the outside by civil society. The paper closes by discussing how EA practitioners can operate reflexively and ethically in a world of contested rationality

  20. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  1. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs [de

  2. Accounting for multiple functions in environmental life cycle assessment of storm water management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rygaard, Martin

    The wide range of approaches to handle storm water runoff have varying effects on the environment. Local stormwater control measures for retention and treatment are increasingly used components in urban climate adaptation plans. Often, these solutions modify the multiple functions of urban...

  3. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  4. Results of tritium measurement in environmental samples and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Ryoji; Hirai, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    In Ibaraki prefecture, the tritium concentration in the drainage from the nuclear facilities has been measured since 1974. Then, with the start of operation of the fuel reprocessing plant in 1977, the tritium concentration in environmental samples was to be measured also in order to examine the effect of the drainage on the environment. The results of the tritium measurement in Ibaraki prefecture up to about 1980 are described: sampling points, sampling and measuring methods, the tritium concentration in the drainage, air, inland water and seawater, respectively. The drainages have been taken from Japan Atomic Power Company, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (with the fuel reprocessing plant). The samples of air, inland water and seawater have been taken in the areas concerned. The tritium concentration was measured by a low-background liquid scintillation counter. The measured values in the environment have been generally at low level, not different from other areas. (Mori, K.)

  5. Realization of a gamma multiplicity filter and gamma multiplicity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azgui, F.

    1981-12-01

    A gamma multiplicity filter for the study of reaction mechanism has been realised. It's composed of six NaI(Tl) counters. The flexibility of the geometry allows many configurations. This set up has been tested with gamma radioactive sources and with the 252 Cf source to resolve problems of gamma-efficiency of the NaI(Tl) counters and the contamination of neutrons in these detectors. A logical electronic unit (Encodeur) has been constructed and the around electronic has been developped. This gamma multiplicity filter has been coupled with a detector of high resolution Ge(Li), and used in two reactions: 12 C + 55 Mn at E( 12 C) = 54 MeV; α + 63 Cu at E(α) = 52 MeV. The dominant process is the fusion-evaporation. The compound nucleus 67 Ga, is formed at the same excitation energy. The values of multiplicities Msub(γ) have been extracted using a program based on the formalism of W.J. Ockels. The fractionalization of the angular momentum is well observed for some residual nuclei ( 63 Zn, 64 Zn, 65 Zn), and for each residual nucleus, the average gamma multiplicity is lower with projectile α than that with projectile 12 C. For the most strongly output channel p2n, an entry point for the 64 Zn has been determined in the reactions. All these observations are in good agreement with those published, in the same region (f-p shell) of nuclei. This set up can be coupled with different central detector as, ''X'', neutrons charged particles detectors, and will be used with the new machine SARA to make a systematic study of transfer of angular momentum to the fragments at 30 MeV/A [fr

  6. Development of a direct observation Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Rigby, Patty; Batorowicz, Beata; McMain-Klein, Margot; Petrenchik, Theresa; Thompson, Laura; Gibson, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an observer-rated measure of aesthetic, physical, social, and opportunity-related qualities of leisure activity settings for young people (with or without disabilities). Eighty questionnaires were completed by sets of raters who independently rated 22 community/home activity settings. The scales of the 32-item Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings (MEQAS; Opportunities for Social Activities, Opportunities for Physical Activities, Pleasant Physical Environment, Opportunities for Choice, Opportunities for Personal Growth, and Opportunities to Interact with Adults) were determined using principal components analyses. Test-retest reliability was determined for eight activity settings, rated twice (4-6wk interval) by a trained rater. The factor structure accounted for 80% of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was 0.73. Cronbach's alphas for the scales ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and interrater reliabilities (ICCs) ranged from 0.60 to 0.93. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Results suggest that the MEQAS has a sound factor structure and preliminary evidence of internal consistency, interrater, and test-retest reliability. The MEQAS is the first observer-completed measure of environmental qualities of activity settings. The MEQAS allows researchers to assess comprehensively qualities and affordances of activity settings, and can be used to design and assess environmental qualities of programs for young people. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

    2013-03-01

    China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  9. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  10. Volume measurement of multiple sclerosis lesions with magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, D.A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Miller, D.H.; Du Boulay, G.H.; Feinstein, A.; Harvey, I.; Brenner, R.; McDonald, W.I.; Sacares, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to visualise multiple sclerosis lesions in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging suggests an important role in monitoring the course of the disease. In order to help the long-term assessment of prospective treatments, a semi-automated technique for measuring lesion volume has been developed to provide a quantitative index of disease progression. Results are presented from a preliminary study with a single patient and compared to measurements taken from lesion outlines traced by a neuroradiologist, two neurologists and a technician. The semi-automated technique achieved a precision of 6% compared to a range of 12-33% for the manual tracing method. It also reduced the human interaction time from at least 60 min to 15 min. (orig.)

  11. Measures for a reliable and environmental power supply. Massnahmen fuer eine sichere und umweltvertraegliche Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J

    1978-01-01

    This brochure, supplement and final part of a 1976 DIW study (Reliability, Pricing, and Environmental Aspects of Power Supply), presents the necessary technical and energy policy measures required for achieving certain goals in energy policy. Present and future measures taken in West Germany are presented. Effects and consequences of these steps are investigated, although a quantitative analysis was only possible in a few cases. Measures for ensuring the energy supply are listed according to energy sources; measures to reduce environmental pollution deal with pollutant emissions, thermal pollution, optical and acoustic load factors, and energy conservation.

  12. Genetic and environmental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cancer may result from a multistage process occurring over a long period of time. Presumably, initial and progressive stages of carcinogenesis may be modified by both genetic and environmental factors. Theoretically, genetic factors may alter susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of an environmental agent at the initial exposure due to variation in metabolism of the carcinogen or variation in specific target cell response to the active carcinogen, or during the latent phase due to numerous factors that might increase the probability of tumor expression, including growth-promoting factors or immunodeficiency states. Observed genetic and environmental interactions in carcinogenesis include an association between genetically determined inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and smoking-related cancers, familial susceptibility to certain environmental carcinogens, an association between hereditary disorders of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and enhancement of tissue-specific, dominantly inherited tumor predisposition by radiation. Multiple primary tumors occur frequently in genetically predisposed individuals. Specific markers for susceptibility must be sought in order that high-risk individuals be identified and appropriate measures taken for early cancer detection or prevention. Study of the nature of the genetically determined susceptibility and interactions with environmental agents may be revealing in the understanding of carcinogenesis in general

  13. Measurement of multiplicities of charged hadrons, pions and kaons in DIS at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    Precise measurements of multiplicities of charged hadrons, pions and kaons in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6LiD target. The results were obtained in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. A leading-order pQCD analysis was performed using the pion multiplicity results to extract quark fragmentation functions into pions. The results for the sum of the z-integrated multiplicities for pions and for kaons, differ from earlier results from the HERMES experiment. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K- multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  14. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  15. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, Marie B.; De Keyser, Jacques

    Evaluation of: Foster M, Zivadinov R, Weinstock-Guttman B et al. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 243(1-2), 61-68 (2012). While the harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented, experimental and clinical data support a

  16. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Ogata, Y. [Nagoya Univ., School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsuji, N. [Japan Air-conditioning Service Co. and Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kakiuchi, M. [Gakushuin Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Satake, H. [Toyama Univ., Faculty of Science, Toyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1} in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1}. Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 {mu}m filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  17. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H.; Ogata, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Kakiuchi, M.; Satake, H.

    2002-01-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq·L -1 in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq·L -1 . Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 μm filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  18. Real time operation of a multiple gamma measurement installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.; Lefevre, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a multiple measurement channel facility for fine gamma spectrometry, its real time operation, and the new possibilities which it offers. The installation is presented in its twofold electronic and processing aspects, by considering its architecture, its hard and software, and its data processing package. Real time operation requires customized general organization, perfect instantaneous knowledge of the status of all the units, and a sound hierarchy between the various participants, operators as well as requestors. The care inherent in the installation itself and in the definition of its operation explains its new possibilities. (Auth.)

  19. Tidal Channel Diatom Assemblages Reflect within Wetland Environmental Conditions and Land Use at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized regional patterns of the tidal channel benthic diatom community and examined the relative importance of local wetland and surrounding landscape level factors measured at multiple scales in structuring this assemblage. Surrounding land cover was characterized at ...

  20. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  1. Measurement of friction force between two mica surfaces with multiple beam interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces play a crucial role in the tribological behaviour of microcomponents and the application of MEMS products. It is necessary to develop a measurement system to understand and control the material characteristics. In this study, a microscopic measurement system based on multiple beam interferometry is developed to measure the friction force between two mica thin films. Some frictional behaviour between the two mica sheets in contact are reported. The evaluated shear strength of mica agrees well to the existing data. It is possible to use the developed system for micro-tribology study.

  2. Analysis of γ spectra in airborne radioactivity measurements using multiple linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Min; Shi Quanlin; Zhang Jiamei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the net peak counts calculating of nuclide 137 Cs at 662 keV of γ spectra in airborne radioactivity measurements using multiple linear regressions. Mathematic model is founded by analyzing every factor that has contribution to Cs peak counts in spectra, and multiple linear regression function is established. Calculating process adopts stepwise regression, and the indistinctive factors are eliminated by F check. The regression results and its uncertainty are calculated using Least Square Estimation, then the Cs peak net counts and its uncertainty can be gotten. The analysis results for experimental spectrum are displayed. The influence of energy shift and energy resolution on the analyzing result is discussed. In comparison with the stripping spectra method, multiple linear regression method needn't stripping radios, and the calculating result has relation with the counts in Cs peak only, and the calculating uncertainty is reduced. (authors)

  3. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  4. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications

  5. ALICE measurements in p–Pb collisions: Charged particle multiplicity, centrality determination and implications for binary scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toia, Alberica, E-mail: alberica.toia@cern.ch [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Measurements of particle production in proton–nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, and we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.

  6. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  7. Subcritical Neutron Multiplication Measurements of HEU Using Delayed Neutrons as the Driving Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollas, C.L.; Goulding, C.A.; Myers, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the multiplication of highly enriched uranium systems is presented. The method uses delayed neutrons to drive the HEU system. These delayed neutrons are from fission events induced by a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source. Between pulses, neutrons are detected within a medium efficiency neutron detector using 3 He ionization tubes within polyethylene enclosures. The neutron detection times are recorded relative to the initiation of the 14-MeV neutron pulse, and subsequently analyzed with the Feynman reduced variance method to extract singles, doubles and triples neutron counting rates. Measurements have been made on a set of nested hollow spheres of 93% enriched uranium, with mass values from 3.86 kg to 21.48 kg. The singles, doubles and triples counting rates for each uranium system are compared to calculations from point kinetics models of neutron multiplicity to assign multiplication values. These multiplication values are compared to those from MC NP K-Code calculations

  8. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  9. Getting satisfied with "satisfaction of search": How to measure errors during multiple-target visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T

    2017-07-01

    Visual search studies are common in cognitive psychology, and the results generally focus upon accuracy, response times, or both. Most research has focused upon search scenarios where no more than 1 target will be present for any single trial. However, if multiple targets can be present on a single trial, it introduces an additional source of error because the found target can interfere with subsequent search performance. These errors have been studied thoroughly in radiology for decades, although their emphasis in cognitive psychology studies has been more recent. One particular issue with multiple-target search is that these subsequent search errors (i.e., specific errors which occur following a found target) are measured differently by different studies. There is currently no guidance as to which measurement method is best or what impact different measurement methods could have upon various results and conclusions. The current investigation provides two efforts to address these issues. First, the existing literature is reviewed to clarify the appropriate scenarios where subsequent search errors could be observed. Second, several different measurement methods are used with several existing datasets to contrast and compare how each method would have affected the results and conclusions of those studies. The evidence is then used to provide appropriate guidelines for measuring multiple-target search errors in future studies.

  10. Multiple antibiotics resistant among environmental isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we assessed the functionality of integrons, melanin-like pigment and biofilm formation on multidrug resistance among environmental isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Marked resistances were noted against aztreonam (60%), cefepime (68%), ceftazidime (77%), ciprofloxacin (72%), gentamicin (65%), ...

  11. Balancing tradeoffs: Reconciling multiple environmental goals when ecosystem services vary regionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Christine S.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Cuadra, Santiago; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Gerber, James; West, Paul C.; Polasky, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    As the planet’s dominant land use, agriculture often competes with the preservation of natural systems that provide globally and regionally important ecosystem services. How agriculture impacts ecosystem service delivery varies regionally, among services being considered, and across spatial scales. Here, we assess the tradeoffs between four ecosystem services—agricultural production, carbon storage, biophysical climate regulation, and biodiversity—using as a case study the Amazon, an active frontier of agricultural expansion. We find that the highest values for each of the ecosystem services are concentrated in different regions. Agricultural production potential and carbon storage are highest in the north and west, biodiversity greatest in the west, and climate regulation services most vulnerable to disruption in the south and east. Using a simple optimization model, we find that under scenarios of agricultural expansion that optimize total production across ecosystem services, small increases in priority for one ecosystem service can lead to reductions in other services by as much as 140%. Our results highlight the difficulty of managing landscapes for multiple environmental goals; the approach presented here can be adapted to guide value-laden conservation decisions and identify potential solutions that balance priorities.

  12. Optimal update with multiple out-of-sequence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2011-06-01

    In multisensor target tracking systems receiving out-of-sequence measurements from local sensors is a common situation. In the last decade many algorithms have been proposed to update a target state with an OOSM optimally or suboptimally. However, what one faces in the real world is multiple OOSMs, which arrive at the fusion center in, generally, arbitrary orders, e.g., in succession or interleaved with in-sequence measurements. A straightforward approach to deal with this multi-OOSM problem is by sequentially applying a given OOSM algorithm; however, this simple solution does not guarantee optimal update under the multi-OOSM scenario. The present paper discusses the differences between the single-OOSM processing and the multi-OOSM processing, and presents the general solution to the multi-OOSM problem, called the complete in-sequence information (CISI) approach. Given an OOSM, in addition to updating the target state at the most recent time, the CISI approach also updates the states between the OOSM time and the most recent time, including the state at the OOSM time. Three novel CISI methods are developed in this paper: the information filter-equivalent measurement (IF-EqM) method, the CISI fixed-point smoothing (CISI-FPS) method and the CISI fixed-interval smoothing (CISI-FIS) method. Numerical examples are given to show the optimality of these CISI methods under various multi-OOSM scenarios.

  13. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  14. Atmospheric environment measurement 3. Environmental pollution monitoring system using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE(Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method is used in various fields owing to its high sensitivity. This method can be used to analyze multiple elements in a short time and therefore is suitable for the analysis of large quantities of environmental samples. We researched the effect of removing footwear in a room on indoor aerosol pollution. The concentration of aerosol particles in the case that footwear was not removed was 5 times larger than in the case when footwear was removed. We were able to identify a source of air pollution using both the results of PIXE analysis and information on wind direction. We applied PIXE analysis to investigate airborne yellow sand, which originals from the Gobi desert. By analyzing each yellow sand particle, hazardous yellow sand could be detected. We also applied PIXE analysis to river water pollution. River water samples were collected at a number of points along a river. The dilution of metallic elements by the river water was observed. Thus, it was shown that monitoring systems using the PIXE method are very useful for monitoring environmental pollution. (author)

  15. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M

    2011-01-01

    homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose...... and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated......Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues...

  16. Active self-testing noise measurement sensors for large-scale environmental sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-12-13

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10.

  17. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  18. Extra environmental impact assessment and recommendable measures for their minimization in arranging sanitary inspection room site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Paskevich, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments during the works for preparation of sanitary inspection room site are presented. A range of measures to minimize environmental impact from the works to be implemented,is offered. Impacts on such environmental components as soil,air and aqueous medium,are considered

  19. Relations Between Stressors and Job Performance: An Aggregate-Level Investigation Using Multiple Criterion Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Army Combat Brigades. Unlike previous studies that have focused exclusively on in-role performance, we examined relations between stressors and multiple performance criterion measures, which corresponded to in-role...

  20. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  1. Measuring the environmental costs of tidal power plant construction: A choice experiment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo-Suk; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Korea is considering the construction of a tidal power plant (TPP) at Garolim Bay. However, as the construction of the Garolim TPP (GTPP) is expected to entail some environmental damage, it has become an increasingly important topic for public debate. Using a choice experiment (CE) approach, this study attempts to measure the economic cost that results from the environmental damage caused by the construction of GTPP. The CE is used to measure the environmental costs of individual attributes, including the reduction in the area of the tidal flat, the degradation of seawater quality, and the destruction of marine life. The results indicate that the annual willingness to pay (WTP) per household for mitigating the environmental damage that results from the worst-possible situation in relation to the present situation is about 96,042 Korean won (USD 101.1) in the seven biggest cities (off-site regions) and 18,584 Korean won (USD 19.6) in Seosan and Taean (on-site regions). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with quantitative information that will be useful to decide whether or not GTPP should be constructed.

  2. The environmental literacy of urban middle school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Marcia Allen

    This dissertation study assessed the environmental literacy of 292 urban, middle school teachers using the Wisconsin Environmental Literacy Survey (WELS). Environmental literacy may be defined in terms of observable behaviors. Specifically, the study examined four dimensions of participants' environmental literacy: (a) attitudes toward the environment, (b) beliefs about their own power and responsibility to affect environmental change, (c) personal behaviors and actions toward the environment, and (d) knowledge regarding ecology and environmental issues. The WELS measures these components of environmental literacy through a Likert-type attitude survey, a self-reporting behavior instrument, and a multiple choice measure of cognitive learning outcomes or environmental knowledge. These scores were combined to derive a total environmental literacy score. In addition, the study explored differences between African American and European American female teachers' environmental literacy; interactions between demographic variables; and patterns of frequently missed questions, environmental attitudes, or environmental behaviors. Differences in teachers' environmental literacy were examined relative to gender, racial/ethnic background, number of preservice environmental courses taken, number of inservice environmental courses taken, years of teaching experience, and subject area taught. Overall, teachers in the present study demonstrated nominal environmental literacy. Significant differences in scores on various subscales were found among teachers according to racial/ethnic background, subject area taught, and years of teaching experience. Taking preservice and inservice environmental courses appears to have a positive impact on environmental behavior, environmental sensitivity, awareness and values, but not appear to impact environmental knowledge. This study underscores the need for further descriptive environmental literacy research on urban, minority, and poor students

  3. Research of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners for measuring flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Duanzhong; Zhong Dezhen; Cai Zhuti

    1989-01-01

    Standard throttling flowmeters are widely used in process flow rate measurement. Enough upstream and downstream straight pipe are necessary for it. If not, the error will be increased. Mounting straightener is an effective way for solving this problem. Advantages of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners studied by authors are good results for straighting, simple in Structure, convenient for mounting and low cost. So it can be popularized in many applications

  4. Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Julie H.; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating supporting a beneficial effect of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis (MS). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown significant associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes in the vitamin D...... discrimination (Life Technologies).RESULTS: We found significant associations between 25(OH)D and SNPs in GC (rs7041, p = 0.01 and rs2282679, p = 0.03) and CYP2R1 (rs10741657, p =1.8 × 10(-4)). Season of blood sampling (p = 2.8 × 10(-31)), sex (p = 1.9 × 10(-5)), BMI (p = 2.3 × 10(-5)), vitamin supplements (p...... = 7.0 × 10(-22)), and fish intake (p = 0.02) also had significant effects on 25(OH)D.CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, we found significant effects of environmental factors and SNPs in GC and CYP2R1 on 25(OH)D in MS patients. Since 25(OH)D might have protective effects in MS, and vitamin D...

  5. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…

  6. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  7. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  8. Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaye, Adolf; Feng, Kuishuang; Oppon, Eunice; Salhi, Said; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Genovese, Andrea; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO 2 , SO 2 , biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between countries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, direct carbon emissions in the electricity sector across all 27 member states of the EU was estimated to be 1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62

  9. Spherical ionization chamber of 14 liter for precise measurement of environmental radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1991-05-01

    A spherical ionization chamber of 14 liter filled with 1 atm. nitrogen gas was arranged aiming at precise measurement of dose rate due to environmental gamma rays and cosmic rays. Ionization current-dose rate conversion factor for this ionization chamber was derived from careful consideration taking into account the attenuation by chamber wall, ionization current due to alpha particles and so on. Experiments at calibrated gamma ray fields and intercomparison with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector were also performed, which confirmed this ionization chamber using the conversion factor can measure the dose rate with an error of only a few percent. This ionization chamber will be used for measurement of environmental gamma ray and cosmic ray dose rate. (author)

  10. Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1979-03-01

    Environmental data collected during 1978 in the vicinity of the Marine Research Laboratory show continued compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations and furthermore show no detectable change from conditions that existed in previous years. Samples collected for radiological analysis included soil, drinking water, bay water, clams, and seaweed. Radiation dose rates at 1 meter aboveground were also measured

  11. DL-sQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Service Quality of Online Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Naj; Lowe, Sue; Pinegar, Kem

    2006-01-01

    Education is a service with multiplicity of student interactions over time and across multiple touch points. Quality teaching needs to be supplemented by consistent quality supporting services for programs to succeed under the competitive distance learning landscape. ServQual and e-SQ scales have been proposed for measuring quality of traditional…

  12. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurements in the 28Si + 64Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, A.; Cardella, G.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; De Rosa, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Inglima, G.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Terrasi, F.; Fioretto, E.

    1994-01-01

    The 28 Si+ 64 Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV incident energy is studied by measuring in coincidence γ-rays and charged particles identified from Z 2 to Z = 16. The transition from quasi-elastic to more damped reactions is observed when the difference between the detected charge and the projectile one is increased. The strong influence of the particle decay on the measured γ-ray multiplicity is evidenced with the help of the statistical model computer code CASCADE. Dissipative events are well described in the rolling limit with excitation energy equally shared between the fragments. The overall agreement is lost for the fragments with the projectile charge which show a small value of the γ-multiplicity even for dissipative events. This is probably connected with the previously observed non statistical behavior of gamma rays emitted in coincidence with projectile-like fragments. In the alpha-spectrum measured in coincidence with gamma-rays, the deexcitation of fused systems is clearly separated from in flight emission of deep inelastic fragments. The low measured gamma-ray multiplicity for fusion events is qualitatively explained taking into account the effect of alpha-emission in the statistical decay. (orig.)

  13. Study of Efficiency Calibrations of HPGe Detectors for Radioactivity Measurements of Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of calibrating of efficiency of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry of bulk environmental samples (Tea, crops, water, and soil) is a significant part of the environmental radioactivity measurements. Here we will discuss the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of three HPGe detectors it as a consequence, it is essential that the efficiency is determined for each set-up employed. Besides to take full advantage at gamma-ray spectrometry, a set of efficiency at several energies which covers the wide the range in energy, the large the number of radionuclides whose concentration can be determined to measure the main natural gamma-ray emitters, the efficiency should be known at least from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y). Radioactive sources were prepared from two different standards, a first mixed standard QC Y 40 containing 210 Pb, 241 Am, 109 Cd, and Co 57 , and the second QC Y 48 containing 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 139 Ce, 113 Sn, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 88 Y, and 60 Co is necessary in order to calculate the activity of the different radionuclides contained in a sample. In this work, we will study the efficiency calibration as a function of different parameters as:- Energy of gamma ray from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y), three different detectors A, B, and C, geometry of containers (point source, marinelli beaker, and cylindrical bottle 1 L), height of standard soil samples in bottle 250 ml, and density of standard environmental samples. These standard environmental sample must be measured before added standard solution because we will use the same environmental samples in order to consider the self absorption especially and composition in the case of volume samples.

  14. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carpani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  15. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Trevisiol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  16. Corrected multiple upsets and bit reversals for improved 1-s resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucker, G.J.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has studied the generation of single and multiple errors in control and irradiated static RAM samples (Harris 6504RH) which were exposed to heavy ions for relatively long intervals of time (minute), and read out only after the beam was shut off. The present investigation involved storing 4k x 1 bit maps every second during 1 min ion exposures at low flux rates of 10 3 ions/cm 2 -s in order to reduce the chance of two sequential ions upsetting adjacent bits. The data were analyzed for the presence of adjacent upset bit locations in the physical memory plane, which were previously defined to constitute multiple upsets. Improvement in the time resolution of these measurements has provided more accurate estimates of multiple upsets. The results indicate that the percentage of multiples decreased from a high of 17% in the previous experiment to less than 1% for this new experimental technique. Consecutive double and triple upsets (reversals of bits) were detected. These were caused by sequential ions hitting the same bit, with one or two reversals of state occurring in a 1-min run. In addition to these results, a status review for these same parts covering 3.5 years of imprint damage recovery is also presented

  17. Selected environmental considerations and their measuring parameters for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The site selection process for nuclear power stations encompasses a broad range of considerations. A categorization of these considerations consistent with the needs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulatory agency, and of the utility company involves these major areas of concern. They are issues related to safety, environmental impact, and engineering/economics. The more important environmental considerations and their measuring parameters presented in this paper include biota, ecological systems and water quality, land use, aesthetics, water availability, and meteorology. (U.S.)

  18. Implicit measures of environmental attitudes: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Patricia Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to inquire about the capacity of three implicit instruments to measure the attitude toward natural and urban environments. One hundred and three students from a Mexican public university participated in the investigation. The implicit instruments used were the affective priming technique, the implicit association test, and the affect misattribution procedure. Further, an explicit scale was used for comparison. The results showed that all instruments converge in the same way; the nature images were viewed as more pleasant compared to the city images. Also, most results indicated good effect size values, observed power, and reliability, with the exception of the affective priming technique, which established low values. In addition, all instruments indicated weak correlations between each other. The results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the instruments to measure environmental attitudes, and also possible theoretical and methodological implications.

  19. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  20. Electromagnetic fields and health impact: measurements, monitoring and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the

  1. Optical design of multi-multiple expander structure of laser gas analysis and measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Wei, Biao

    2018-03-01

    The installation and debugging of optical circuit structure in the application of carbon monoxide distributed laser gas analysis and measurement, there are difficult key technical problems. Based on the three-component expansion theory, multi-multiple expander structure with expansion ratio of 4, 5, 6 and 7 is adopted in the absorption chamber to enhance the adaptability of the installation environment of the gas analysis and measurement device. According to the basic theory of aberration, the optimal design of multi-multiple beam expander structure is carried out. By using image quality evaluation method, the difference of image quality under different magnifications is analyzed. The results show that the optical quality of the optical system with the expanded beam structure is the best when the expansion ratio is 5-7.

  2. Environmental gamma background measurements in China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Zeng; Jian Su; Hao Ma; Hengguan Yi; Jianping Cheng; Qian Yue; Junli Li; Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To determine the environmental gamma background levels which affects rare events experiments, we measured in situ gamma spectrum at four locations in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. The integral background count rates (40-2,700 keV) varied from 3.76 to 74.1 cps. The average count rate of the measurements inside the CJPL was 73.4 cps. The spectrometer was calibrated with a 152 Eu point source and Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the activity conversion factors for the rock and the air, respectively. The rocks that surrounded the CJPL was characterized by very low activity concentrations of 238 U (3.69-4.21 Bq kg -1 ), 232 Th (0.52-0.64 Bq kg -1 ) and 40 K (4.28 Bq kg -1 ). (author)

  3. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Rabotti, Chiara; Bilberg, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is reported as the most common symptom by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The physiological and functional parameters related to fatigue in MS patients are currently not well established. A new wearable wireless body measurement system, named Fatigue Monitoring System (FAMOS......), was developed to study fatigue in MS. It can continuously measure electrocardiogram, body-skin temperature, electromyogram and motions of feet. The goal of this study is to test the ability of distinguishing fatigued MS patients from healthy subjects by the use of FAMOS. This paper presents the realization...... of the measurement system including the design of both hardware and dedicated signal processing algorithms. Twenty-six participants including 17 MS patients with fatigue and 9 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study for continuous 24 h monitoring. The preliminary results show significant...

  4. Karhunen-Loève (PCA) based detection of multiple oscillations in multiple measurement signals from large-scale process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2007-01-01

     In the perspective of optimizing the control and operation of large scale process plants, it is important to detect and to locate oscillations in the plants. This paper presents a scheme for detecting and localizing multiple oscillations in multiple measurements from such a large-scale power plant....... The scheme is based on a Karhunen-Lo\\`{e}ve analysis of the data from the plant. The proposed scheme is subsequently tested on two sets of data: a set of synthetic data and a set of data from a coal-fired power plant. In both cases the scheme detects the beginning of the oscillation within only a few samples....... In addition the oscillation localization has also shown its potential by localizing the oscillations in both data sets....

  5. Measurement of the nuclear multiplicity ratio for Ks0 hadronization at CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A.; Hicks, K.; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, H.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amarian, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Casey, L.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Egiyan, H.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zachariou, N.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2011-11-01

    The influence of cold nuclear matter on lepto-production of hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab and a 5.014 GeV electron beam. We report the Ks0 multiplicity ratios for targets of C, Fe, and Pb relative to deuterium as a function of the fractional virtual photon energy z transferred to the Ks0 and the transverse momentum squared pT2 of the Ks0. We find that the multiplicity ratios for Ks0 are reduced in the nuclear medium at high z and low pT2, with a trend for the Ks0 transverse momentum to be broadened in the nucleus for large pT2.

  6. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    when an issue of water contamination becomes an issue of environmental injustice? How do we measure the impacts of environmental harm today on future generations? How do we measure the distribution of multiple or cumulative impacts on poorer groups? How do we quantify the responsibility of richer citizens in the world for the environmental harms distributed unequally to the poorer citizens? The papers in this focus issue do not answer all these questions, but we hope that this theme will recur in Environmental Research Letters and that more environmental scientists will begin to frame their analyses around the critical issues of distributions of environmental harms and benefits. References [1] United Nations Environment Programme 2007 Global Environmental Outlook 2007 (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme) [2] UNICEF 2005 The State of the World's Children 2005 (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [3] World Resources Institute 2002 Wastes Produced from Industrialised Countries available from www.wri.org [4] Stephens C and Stair P 2007 Charting a new course for urban public health State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 134 48 [5] Lee K N 2007 An urbanizing world State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future ed L Stark (New York: W W Norton) pp 3 22 [6] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2003 Environmental Justice available from www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaljustice/ [7] Stephens C, Bullock S and Scott A 2001 Environmental justice: rights and mean to a healthy environment for all Special Briefing Paper Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Global Environmental Change Programme (Brighton: ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme, University of Sussex) p 3 available from www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/environmental_justice.pdf [8] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Access to Information 1999 Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

  7. SEMAT--the next generation of inexpensive marine environmental monitoring and measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Johnstone, Ron; Chiffings, Tony; Atkinson, Ian; Bergmann, Neil; Read, Wayne; Theiss, Susan; Myers, Trina; Stevens, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a "smart" wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT's goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments.

  8. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  9. Effectiveness of environmental control measures to decrease the risk of invasive aspergillosis in acute leukaemia patients during hospital building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, J F; Toro, L F; Orozco, J J

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant problem in acute leukaemia patients. Construction work near hospital wards caring for immunocompromised patients is one of the main risk factors for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). To assess the impact of environmental control measures used during hospital construction for the prevention of IA in acute leukaemia patients. A retrospective cohort study was developed to evaluate the IA incidence in acute leukaemia patients with different environmental control measures employed during hospital construction. We used European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criterial diagnosis parameters for definition of IA. A total of 175 episodes of inpatient care were evaluated, 62 of which did not have any environmental control measures (when an outbreak occurred), and 113 that were subject to environmental control measures directed to preventing IA. The study showed an IA incidence of 25.8% for the group without environmental control measures vs 12.4% for those who did receive environmental control measures (P=0.024). The relative risk for IA was 0.595 (95% confidence interval: 0.394-0.897) for the group with environmental control measures. The current study suggests that the implementation of environmental control measures during a hospital construction has a positive impact for prevention of IA in patients hospitalized with acute leukaemia. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of multi-particle azimuthal correlations in pp, p + Pb and low-multiplicity Pb + Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-06-15

    Multi-particle cumulants and corresponding Fourier harmonics are measured for azimuthal angle distributions of charged particles in pp collisions at √(s) = 5.02 and 13 TeV and in p + Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV, and compared to the results obtained for low-multiplicity Pb + Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV. These measurements aim to assess the collective nature of particle production. The measurements of multi-particle cumulants confirm the evidence for collective phenomena in p + Pb and low-multiplicity Pb + Pb collisions. On the other hand, the pp results for four-particle cumulants do not demonstrate collective behaviour, indicating that they may be biased by contributions from non-flow correlations. A comparison of multi-particle cumulants and derived Fourier harmonics across different collision systems is presented as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity. For a given multiplicity, the measured Fourier harmonics are largest in Pb + Pb, smaller in p + Pb and smallest in pp results show no dependence on the collision energy, nor on the multiplicity. (orig.)

  11. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  12. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  13. [Multiple linear regression analysis of X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores of knee osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Feng; Wang, Qing-Fu; Chen, Zhao-Jun; Du, Chun-Lin; Li, Jun-Hai; Huang, Hu; Shi, Zong-Ting; Yin, Yue-Shan; Zhang, Lei; A-Di, Li-Jiang; Dong, Shi-Yu; Wu, Ji

    2012-05-01

    To perform Multiple Linear Regression analysis of X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores of knee osteoarthritis, and to analyze their relationship with clinical and biomechanical concepts. From March 2011 to July 2011, 140 patients (250 knees) were reviewed, including 132 knees in the left and 118 knees in the right; ranging in age from 40 to 71 years, with an average of 54.68 years. The MB-RULER measurement software was applied to measure femoral angle, tibial angle, femorotibial angle, joint gap angle from antero-posterir and lateral position of X-rays. The WOMAC scores were also collected. Then multiple regression equations was applied for the linear regression analysis of correlation between the X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores. There was statistical significance in the regression equation of AP X-rays value and WOMAC scores (Pregression equation of lateral X-ray value and WOMAC scores (P>0.05). 1) X-ray measurement of knee joint can reflect the WOMAC scores to a certain extent. 2) It is necessary to measure the X-ray mechanical axis of knee, which is important for diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis. 3) The correlation between tibial angle,joint gap angle on antero-posterior X-ray and WOMAC scores is significant, which can be used to assess the functional recovery of patients before and after treatment.

  14. 3D velocity measurements in fluid flows using multiple exposure holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, M.; Rodriguez, O.; Dadi, M.; Beluche, F.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of multiple exposure holography's application to the measurement of velocity in fluid flows. The method is nonintrusive, and yields access to the three components of the instantaneous velocity in three-dimensional domains. These characteristics render such holographic data complementary to classical LDV. Attention is given to solutions proposed for such limitations inherent in the method as the rather lengthy acquisition time; this difficulty is presently addressed by means of an automated evaluation methodology. 12 references

  15. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  16. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  17. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  18. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Tatebe, Kazuaki; Ohtake, Masaki; Shirato, Seiichi

    2013-03-01

    In September, 2012 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2012 concerning the activities of FY 2011 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2011 as the base of the Environmental Report 2012. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  19. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Kanai, Katsuta; Sato, Sadayuki; Tatebe, Kazuaki

    2016-03-01

    In September, 2015 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) published the Environmental Report 2015 concerning the activities of FY 2014 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2014 as the base of the Environmental Report 2015. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  20. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinori; Noritake, Kazumitsu; Kawasaki, Takanori; Suzuki, Yurina; Nemoto, Asako

    2010-02-01

    In July, 2009 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2009 concerning the activities of FY 2008 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2008 as the base of the Environmental Report 2009. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  1. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Ohtake, Masaki; Shirato, Seiichi; Tatebe, Kazuaki

    2014-03-01

    In September, 2013 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2013 concerning the activities of FY 2012 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2012 as the base of the Environmental Report 2013. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  2. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  3. Risk Mitigation Measures: An Important Aspect of the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Liebig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within EU marketing authorization procedures of human and veterinary medicinal products (HMP and VMP, an environmental risk assessment (ERA has to be performed. In the event that an unacceptable environmental risk is identified, risk mitigation measures (RMM shall be applied in order to reduce environmental exposure to the pharmaceutical. Within the authorization procedures of HMP, no RMM have been applied so far, except for specific precautions for the disposal of the unused medicinal product or waste materials. For VMP, a limited number of RMM do exist. The aim of this study was to develop consistent and efficient RMM. Therefore, existing RMM were compiled from a summary of product characteristics of authorized pharmaceuticals, and new RMM were developed and evaluated. Based on the results, appropriate RMM were applied within the authorization procedures of medicinal products. For HMP, except for the existing precautions for disposal, no further reasonable measures could be developed. For VMP, two specific precautions for disposal and 17 specific precautions for use in animals were proposed as RMM.

  4. Analytical techniques for measurement of 99Tc in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Three new methods have been developed for measuring 99 Tc in environmental samples. The most sensitive method is isotope dilution mass spectrometry, which allows measurement of about 1 x 10 -12 grams of 99 Tc. Results on analysis of five samples by this method compare very well with values obtained by a second independent method, which involves counting of beta particles from 99 Tc and internal conversion electrons from /sup 97m/Tc. A third method involving electrothermal atomic absorption has also been developed. Although this method is not as sensitive as the first two techniques, the cost per analysis is expected to be considerably less for certain types of samples

  5. The reward probability index: design and validation of a scale measuring access to environmental reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, John P; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Hellmuth, Julianne C; McNulty, James K; Magidson, Jessica F; Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral models of depression implicate decreased response-contingent positive reinforcement (RCPR) as critical toward the development and maintenance of depression (Lewinsohn, 1974). Given the absence of a psychometrically sound self-report measure of RCPR, the Reward Probability Index (RPI) was developed to measure access to environmental reward and to approximate actual RCPR. In Study 1 (n=269), exploratory factor analysis supported a 20-item two-factor model (Reward Probability, Environmental Suppressors) with strong internal consistency (α=.90). In Study 2 (n=281), confirmatory factor analysis supported this two-factor structure and convergent validity was established through strong correlations between the RPI and measures of activity, avoidance, reinforcement, and depression (r=.65 to .81). Discriminant validity was supported via smaller correlations between the RPI and measures of social support and somatic anxiety (r=-.29 to -.40). Two-week test-retest reliability was strong (r=.69). In Study 3 (n=33), controlling for depression symptoms, hierarchical regression supported the incremental validity of the RPI in predicting daily diary reports of environmental reward. The RPI represents a parsimonious, reliable, and valid measure that may facilitate understanding of the etiology of depression and its relationship to overt behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  7. Algorithmic Foundation of Spectral Rarefaction for Measuring Satellite Imagery Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    Measuring heterogeneity in satellite imagery is an important task to deal with. Most measures of spectral diversity have been based on Shannon Information theory. However, this approach does not inherently address different scales, ranging from local (hereafter referred to alpha diversity) to global scales (gamma diversity). The aim of this paper is to propose a method for measuring spectral heterogeneity at multiple scales based on rarefaction curves. An algorithmic solution of rarefaction applied to image pixel values (Digital Numbers, DNs) is provided and discussed. PMID:22389600

  8. Measurement of multi-particle azimuthal correlations in $pp$, $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse Kar Kee; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Poulard, Gilbert; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rashid, Tasneem; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-06-26

    Multi-particle cumulants and corresponding Fourier harmonics are measured for azimuthal angle distributions of charged particles in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 and 13 TeV and in $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and compared to the results obtained for low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. These measurements aim to assess the collective nature of particle production. The measurements of multi-particle cumulants confirm the evidence for collective phenomena in $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions. On the other hand, the $pp$ results for four-particle cumulants do not demonstrate collective behaviour, indicating that they may be biased by contributions from non-flow correlations. A comparison of multi-particle cumulants and derived Fourier harmonics across different collision systems is presented as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity. For a given multiplicity, the measured Fourier harmonics are largest in Pb+Pb, smaller in $p$+Pb and smal...

  9. A software for radioactivity measurement of Ra, Th and K in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Zhengqiang; Bao Min; Chang Yongfu

    2004-01-01

    Radio nuclides of soil, rock, construction material, and almost everything around us. There is growing concern about environmental radioactivity from both scientists and public from an institutional or a common point of view. The regulation and standard on evaluating radioactivity of environmental samples have been issued recently by the authorities. We have developed special purpose Gamma spectra analysis software named ErSpec. The software can effectively process and analyze Gamma spectra measured by a NaI(T1) spectrometry, and can give a relatively precise results of radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in environmental samples. The main functions of ErSpec include, processing and analyzing Gamma spectra, displaying some useful information for users, generating report, managing user's priority, logging user's manipulation, etc. Because environmental samples usually have low radioactivity and have complex measurement conditions, relative method is employed in ErSpec, and Channel-by-Channel Least-Squared Estimation is adopted as spectra analyzing method. The arithmetic make use of information extracted from data of hundreds of channels, then give a rather good result. In ErSpec, by using external call of MatLAB Math Lib in Visual C++, accuracy and speed of calculation and robustness of software are improved distinctly. Object-Oriented Programming Method and ActiveX techniques are also employed in software designing and coding stage. (authors)

  10. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2012-01-01

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210( 210 Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210 Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210 Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210 Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209 Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  11. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  12. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  13. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  14. Preliminary measurement of the charged multiplicities in b, c and light quark events from Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Average charged multiplicities have been measured separately in b, c and light quark (u, d, s) events from Z 0 decays measured in the SLD experiment. Impact parameters of charged tracks were used to select enriched samples of b and light quark events, and reconstructed charmed mesons were used to select c quark events. We measured the charged multiplicities: anti n uds = 20.21 ± 0.10 (stat.) ± 0.17 (syst.), anti n c = 21.28 ± 0.46 (stat.) -0.33 +0.38 (syst.) and anti n b = 23.14 ± 0.10 (stat.) -0.34 +0.35 (syst.), from which we derived the differences between the total average charged multiplicities of c or b quark events and light quark events: Δ anti n c = 1.07 ± 0.47 (stat.) -0.30 +0.36 (syst.) and Δ anti n b = 2.93 ± 0.14 (stat.) -0.29 +0.30 (syst.). We compared these measurements with those at lower center-of-mass energies and with perturbative QCD predictions. These combined results are in agreement with the QCD expectations and disfavor the hypothesis of flavor-independent fragmentation

  15. Measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane; Medidas do coeficiente de multiplicacao gasosa no isobutano puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Iara Batista de

    2010-07-01

    In this work it is presented measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient ({alpha}) in pure isobutane obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by one electrode (anode) of high resistivity glass ({rho} = 2 x 10{sup 12}{Omega}.cm). The method applied was the Pulsed Townsend, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam onto a metallic electrode (cathode). The electric currents measured with the chamber operating in both ionization and avalanche regimes were used to calculate the gaseous multiplication coefficient by the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields. The validation of the technique was provided by the measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The {alpha} coefficients in isobutane were measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td. The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte software (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available in the literature, recently obtained in our group. This comparison showed that the results are concordant within the experimental errors. (author)

  16. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  17. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  18. Longitudinal relationships among posturography and gait measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Newsome, Scott D; Eloyan, Ani; Marasigan, Rhul Evans R; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen M

    2015-05-19

    Gait and balance dysfunction frequently occurs early in the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course. Hence, we sought to determine the longitudinal relationships among quantitative measures of gait and balance in individuals with MS. Fifty-seven ambulatory individuals with MS (28 relapsing-remitting, 29 progressive) were evaluated using posturography, quantitative sensorimotor and gait measures, and overall MS disability with the Expanded Disability Status Scale at each session. Our cohort's age was 45.8 ± 10.4 years (mean ± SD), follow-up time 32.8 ± 15.4 months, median Expanded Disability Status Scale score 3.5, and 56% were women. Poorer performance on balance measures was related to slower walking velocity. Two posturography measures, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes open, feet apart conditions, were significant contributors to walk velocity over time (approximate R(2) = 0.95), such that poorer performance on the posturography measures was related to slower walking velocity. Similarly, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes closed, feet together conditions were also significant contributors to the Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time (approximate R(2) = 0.83). This longitudinal cohort study establishes a strong relationship between clinical gait measures and posturography. The data show that increases in static posturography and reductions in dynamic posturography are associated with a decline in walk velocity and Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time. Furthermore, longitudinal balance measures predict future walking performance. Quantitative walking and balance measures are important additions to clinical testing to explore longitudinal change and understand fall risk in this progressive disease population. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Measuring Strategic Processing when Students Read Multiple Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the dimensionality of multiple-text comprehension strategies in a sample of 216 Norwegian education undergraduates who read seven separate texts on a science topic and immediately afterwards responded to a self-report inventory focusing on strategic multiple-text processing in that specific task context. Two dimensions were…

  20. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Genes, Environment, and a Comprehensive Therapeutic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Ryan; Theroux, Liana; Brenton, J Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth. Genetic predisposition contributes to the risk of multiple sclerosis, and the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 makes the single largest contribution to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. With the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies, other non-major histocompatibility complex alleles have been identified as independent risk factors for the disease. The bridge between environment and genes likely lies in the study of epigenetic processes, which are environmentally-influenced mechanisms through which gene expression may be modified. This article will review these topics to provide a framework for discussion of a comprehensive approach to counseling and ultimately treating the pediatric patient with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of Reconstructed Charged Particle Multiplicities of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Aleena [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Here, we compare the observed charged particle multiplicity distributions in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber from neutrino interactions in a restricted final state phase space to predictions of this distribution from several GENIE models. The measurement uses a data sample consisting of neutrino interactions with a final state muon candidate fully contained within the MicroBooNE detector. These data were collected in 2015-2016 with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), which has an average neutrino energy of 800 MeV, using an exposure corresponding to 5e19 protons-on-target. The analysis employs fully automatic event selection and charged particle track reconstruction and uses a data-driven technique to determine the contribution to each multiplicity bin from neutrino interactions and cosmic-induced backgrounds. The restricted phase space employed makes the measurement most sensitive to the higher-energy charged particles expected from primary neutrino-argon collisions and less sensitive to lower energy protons expected to be produced in final state interactions of collision products with the target argon nucleus.

  2. Environmental distributions and the practical utilisation of detection limited environment measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.M.; Higgins, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated methods of providing summary statistics for measurements of radioactive contamination in food when the available measurements are incomplete. Several techniques to calculate, for instance, the mean level of contamination when a significant number of samples are found to have less than the minimum level reported by measurements, are discussed. To support the estimation of summary statistics the study identifies physical processes that give rise to observed distributions, eg lognormal for the range of radioactivity levels found in environmental and food samples. The improved estimates possible by application of the methods reviewed will allow the Food Standards Agency to gain a better understanding of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and if required direct effort to minimising the most significant uncertainties in these estimates. The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Radiological Safety and Nutrition Division (now part of the Food Standards Agency) funded this study, under contract RP0342. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  3. Method to measure the position offset of multiple light spots in a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoli; Cheng, Haobo; Xu, Chunyun; Feng, Yunpeng

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, an accurate measurement method of multiple spots' position offsets on a four-quadrant detector is proposed for a distributed aperture laser angle measurement system (DALAMS). The theoretical model is put forward, as well as the corresponding calculation method. This method includes two steps. First, as the initial estimation, integral approximation is applied to fit the distributed spots' offset function; second, the Boltzmann function is employed to compensate for the estimation error to improve detection accuracy. The simulation results attest to the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method, and tolerance synthesis analysis of DALAMS is conducted to determine the maximum uncertainties of manufacturing and installation. The maximum angle error is less than 0.08° in the prototype distributed measurement system, which shows the stability and robustness for prospective applications.

  4. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  5. Diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis by measurement of antibodies against environmental antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewair, M.

    1989-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), an immunologically mediated chronic pulmonary disease, is the result of an inflammatory response of the lung initiated by the inhalation of environmental organic dusts. These organic dusts usually contain substances (antigens) capable of eliciting immune responses in humans. The symptoms of HP generally present as recurrent flu-like episodes which makes it difficult to establish the proper diagnosis. However, detection in patients' sera of high-titer antibodies against the environmental antigens could be of great help in identifying those materials causing the disease and which must be avoided. A highly specific and sensitive serodiagnostic test, a radioimmuno assay (RIA), was developed for measurement of antibodies against antigens relevant to Farmer's Lung Disease (FLD), a type of HP affecting farmers

  6. Measurements and applications of neutron multiple scattering in resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1977-02-01

    Capture yield of neutrons impinging on a thick material is complicated due to self-shielding and multiple scattering, especially in the resonance region. When the incident neutron energy is equal to a resonance energy of the material, capture probability of the neutron increases with sample thickness and reaches a saturation value P sub(CO). There is a simple relation between P sub(CO) and GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA and the recoil energy by the Monte-Carlo calculation. To examine validity of the relation, P sub(CO) was measured for 19 resonances in 12 nuclides with thick samples, using a JAERI linac time-of-flight spectrometer with Moxon-Rae type gamma ray detector and transmission type neutron flux monitor. Results of the measurements confirmed the validity. With this relation, the GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA or GAMMA sub(γ)/GAMMA value can be obtained from the measured P sub(CO), and also the level spins be determined by combining the transmission data. Because of the definition of P sub(CO), determination of the resonance parameters is not sensitive to the sample thickness as far as it is sufficiently thick. (auth.)

  7. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  8. Determination of radiation direction in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vicente de Paulo de; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rocha, Felicia D.G.; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of environmental exposure has been performed in Brazil using the thermoluminescence technique at Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Laboratory (LDT), at Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). To carry out these measurements, several thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) were used to measure the expose. In this procedure, very few information of direction where the radiation came from is available. A vague supposition about the direction from where the radiation came from could be inferred only by evaluation of multiple dosimeters displaced at entire region of monitoring, but this demand to much effort or sometimes become impractical for certain situations. In this work, a single device is used to provide information about the direction from where the radiation came through. This device is called directional dosimeter (DD). Using more than one DD it is possible to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements and determine the radiation source position. The DD basically consists of a regular solid with high effective atomic number, where one TLD is positioned at each face. The DD allows evaluating the environmental exposure and the direction of the radiation by a simple vector sum. At each face of the DD, it is associated an orthogonal vector, and modulus of this vector represents the correspond exposure measured by the TLD. The direction of the radiation source is the sum of these faces vectors. The prototype used in this work was a lead cube with six TLDs of CaSO 4 :Dy/Teflon. The TLDs have high sensibility and are already used in area, environmental and personal monitoring. The measurements had shown the correct environmental exposure and a good indication of the radiation direction. (author)

  9. American National Standard: for safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard provides safety guidance for conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements where physical protection of personnel against the consequences of a criticality accident is not provided. The objectives of in-situ measurements are either to confirm an adequate safety margin or to improve an estimate of such a margin. The first objective may constitute a test of the criticality safety of a design that is based on calculations. The second may effect improved operating conditions by reducing the uncertainty of safety margins and providing guidance to new designs

  10. Study of the ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic phases of magnetite measured by multiple neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzocchi, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Structural parameters of the ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic phases of magnetite have been refined from neutron multiple diffraction data. Experimental multiple diffraction patterns used in the refinement, were obtained by measuring the 111 primary reflection of a natural single crystal of this compound, at room temperature for the ferrimagnetic phase and 703 0 C for the paramagnetic phase. Corresponding theoretical patterns for both phases have been calculated by the program MULTI which uses the iterative method for the intensity calculations in neutron multiple diffraction. In this method intensities are calculated as Taylor series expansions summed up to a order sufficient for a good approximation. A step by step process has been used in the refinements according to the parameter-shift method. Both isotropic and anisotropic thermal parameters were used in the calculation of the temperature factor. (author)

  11. NPL support for environmental radioactivity measurements in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to initiate a civil nuclear power programme in the 1950s, with the first commercial generation of electricity being achieved in 1957. As the civil nuclear programme grew in size, an ongoing programme of environmental monitoring was instituted by central government that placed the responsibility for monitoring radioactivity in the local environment and the measurement of discharges of radioactive gases and liquids with the site operator, the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (or their predecessors). This presentation will discuss the sources of radioactivity in the UK environment from the nuclear industry, natural and other sources, focussing on how these sources of radioactivity are monitored and what future trends may be, taking the Windscale fire of 1957, the Chernobyl accident and the Litvinenko incident of 2006 as examples of how unexpected events have been addressed in the UK. As the national metrology institute for the UK, the NPL is required to provide support to the National Measurement System infrastructure of the UK, including the measurement of radioactivity. The presentation will also describe the absolute standardisation of radioactivity at the NPL, and how this is disseminated to organisations measuring environmental radioactivity in the UK by means of directly traceable standards of radioactivity and through the provision of an ongoing series of proficiency test exercises. The outcomes of some recent proficiency tests will be discussed, with emphasis on how the general performance of laboratories participating in these proficiency tests has matured over the years since their inception in 1989. In addition, the data treatment of such proficiency tests will also be examined in order to illustrate that statutory regulatory bodies, laboratory accreditation organisations and customers are able to

  12. Measuring up : reporting our environmental activities to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This report outlined the environmental activities undertaken during 2005 by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA), the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) and the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP). The 3 organizations were established to examine and address the environmental impacts of oil sands development in the region. CEMA was formed to manage cumulative impacts of oil sands development, while RAMP was formed to assess the health of rivers and lakes. WBEA was formed to monitor and report regional air quality. In 2005, CEMA focused on research designed to understand the sources of harmful emissions as well as how the natural environment responded to increased development. Long-term environmental impacts on surface water quantity and quality were investigated. Other activities included the creation of an acid sensitive lakes network and lake atlas; an ongoing assessment of the effects of air emissions on people living in the region; a Muskeg River watershed integrity and water management and mitigation strategies; a study of nitrogen sinks in boreal ecosystems; and the development of a pit lake work plan to integrate pit lakes within reclaimed ecosystems. RAMP was established in 1997 to monitor the health of lakes and rivers in the Wood Buffalo region. Studies conducted by RAMP in 2005 included water and sediment analyses, as well as fish and benthic communities monitoring. During 2005, RAMP studies observed no differences in benthic invertebrate communities, no significant accumulations of chemicals and sediments, and no appreciable differences in water chemistry. Concentrations of metals and tainting compounds in fish from the region have remained consistent over time. No significant changes in the overall chemistry of 50 lakes sampled during 2005 were observed. Air, land, and human monitoring programs conducted during 2005 by the WBEA included a human exposure monitoring program which studied the indoor and outdoor air

  13. User requirements for the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System HEMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, I.K.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to define as much as possible, the functional requirements of the potential main users of the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System, HEMIS. The resulting report is to be used as a basis for a rapid decision on technical approaches to system development, planning of schedule and costs, and to guide the system development and implementation process

  14. [Embryo-fetal diseases in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; Alba, E; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    Embryo-fetal diseases are the consequence of prenatal (progenetic and metagenetic or environmental) and intranatal (of a traumatic, infective, toxic nature) pathological factors. In multiple pregnancies this complex etiopathogenesis also includes an altered didymous embriogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the pathologies affecting the fetus in multiple pregnancy, a special biological situation leading to the potential onset of severe fetal and neonatal damage. The authors studied 205 patients with multiple pregnancies, including 199 bigeminal, 5 trigeminal and 1 quadrigeminal, admitted to the Department B of the Obstetrics and Gynecological Clinic of Turin University between 1989-1999. Possible embyro-fetal damage was examined using a chronological criterion: namely following the development of the multiple fetuses from the zygotic to the neonatal phase. Pregnancies were biamniotic bichorionic in 54% of cases, biamniotic monochorionic in 45% and monochorionic monoamniotic in 1%. There were a total of 154 (79.38%) premature births out of 194 and neonatal birth weight was always SGA (small for gestational age). 66.84% of newborns were LBW (<2500 g) and 7.14% were VLBW (<1500 g). Fetal mortality (2.29%) was higher than early neonatal mortality (1.53%). Perinatal mortality (3.82%) was three times higher than in all neonates from the same period (1.03%). The severe embryo-fetal and neonatal damage found in multiple pregnancies is a clinical reality that calls for adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and above all specific medical and social prevention to limit maternal pathogenic risks.

  15. Measuring techniques for environmental sup 3 H, sup 14 C and sup 222 Rn by liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Shigeru; Saito, Masaaki (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    Measuring techniques for environmental {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C and {sup 222}Rn with a liquid scintillation counter have been studied. {sup 3}H in environmental water was enriched by electrolysis and measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. By this technique, {sup 3}H concentration of ground water, river water, sea water and rain water at Tokyo was founded to be 0.1 {approx} 2.5 Bq/1. {sup 14}C in taurine and ethyl-alcohol was measured directly liquid scintillation counter. By this {sup 14}C measuring, natural products, contain low level {sup 14}C, were distinguished from synthesised products contain no {sup 14}C. {sup 222}Rn in toluene extracted from environmental water or air was measured by scintillation pulse interval analysis method. By this technique, {sup 222}Rn was able to be measured under very low background counting rate, 0.03cpm, and high efficiency. (author).

  16. Cerebral atrophy as outcome measure in short-term phase 2 clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elskamp, I.J. van den; Boden, B.; Barkhof, F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dattola, V. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Knol, D.L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filippi, M. [Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Neuroimaging Research Unit, Milan (Italy); Kappos, L. [University Hospital, University of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Fazekas, F. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Neurology, Graz (Austria); Wagner, K. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Pohl, C. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Bonn, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Sandbrink, R. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Department of Neurology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Polman, C.H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uitdehaag, B.M.J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Cerebral atrophy is a compound measure of the neurodegenerative component of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a conceivable outcome measure for clinical trials monitoring the effect of neuroprotective agents. In this study, we evaluate the rate of cerebral atrophy in a 6-month period, investigate the predictive and explanatory value of other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in relation to cerebral atrophy, and determine sample sizes for future short-term clinical trials using cerebral atrophy as primary outcome measure. One hundred thirty-five relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients underwent six monthly MRI scans from which the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and the number and volume of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions, T2 lesions, and persistent black holes (PBH) were determined. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship between focal MRI variables and PBVC was assessed. Sample size calculations were performed for all patients and subgroups selected for enhancement or a high T2 lesion load at baseline. A significant atrophy occurred over 6 months (PBVC = -0.33%, SE = 0.061, p < 0.0001). The number of baseline T2 lesions (p = 0.024), the on-study Gd-enhancing lesion volume (p = 0.044), and the number of on-study PBHs (p = 0.003) were associated with an increased rate of atrophy. For a 50% decrease in rate of atrophy, the sample size calculations showed that approximately 283 patients per arm are required in an unselected sampled population and 185 patients per arm are required in a selected population. Within a 6-month period, significant atrophy can be detected and on-study associations of PBVC and PBHs emphasizes axonal loss to be a driving mechanism. Application as primary outcome measure in short-term clinical trials with feasible sample size requires a potent drug to obtain sufficient power. (orig.)

  17. Measuring the Environmental Burden of Disease in South Korea: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study attempted to measure the environmental burden of disease by examining mortality and disability rates in South Korea, permitting international comparisons. Methods: Disability-adjusted life years (DALY was used to analyze data from public records. Years of life lost (YLL and years lost to disability (YLD were measured in terms of incidence rate and number of deaths. Attributable risks were based on those for WHO Western Pacific Regions. For air pollution, attributable risk was calculated using local PM10 levels and relative risk. Results: The total Korean environmental burden of disease was 17.98 per 1000 persons and the most serious risk factor was air pollution, at 6.89per1000 persons. Occupation was the second highest contributing factor, at 3.29 per 1000 persons, followed by indoor air pollution at 2.91 per 1000 persons. The DALY of air-pollution (indoor and outdoor was 9.80 per 1000 persons, accounting for more than half of the total environmental burden of disease. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and asthma were 4.07, 3.16, and 1.96 per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: Respiratory illnesses comprised most of the disease burden, the majority of which was linked to air pollution. The present results are important as they could be used to make evidence-based decisions regarding the management of diseases and environmental-risk factors.

  18. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  19. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Environmental Orientations in a Diverse Group of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lincoln R.; Green, Gary T.; Castleberry, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of children's environmental orientations is of critical importance as opportunities for authentic contact with nature diminish. Current instruments for measuring children's environmental attitudes are complex, and few have been tested across diverse audiences. This study employed a mixed-methods approach that included pilot tests,…

  1. Using performance measures to evaluate programmatic outputs and outcomes in the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, G.; Resch, R.; Shangraw, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last year, a revolution has occurred in the use of performance measures in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The performance measures range from traditional cost and schedule performance criteria to strategic measures of program outcomes. Each area of performance measurement has resulted (or is resulting) in a different approach for evaluating performance using a different set of performance criteria. Although some data elements cross cut the groups, each of the approaches focuses on different data collection process. The Office of Environmental Restoration is attempting to link these groups together through a unified system of performance measurement. This paper will define and discuss each type of performance measurement and its supporting systems or approaches

  2. Measurement of environmental gamma radiation by means of a large volume ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Daniel; Caput, Claude.

    1980-02-01

    A device for the measurement of the intensity of environmental gamma radiation has been realized and set up inside a vehicle especially fitted to that purpose. Because of its characteristics of sensitivity and time of response light and very local anomalies due for instance to foreign materials or punctual geological bassets can be detected and maps of dose rates at a regional scale can be drawn up. Such maps drawn before and after the operation of nuclear plants make it possible to assess their impact on environmental radiation levels [fr

  3. Differential Diagnosis Tool for Parkinsonian Syndrome Using Multiple Structural Brain Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P and cerebellar subtype (MSA-C from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. To identify the correlative pattern of brain changes for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes, we applied discriminant analysis techniques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. T1-weighted volume data and diffusion tensor images were obtained by MRI in eighteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 21 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 21 healthy controls. They were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. Discriminant functions derived by step wise methods resulted in correct classification rates of 0.89. When differentiating these diseases with the use of three independent variables together, the correct classification rate was the same as that obtained with step wise methods. These findings support the view that each parkinsonian syndrome has structural deviations in multiple brain areas and that a combination of structural brain measures can help to distinguish parkinsonian syndromes.

  4. Multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Crawford, H.J.; Flores, I.

    1987-04-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon /sup 40/Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon /sup 139/La and /sup 139/La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with sigmaapprox. =100 ..mu..m.

  5. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Gaseous Multiplication factor measurements on low pressure ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Vives, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation consists of a study of a Proportional Counter considered as a fundamental part of an Absolute Neutron Dosimeter developed for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The proportional counter consists of a Polyethylene Cathode of approximately 5 cm in diameter and an Anode consisting of a central wire of 5 μm in diameter. The proportional counter is biased at 650 V. The gas pressure ranges from 12 to 36 Torr of pure Ethylene. The work comes up as a need to obtain gas gain curves (Gas Multiplication Factors) for the proportional counter operated in the conditions as mentioned. This is a consequence of the scarcity of the existing information referred to Ethylene for the range of bias and gas pressure required in this case. Likewise, the research involved in this study contributed with useful information for the institution involved in the design and construction of the neutron dosimeter, as well as for the scientific community through the publication of this work. The results were obtained by using the above-mentioned Neutron Dosimeter but instead of using recoil protons by fast neutrons, the measurements were completed by directly using a 241 Am alpha particle source installed inside the dosimeter. The analysis of results as well as a detailed study of the pulse shapes provided by the proportional counter was performed by using the well-known MathCAD software. This software contains a text interface that includes symbolic and numeric calculations. Results of the research show that for the high Reduced Electric Fields ( Sa > 1500 Volts/cmTorr) used throughout the present work, Townsend law is still valid. This law states that the Multiplication Factors may be considered as dependent on the Reduced Electric Field instead of depending on the bias and gas pressure separately

  7. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinori; Noritake, Kazumitsu; Kawasaki, Takanori; Nemoto, Asako

    2009-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2008 concerning the activities of FY 2007 in August, 2008 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2007 as the base of the Environmental Report 2008. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. The environmental objectives in FY 2007 were to reduce the amounts of electric power consumption, fossil fuel usage, carbon dioxide emissions, and water usage by more than one percent in comparison with those in the previous fiscal year. The detailed environmental performance data in this report has shown that the numerical targets of the environmental objectives in FY 2007 were achieved. (author)

  8. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development

  9. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Results of environmental radio hygienic measurements in Hungary in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edit Bokori; Andor Kerekes; Judit Guczi; Capote-Cuellar Antonio; Ibolya Maschek; Gyula Szabo; Agota Ugron

    2004-01-01

    The laboratories of the Radiological Monitoring and Data Acquisition Network act within the organizational frame of the National Public Health and Medical Officers Service (NPHMOS). The tasks of the network are defined by the duties of Ministry of Health, Social and Family Affairs in the field of environmental radiation protection and radiation hygiene under normal situation and radiological emergency, as well. The monitoring program includes the measurements of samples and radionuclides necessary for estimation of the radiation burden of population. On the basis of measurements and dose assessment it can be stated that the effective dose of the Hungarian population from man-made sources (3.6 μSv x y -1 ) is almost three orders of magnitude lower than the dose from natural radiation sources. (author)

  11. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC, and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC and mean value (MV of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day. Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p = 0.007, and 0.70, p = 0.017 than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p = 0.200, indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a

  13. Charged-particle multiplicities in $pp$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, P.F.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Athar, B.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger, G.A.N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanch, O.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehler, M.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Bonino, R.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.S.L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B.H.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Braccini, S.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Bravo, S.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bujor, F.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Castrovillari, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Charron, S.; Chatterjii, S.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christiansen, T.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Cicalini, E.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coco, R.; Coe, P.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Cunha, A.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Dalmau, J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, D.W.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diaz Gomez, M.M.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dipanjan, R.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; 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Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincent, P.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Vollmer, C.F.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, K.C.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuaridel, B.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Waananen, A.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Walsh, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, M.W.; Wang, S.M.; Wappler, F.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wellisch, H.P.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yarradoddi, K.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The first measurements from proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Data were collected in December 2009 using a minimum-bias trigger during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the relationship between mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta|500 MeV. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo models of proton-proton collisions and to results from other experiments at the same centre-of-mass energy. The charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity at eta = 0 is measured to be 1.333 +/- 0.003 (stat.) +/- 0.040 (syst.), which is 5-15% higher than the Monte Carlo models predict.

  14. Measurement of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and their $H_q$ moments in hadronic Z decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2003-01-01

    The charged-particle multiplicity distribution and the inclusive momentum distribution, in terms of the variable $\\xi$, are measured for all hadronic events as well as for light-quark and b-quark events in $\\mathrm{e}^{+}\\mathrm{e}^{-}$ collisions at the Z pole. Moments of the charged-particle multiplicity distributions are calculated, and the peak positions of the $\\xi$ distributions determined. The multiplicity distributions are studied in terms of their $H_q$ moments. Their quasi-oscillations when plotted versus the rank of the moment are compared with different theoretical approaches.

  15. Manual for the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Detector (ENMC) for Measurement of Impure MOX and Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Kroncke, K. E.; DeAguero, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a high-efficiency neutron detector for passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting of dirty scrap and bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for the measurement of impure plutonium samples at the JNC MOX fabrication facility in Japan. The counter can also be used to create working standards from bulk process MOX. The detector uses advanced design "3He tubes to increase the efficiency and to shorten the neutron die-away time. The efficiency is 64% and the die-away time is 19.1 ?s. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) is designed for high-precision measurements of bulk plutonium samples with diameters of less than 200 mm. The average neutron energy from the sample can be measured using the ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes to the outer ring. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the ENMC.

  16. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A; Acuna, Brigid; Shen, Ling; Briggs, Farren B S; Quach, Hong; Bellesis, Kalliope H; Bernstein, Allan; Hedstrom, Anna K; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied. In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at ages 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (pchildhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the distance between multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburne, Benjamin P; Whelan, Simon

    2012-02-15

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a core method in bioinformatics. The accuracy of such alignments may influence the success of downstream analyses such as phylogenetic inference, protein structure prediction, and functional prediction. The importance of MSA has lead to the proliferation of MSA methods, with different objective functions and heuristics to search for the optimal MSA. Different methods of inferring MSAs produce different results in all but the most trivial cases. By measuring the differences between inferred alignments, we may be able to develop an understanding of how these differences (i) relate to the objective functions and heuristics used in MSA methods, and (ii) affect downstream analyses. We introduce four metrics to compare MSAs, which include the position in a sequence where a gap occurs or the location on a phylogenetic tree where an insertion or deletion (indel) event occurs. We use both real and synthetic data to explore the information given by these metrics and demonstrate how the different metrics in combination can yield more information about MSA methods and the differences between them. MetAl is a free software implementation of these metrics in Haskell. Source and binaries for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X are available from http://kumiho.smith.man.ac.uk/whelan/software/metal/.

  18. Measurement of use value and non-use value of environmental quality consistent with general equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...

  19. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1981-March 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two reports on radionuclide data quality assurance are presented in the initial section: one dealing with fallout and biological samples and the other with filtered air samples. These are followed by a report on stratospheric tritium injection by the October 1980 Chinese test. The second section presents recent data from EML progams strontium-90 fallout, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, strontium-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk, and tap water, and cesium-137 in tap water. The third section presents data from Argonne National Laboratory on cesium-137 in Chicago food and from Los Alamos National Laboratory on tritium in the stratosphere. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is presented. Each section has been abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB

  20. Exclusive measurements of mean pion multiplicities in 4He-nucleus reactions from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.; Babinet, R.; Fodor, Z.; Girard, J.; Gosset, J.; Laspalles, C.; Lemaire, M.C.; Lucas, B.; Poitou, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Terrien, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Mean multiplicities of π + and π - in 4 He collisions with C, Cu, and Pb at 200, 600, and 800 MeV/u, and with C and Pb at 400 MeV/u have been measured using the large solid angle detector Diogene. The dependence of pion multiplicity of projectile incident energy, target mass and proton multiplicity is studied in comparison with intra-nuclear cascade predictions. The discrepancy between experimental results and theory is pointed out and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on last-year major depression in adulthood: a highly heritable stable liability but strong environmental effects on 1-year prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Gardner, C O

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves. The best-fit model was simple and included genetic and unique environmental influences on the latent liability to MD and unique wave-specific environmental effects. The path from latent liability to MD in the last year was constant over time, moderate in magnitude (+0.65) and weaker than the impact of occasion-specific environmental effects (+0.76). Heritability of the latent stable liability to MD was much higher (78%) than that estimated for last-year MD (32%). Of the total unique environmental influences on MD, 13% reflected enduring consequences of earlier environmental insults, 17% diagnostic error and 70% wave-specific short-lived environmental stressors. Both genetic influences on MD and MD heritability are stable over middle adulthood. However, the largest influence on last-year MD is short-lived environmental effects. As predicted by genetic theory, the heritability of MD is increased substantially by measurement at multiple time points largely through the reduction of the effects of measurement error and short-term environmental risk factors.

  3. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  4. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  5. Photon multiplicity measurements: From SPS to RHIC and LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    charged particle multiplicity, mean transverse momentum pT and transverse energy (ET)) ... by-event fluctuation in photon multiplicity and search for domains of ..... The root mean square (rms) deviations of theSZ distributions for data, mixed.

  6. Social Environmental Accounting and Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerter O, Gabriela Gutierrez; Moon, Jeremy; Gold, Stefan

    Based on an embedded multiple case study of a UK-based MNC, FINEST, informed by 24 semi-structured interviews, this paper investigates the antecedents and outcome of subsidiaries’ absorptive capacity (ACAP) in the context of the intra-MNC transfer of social and environmental accounting and report......Based on an embedded multiple case study of a UK-based MNC, FINEST, informed by 24 semi-structured interviews, this paper investigates the antecedents and outcome of subsidiaries’ absorptive capacity (ACAP) in the context of the intra-MNC transfer of social and environmental accounting...

  7. SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stevens

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT’s goals, which include: (1 The ability to adapt and evolve; (2 Underwater wireless communications; (3 Short-range wireless power transmission; (4 Plug and play components; (5 Minimal deployment expertise; (6 Near real-time analysis tools; and (7 Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments.

  8. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  9. A Method of Calculating Functional Independence Measure at Discharge from Functional Independence Measure Effectiveness Predicted by Multiple Regression Analysis Has a High Degree of Predictive Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is often used to predict the outcome of stroke rehabilitation. However, the predictive accuracy may not be satisfactory. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive accuracy of a method of calculating motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 505 patients with stroke who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation hospital. The formula "mFIM at discharge = mFIM effectiveness × (91 points - mFIM at admission) + mFIM at admission" was used. By including the predicted mFIM effectiveness obtained through multiple regression analysis in this formula, we obtained the predicted mFIM at discharge (A). We also used multiple regression analysis to directly predict mFIM at discharge (B). The correlation between the predicted and the measured values of mFIM at discharge was compared between A and B. The correlation coefficients were .916 for A and .878 for B. Calculating mFIM at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis had a higher degree of predictive accuracy of mFIM at discharge than that directly predicted. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Alternative Multiplication Algorithms to "Offload" Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazby, Dan; Pearn, Cath

    2015-01-01

    When viewed through a lens of embedded cognition, algorithms may enable aspects of the cognitive work of multi-digit multiplication to be "offloaded" to the environmental structure created by an algorithm. This study analyses four multiplication algorithms by viewing different algorithms as enabling cognitive work to be distributed…

  11. Environmental issues and work: women with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G; Doiron, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is an acquired condition in which exposure to low levels of chemicals causes symptoms in multiple organ systems. Some 12%-16% of the U.S. population has some level of chemical sensitivity, 80% of whom are women. Attempts to reduce chemical exposures leads to enormous life difficulties at home, school, and workplace. We base our article on an ethnographic study of MCS in the United States and Canada. We describe here themes related to work issues in terms of a general trajectory of becoming sick from work exposures, coping with toxic physical environments and dealing with coworkers and, when unable to continue working, applying for workers' compensation, or disability status, or both.

  12. Main types of environmental pollution the contributory causes, the effects on environment and the suggested remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the main types of environmental pollution, the contributory causes, the effects on environment and suggested remedial measures have been described. The fundamental types of environmental pollution are land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Many artificial and natural factors contribute towards land pollution. Several remedial measures have suggested in this article, some of them are provision of clean water by municipal agencies, toxic wastes or nuclear wastes should not disposed off in the sea. (A.B.)

  13. Neutron multiplicity measurements with 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Wolff, Ronald [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Detwiler, Ryan [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Maurer, Richard [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Mitchell, Stephen [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Guss, Paul [Remote Sensing Lab. - Nellis, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey L. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sun, Liang [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Athanasiades, Athanasios [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and

  14. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...

  15. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part II. Decision making with RBF networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper is the second of two papers concerned with structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors, and discusses the decision making technique with radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. In PART 1 of the paper, the correlation criteria showed their capability to indicate various changes to the structure's state. PART 2, presented here, develops the methodology of decision theory to identify precisely all of the structure states. Although, the statistical approach can be used for classification, interpreting the information is difficult. Neural network techniques have been proven to possess many advantages for classification due to their learning ability and good generalization. In this paper, the radial basis function neural network is applied for function approximation and recognition. The key idea is to partition the input space (the indicators of the correlation criteria) into a number of subspaces that are in the form of hyper spheres. Then, the widely used k-mean clustering algorithm was selected as a logical approach to detecting the structure states. A bookshelf structure with measured frequency responses from 24 accelerometers was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The results show the successful classification of all structure states, for instance, the undamaged and damage states, damage locations and damage levels, and the environmental variability. (orig.)

  16. Optimisation of the measurement protocols of 129I and 129I/127I. Methodology establishment for the measurement in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frechou, C.

    2000-01-01

    129 I, is a natural long-lived isotope, with a half-life of 15,7 million years, also artificially produced in nuclear power plant. It is then released in the liquid and gaseous effluents of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. 129 I is integrated in all biological compartments at different activity levels, depending on their distance from the emission source and their ability to metabolize iodine. Performances of the different 129 I and 129 I/ 127 I measurement techniques available: Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, direct γ-X spectrometry and liquid scintillation were evaluated. Associated radiochemical preparation steps of the two first techniques were optimized and adapted to the characteristics of the major environmental matrices. In a first step, the radiochemical protocols were developed and validated. In a second step, intercomparison exercises have been lead on various environmental samples presenting different 129 I activity levels. They showed the good agreement between the results given by the three techniques on different environmental matrices with activities between 0,2 and 200 Bq.kg -1 dry weight. As a conclusion, a methodology for the measurement of 129 I and 129 I/ 127 I ratio in environmental samples is proposed. It includes a decisional diagram taking into account the characteristics of the matrices, the detection limits and the answer delay. A study on the losses of 129 I during the calcination of an algae was lead by direct γ-X spectrometry and application studies were made to measure 129 I levels in different biological compartments issued from various locations: 129 I activity interspecific variation in different species of seaweeds from the French channel coast under the relative influence of La Hague, 129 I levels in bovine thyroids from the Cotentin area and 129 I in vegetal samples collected around the nuclear reprocessing plant of Marcoule. (author)

  17. Why SMEs invest in Environmental Measures: Sustainability Evidence from Small and Medium-sized Printing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.

    2007-01-01

    Why do SMEs invest in environmental measures? From the literature we know that most SMEs are rather slow in adopting these sustainable measures, but then the following question arises: why are other SMEs fast in this respect? From our research, it becomes clear that improving the working conditions

  18. Radon and radon daughter measurements and methods utilized by EPA's Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), Office of Radiation Programs, has the responsibility for conducting the Environmental Protection Agency's study of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry. Numerous measurements in structures constructed on land reclaimed from phosphate mining showed that working levels in these structures range from 0.001 to 0.9 WL. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a 0.8 micrometer pore size, 25 mm diameter filter at a flow rate of 10 to 15 liters/minute for from 5 to 20 minutes, depending on the daughter levels anticipated. The detection system consists of a ruggedized silicon surface barrier detector (450 mm 2 -100 micrometer depletion) connected through an appropriate pre-amplifier-amplifier to a 1024-channel multichannel analyzer. Other measurement methods are also discussed

  19. On the Performance of the Measure for Diagnosing Multiple High Leverage Collinearity-Reducing Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence indicating that the existing measures which are designed to detect a single high leverage collinearity-reducing observation are not effective in the presence of multiple high leverage collinearity-reducing observations. In this paper, we propose a cutoff point for a newly developed high leverage collinearity-influential measure and two existing measures ( and to identify high leverage collinearity-reducing observations, the high leverage points which hide multicollinearity in a data set. It is important to detect these observations as they are responsible for the misleading inferences about the fitting of the regression model. The merit of our proposed measure and cutoff point in detecting high leverage collinearity-reducing observations is investigated by using engineering data and Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV statistical analysis of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Vries, de W.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimates for various environmental stress factors were related with measured crown condition data at a systematic 16 x: 16 km(2) grid over Europe, according to previously stated hypotheses, using a multiple regression approach, including interactions, and lagged effects of stress

  1. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Brandon E.; Naeher, Luke P.; Alabanza-Akers, Mary Anne; Akers, Timothy A.; Hall, Daniel B.; Ryan, P. Barry; Bayer, Charlene W.

    2007-01-01

    In Baguio City, Philippines, a mountainous city of 252,386 people where 61% of motor vehicles use diesel fuel, ambient particulate matter 2.5 ) and 10 ) in aerodynamic diameter and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at 30 street-level locations for 15 min apiece during the early morning (4:50-6:30 am), morning rush hour (6:30-9:10 am) and afternoon rush hour (3:40-5:40 pm) in December 2004. Environmental observations (e.g. traffic-related variables, building/roadway designs, wind speed and direction, etc.) at each location were noted during each monitoring event. Multiple regression models were formulated to determine which pollution sources and environmental factors significantly affect ground-level PM 2.5 , PM 10 and CO concentrations. The models showed statistically significant relationships between traffic and early morning particulate air pollution [(PM 2.5 p = 0.021) and PM 10 (p = 0.048)], traffic and morning rush hour CO (p = 0.048), traffic and afternoon rush hour CO (p = 0.034) and wind and early morning CO (p 0.044). The mean early morning, street-level PM 2.5 (110 ± 8 μg/m 3 ; mean ± 1 standard error) was not significantly different (p-value > 0.05) from either rush hour PM 2.5 concentration (morning = 98 ± 7 μg/m 3 ; afternoon = 107 ± 5 μg/m 3 ) due to nocturnal inversions in spite of a 100% increase in automotive density during rush hours. Early morning street-level CO (3.0 ± 1.7 ppm) differed from morning rush hour (4.1 ± 2.3 ppm) (p 0.039) and afternoon rush hour (4.5 ±2.2 ppm) (p = 0.007). Additionally, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and select volatile organic compounds were continuously measured at a downtown, third-story monitoring station along a busy roadway for 11 days. Twenty-four-hour average ambient concentrations were: PM 2.5 = 72.9 ± 21 μg/m 3 ; CO = 2.61 ± 0.6 ppm; NO 2 = 27.7 ± 1.6 ppb; benzene = 8.4 ± 1.4 μg/m 3 ; ethylbenzene = 4.6 ± 2.0 μg/m 3 ; p-xylene = 4.4 ± 1.9 μg/m 3 ; m-xylene = 10.2 ± 4

  2. Subcritical multiplication measurements with a BeO reflected 233U uranyl nitrate solution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Srinivasan, M.; Nargundkar, V.R.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Das, S.; Mayankutty, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of subcritical multiplication measurements were carried out in PURNIMA with 233 U uranyl nitrate solution contained in all 11 x 11 cm 2 square sectional tank and reflected by 30 cm thickness of BeO on all sides. The objective of these experiments was to determine the 'Minimum critical mass' of the system in rectangular parellelopiped geometry. The rectangular aluminium core tank was attached to the bottom of an alpha tight glove box. BeO reflector was arranged below the glove box outside the core tank. The system multiplication was measured as a function of solution concentration and core volume by means of neutron detectors placed outside the assembly. The extrapolated critical mass was obtained through conventional inverse counts plot. The maximum amount of 233 U used was 120 gms. The rectangular geometry was estimated to be 235 +- 10 gms, in the concentration range of 80 to 120 gms/litre of 233 U. The experimental set up, procedure adopted, method of analysis and the details of the results are described. (author)

  3. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union's largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan's independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an open-quotes atomic lakeclose quotes and a 1 km 2 area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of 137 Cs as well as the activation products 152 Eu and 60 Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h -1

  4. Measurement of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and the alpha value for {sup 235}U resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor` ev, Yu V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Georgiev, G P; Stanchik, Kh [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    Gamma spectra from 1 to 12 multiplicity were measured on th 500 m flight path of the IBR-30 reactor using a 16-section 32 L NaI(Tl) crystal scintillation detector able to hold 2 metallic samples of 90% {sup 235}U and 10% {sup 238}U 0.00137 atoms/b and 0.00411 atoms/b thick. Multiplicity spectra were obtained for resolved resonances in the E = 1-150 eV energy region. They were used to determine the value of {alpha} = {sigma}{sub {gamma}}/{sigma}{sub f} for 165 resonances of {sup 235}U. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  6. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  7. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  8. Environmental photobioreactor array (EPBRA) systems and apparatus related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David; Zegarac, Robert; Lucker, Ben F.; Hall, Christopher; Abernathy, Casey; Carpenter, Joel; Cruz, Jeffrey

    2017-11-14

    A system is described herein that comprises one or more modular environmental photobioreactor arrays, each array containing two or more photobioreactors, wherein the system is adapted to monitor each of the photobioreactors and/or modulate the conditions with each of the photobioreactors. The photobioreactors are also adapted for measurement of multiple physiological parameters of a biomass contained therein. Various methods for selecting and characterizing biomass are also provided. In one embodiment, the biomass is algae.

  9. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP). An ICF-based outcome measure for Disability and Disability Perception in MS. A manual.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynia, K.; Middel, B.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this manual is to support working with the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP), a self-report measure for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) to assess disability and disability perception in research and clinical practice. On individual level the MSIP reflects a persons disease

  11. 2013 BNL Site Environmental Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.; Remien, J.; Pohlot, P.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, P.; Dorsch, W.; Welty, T.; Burke, J.

    2014-10-01

    A summary of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL) Site Environmental Report, meant to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance in the lab’s surrounding area during the calendar year. The review is comprised of multiple volumes relevant to environmental data/environmental management performance and groundwater status report.

  12. Testing a new multigroup inference approach to reconstructing past environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RIERADEVALL

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new, quantitative, inference model for environmental reconstruction (transfer function, based for the first time on the simultaneous analysis of multigroup species, has been developed. Quantitative reconstructions based on palaeoecological transfer functions provide a powerful tool for addressing questions of environmental change in a wide range of environments, from oceans to mountain lakes, and over a range of timescales, from decades to millions of years. Much progress has been made in the development of inferences based on multiple proxies but usually these have been considered separately, and the different numeric reconstructions compared and reconciled post-hoc. This paper presents a new method to combine information from multiple biological groups at the reconstruction stage. The aim of the multigroup work was to test the potential of the new approach to making improved inferences of past environmental change by improving upon current reconstruction methodologies. The taxonomic groups analysed include diatoms, chironomids and chrysophyte cysts. We test the new methodology using two cold-environment training-sets, namely mountain lakes from the Pyrenees and the Alps. The use of multiple groups, as opposed to single groupings, was only found to increase the reconstruction skill slightly, as measured by the root mean square error of prediction (leave-one-out cross-validation, in the case of alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and altitude (a surrogate for air-temperature, but not for pH or dissolved CO2. Reasons why the improvement was less than might have been anticipated are discussed. These can include the different life-forms, environmental responses and reaction times of the groups under study.

  13. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative measures of strength and walking are associated with brain corticospinal tract pathology. The addition of these quantitative measures to basic clinical information explains more of the variance in corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio than the basic clinical information alone. Outcome measurement for multiple sclerosis clinical trials has been notoriously challenging; the use of quantitative measures of strength and walking along with tract-specific imaging methods may improve our ability to monitor disease change over time, with intervention, and provide needed guidelines for developing more effective targeted rehabilitation strategies.

  14. Multiple telecouplings and their complex interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the world is becoming socioeconomically and environmentally connected, but many studies have focused on human-environment interactions within a particular area. Although some studies have considered the impacts of external factors, there is little research on multiple reciprocal socioeconomic and environmental interactions between a focal area and other areas. Here we address this important knowledge gap by applying the new integrated framework of telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions between two or more areas over distances. Results show that even a protected area - i.e., the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas in southwest China - has multiple telecoupling processes with the rest of the world; these include panda loans, tourism, information dissemination, conservation subsidies, and trade of agricultural and industrial products. The telecoupling processes exhibit nonlinear patterns, they change over time, and they have varying socioeconomic and environmental effects across the world. We also find complex relationships among different telecouplings - e.g., amplification, offsetting, spatial overlaps - which cannot be detected by traditional separate studies. Such an integrated study leads to a more comprehensive understanding of distant human-environment interactions and has significant implications for global sustainability and human well-being.

  15. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  16. Vitamin-D Deficiency As a Potential Environmental Risk Factor in Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Gaughran, Fiona; Krivoy, Amir; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, we want to summarize the current findings on the role of vitamin-D in multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, and autism. Many studies have highlighted hypovitaminosis-D as a potential environmental risk factor for a variety of conditions such as MS, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and, more recently, psychiatric diseases. However, whether hypovitaminosis-D is a potential causative factor for the development or activity in these conditions or whether hypovitaminosis-D may be due to increased vitamin-D consumption by an activated immune system (reverse causation) is the focus of intense research. Here, we will discuss current evidence exploring the role of vitamin-D in MS, schizophrenia, and autism and its impact on adaptive and innate immunity, antimicrobial defense, the microbiome, neuroinflammation, behavior, and neurogenesis. More work is needed to gain insight into its role in the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions as it may offer attractive means of intervention and prevention.

  17. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  18. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  19. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST commonly emphasize the built environment (BE as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school, and trip-end (home or school. Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP], the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future

  20. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  1. A New Neutron Multiplicity Counter for the Measurement of Impure Plutonium Metal at Westinghouse Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.B.; Faison, D.M.; Langner, D.G.; Sweet, M.R.; Salazar, S.D.; Kroncke, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    A new neutron multiplicity counter has been designed, fabricated, characterized, and installed for use in the assay of impure plutonium metal buttons from the FB-Line at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS). This instrument incorporates the performance characteristics of the Pyrochemical or In-plant Multiplicity Counter with the package size of the Plutonium Scrap Multiplicity Counter. In addition, state-of-the art features such as the de-randomizer circuit and separate ring outputs have been added. The counter consists of 113, 71 cm active length 3He tubes in a polyethylene moderator. Its efficiency for 252Cf is 57.8 percent, the highest of any multiplicity counter to date. Its die-away time is 50.4 ms and its deadtime is 50 ns. In this paper we will present the characterization data for the counter and the results of preliminary metal measurements at WSRS. We will also discuss the new challenges the impure metal buttons from FB-Line are presenting to the multiplicity counting technique

  2. Does environmental confounding mask pleiotropic effects of a multiple sclerosis susceptibility variant on vitamin D in psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyegbe, Conrad O; Acharya, Anita; Lally, John; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Smith, Louise S; Smith, Shubulade; Murray, Robin; Howes, Oliver; Gaughran, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the existing and emerging evidence of overlap within the environmental and genetic profiles of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia. To investigate whether a genetic risk factor for MS (rs703842), whose variation is indicative of vitamin D status in the disorder, could also be a determinant of vitamin D status in chronic psychosis patients. A cohort of 224 chronic psychosis cases was phenotyped and biologically profiled. The relationship between rs703842 and physiological vitamin D status in the blood plasma was assessed by logistic regression. Deficiency was defined as a blood plasma concentration below 10 ng/µl. Potential environmental confounders of the vitamin D status were considered as part of the analysis. We report suggestive evidence of an association with vitamin D status in established psychosis (ß standardized=0.51, P=0.04). The logistic model fit significantly benefited from controlling for body mass index, depression and ethnicity (χ (2)=91.7; 2 degrees of freedom (df); P=1.2×10(20)). The results suggest that, in addition to lifestyle changes that accompany the onset of illness, vitamin D dysregulation in psychosis has a genetic component that links into MS. Further, comprehensive studies are needed to evaluate this prospect.

  3. UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the

  4. Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971 concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.

  5. A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Sann, H.; Young, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon 139 La and 139 La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with σ≅100 μm. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode and Imaging Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Sumi, T.; Gotoh, S.; Saze, T.; Nishizawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode (PD) and Imaging Plate (IP) was tired. Commercially available Si PIN type PD's generally have depletion layer thickness more than a few hundred micrometer, which is enough for alpha particle measurement. PD's have various features: being usable in normal temperature, high energy resolution and low cost. Radon daughter nuclides positively charged in atmosphere were collected on the PD surface with negative electric potential and measured the pulse height spectra of alpha-particles from the daughter nuclides of Radon in thorium oxide, uranium ore, granite, and concrete. Counting of alpha-particles with IP was tired. Lead plates usually contain Pb-210 (RaD) and emit alpha-particles from Po-210. The alpha-particles from the plate were counted with PD and the plate was exposed to IP. By adjusting the gradation level on the reading out of the latent image, it was possible to count alpha-particle incident image one by one, and the number per 1 cm 2 was compared with the number of count with PD. (author)

  7. Environmental awareness and traffic behaviour. Empirical analyses on the choice of means of transport and the acceptance of environment-policy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the public and scientific discussion about options concerning solutions to the environmental problem, the role played by environmental awareness is often an area of interest. Two essential questions are posed: - What influence do environment-related attitudes have on the everyday, environmentally relevant actions of individuals? - What influence does environmental awareness have on voting behaviour and on the acceptance of environment policy measures? In this book, both questions are empirically examined in detail using, as examples, the choice of means of transport and the acceptance of measures to control traffic [de

  8. A set-up for measuring neutron cross sections and radiation multiplicity from neutron-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.P.; Ermakov, V.A.; Grigor'ev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    A multiplicity detector of the ''Romashka'' type has been used on the 500 m flight part of the IBR-30 pulsed reactor. The detector consists of 16 independent sections with NaJ(Tl) crystals with a total volume of 36 liters. The geometric efficiency of single-ray detection is ∼ 80%. The gamma-ray to neutron detection efficiency ratio is ≥600 for neutrons with energies below 200 keV. This detector allows one to perform neutron capture and fission cross section measurements and to study gamma-ray multiplicity and resonance selfabsorption effects in the 20 eV-200keV neutron energy range

  9. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  10. Environmental risk concern and preferences for energy-saving measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, W; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    It is often assumed that higher environmental concern goes with more positive attitudes toward environmental management strategies and more environmentally friendly behavior. Cultural theory argues this relationship is more complex. Cultural theory distinguishes four ways of life, involving distinct

  11. Study of the multiple exchange frequencies in bcc 3He by thermodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, M.; Suaudeau, E.; Roger, M.

    1987-08-01

    To study the multiple exchange hamiltonian of solid 3 He we measured the contribution of the spin exchange to the pressure of bcc solid in various magnetic fields (O≤ H≤ 7.5T). Due to the nature of the atomic exchange of a fermion system this contribution is a strong function of the spin polarization. The characteristic frequencies of the exchange hamiltonian are obtained by fitting the pressure measurements with the results of a statistical calculation using a high temperature series expansion of the hamiltonian in a temperature range where both the magnetic effect is significant and the expansion converges (7mK < T < 30mK). We discuss the results obtained for two molar volumes

  12. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index - Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  13. What Factors Influence States' Capacity to Report Children's Health Care Quality Measures? A Multiple-Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anna L; Petersen, Dana M; Burton, Rachel A; Forsberg, Vanessa C; Devers, Kelly J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe factors that influence the ability of state Medicaid agencies to report the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) core set of children's health care quality measures (Child Core Set). Methods We conducted a multiple-case study of four high-performing states participating in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) Quality Demonstration Grant Program: Illinois, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Oregon. Cases were purposively selected for their diverse measurement approaches and used data from 2010 to 2015, including 154 interviews, semiannual grant progress reports, and annual public reports on Child Core Set measures. We followed Yin's multiple-case study methodology to describe how and why each state increased the number of measures reported to CMS. Results All four states increased the number of Child Core Set measures reported to CMS during the grant period. Each took a different approach to reporting, depending on the available technical, organizational, and behavioral inputs in the state. Reporting capacity was influenced by a state's Medicaid data availability, ability to link to other state data systems, past experience with quality measurement, staff time and technical expertise, and demand for the measures. These factors were enhanced by CHIPRA Quality Demonstration grant funding and other federal capacity building activities, as hypothesized in our conceptual framework. These and other states have made progress reporting the Child Core Set since 2010. Conclusion With financial support and investment in state data systems and organizational factors, states can overcome challenges to reporting most of the Child Core Set measures.

  14. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  15. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  16. Time efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.

    2003-01-01

    Now the electrolysis enrichment is necessary for tritium measurement of the environmental water in Japan. Generally, the electrolysis needs distilling the sample water before and after the electrolysis. To save the time to measure, it was investigated that a possibility of the omission of the distillation after the electrolysis and of the substitution the filtration for the distillation before the electrolysis. The electrolysis was carried out with a device using solid polymer electrolyte layer, which was recently developed in Japan. Initially, impurities eluted from the device were measured by enrichment of ultra pure water. Although some impurities eluted from the layer, the concentrations were so low that the enriched water brought ineffectual quenching for the liquid scintillation counting. Secondly, two filtration methods, i.e.; micro filtration with the pore size of 0.1 μm and reverse osmosis, were applied to eliminate the impurities in the environmental waters before the electrolysis. Although the impurity concentrations in the samples by the filtrations were higher than those by the distillation, the filtered water brought only slight quenching. However, the frequent electrolysis of the water treated with the micro filtration caused degradation of the electrolysis cell. Consequently, the distillation after the electrolysis may omit, and the reverse osmosis treatment may alternate the distillation before the electrolysis. Improving the treatment will not only save the time and labor but also reduce the error with the treatment. The measurement technique proposed here will take 25 hours to measure one sample using the electrolysis device produced commercially. A hypothetic electrolysis device of which final sample volume were 20 cm 3 could allow the measuring time of 10 hours. (author)

  17. Using State-Wide Multiple Measures for School Leadership and Management: Costs Incurred vs. Benefits Gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Hirman, Jennifer; Zeehandelaar, Dara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the utility and value of multiple measures of school performance for school leaders and managers. The research was conducted within the context of the state of California through an investigation of how operators, managers and authorisers of autonomous "charter" (publicly financed but privately operated)…

  18. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility

  19. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  20. Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities Driven by Multiple Environmental Factors in a Beach Wetland of the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia eDing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distributions of bacterial communities may be driven by multiple environmental factors. Thus, understanding the relationships between bacterial distribution and environmental factors is critical for understanding wetland stability and the functioning of freshwater lakes. However, little research on the bacterial communities in deep sediment layers exists. In this study, thirty clone libraries of 16S rRNA were constructed from a beach wetland of the Poyang Lake along both horizontal (distance to the water-land junction and vertical (sediment depth gradients to assess the effects of sediment properties on bacterial community structure and diversity. Our results showed that bacterial diversity increased along the horizontal gradient and decreased along the vertical gradient. The heterogeneous sediment properties along gradients substantially affected the dominant bacterial groups at the phylum and species levels. For example, the NH4+ concentration decreased with increasing depth, which was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria. The changes in bacterial diversity and dominant bacterial groups showed that the top layer had a different bacterial community structure than the deeper layers. Principal component analysis revealed that both gradients, not each gradient independently, contributed to the shift in the bacterial community structure. A multiple linear regression model explained the changes in bacterial diversity and richness along the depth and distance gradients. Overall, our results suggest that spatial gradients associated with sediment properties shaped the bacterial communities in the Poyang Lake beach wetland.

  1. On the theory of electromagnetic cascades in thin targets and photon multiplicity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokonov, M.Kh.

    2015-02-01

    The partial probabilities of different scenarios of electromagnetic shower processes are calculated in analytical form. It has been shown that these results are important for measurements of the photon multiplicities which occur during above 100 GeV electron radiation in oriented crystals or in the case of interaction of relativistic electrons with powerful Petawatt laser beams. Quantitative analysis of optimal experimental conditions has been performed. The results are applicable for above few GeV electrons and gamma quanta.

  2. Revealing Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine; Watts, Robyn J.

    2018-03-01

    Managers of land, water, and biodiversity are working with increasingly complex social ecological systems with high uncertainty. Adaptive management (learning from doing) is an ideal approach for working with this complexity. The competing social and environmental demands for water have prompted interest in freshwater adaptive management, but its success and uptake appear to be slow. Some of the perceived "failure" of adaptive management may reflect the way success is conceived and measured; learning, rarely used as an indicator of success, is narrowly defined when it is. In this paper, we document the process of adaptive flow management in the Edward-Wakool system in the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Data are from interviews with environmental water managers, document review, and the authors' structured reflection on their experiences of adaptive management and environmental flows. Substantial learning occurred in relation to the management of environmental flows in the Edward-Wakool system, with evidence found in planning documents, water-use reports, technical reports, stakeholder committee minutes, and refereed papers, while other evidence was anecdotal. Based on this case, we suggest it may be difficult for external observers to perceive the success of large adaptive management projects because evidence of learning is dispersed across multiple documents, and learning is not necessarily considered a measure of success. We suggest that documentation and sharing of new insights, and of the processes of learning, should be resourced to facilitate social learning within the water management sector, and to help demonstrate the successes of adaptive management.

  3. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  4. Environmental economic variables - what has been measured until now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, S.; Palm, V.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental accounting encompasses a variety of economic variables. They range from production values of different branches of industry, through fiscal instruments such as environmental taxes, and to valuation studies of external effects of the economy. This paper tries to map out the different aspects of variables, and to point out their linkages and uses, viewed from an environmental accounting perspective. Also, the estimated size of the different types of variables is discussed, based mainly on Swedish studies and on a national scale. Included variables are GDP, export and import, environmental taxes, subsidies, environmental costs, remediation costs, environmental damage costs and examples of prevention costs. We will divide the economic variables into four different types: 1. Those that are recorded as the actors payment on the market 2. Those that are part of the government budget 3. Those that serve as a valuation of the costs incurred on society 4. Those that could be invested to prevent environmental damage The size of the different costs will be taken from a variety of studies, mainly Swedish, and be put in relation to GDP or similar. A brief discussion of the Swedish situation as compared to international figures will also be made

  5. Assessment of N and P status at the landscape scale using environmental models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Vos, J.A. de; Kros, J.; Knotters, M.; Frumau, A.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, W. de

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compliance of a Dutch landscape, dominated by dairy farming, with environmental quality standards using a combination of model calculations and measurements. The total ammonia emission of 2.4 kton NH 3 yr −1 does not exceed the environmental quality standard (2.6 kton NH 3 yr −1 ). Nevertheless, the total N deposition (on average 24.4 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) is such that critical N loads are exceeded at 53% of the nature areas. The deposited N mainly results from non-agricultural sources and agricultural sources outside the area (72%). The calculated average NO 3 − concentration in the upper groundwater does not exceed the 50 mg l −1 threshold. Calculated annual average N-total and P-total concentrations in discharge water are relatively high but these cannot be directly compared with thresholds for surface water. The results suggest that compliance monitoring at the landscape scale needs to include source indicators and cannot be based on state indicators alone. - Highlights: ► There is scope for environmental monitoring programs at the landscape scale. ► Landscape assessment of state indicators for N and P require models and measurements. ► Monitoring at the landscape scale needs to consider farm management indicators. - The compliance of an agricultural landscape with quality standards is investigated using a combination of model calculations and measurements.

  6. Near-road ultrafine particle and carbon monoxide measurements at North Carolina locations with and without roadside barriers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are measurement time series collected onboard multiple mobile monitoring vehicles. The data are at a high time resolution (seconds to minutes). This...

  7. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  8. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  9. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental clean up is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not just controlled, concentrated, and moved from one media to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in waste water sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over two billion dollars has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy for fiscal year 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to manage and dispose of these wastes

  10. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the