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  1. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece

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    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  2. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece

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    Gabriella Papastefanou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  3. Modelling and implementation of 1-3 piezocomposite side scan sonar array

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Conference “Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies &Results” Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28th June – 1st July 2005 MODELLING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF 1-3 PIEZOCOMPOSITE SIDE SCAN SONAR ARRAY Michael Shatalov*, Jeremy Wallis*, Kiri...

  4. Greece.

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    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  5. Vaccination against human papillomavirus among 865 female students from the health professions in central Greece: a questionnaire- based cross-sectional study

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    Papagiannis D

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Papagiannis,1 George Rachiotis,1 Emmanouil K Symvoulakis,2 Alexandros Daponte,3 Ioanna N Grivea,4 George A Syrogiannopoulos,4 Christos Hadjichristodoulou11Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Thessalia, 2Private Family Practice Unit, Heraklion, Crete, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Thessalia Medical School, Thessalia, 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, General University Hospital of Larissa, Thessalia, GreeceBackground: There are still sparse data on vaccination coverage against human papillomavirus (HPV among students in the health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV vaccination coverage in female students from the health professions in Greece.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to second-year and third-year female students pursuing degrees in medicine, nursing, and paramedical health disciplines in central Greece.Results: Overall vaccination coverage was 44.3%. The major reason for lack of vaccination was fear about safety of the vaccine. Participants who had received information about safety of the vaccine from the mass media and paramedical students had lower vaccination coverage in comparison with students who had received information about vaccine safety from alternative sources.Conclusion: Further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to design educational activities targeting female students in the health professions in order to create a positive domino effect and improve HPV vaccination coverage levels in Greece.Keywords: human papillomavirus, vaccination, coverage, students, health professions, mass media, Greece

  6. Epidemiologic profile of otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders in a tertiary hospital unit in Greece: a challenge for general practitioners?

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    Rachiotis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Greece, primary care is still developing. The aim of this study was to define the epidemiologic profile of common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders in order to help general practitioners to deal with them in a primary care future. Methods A total of 6771 patients attended the Otorhinolaryngology emergency department of the University General Hospital of Heraklion (Crete, between January and December 2004. All cases were included in this retrospective study. The registry of the Otorhinolaryngology emergency department was analysed and age, sex, seasonality and clinical diagnosis were tabulated. All patients were evaluated by Otorhinolaryngologists. The classification of the cases was based on the main symptom or clinical sign that conditioned the reason for seeking care. Diagnoses were also coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results The male to female ratio was 1:1. The mean age for females was 36.3 years standard deviation (SD: 21.1 and for males was 36.8 years (SD = 22.0. Eight hundred eighty six patients (13.1% formed the paediatric sub-group. Over 60% of the cases were classified in ten major groups of diagnosis. Acute tonsillitis (12.3% and acute pharyngitis (9.0% were the most common causes of all medical visits, followed by otitis media (7.6% and external ear canal obstruction by ear wax (6.2%. Oedema of the larynx was detected in 0.4%. A negative diagnosis of otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorder was formulated in 553 patients (8.2%. Hospitalization rate was 5.2%. The highest rate of visits was registered in March. Conclusion Most patients used the facility as a primary care service. Real emergencies were a minority. Recovering data about which areas of Otorhinolaryngology deserve more emphasis might help primary health care providers to diagnose and manage the common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders properly.

  7. Maternal social capital and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study).

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    Kritsotakis, George; Vassilaki, Maria; Chatzi, Leda; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Philalithis, Anastassios E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koutis, Antonis

    2011-12-01

    This cohort study aimed to estimate the effect of individual maternal social capital during pregnancy on birth outcomes in the context of the Mother-child cohort (Rhea study), in Crete-Greece. Women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Heraklion-Crete for one year beginning in February 2007. 610 women completed the self-administered Social Capital Questionnaire at about the 24th week of gestation. The scale assessed total maternal social capital and four social capital subscales: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, and Tolerance of Diversity. Potential confounders included characteristics that have an established or potential association with the maternal social capital, and the birth outcomes (preterm birth, small weight for the gestational age, fetal weight growth restriction, weight, length and head circumference). The results of logistic and linear regression models indicated that there was an increase in the risk of preterm birth for every unit increase in maternal participation (range 12-48), and especially in the risk of medically indicated preterm birth. Although the findings suggest that participation is associated with an increased probability for preterm birth, we cannot know whether this is a protective or damaging social capital effect. Women who participate more in their communities may have enhanced access to information and/or resources, easier access to health care and support when they face maternal and fetal conditions that trigger the need for medical intervention. On the other hand, women may be more exposed to social and/or environmental stressors. Future research needs to distinguish between different types of participation and different components of social capital to better understand their associations with birth outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human induced coastal changes and their impact on the coastal urban landscape. The case of Heraklion, Crete

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    Rempis, Nikolaos; Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a vital part of human society due to sea activities. Α variety of activities and uses are present and are further developing in the coastal and marine are. Coastal ecosystems and landscape are under severe pressure due to population growth and continuous expansion of human activities and supplemented from the effects of climate change (e.g. coastal flooding, erosion). Heraklion is the largest urban center in Crete. Its suburban and coastal area receives intensive urban sprawl pressures, changing the urban landscape and resulting negative impacts on the human and natural environment. The saturation of coastal area of Heraklion creates the need for new development interventions (e.g. new marina, coastal protection, urban regeneration). This study examine the impacts of the new programmed coastal development intervention in the coastal landscape of Heraklion. A decision analytic approach was implemented, based on the need of stakeholders for the protection and further development of coastal area of Heraklion. In this direction, local authorities have proposed the realization of several development interventions which include a new marina, expansion of bathing beaches and coastal regeneration project in a large beach. The results indicate that the realization of any coastal development projects, also increases the negative effects that are related to land-sea interaction. The negative effects are a result of the interaction between different human activities but also between human activities and the environment. The development of the marina in the selected location, increases the pressure on the sea area as the navigation will increase, but also increases the pressure on land space, as traffic flows will change, creating new pressures in urban areas. The extension of bathing beaches implies larger number of bathers, thus creating greater needs for infrastructures in land area for their service. Coastal protection projects, as planned, will upgrade the inland section of the city coastal walls and upgrade them as tourist attraction.

  9. Evaluation of Ski Center Services in Greece based on the Multiattribute Measurement Model of Attitudes

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    Theophilos Masmanidis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate ski center services in Greece. Our research sample consists of n=1,614 visitors in 11 of the largest ski centers in Greece. The 22-item SERVQUAL standard questionnaire has been used, with each item classified based on five quality-assessment dimensions. In order to assess ski center offered services, the Multiattribute Attitude Measurement Model has been used. The values gathered by applying this model were used as reference values for ski center evaluation. Ski centers have then been ranked based on their total attitude score. The paper provides administrative suggestions on improving center offered services.

  10. Standardization of the Gordon Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece

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    Stamou, Lelouda; Schmidt, Charles P.; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to standardize the Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece ( N = 1,188). Split-halves reliability was acceptable across grade levels (K through 3) for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests, but test-retest reliability was generally unacceptable, especially for the Rhythm subtest. Concurrent validity was mixed, with…

  11. Photovoltaic energy production map of Greece based on simulated and measured data

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    Vokas, Georgios A.; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos V.; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Takla

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is in one hand to reveal the real energy production of a medium scale Photovoltaic (PV) plant located at different sites in Greece and on the other to compare measured data to the predicted ones resulted from one well-known, PV simulation software. During the last ten years a capacity of more than 2,5 GWp of PV systems has been installed in Greece. Almost 37% of the installations are ranged from 10 to 100 kWp due to favorable Feed-in-Tariff policy pricing, according to the Greek regulation. Previous investigations proved a remarkable difference between measured and predicted energy production in Greece regarding all PV systems technologies. For the purposes of this study more than 250 medium scale PV plants have been measured and more than 850 annually energy production data series for those parks have been collected. Those data constitute a great sample that has been compared to more than 225 simulations data resulted by a well-known web software for PV systems energy yield calculations with improved solar radiation database. Additionally, in order to have a visual feeling concerning the real PV energy yield footprint in Greece, an updated map has been developed and illustrated, providing a useful tool for both business and academic purposes.

  12. Strontium-90 concentration measurements in human bones and teeth in Greece.

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    Stamoulis, K C; Assimakopoulos, P A; Ioannides, K G; Johnson, E; Soucacos, P N

    1999-05-19

    Strontium-90 concentration was measured in human bones and teeth collected in Greece during the period 1992-1996. One hundred and five bone samples, mainly cancellous bone, and 108 samples, taken from a total of 896 individual teeth were processed. Samples were classified according to the age and sex of the donors. Samples were chemically pre-treated according to a specially devised method to enable extraction of 90Y, at equilibrium with 90Sr in the original sample. Subsequently, 90Y beta activity was measured with a gas proportional counter. Radiostrontium concentration in bone samples showed small variations with respect to age or sex, with an average value of 30 mBq 90Sr/g Ca. However, 90Sr concentration measurements in teeth demonstrated a pronounced structure, which clearly reflects contamination from the 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the more recent Chernobyl accident. This difference is attributed to the different histological structure of skeletal bones and teeth, the later consisting mainly of compact bone. An age-dependent model for radiostrontium concentration in human bones and teeth is developed which is able to successfully reproduce the experimental data. Through a fitting process, the model also yielded calcium turnover rates for compact bone, as a function of age, as well as an estimate of radiostrontium contamination of foodstuffs in Greece for the past four decades. The results obtained in this study indicate that radiostrontium environmental contamination which resulted from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s, exceed by far that caused by the Chernobyl accident.

  13. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece.

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    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G

    2014-10-01

    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature.

  14. Using E-S-QUAL to Measure Internet Service Quality of EBanking Web Sites in Greece

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    DIMITRIS PASCHALOUDIS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The way services are delivered to people has changed diffusion of information and communication technologies. The banking industry has fully adopted and developed the applications and practices of ICTs, in order to provide more qualitative and usable online services. It would greatly enhance the credibility of banks to understand service quality issues within this new delivery channel. This paper investigates bank websites' service quality through the use of E-S-QUAL and E-RecS-QUAL scales. These two scales, while created just for measuring e-services quality, were adopted and adjusted for our research to explore the dimensions that influence customers' overall e-service quality perceptions of bank websites. 487 valid answers were collected, from a volume of 800 structured questionnaire that were handed out to registered users of e-banking systems in Greece. At first, it is presented how all dimensions of both scales are operationilized. A Factor and Correlation analysis followed by a Multiple Regression analysisi have been applied on the seven dimension of E-S-QUAL and e-RecS-QUAL scales. The results suggest the existence of a strong and positive correlation between them and the overall perception of banking websites. The dimension that yielded the highest impact was "Contact" followed by "Responsiveness". Moreover, such a research can help identify websites’ strengths and weaknesses and suggest ideas for improvement.

  15. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

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    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indications of correlation between gravity measurements and isoseismal maps. A case study of Athens basin (Greece)

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    Dilalos, S.; Alexopoulos, J. D.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the correlation between isoseismal contour maps and gravity residual anomaly maps and how it might contribute to the characterization of vulnerable areas to earthquake damage, especially in urban areas, where the geophysical data collection is difficult. More specifically, we compare a couple of isoseismal maps that have been produced and published after the catastrophic earthquake of 7th September 1999 (5.9R) in Athens, the metropolis of Greece, with the residual map produced from the processing and data reduction of a gravity survey that has been carried out in the Athens basin recently. The geologic and tectonic regime of the Athens basin is quite complicated and it is still being updated with new elements. Basically it is comprised of four different geotectonic units, one of them considered as the autochthon. During the gravity investigation, 807 gravity stations were collected, based on a grid plan with spacing almost 1 km, covering the entire basin and supported by a newly established gravity base network comprised by thirteen bases. Differential DGPS technique was used for the accurate measurement of all the gravity stations and bases coordinates. After the appropriate data reduction and the construction of the Complete Bouguer Anomaly map, we applied FFT filtering in order to remove the regional component and produce the Residual Anomaly Map. The comparison of the Residual Anomaly Map with the isoseismal contours revealed that the areas with the most damage because of the earthquake were located in the areas with the minimum values of the Residual Anomaly Map.

  17. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

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    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  18. Early Measures for School Hygiene in Greece: Between Nationalism and Modernization (1890-1920).

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    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other European and Balkan countries, the first institutions for the medical inspection of student health were established relatively late in Greece. Following several European and Balkan examples, Greek doctors and educators began an information campaign during the late 19(th) century to establish a School Medical Service. The Greek state's emerging interest in children's health was dependent upon a number of factors. Networks of experts played a considerable part in shaping a public discourse on childhood. National defeats generated a discourse that denounced the state's indifference to the degeneration of the younger generation. Finally, European paradigms may have influenced the establishment of the School Medical Service through the experiences gained abroad by doctors and high state officials.

  19. Measuring the burden of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia within primary care in rural Crete, Greece

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    Lionis Christos D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that general practitioners (GPs have good clinical judgment in regards to diagnosing and managing herpes zoster (HZ within clinical practice in a country with limited resources for primary care and general practice. The objective of the current study was to assess the burden of HZ and post herpetic neuralgia (PHN within rural general practices in Crete, Greece. Methods The current study took place within a rural setting in Crete, Greece during the period of November 2007 to November 2009 within the catchment area in which the Cretan Rural Practice-based Research Network is operating. In total 19 GP's from 14 health care units in rural Crete were invited to participate, covering a total turnover patient population of approximately 25, 000 subjects. For the purpose of this study an electronic record database was constructed and used as the main tool for monitoring HZ and PHN incidence. Stress related data was also collected with the use of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST. Results The crude incidence rate of HZ was 1.4/1000 patients/year throughout the entire network of health centers and satellite practices, while among satellite practices alone it was calculated at 1.3/1000 patients/year. Additionally, the standardised incidence density within satellite practices was calculated at 1.6/1000 patients/year. In regards to the stress associated with HZ and PHN, the latter were found to have lower levels of anxiety, as assessed through the SAST score (17.4 ± 3.9 vs. 21.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.029. Conclusions The implementation of an electronic surveillance system was feasible so as to measure the burden of HZ and PHN within the rural general practice setting in Crete.

  20. Kinematic interpretation of present-day crustal deformation in central Greece from continuous GPS measurements

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    Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Ganas, Athanassios; Gianniou, Michail

    2013-11-01

    We processed 30-s GPS data from continuous GPS stations in central Greece using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content obtaining a velocity field in the ITRF2008 and the Eurasian-fixed reference frame. The station distribution allowed us to compute 1D strain through rates of baseline length changes as well as to construct the image of the 2D strain and rotation rate fields. The obtained baselines range in length from 11 to 132 km and show rates from -1.95 mm/yr up to 14.14 mm/yr (estimated uncertainties from 0.3 to 0.8 mm/yr), while the calculated 1D strain rate ranges from -27 ns/yr up to 226 ns/yr (average uncertainty ˜15 ns/yr). Largest extension (192-226 ns/yr) is observed in the western and central part of the Corinth rift while similar extension rates (80-120 ns/yr) are obtained for the eastern part of the Corinth rift and its continuation in the south Viotia-south of Evia region and across the Sperchios-Kammena Vourla rift. The coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, separating by the Viotia region by a nearly E-W crustal discontinuity along the Kaparelli-Asopos valley faults. However, some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf resulting in extension rates of the order of 25 ns/yr. We also find extension (54-71 ns/yr) across "rigid" Peloponnese taken by normal faults in the greater Kalavryta region.

  1. Optical properties of different aerosol types: seven years of combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

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    E. Giannakaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our combined Raman/elastic backscatter lidar observations which were carried out at the EARLINET station of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the period 2001–2007. The largest optical depths are observed for Saharan dust and smoke aerosol particles. For local and continental polluted aerosols the measurements indicate high aerosol loads. However, measurements associated with the local path indicate enhanced aerosol load within the Planetary Boundary Layer. The lowest value of aerosol optical depth is observed for continental aerosols, from West directions with less free tropospheric contribution. The largest lidar ratios, of the order of 70 sr, are found for biomass burning aerosols. A significant and distinct correlation between lidar ratio and backscatter related Ångström exponent values were estimated for different aerosol categories. Scatter plot between lidar ratio values and Ångström exponent values for local and continental polluted aerosols does not show a significant correlation, with a large variation in both parameters possibly due to variable absorption characteristics of these aerosols. Finally for continental aerosols with west and northwest directions that follow downward movement when arriving at our site constantly low lidar ratios almost independent of size are found.

  2. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

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    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  3. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

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    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  4. Comparison of the TRMM Precipitation Radar rainfall estimation with ground-based disdrometer and radar measurements in South Greece

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    Ioannidou, Melina P.; Kalogiros, John A.; Stavrakis, Adrian K.

    2016-11-01

    The performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) rainfall estimation algorithm is assessed, locally, in Crete island, south Greece, using data from a 2D-video disdrometer and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar. A three-parameter, normalized Gamma drop size distribution is fitted to the disdrometer rain spectra; the latter are classified in stratiform and convective rain types characterized by different relations between distribution parameters. The method of moments estimates more accurately the distribution parameters than the best fit technique, which exhibits better agreement with and is more biased by the observed droplet distribution at large diameter values. Power laws between the radar reflectivity factor (Z) and the rainfall rate (R) are derived from the disdrometer data. A significant diversity of the prefactor and the exponent of the estimated power laws is observed, depending on the scattering model and the regression technique. The Z-R relationships derived from the disdrometer data are compared to those obtained from TRMM-PR data. Generally, the power laws estimated from the two datasets are different. Specifically, the greater prefactor found for the disdrometer data suggests an overestimation of rainfall rate by the TRMM-PR algorithm for light and moderate stratiform rain, which was the main rain type in the disdrometer dataset. Finally, contemporary data from the TRMM-PR and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar are analyzed. Comparison of the corresponding surface rain rates for a rain event with convective characteristics indicates a large variability of R in a single TRMM-PR footprint, which typically comprises several hundreds of radar pixels. Thus, the coarse spatial resolution of TRMM-PR may lead to miss of significant high local peaks of convective rain. Also, it was found that the high temporal variability of convective rain may introduce significant errors in the estimation of bias of

  5. Spatially quantitative models for vulnerability analyses and resilience measures in flood risk management: Case study Rafina, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Chiari, Michael; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotis; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-04-01

    We will address spatially quantitative models for vulnerability analyses in flood risk management in the catchment of Rafina, 25 km east of Athens, Greece; and potential measures to reduce damage costs. The evaluation of flood damage losses is relatively advanced. Nevertheless, major problems arise since there are no market prices for the evaluation process available. Moreover, there is particular gap in quantifying the damages and necessary expenditures for the implementation of mitigation measures with respect to flash floods. The key issue is to develop prototypes for assessing flood losses and the impact of mitigation measures on flood resilience by adjusting a vulnerability model and to further develop the method in a Mediterranean region influenced by both, mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The objective of this study is to create a spatial and temporal analysis of the vulnerability factors based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk, and data on flood intensities. In this contribution, a methodology for the development of a flood damage assessment as a function of the process intensity and the degree of loss is presented. It is shown that (1) such relationships for defined object categories are dependent on site-specific and process-specific characteristics, but there is a correlation between process types that have similar characteristics; (2) existing semi-quantitative approaches of vulnerability assessment for elements at risk can be improved based on the proposed quantitative method; and (3) the concept of risk can be enhanced with respect to a standardised and comprehensive implementation by applying the vulnerability functions to be developed within the proposed research. Therefore, loss data were collected from responsible administrative bodies and analysed on an object level. The used model is based on a basin scale approach as well as data on elements at risk exposed

  6. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of 6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of 4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity, suggest

  7. Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: Development of a new scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Madianos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to develop an attitudinal schedule, the Attitudes to Severe Mental Illness (ASMI scale, which synthesizes elements from different conceptual frameworks of the field, while addressing gaps on the existing literature on stigma measurement. Methods: A national representative sample of 2039 adults from the general population was interviewed by telephone. Results: Factor analysis revealed 4 factors to underlie the data, namely "stereotyping" "optimism", "coping" and "understanding", which explained 67% of total variance. The instrument's face and predictive validity were also supported, while its internal consistency and test -retest reliability were found to be high for the overall scale and its factors. Conclusions: Consistent with these, the ASMI scale emerges as a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of attitudes towards severe mental illness, while it opens new directions for advancing scientific understanding of the topic.

  8. Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Polychroni, Iliana D.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January-July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people's living quality in urban areas.

  9. Radioactivity measurements and dose rate calculations using ERICA tool in the terrestrial environment of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Maria; Florou, Heleny; Manolopoulou, Metaxia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the radioactivity levels to which terrestrial non-human biota were exposed are examined. Organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) were collected during the period of 2010 to 2014 from grasslands where sheep and goats were free-range grazing. Natural background radionuclides ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I) were detected in the collected samples using gamma spectrometry. The actual measured activity concentrations and site-specific data of the studied organisms were imported in ERICA Assessment Tool (version 1.2.0) in order to provide an insight of the radiological dose rates. The highest activity concentrations were detected in samples collected from Lesvos island and the lowest in samples collected from Attiki and Etoloakarnania prefectures. The highest contribution to the total dose rate was clearly derived from the internal exposure and is closely related to the exposure to alpha emitters of natural background ((226)Ra and (228)Th). The Fukushima-derived traces of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, and (131)I, along with the residual (137)Cs, resulted in quite low contribution to the total dose rate. The obtained results may strengthen the adaptation of software tools to a wider range of ecosystems and may be proved useful in further research regarding the possible impact of protracted low level ionizing radiation on non-human biota. This kind of studies may contribute to the effective incorporation of dosimetry tools in the development of integrated environmental and radiological impact assessment policies.

  10. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  11. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  12. Development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure satisfaction with home care in Greece: an exploratory factor analysis of polychoric correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakas Dimitris

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a

  13. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  14. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country.

  15. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MEASURING TUBERCULOSIS THERAPY COMPLIANCE: GREECE AS A HOST COUNTRY FOR VULNERABLE POPULATIONS BEFORE AND DURING THE FINANCIAL CRISIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Penelope; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Petinaki, Efthimia; Roupa, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    For the realization of "2015 UN Millennium Development Goals", a question arises pertaining to the course of tuberculosis in Greece and its relationship to patient adherence to treatment, given the fact that the country is undergoing a financial crisis and is a gateway for economic migrants. The study concerned 1179 patients of the anti-TBdepartment, "Sotiria" General Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece collaborating with the National Reference Centre of Mycobacteria, covering a year before the financial crisis, 2007 and 2010-11, the first years of the crisis. A special recording form was used, on the basis of a specific protocol. Out of 954 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis disease, 657 of which were foreigners. Out of 791 patients residing in the same area, 632 were foreigners. Of the patients who proceeded to a first self-discontinuation of the medication, only 38.3% (n=18) completed the treatment, while 40.4% of them self-discontinued within the first month. Duration of treatment was 6.68±3.54 months for those (n=805) with no discontinuation and 7.48±3.68 months for those (n=149) with at least one discontinuation, regardless of the etiology p= 0,032. Cases increased during financial crisis, with gradual decrease in mean treatment duration for patients with first line treatment to 7.77±3.81 months in 2007, and 6.53±3.47 and 6.40±3.31 months in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Since the beginning of treatment measurable signs of either adherent/non-adherent behavior appeared, affecting mean treatment duration and completion. Duration of treatment decreased in the years of financial crisis. Migrants ghettoization calls for implementation of DOTS.

  16. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  17. Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    , determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  18. Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioudi, K E; Antoniou, S E; Iliadou, P; Sachpatzidis, A; Plevraki, E; Agianniotaki, E I; Fouki, C; Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Chondrokouki, E; Dile, C

    2016-06-01

    Lumpy skin disease was first reported in the EU, Greece, in August 2015. Until the end of December 2015, six regional units have been affected in northern Greece and the island of Limnos. This article presents the epidemiological situation, the diagnosis, the control measures including emergency vaccination and the preliminary conclusions from the experience gained.

  19. A new endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior and posterior capsule opacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallikaris IG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis G Pallikaris, Nela R Stojanovic, Harilaos S Ginis Institute of Vision and Optics, Department of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece Purpose: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the functionality of a new design of a thick endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior capsule opacification (ACO and posterior capsule opacification (PCO. Setting: The Institute of Vision and Optics, University of Crete and University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Design: Prospective, interventional pilot study. Methods: Fifteen patients (17 eyes underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification. During surgery, a thick endocapsular open ring (peripheral capsule reconstructor was inserted into the capsular bag, prior to intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Six different models of IOL were implanted. Postoperatively, the degree of ACO and PCO was evaluated and described as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30±8.06 months (range: 12–36 months. At the last follow-up, mild PCO was observed in only three eyes and mild ACO in three patients. The centration of IOLs was good in all but one eye, which had a tilted IOL. Conclusion: The results of this pilot study suggest that the implantation of a new design of thick endocapsular open ring is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of PCO and ACO after cataract surgery. Keywords: intraocular implant, cataract, phacoemulsification, silicone

  20. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present*

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    Sotiraki S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite’s prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2 % for sheep, 7.6-14.7 % for goats, 0 % in cattle and 0.6 % in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  1. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  2. Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece

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    A. Langousis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  3. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Greece

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Greece. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Ec...

  4. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  5. Statement on a request from the European Commission related to the emergency measure notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 for cultivation according to Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC. All concerns on the safety of maize MON 810 related to human and animal health or the environment raised by Greece were already addressed in previous outputs of the EFSA or its GMO Panel on maize MON 810 or related Bt maize events expressing Cry1Ab protein. The concern pertaining to co-existence was not considered as this is not in the remit of EFSA. Therefore, EFSA concludes that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of an emergency measure under Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC and that would invalidate the previous EFSA GMO Panel risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  6. CMS Virtual Tour Greece

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    More than 500 high-school students from 7 locations in Greece visit virtually the CMS experiment. Read more about this record-breaking event here: http://home.web.cern.ch/students-educators/updates/2014/02/students-visit-heart-cms-detector

  7. Comparisons of ground-based tropospheric NO2 MAX-DOAS measurements to satellite observations with the aid of an air quality model over the Thessaloniki area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zyrichidou, Irene; Kouremeti, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Giannaros, Christos; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Balis, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitrios

    2017-05-01

    One of the main issues arising from the comparison of ground-based and satellite measurements is the difference in spatial representativeness, which for locations with inhomogeneous spatial distribution of pollutants may lead to significant differences between the two data sets. In order to investigate the spatial variability of tropospheric NO2 within a sub-satellite pixel, a campaign which lasted for about 6 months was held in the greater area of Thessaloniki, Greece. Three multi-axial differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) systems performed measurements of tropospheric NO2 columns at different sites representative of urban, suburban and rural conditions. The direct comparison of these ground-based measurements with corresponding products from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument onboard NASA's Aura satellite (OMI/Aura) showed good agreement over the rural and suburban areas, while the comparison with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard EUMETSAT's Meteorological Operational satellites' (MetOp-A and MetOp-B) observations is good only over the rural area. GOME-2A and GOME-2B sensors show an average underestimation of tropospheric NO2 over the urban area of about 10.51 ± 8.32 × 1015 and 10.21 ± 8.87 × 1015 molecules cm-2, respectively. The mean difference between ground-based and OMI observations is significantly lower (6.60 ± 5.71 × 1015 molecules cm-2). The differences found in the comparisons of MAX-DOAS data with the different satellite sensors can be attributed to the higher spatial resolution of OMI, as well as the different overpass times and NO2 retrieval algorithms of the satellites. OMI data were adjusted using factors calculated by an air quality modeling tool, consisting of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) multiscale photochemical transport model. This approach resulted in significant improvement of the

  8. Measurements of biochemical markers of pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. TSANGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in a number of biochemical parameters in marine organisms represent specific markers of exposure to particular classes of contaminants. They are used as tools for the detection and monitoring of pollution. In this study, two biochemical markers of pollution, metallothionein (MT content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were measured in indigenous and transplanted mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas within the Saronikos Gulf subject to high anthropogenic activities. Biannual measurements of the two biomarkers in indigenous mussel populations for two years revealed no significant differences among stations representing a pollution gradient. Limited differences in MT levels were only found between mussel populations transplanted at lesser and more impacted stations. Both biomarkers showed a variation with respect to the season of sampling, whilst during the second year of measurements a concomitant increase in metallothionein content with a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was noted. Our results indicate that the applied biochemical markers in indigenous mussel populations do not reflect the type of pollution in the Saronikos Gulf to a degree that can be used for pollution monitoring in the area.

  9. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  10. High-resolution 3D surface displacements from 2004 - 2012 at Santorini volcano, Greece measured by LiDAR-differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Nissen, E.; Mather, T. A.; Raptakis, C.; Nomikou, P.

    2012-12-01

    In January 2011 Santorini volcano entered a period of unrest characterised by earthquake swarms and caldera-wide uplift. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements indicate vertical motions of 8 - 14 cm across the central volcanic island of Nea Kameni since the onset of unrest. In April 2004, a NERC funded Airborne Research and Survey Facility (ARSF) flight acquired high-resolution (1m per pixel) light detection and ranging laser radar (LiDAR) data over the central volcanic islands of Nea Kameni and Palea Kameni. This survey was repeated in May 2012 to provide an updated digital elevation model (DEM). We apply a new method of differencing pre- and post- deformation LiDAR point clouds using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to produce a high-resolution grid of 3D surface displacements from 2004 - 2012. The 2004 ("source") and 2012 ("target") point clouds are first split into square subsets ("windows") and the displacement for each window is determined by iterating three steps: (1) identifying closest point pairs; (2) calculating the translation and rotation required that best aligns the paired points; (3) applying this transformation to the source cloud. The surface displacement map spans both a period of slow subsidence (from 2004 - 2010), and a subsequent period of inflation (from 2011 - 2012). We shall compare our results with those obtained from simple DEM elevation differencing and from InSAR. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the ICP technique to measuring volcanic deformation. This approach may be implemented at other volcanoes to monitor 3D surface displacements during periods of unrest.

  11. Greece at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Greece, one of CERN*'s founding Member States, inaugurated its first Industrial Exhibition at the Meyrin site on Tuesday, 14 October. After a meeting with CERN's Director General, Professor Christopher Llewellyn Smith, Professor Emmanuel Frangoulis, the General Secretary of the Greek Ministry of Industry, accompanied by Prof Emmanuel Floratos, Greek delegate to CERN council visited the DELPHI experiment on the LEP collider, guided by Andromachi Tsirou, a Greek physicist.

  12. Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Yfantidou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is set in the context of tourism marketing and refers specifically to tourist roles. A representative sample of 1675 tourists brings to light the tourist role preference in Greece, and allows us to examine the possible differences between men and women of varying ages. The Tourist Role Preference Scale (TRPS was used for this research. The findings of this study support the existence of Yiannakis and Gibson’s 15 leisure tourist roles in Greece. Sun lover, anthropologist, archaeologist, independent mass tourist and escapist were found to be the most prevalent tourist roles in Greece. A comparison between gender and age revealed more similarities than differences. TRPS was proven reliable and valid for the sample used in this study and the questions of the scale represented significantly the tourist roles measured.

  13. Measuring burnout and work engagement: Factor structure, invariance, and latent mean differences across Greece and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthopoulou, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factor structure and invariance of the instruments measuring burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey / MBI-GS and work engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale / UWES in a sample of Dutch (N = 162 and Greek (N = 206 employees. Confirmatory factor analyses in both samples supported the superiority of the proposed three-factor structure of both the MBI-GS (exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy and the UWES (vigor, dedication, and absorption. Alternative two-factor and one-factor models did not show a better fit to the data. In addition, results of multigroup analyses partly supported the invariance of the three-factor model of the MBI-GS, and fully supported the invariance of the three-factor model of the UWES across the two national samples. These results suggest that the MBI-GS and the UWES are not only valid instruments for testing burnout and engagement but also allow comparisons across countries.

  14. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  15. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  16. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  17. The distribution of full income in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsampelas, Christos; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Non-cash incomes from either private or public sources can have substantial effects on the distribution of economic welfare. However, standard approaches to inequality measurement either neglect them or take into account only selected non-monetary items. Using data for Greece in the mid 2000s we show that it is possible to incorporate a comprehensive list of non-monetary components into the analysis of income inequality. The results indicate that inequality declines sharply when we move from ...

  18. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa...

  19. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  20. Thinking About Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Ioannides, Yannis M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of corruption, which appears to be endemic in Greece. It reviews the facts about corruption as multi-faceted phenomenon and its close relationship to tax evasion, by comparing Greece to its EU partners, as well internationally. It addresses corruption as an instance of anti-social behavior by means of a number of simple metaphors that allow reliance on powerful tools of modern social interactions and property rights literatures. It emphasizes that whereas tepid e...

  1. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  2. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  4. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N. [Lawyer - Legal Department of PPC S.A., 28, Halkokondili Street, GR-10432 Athens (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  5. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  6. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  7. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded...... Up Robust Features (SURF). For this purpose, images taken at various places of interest are being compared to an existing database containing images of these places at different angles and zoom. The time required for the matching progress in such application is an important element. To this goal......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  8. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Zorba

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of ODs is high in Greece, contrary to all official reports by the Greek National Institute of Health. There is a need to introduce a nationwide voluntary surveillance system for reporting ODs and to enhance skin protection measures at work.

  9. The seismotectonic regime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALANOPOULOS A. G.

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented which favours the theory that the
    earthquake activity in the area of Greece should bo ascribed to horizontal currents flowing off to the side of the secondary sedimentary arc, from a minor mantle current rising under the primary volcanic arc of the Southeastern section of the Dinaric Alps.

  10. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A

  11. Coal facies studies in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christanis, Kimon [Department of Geology, University of Patras, GR-265.00 Rio-Patras (Greece)

    2004-04-23

    In Greece, coal-forming conditions prevailed mainly during Neogene and Quaternary times in several intermontane and paralic basins and resulted in the formation of significant peat and lignite deposits. The economically recoverable lignite reserves are 3.9 Gt and the annual production, mainly for power generation, exceeds 65 Mt.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for measurement of HIV-1 plasma viral load on genetically diverse samples from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 is characterized by increased genetic heterogeneity which tends to hinder the reliability of detection and accuracy of HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays. Methods In this study, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (Abbott RealTime assay was compared to the Roche Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 (Cobas TaqMan and the Siemens Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA 3.0 assays, using clinical samples of various viral load levels and subtypes from Greece, where the recent epidemiology of HIV-1 infection has been characterized by increasing genetic diversity and a marked increase in subtype A genetic strains among newly diagnosed infections. Results A high correlation was observed between the quantitative results obtained by the Abbott RealTime and the Cobas TaqMan assays. Viral load values quantified by the Abbott RealTime were on average lower than those obtained by the Cobas TaqMan, with a mean (SD difference of -0.206 (0.298 log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for samples of subtype A, B, and non-A/non-B were 0.089, -0.262, and -0.298 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, differences were less than 0.5 log10 for 85% of the samples, and >1 log10 in only one subtype B sample. Similarly, Abbott RealTime and bDNA 3.0 assays yielded a very good correlation of quantitative results, whereas viral load values assessed by the Abbott RealTime were on average higher (mean (SD difference: 0.160 (0.287 log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for subtype A, B and non-A/non-B samples were 0.438, 0.105 and 0.191 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, the majority of samples (86% differed by less than 0.5 log10, while none of the samples showed a deviation of more than 1.0 log10. Conclusions In an area of changing HIV-1 subtype pattern, the Abbott RealTime assay showed a high correlation and good agreement of results when compared both to the Cobas TaqMan and bDNA 3

  13. Requiring Competencies of Basketball Coaches in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to identify the competencies of Basketball coaches in Greece. The current study is based on previous work done by Rodrigues et al, (11, and Tripolitsioti et al, (14,17, who measured competencies both in Portuguese basketball coaches and directors of indoor sport facilities in Greece. Two hundred and forty five basketball coaches of three Greek Divisions (first, second and third participated in the study and completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors consisting of 21 competency statements: Sport science/practice (6 items, communication/leadership (5 items, first aid/risk management (2 items, computer skills (4 items, and programming 4 items. Moreover, the results demonstrated that first aid and training skills were the top rated competencies, following by management and computer skills, while facility & event management were the low rated competencies. These results validate that the successful basketball coaches didn’t only have training competencies, but management, computer skills, first aid, communication, facility management and event management.

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  16. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  18. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  19. Greece: Too Strategic To Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index , Greece scored at the bottom of the “European Union and Western Europe” category...International, “ Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Results,” accessed online on 3 October 2015. http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results. 11 See Appendix...Transparency International. “ Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Results.” Accessed online on 3 October 2015. http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results

  20. Trichinellosis in Greece: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiraki S.T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis which constitutes a public health problem in many countries seems to be of no importance on both pig industry and public health in Greece, where in spite of a law requiring mandatory use of trichinoscopy during meat inspection, muscle larvae have not been found in slaughtered pigs since 1957 in Thessaloniki and 1967 in Athens. Since its first recovery in 1 946 and up to 1952, human trichinellosis has been found or suspected in 22 persons in the area of Athens and Thessaloniki. Moreover, in 1968, T.spiralis larvae were found incidentally in a human with laryngeal tumor and in 1971, living larvae were postmortem recovered in the diaphragm of a 70-year-old man. The average incidence of infection in pigs at that time was 0.02-2.2 %. Since then, no other clinical case had been reported up to 1982- 1984 when 15 people were found to harbor the parasite and fourteen of them were part of an outbreak which occurred in a small village in Northern Greece. Moreover, 1.07 % of the pig serum samples which came from the same area, showed the presence of specific antibodies. Because of the above data, it is generally accepted that in Greece T. spiralis is only rarely spread in man.

  1. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  2. Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2016-05-31

    Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come.

  3. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  4. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  5. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  6. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated.

  7. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  8. Spatial Inequality in the Accessibility to Hospitals in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the spatial accessibility to public health care facilities in Greece. We look at population groups disaggregated by age and socioeconomic characteristics. The purpose of the analysis is to identify potential spatial inequalities in the accessibility to public hospitals among population groups or service areas. The data refer to the accessibility of all residents to public hospitals in Greece. The spatial datasets include the location of settlements (communities), the administrative boundaries of municipalities and the location of public hospitals. The methodology stems from spatial analysis theory (gravity models), economics theory (inequalities) and geocomputation practice (GIS and programming). Several accessibility measures have been calculated using the newly developed R package SpatialAcc, which is available in CRAN. The results are interesting and tend to show an urban-rural and social class divide: younger, working age population as well as people with the highest educational attainment have better accessibility to public hospitals compared to older or low educated residents. This finding has serious policy making implications and should be taken into account in the future spatial (re)organisation of hospitals in Greece.

  9. Measuring pain self-efficacy and health related quality of life among hemodialysis patients in Greece: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from end-stage kidney disease often complain about pain. It is also known that the presence of chronic pain greatly impacts upon patients’ quality of life (QOL and can play a crucial role in the co-morbidity of mental health symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The main aim of this study protocol is the investigation of pain self-efficacy, QOL as well as their relation in patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment. The final sample size will be around 70-80 patients. Each subject’s QOL and pain self-efficacy will be measured using the following instruments: i the Missoula-ITAS Quality of Life Index-15 and ii the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. QOL is expected to be related to pain self-efficacy scores. This probable association will be indicated performing regression as well as correlation analysis after controlling for gender, age, education and marital status.

  10. Greece: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair

  11. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kokkalis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent, microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration and geometrical properties, as well as of the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and inversion models, during 21–24 April 2010. Additionally, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET particulate columnar measurements indicated the presence of volcanic particles over our area. Simulations of the volcanic partilcles dispersion, done by the FLEXPART model, confirmed the presence of these particles over Athens. Our lidar data showed volcanic particles layers, in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the source (approximately 4000 km away from our site between from ground levels up to nearly 10 km. Over Athens the volcanic particles layers were found to be mixed with locally produced aerosols, inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL. Mean hourly-averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles, ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD found to vary from 0.014 to 0.184 at 355 nm and from 0.017 up to 0.174 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (LR ranged between 59.7–79.6 sr (at 355 nm and 43.9–88.3 sr (at 532 nm. Additionally, we calculated that the mean effective radius of the volcanic particles was 0.13–0.38 μm, while their refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. Finally, our data also allowed us to quantitatively compare, for the first time, the volcanic ash concentrations simulated by FLEXPART with those calculated by the inversion code LIRIC, using data sets derived from coincident lidar-AERONET measurements. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and observations

  12. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  13. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  14. Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sunphotometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l. using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA THERMOPOLIS project which took place between 15–31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA. We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers occurred on 20–21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius – reff, single-scattering albedo (ω and mean complex refractive index (m at selected heights in the 2–3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.3–0.4 μm, ω at 532 nm ranged from 0.63 to 0.88 and m ranged from 1.45 + 0.015i to 1.56 + 0.05i, in good accordance with in situ aircraft measurements. The final data set of the aerosol microphysical properties along with the water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA model to infer an in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ω values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2–3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0–60% and organic carbon (OC content (0–50%, although the OC content increased (up to 50% and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30% around 3 km height; in connection with the retrieved low ω value (0.63, indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties

  15. Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sun photometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouri, R. E.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Müller, D.; Kokkalis, P.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Karageorgos, E. T.; Tsaknakis, G.; Nenes, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Remoundaki, E.

    2012-07-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project, which took place between 15-31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers that occurred on 20-21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius (reff), single-scattering albedo ω) and mean complex refractive index (m)) at selected heights in the 2-3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.14-0.4 (±0.14) μm, ω was 0.63-0.88 (±0.08) (at 532 nm) and m ranged from 1.44 (±0.10) + 0.01 (±0.01)i to 1.55 (±0.12) + 0.06 (±0.02)i, in good agreement (only for the reff values) with in situ aircraft measurements. The water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to propose a possible in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ω values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2-3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0-60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0-50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; the retrieved low ω value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sun photometer CIMEL data.

  16. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the boundary layer above the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvarakis, G.; Vrekoussis, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kourtidis, K.; Rappenglueck, B.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Zerefos, C.

    2002-09-01

    To study the spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone in the marine boundary layer over the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean), an O3 analyzer has been installed onboard of a passenger vessel traveling on a regular basis in the Aegean Sea (from Heraklion/Crete 35°30'N, 25°13'E to Thessaloniki 40°64'N, 22°97'E) during a period of 14 months (August 1999 to November 2000). In addition, O3 data have been obtained on a daily basis at the regional background station of Finokalia (Crete; 35°30'N, 25°70'E) since September 1997, short-term measurements of O3 were performed over Crete during the PAUR II campaign (May 1999), and the first O3 data from a rural area (40°32'N, 23°50'E) close to Thessaloniki at the north of Greece have been collected from March 2000 to January 2001. This survey extensive points out the existence of a well-defined seasonal cycle in boundary layer O3 with maximum in summer both above the Aegean Sea and at Finokalia. However, the seasonal signal (defined as the summer/winter ratio) is not constant and varies as a function of air mass origin from 1.33 to 1.15 for the N-NE and SW-S sectors, respectively, in line with the geographical location of the O3 precursor sources. Our data show the absence of any significant longitudinal gradient over Crete at least during spring and autumn and the absence of significant latitudinal gradient between the north and south Aegean Sea during all seasons for air masses having similar origin. The above results indicate that long-range transport is the main factor accounting for the elevated O3 levels above the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Thus (1) O3 data from Finokalia, where the longest time series are available for the area, have regional significance and (2) over the entire Aegean basin, ozone values are above the 32 ppbv European Union (EU) phytotoxicity limit throughout the year and above the 53 ppbv EU health protection limit most of the time during the dry season of the year. The very

  18. Have health trends worsened in Greece as a result of the financial crisis? A quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Hessel, Philipp; Leone, Tiziana; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Health in Greece deteriorated after the recent financial crisis, but whether this decline was caused by the recent financial crisis has not been established. This article uses a quasi-experimental approach to examine the impact of the recent financial crisis on health in Greece. Data came from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey for the years 2006-09. We applied a difference-in-differences approach that compares health trends before and after the financial crisis in Greece with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable with Greece before the crisis. We used logistic regression to model the impact of the financial crisis on poor self-rated health, controlling for demographic confounders. Results provide strong evidence of a statistically significant negative effect of the financial crisis on health trends. Relative to the control population, Greece experienced a significantly larger increase in the odds of reporting poor health after the crisis (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). There was no difference in health trends between Poland and Greece before the financial crisis, supporting a causal interpretation of health declines in Greece as a result of the financial crisis. Results provide evidence that trends in self-rated health in Greece worsened as a result of the recent financial crisis. Findings stress the need for urgent health policy responses to the recent economic collapse in Greece as the full impact of austerity measures unfolds in the coming years.

  19. Greece; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes—Fiscal Transparency Module-Update

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an update to the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on Fiscal Transparency for Greece. Two important steps toward improving fiscal transparency since the last ROSC update were Greece’s subscription to the Special Data Dissemination Standard in November 2002, and participation in the preparation of the data module of the ROSC. Other steps included improving fiscal audits and the evaluation of budget expenditure, and measures in the recent tax reform to...

  20. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  1. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  2. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  3. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  4. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  5. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece.

  6. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  7. Estimating a corporate governance index for companies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available European countries have gone through serious efforts to overcome the financial crisis and special measures had to be taken in order to limit the negative impact on businesses and stabilize a healthy economic environment for the single market. The specific governmental policies aimed to keep under control the effects of the crisis and relaunch the economic growth, but they were unpopular among a part of the European citizens. The economic situation forced most managers of private companies to rethink the business strategy and restructure the activity. Lately, Greece has been going through a difficult period, as the crisis worsened the economic situation of the country. The population did not welcome the drastic economic measures which were proposed by IMF and institutional creditors and this conflict almost lead to national insolvency. The problems of Greece are deeply rooted in the business models and economic philosophy. This paper has the purpose of analyzing the corporate governance regulation and practices in Greece and to determine whether it is possible to enhance business profitability and stability by enforcing a better legal framework in the area of corporate governance. The research focuses on the calculation of a corporate governance index for a selection of Greek companies form different sectors of activity (oil &gas, telecommunications, beverages and the analysis of the results may lead to the identification of weaknesses in this domain. Improvements in the corporate governance practices are considered to lead to enhancing business stability and sustainability. The methodology for calculating the corporate governance index is adapted for Greek companies and is in accordance with the provisions of the Hellenic Corporate Governance Code.

  8. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  9. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  10. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  11. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  12. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  13. Metamorphism of bauxites on Naxos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-mineralogical and geochemical study of the metamorphosed karstbauxites on the island of Naxos, Greece. The bauxites have been subject to an Eocene highpressure metamorphism (M1), followed by a Late Oligocene-Miocene medium-pressure metamorphism (M2)

  14. Informal payments in public hospitals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2008-07-01

    Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.

  15. Urban geology: documentation of geo-thematic information for urban areas in Greece, the case of Nafplio, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakou, Alexandra; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2007-10-01

    The Institute of geological and Mineral Exploration of Greece (I.G.M.E.), in the frame of CSF 2000-2006 (Community Support Framework 2000-2006), has been implementing the pilot project titled "Collection, Codification and Documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Geological, geochemical, geophysical, geotechnical, hydrogeological and other data concerning the urban and surrounding areas of Drama (North Greece), Nafplio & Sparti (Peloponnesus) and Thrakomakedones (Attica) is collected. Drillings, geological and geotectonic mapping (scale 1:5.000) and other "in situ" measurements and field works are taking place. The contours of the 1:5.000 topographic maps are digitized and a high detail DEM is created. The DEM and ground control points collected with GPS are used for the Orthorectification of very high-resolution satellite data. Then, the orthorectified satellite data is used for the land use classification and the urban area mapping. All initial and derived analogical and digital data is compiled and processed in specially designed geo-databases in GIS Environment. The final results will be presented in geothematic maps of different scales (1:5.000, 1:10.000 etc). Thematic maps (geological, geotechnical, geochemical, geophysical etc) and other digital data such as geodatabases, DEMs will be available to all, public or private sector, concerning geological environment in urban and suburban areas. All these data will constitute the essential base for land use planning and environmental protection in specific urban areas. Through this pilot project, new scientific approaches, methodologies and standards will be developed and improved in order to be applied to other future projects concerning capital centers of the country.

  16. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  17. Energy Payback Time of a Rooftop Photovoltaic System in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachoutis, E.; Koubogiannis, D.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of any product. Current research related to energy consumption in buildings moves towards Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). In such a building, an important issue concerns the energy production by renewable sources, including on-site production. The most feasible way to achieve renewable energy utilization in a building level in Greece is by using rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also promoted in the last decade by the national legislation concerning energy conservation measures. Apart from cost-related issues and payback times, Embodied Energy (EE) and Embodied CO2 (ECO2) emissions have also to be considered against the anticipated corresponding savings. Using a particular PV system as a case study, its basic constitutive materials are determined and their masses are calculated. Embodied energy values are estimated by using embodied energy coefficients available in the international literature. Considering a specific geographic location in Greece for the building on which the PV is installed, the annual energy generated by the system is estimated based on its performance data and curves. The Energy and CO2 Payback Times (EPBT and CO2PBT) are estimated and assessed, as well as future work is suggested.

  18. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  20. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  1. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  2. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  3. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Pallantzas, A.; kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade ro...

  4. The precursory earthquake swarm in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hellenic subduction region displays the same precursory swarm phenomenon as has been found in comparable regions of New Zealand and Japan. In the earthquake catalogue of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 10 past sequences of precursory swarms and related major mainshock events have been identified. These correlate, in respect of location, magnitude and time, with the 9 sequences previously identified in New Zealand, and 9 in Japan, bringing the total of sequences to 28, and the totals of related events (allowing for clustering to 56 precursory swarms and 42 mainshock events. The results add strength to the hypothesis that swarms are long-range predictors of mainshock events. A close similarity between the swarm and aftershock magnitudes in a given sequence is also confirmed in Greece, supporting the proposal that swarms are an integral part of the seismogenic process in subduction regions. Further, the modelling of swarms as part of an overall increase in seismicity, the onset of which marks the onset of seismogenesis, is well illustrated from past sequences in Greece. Formal tests are being carried out in Greece, in parallel with New Zealand and Japan, to ascertain the performance of the hypothesis as a basis for long-range synoptic forecasting.

  5. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  6. Optimum Currency Area Criteria in the Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Rankov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creation of a monetary union in any region, regardless of the structure and level of development among countries, carries along certain costs and benefits. This paper explains Mundell’s concept of Optimum Currency Area and criteria that are needed to achieve it. Viewed through the prism of these criteria the EMU is currently far from achieving the OCA confirming the current crisis in Greece and other PIIGS countries. The example of Greece and shortcomings that contributed to its current crisis represents the biggest cost and a break-even point for the future of the monetary union. However, it is encouraging that Greece is not alone in its problems, since various funds for help have been established in a relatively short period of time. The reason for this is certainly a huge cost if any country should leave the union and the spillover effect that it would cause. Certainly serious transformations can be expected and the result should be a stronger union with better control from supra-national level.

  7. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  8. A climatological study of rural surface ozone in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that surface ozone levels at rural sites in Greece are generally high when compared with rural ozone measurements at northern European sites. The area of SE Europe, including Greece, is not very well monitored regarding rural ozone in comparison to central and northern Europe. In order to have the best possible picture of the rural surface ozone climatology in the area, based on the available data-sets of long-term continuous monitoring stations, the 10-year measurement records (1987-1996 of the Athens peripheral station of Liossia, (12 km N of the city center and the urban background station of Geoponiki (3 km W as well as the 4-year record (1996-1999 of the rural station of Aliartos (100 km NW of Athens, are analyzed in this paper. The data for Liossia and Geoponiki stations are screened for cases of strong airflow from rural areas (N-NE winds stronger than 5 m/s. The variation characteristics of the average rural ozone afternoon levels (12:00-18:00, with the best vertical atmospheric mixing, are mainly examined since these measurements are expected to be representative of the broader area. In all three stations there is a characteristic seasonal variation of rural ozone concentrations with lowest winter afternoon values at about 50 μg/m3 in December-January and average summer afternoon values at about 120 μg/m3 in July-August, indicating that high summer values are observed all over the area. The rural summer afternoon ozone values are very well correlated between the three stations, implying spatial homogeneity all over the area but also temporal homogeneity, since during the 13-year period 1987-1999 the rural afternoon ozone levels remained almost constant around the value of 120 μg/m3.

  9. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...

  10. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  11. Dendrochronological Investigations of Valonia Oak Trees in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Papadopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Valonia oak (Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy Hedge & Yalt. is an east Mediterranean endemic, xerothermic and deciduous tree of particular interest in forestry. There has been a growing demand lately to include the species in reforestations in Greece which also increased the interest to investigate its response to climate change. The main purpose of this research is to study valonia oak from a dendrochronological – dendroclimatological point of view within its Mediterranean distribution range. Materials and Methods: Sampling took place in characteristic valonia oak stands where cross sections or tree-cores were taken from 40 trees. The cross sections and the tree-cores were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods and tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the Windendro software program. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring data and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The inter-annual variability of tree-ring width and the radial growth trend were examined. Finally, tree-ring widths to climate relationships were calculated by orthogonal regression in combination with the bootstrap procedure using master residual chronology and monthly precipitation, temperature data and scPDSI drought index, from October of the n-1 year up to November of the n year. Results: The master chronology of valonia oak trees in Western Greece reaches 365 years, with an average ring width of 0.89 mm and with mean sensitivity being 0.21. The variation of the tree-ring widths indicates the influence of climate and human intervention in the past. Tree-ring to climate relationships show that valonia oak growth is positively affected by precipitations in January and March and by drought reduction during June and July. Conclusions: Valonia oak in Western Greece is a species of great interest for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies

  12. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  13. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  14. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  15. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  16. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  17. (ReConsidering American Studies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Detsi-Diamanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In writing about American studies in Greece, one is tempted to consider for a moment the fact that the field, ever since it placed itself on the international academic map, has been in a constant process of self-discovery and self-becoming. Its openness, which may be taken as evidence for its vibrant existence and its ability to reconstruct and deconstruct itself, has led to new areas of research, new formulations, new critiques, as well as to an essential paradox  : although we currently wit...

  18. Periodontal treatment needs and systemic diseases in an older population in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S.; Tsalikis, Lazaros

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationship between systemic diseases, body mass index and periodontal treatment needs in an older population in Greece. Material and Methods A total of 262 older people were clinically examined about their periodontal status and medical histories were recorded using a health history questionnaire. Additionally, weight and height measurements as well as demographic data were obtained from the participants in the study. Results Older people exhibited mean age of 63....

  19. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  20. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  1. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  2. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  3. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  4. Greece:Strategic Partner for China's "Go Global" Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China and Greece have both made great contributions to the world's cultural heritage.As the Chinese economy has become an economic powerhouse In the global economy,the Greek economy has proven capabilities and is constantly improving.

  5. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  6. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  7. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  8. Eating habits, health attitudes and obesity indices among medical students in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Papazisis, Georgios; Toulis, Konstantinos; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2010-12-01

    Medical students represent not only the final but also the most crucial opportunity for education in the field of healthy lifestyles and nutritional habits. Eating habits and obesity indices among medical students in southern Greece were described almost a decade ago. However, there is a lack of current, relevant data concerning students living in northern Greece. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the body mass index distribution and nutritional and health-related behavior among medical students in northern Greece. The participants, 187 males (21.5 ± 1.9 years) and 203 females (21.3 ± 2.2 years), filled out a self-report questionnaire. Height and weight measurements were obtained. Dietary practices of fast food consumption (more frequent for males) and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (more frequent for females) were reported. Females seemed to adopt different practices than males when trying to lose weight and were significantly better informed about the nutrient value of the food consumed. Although the prevalence of overweight (males: 32.1%, females: 8.4%) and obesity (males: 5.9%, females: 1.5%) in the present sample is lower compared to previous data, it remains high according to what would be health promoting. The above findings suggest a need for further improvement in strategies promoting healthier nutrition habits.

  9. GREECE, PORTUGAL AND SPAIN - A TEST CASE FOR EUROPE IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA RALUCA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent statistics clearly show that Greece, Portugal, Spain and other euro zone members have massive public deficits and that is why this entire means that euro's future is extremely delicate. Until now, politicians have not come up with a concrete plan to solve the situation. In this matter, politicians in France, Germany and elsewhere have signaled that they'll provide some kind of back-up support, but only when Greece has really taken tough measures – possibly more than they have done already – to get the deficit down. Although that may be unsettling to some investors in the very short term, it's clearly good news for the euro in the longer term. In our paper, the intention is to present the reasons why Greece, Portugal, Spain and other euro zone members have massive public deficits and what should other countries do in order to help them in the nearby future. For us, a great concern is also the reaction of the European Central Bank and what could this institution do in the benefit of European countries in general.

  10. Imported Chikungunya fever case in Greece in June 2014 and public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Kavatha, Dimitra; Baka, Agoritsa; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Michaelakis, Antonios; Gavana, Elpida; Patsoula, Eleni; Tsimpos, Ioannis; Gioksari, Thalia; Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Vakali, Annita; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Papa, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We report about the first imported case of Chikungunya fever in Greece in a Greek traveler returning from the Dominican Republic and the associated public health response. We investigated the case and performed focused epidemiological and entomological investigation in all areas the patient visited during the infectious period, to identify the targeted interventions needed. Entomological investigation revealed the occurrence of the competent vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the environment surrounding the hospital where the patient was admitted and in her workplace. All captured mosquitoes tested negative for Chikungunya virus. We further conducted clinical and laboratory examination of the patient's co-travelers, gave advice on appropriate personal preventive measures against mosquito bites to the patient and co-travelers and on vector control, and raised awareness among health professionals throughout Greece. The risk of introduction and local transmission of Chikungunya and other arboviruses in Greece and other European countries is present, as the competent vector exists in many parts of Europe. Public health professionals, travel medicine specialists and clinicians should maintain awareness regarding this possibility of importation of arbovirus cases in order to provide the appropriate advice, seek the prompt diagnosis, and implement appropriate interventions. Mobilization of various stakeholders will lead to enhanced epidemiological and entomological surveillance that will allow for improved risk assessment in each area.

  11. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  12. Coastal erosion vulnerability estimations by coupling field data and hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finikianaki, Vasilia; Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim; Ghionis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    smaller that the value at the observation point positioned farther offshore. This is related to the location and movement of the breaker zone. However, in general, the results of the simulation are very close to the measurements, and the underwater bars formed during the erosional and depositional phases of the storm event are represented with adequate accuracy. The overall BVI values show a relatively high vulnerability of the beach, even though the nearshore sediment transport rates do not seem to be significant, varying from low to moderate for both the long- and cross - shore constituents. Hence, it is concluded that the extremely high values of wave run up, indicating that the wave action affects the whole subaerial part of the beach, are responsible for the high vulnerability of the Gouves beach. References [1] Poulos S.E., Plomaritis T.A., Ghionis G., 2012. Nearshore wave characteristics related to a strong Etesian wind event monitored at the Gouves beach zone (Heraklion, Crete island). Proceedings 10th Panhellenic Symposium on Oceanography and Fisheries, Athens, Greece. [2] Poulos S.E., Plomaritis T.A., Ghionis G., Collins M.B., Angelopoulos C., 2013. The Role of Coastal Morphology in Influencing Sea Level Variations Induced by Meteorological Forcing in Microtidal Waters: Examples from the Island of Crete (Aegean Sea, Greece). Journal of Coastal Research, 272-282. [3] Alexandrakis, G., and Poulos, S.E., 2014. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment. Sci. Rep. 4, 6078; DOI:10.1038/srep06078.

  13. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  14. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  15. The Right to Asylum and EU Asylum Procedure in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Greece, under intense criticism over its asylum management by local NGO actors and European member states, has established a new asylum service, in 2013. In this article we explore the practice and the discourses that occur at the Appeals Authority, an independent authority in the determination of refugee eligibility at second instance, of the newly established Asylum Service in Greece. As members of appeal committees engage with each other and with the asylum seekers in deciding who is entit...

  16. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  17. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  18. An Analysis of the Confidence Building Measures between States in Maritime Territorial Disputes---With the Example of the Aegean Dispute between Greece and Turkey%海上领土争端中的国家互信生成机制探析--以希腊与土耳其爱琴海争端为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洋

    2015-01-01

    建立信任措施已经成为国与国之间普遍用来降低军事意外冲突的一种机制。但现有国际关系领域建立的信任措施(模型)大多重视经验分析,而鲜有探讨国家间互信机制的生成。本文以希腊与土耳其在爱琴海争端中的互信实践为研究案例,总结出两国建立互信机制的互动模式与实施路径,并进而梳理出国家间信任的三个层次,以期为中国解决海上领土争端提供借鉴。%Confidence building measures have been a common useful mechanism to prevent the accidental con-flict between countries.Current researches on trust in the field of international relations focus primarily on em-pirical analysis,while paying little attention to the generative mechanism of mutual trust.This essay summarizes the interactive model and the implementation path of confidence building measures between Greece and Turkey on Aegean issues,then comes out three levels of trust between countries,and provides reference value for China to solve its maritime territorial disputes.

  19. Linking family cohesion and flexibility with expressed emotion, family burden and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with psychosis: A path analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-06-30

    The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers.

  20. EX-PRESS® Implant Position and Function: Comparative Evaluation with Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T.; Stojanovic, Nela; Chalkia, Aikaterini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) for the imaging of EX-PRESS® implant. Materials and Methods: This nonrandomized comparative case series was performed at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. The Ellex Eye Cubed (40 MHz) UBM and the Zeiss Visante OCT systems were used. The filtering bleb morphology (BL), aqueous outflow (AS), and tube position (TB) were evaluated by two independent observers using a quality scale of 1 (worst) to 4 (best). Data were also collected on corneal and iris clearance from the tip of the tube (CC and IC, respectively). Data from both the devices were statistically analyzed. P 0.05). Conclusion: Imaging of the EX-PRESS® implant is feasible with both UBM and OCT. Both modalities allow visualization of the position of the implant tube in relation to the iris or cornea and delineate the internal structure of the filtering bleb. PMID:26957849

  1. A new endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior and posterior capsule opacification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Stojanovic, Nela R; Ginis, Harilaos S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to demonstrate the functionality of a new design of a thick endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Setting The Institute of Vision and Optics, University of Crete and University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Design Prospective, interventional pilot study. Methods Fifteen patients (17 eyes) underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification. During surgery, a thick endocapsular open ring (peripheral capsule reconstructor) was inserted into the capsular bag, prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Six different models of IOL were implanted. Postoperatively, the degree of ACO and PCO was evaluated and described as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Results The mean follow-up period was 30±8.06 months (range: 12–36 months). At the last follow-up, mild PCO was observed in only three eyes and mild ACO in three patients. The centration of IOLs was good in all but one eye, which had a tilted IOL. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that the implantation of a new design of thick endocapsular open ring is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of PCO and ACO after cataract surgery. PMID:27843291

  2. Mononucleosis and Epstein–Barr virus infection: treatment and medication

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    Valachis A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis2, Diamantis P Kofteridis11Departments of Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Department of Oncology, Mälarsjukhuset, Eskilstuna, SwedenAbstract: Epstein–Barr virus is a member of the human herpes virus family. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood; in adolescents and young adults, however, it leads to infectious mononucleosis with symptoms including fever, fatigue, and sore throat that can persist for months. The disease is usually self-limited and resolves over a period of weeks or months but may occasionally be complicated by a wide variety of complications. Symptomatic treatment, the cornerstone of therapy, includes adequate hydration, analgesics, antipyretics, and limitations of contact sports and activities. The role of antiviral treatment and corticosteroids is debatable and not recommended in general, while the development of vaccination is under investigation. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, the potential complications, and the therapeutic strategies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, EBV

  3. The Venetian lazarettos of Candia and the Great Plague (1592 - 1595).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Tsakris, Athanasios; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2014-03-01

    The present study highlights the history of lazarettos in Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete, Greece), which was the most important Venetian possession in the Mediterranean at the time, while at the same time it recounts the terrible plague which went down in history as the Great Plague of Candia (1592-1595). The study will also attempt to give a satisfactory answer to the epidemiological questions raised by the worst epidemic that Crete had experienced since the era of the Black Death in the 14th century. The city was about to lose more than a half of its population (51.3%), although it was saved from complete annihilation by the composure, courage and inventiveness of its Venetian commander, Filippo Pasqualigo, whose report to the Venetian Senate makes an invaluable source of information regarding the events of this dramatic period. Candia would also witness the emergence of typical human reactions in cases of epidemics and mass deaths, such as running away along with the feeling of self-preservation, dissolute life and ephemeral pleasures, as well as lawlessness and criminality. The lazaretto proved inefficient in the face of a disaster of such scale, whereas the epidemic functioned as a "crash-test" for the Venetian health system. Eventually, in an era when the microbial nature of the disease was unknown, it seems that it was practically impossible to handle emergency situations of large-scale epidemics successfully, despite strict laws and well-organized precautionary health systems.

  4. Adjuvant corneal crosslinking to prevent hyperopic LASIK regression

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    Aslanides IM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis M Aslanides, Achyut N MukherjeeEmmetropia Mediterranean Eye Clinic, Heraklion, Crete, GreecePurpose: To report the long term outcomes, safety, stability, and efficacy in a pilot series of simultaneous hyperopic laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and corneal crosslinking (CXL.Method: A small cohort series of five eyes, with clinically suboptimal topography and/or thickness, underwent LASIK surgery with immediate riboflavin application under the flap, followed by UV light irradiation. Postoperative assessment was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, with late follow up at 4 years, and results were compared with a matched cohort that received LASIK only.Results: The average age of the LASIK-CXL group was 39 years (26–46, and the average spherical equivalent hyperopic refractive error was +3.45 diopters (standard deviation 0.76; range 2.5 to 4.5. All eyes maintained refractive stability over the 4 years. There were no complications related to CXL, and topographic and clinical outcomes were as expected for standard LASIK.Conclusion: This limited series suggests that simultaneous LASIK and CXL for hyperopia is safe. Outcomes of the small cohort suggest that this technique may be promising for ameliorating hyperopic regression, presumed to be biomechanical in origin, and may also address ectasia risk.Keyword: CXL

  5. Accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking should be modified

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    Kymionis GD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available George D Kymionis,1,2 Konstantinos I Tsoulnaras11Vardinoyiannion Eye Institute of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAWe have read with interest the recently published comparative study regarding the accelerated versus conventional corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL in the treatment of mild keratoconus. We would like to underline the importance of the CXL treatment time reduction in this time consuming operation.1 Accelerated CXL became popular due to patient and doctor comfort in comparison to the previously widespread use of Dresden protocol which is successful in terms of safety and efficacy. Based on the Bunsen-Roscoe law of reciprocity many modifications to the time and irradiation settings have been proposed while the total energy dose delivered to the cornea should be maintained at 5.4 J/cm2.2View original paper by Sherif

  6. Nasal packing aspiration in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease: a rare complication

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    Papadakis I

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios Koudounarakis, Nikolaos Chatzakis, Ioannis Papadakis, Irene Panagiotaki, George VelegrakisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, GreeceAbstract: Nasal bleeding is a frequent problem for patients receiving anticoagulant agents. Most cases are successfully managed with anterior or posterior nasal packing. However, the complications of nasal packing should be always considered. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with Alzheimer’s disease who was treated for anterior epistaxis with anterior nasal packing using three pieces of antibiotic-soaked gauze. Two days later, the patient was admitted to the emergency department in respiratory distress. A chest x-ray demonstrated atelectasis of the right lung. During an examination of the nasal cavities, the nasal packing was removed, and one of the gauze pieces was missing. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy, and the missing gauze was found to be obstructing the right main bronchus. The patient’s respiratory function improved considerably after removal of the foreign body. It is assumed that gauze packs should be used with caution in patients with an impaired level of consciousness and neurodegenerative diseases.Keywords: epistaxis, nasal packing, aspiration, Alzheimer’s disease, cough reflex

  7. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  8. Bridging knowledge to develop an action plan for integrated care for chronic diseases in Greece

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    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The health, social and economic impact of chronic diseases is well documented in Europe. However, chronic diseases threaten relatively more the ‘memorandum and peripheral’ Eurozone countries (i.e., Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland, which were under heavy recession after the economic crisis in 2009. Especially in Greece, where the crisis was the most severe across Europe, the austerity measures affected mainly people with chronic diseases. As a result, the urgency to tackle the threat of chronic diseases in Greece by promoting public health and providing effective chronic care while flattening the rising health care expenditure is eminent. In many European countries, integrated care is seen as a means to achieve this.The aim of this paper was to support Greek health policy makers to develop an action plan from 2015 onwards, to integrate care by bridging local policy context and needs with knowledge and experience from other European countries. To achieve this aim, we adopted a conceptual framework developed by the World Health Organization on one hand to analyse the status of integrated care in Greece, and on the other to develop an action plan for reform. The action plan was based on an analysis of the Greek health care system regarding prerequisite conditions to integrate care, a clear understanding of its context and successful examples of integrated care from other European countries. This study showed that chronic diseases are poorly addressed in Greece and integrated care is in embryonic stage.Greek policy makers have to realise that this is the opportunity to make substantial reforms in chronic care. Failing to reform towards integrated care would lead to the significant risk of collapse of the Greek health care system with all associated negative consequences. The action plan provided in this paper could support policy makers to make the first serious step to face this challenge. The details and specifications of the action plan

  9. Bridging knowledge to develop an action plan for integrated care for chronic diseases in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The health, social and economic impact of chronic diseases is well documented in Europe. However, chronic diseases threaten relatively more the ‘memorandum and peripheral’ Eurozone countries (i.e., Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland, which were under heavy recession after the economic crisis in 2009. Especially in Greece, where the crisis was the most severe across Europe, the austerity measures affected mainly people with chronic diseases. As a result, the urgency to tackle the threat of chronic diseases in Greece by promoting public health and providing effective chronic care while flattening the rising health care expenditure is eminent. In many European countries, integrated care is seen as a means to achieve this. The aim of this paper was to support Greek health policy makers to develop an action plan from 2015 onwards, to integrate care by bridging local policy context and needs with knowledge and experience from other European countries. To achieve this aim, we adopted a conceptual framework developed by the World Health Organization on one hand to analyse the status of integrated care in Greece, and on the other to develop an action plan for reform. The action plan was based on an analysis of the Greek health care system regarding prerequisite conditions to integrate care, a clear understanding of its context and successful examples of integrated care from other European countries. This study showed that chronic diseases are poorly addressed in Greece and integrated care is in embryonic stage. Greek policy makers have to realise that this is the opportunity to make substantial reforms in chronic care. Failing to reform towards integrated care would lead to the significant risk of collapse of the Greek health care system with all associated negative consequences. The action plan provided in this paper could support policy makers to make the first serious step to face this challenge. The details and specifications of the action plan

  10. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Greece: Spatio-temporal analysis and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lightning Network (PLN) is analysed over the wider area of Greece. In addition, the spatial and temporal relationships between TRMM 3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) datasets and lightning are presented. The analyses concern the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2012. The Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens, has established a detailed dataset of lightning impacts over Greece from 1895 to 2013, based on digitized archive editions of newspapers. The mean seasonal variability of CG lightning activity revealed autumn as the most dominant season with 303 LD, while the mean monthly variability of CG indicated October as the most lightning active month and May as the month with a mean of 27 LD. The mean annual spatial distribution of CG lightning per km2, depicted the maximum frequency over Pindus mountain range (> 7 CG/km2). During the autumn season, the northern Ionian Sea experienced a mean frequency of more than 5 CG/km2, compared to the southern Ionian Sea and NW Peloponnesus, where values of more than 7 CG/km2 are depicted. During the summer season, the maximum frequency appeared along Pindus mountain range, around Attica, Thessaly and central Macedonia highlands. The spatial distribution of seasonal correlations between the number of CG flashes/day and gridded (TRMM 3B42) daily rainfall totals for the period 2008-2012 over Greece, indicated that correlations were mainly positive all over the under study area, within all seasons, and especially during summer and autumn. Regarding the lightning impacts in Greece, based on the 1895-2013 study period, more than 343 fatalities and at least 224 injured people have been recorded. The spatial analysis of lightning impacts, showed that the majority of events has been recorded over Greek mainland and only few scattered events have been reported over

  11. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies.

  12. Accessibility of Peripheral Regions: Evidence from Aegean Islands (Greece

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    Ioannis Spilanis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Islands, especially smaller ones, are characterized by discontinuity of space and are considered as some of the least accessible areas. In this paper, we seek to shed light on the accessibility problems that islands face from the point of view of island residents. This shift in emphasis considers additional aspects to accessibility that include the availability of connections to access services required to cover the needs of island residents and the different destinations where these may be available, and the time that one may have to spend to get to these destinations in order to use these services. An alternative measure of accessibility is proposed, based on the time required to travel; this is then applied to three different Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. The accessibility of the residents of these islands to selected services is compared with that of settlements in continental Greece of similar population and distance to the capital Athens. The findings clearly demonstrate the adversities that island residents have to face, especially for smaller islands, where accessing selected services may require as many as four destinations, with virtual distances 4 to 6 times longer than ‘real distances’.

  13. On the date of early Christian Basilicas (Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, G.; Lambrou, E.

    The exact foundation date of many early Christian churches is still unknown or according to archaeologists estimation it is attributed to a large time interval. According to a new astrogeodetic methology, today it is feasible to assess it. This paper deals with the determination of the orientation, the foundation date and the dedication of Nine Early Christian basilicas, situated in central Greece. According to the suggested methodology, the appropriate geodetic and astrogeodetic measurements were carried out on the site of Each Early Christian basilica in order to: Determine the accurate position on the surface of the earth by the calculation of its coordinates, Draw the accurate digital plan, Define the basic longitudinal axis, Calculate the astronomical azimuth of the basic axis via observations to Polaris (a Ursa Minoris), Create the profile of the perceptible horizon, Determine the apparent transit of the sun for different dates. Combining all the above data for each Early Christian Basilica the total geometric documentation of the monument was made. The detection of its foundation date and its dedication were achieved with adequate precision and reliability. Last, their selectable and systematical astronomical orientations were registered and a data base including all the above data had been created.

  14. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Improving Soil Erosion Prevention in Greece with New Tools

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    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable anthropogenic activities such as agriculture and urbanization have caused excessive erosion rates that exceed soil formation rates. The Mediterranean region has and continues to experience severe erosion because of the inappropriate agricultural management, overgrazing, deforestation, wildfires, land abandonment, intense road construction and other construction activities. The forecasted increase of intensive rainfall events and prolonged drought periods due to climate change, will enhance surface runoff and sediment transport capacity. The objective of this study was to develop new tools to help land managers mitigate erosion in the country of Greece. One of the tools was a new sensor (ASEMS that is based on the physical properties of ultrasound to detect erosion locally with great accuracy (1 mm, while simultaneously measuring precipitation, soil moisture, and soil and air temperature. The other tool was the development of the Soil Erosion Integrated Information System (SE-I2S that enables land managers through a series of questions to understand if they are facing erosion problems and what type of erosion. This tool can be applied to large areas. Overall, both new tools are user friendly and help land managers mitigate soil erosion cost-effectively.

  16. Proximal Ignimbrite Geometry on Santorini, Greece Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, M. V.; Russell, J. K.; Hill, G. J.; Druitt, T. H.

    2001-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys on Santorini, Greece, are used to constrain the 3-dimensional geometry of the near-surface pyroclastic deposits produced by the 3.6 ka caldera-forming Minoan eruption. Specifically, the results elucidate deposit structures at the south end of the island. More than 2.4 km of radar survey data were collected at a measurement spacing of 0.5-1.0 m, using the common offset reflection method (3 m offset) and radar frequencies of 50 and 100 MHz. Imaging depths of the raw data were typically small (caldera rim while phase 4 gradually thickens. The GPR results suggest that the flows were more energetic than the previous model implied, and too energetic to bulk deposit in the subaerial, proximal area. Most of the mass of pyroclastics swept down the slope and into the sea, leaving behind only thin veneers. The velocity reduction caused by a combination of the phase 4 flow thickening as it passed over the ancient sea cliffs, and by entering the sea, caused the flow to switch to a strongly depositional mode resulting in a thickened deposit. An implication of these results is that most of the Minoan pyroclastic flow deposits on Santorini, apart from those near and on the outer coast, were emplaced aggradationally.

  17. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  18. Site characteristics of Tuber magnatum in Greece

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    Vasilios Christopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Day after day it is being demonstrated that Greece hides a buried treasure in its forests. The wild black truffles Tuber aestivum, T. uncinatum, T. brumale and T. melanosporum and the white truffle T. borchii and recently T. magnatum are picked in a variety of forest ecosystems all over the country. The information which has been collected has initiated a national programme on truffle cultivation which, so far, has immense appeal, especially among young farmers. The discovery of carpophores of T. magnatum, the most valued white truffle in the market, triggered the interest in studying the site characteristics, botanical and pedological, in order to help farmers to cultivate the species in similar sites. All carpophores were found under hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis along the banks of a creek on alluvial sediment. Soil analyses of four soil samples from truffle nests showed a narrow range of values of pH in water (7.57–7.78 and 1N KCL (6.94–7.07 and a similar granulometric soil texture.

  19. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  20. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  1. Localization Factors and Inward Foreign Direct Investment in Greece

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    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the foreign direct investment (FDI attractiveness for Greece as a host country in the period 1998-2007. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of variables, such as market size, labour costs, trade openness, taxes, inflation and economic stability. The manuscript applies a panel data approach (Fixed Effects estimator and GMM system estimator. In contrast to previous studies, this paper used a dynamic panel data to solve the problems of serial correlation and endogeneity. The empirical results indicate that the market size, trade openness, and labour costs are significant factors to explain inward FDI to Greece. These results indicate that the FDI attracting will be influenced by market size. Our results also show that Greece has some problems of macroeconomic stability, which discourages the investors.

  2. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pteroudis, E

    1996-01-01

    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  3. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  4. COMPARING FRAMES, FRAMING COMPARISONS: GREECE/EU FRAMES ON GENDER INEQUALITY IN POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Maloutas, Maro Pantelidou

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to present the main similarities and differences between Greece and the EU in respect to the framing of gender inequality in political decision making as a policy issue, based on the ways that the problem is diagnosed. It also aims at the formulation of a hypothesis which argues that beyond the above similarities and differences, which may tint in a different colour measures and policies showing one case more gender sensitive or more «traditional» than the other, there ex...

  5. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  6. Implementation of the New Approach for the Dose-Response Functions Development for the Case of Athens and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C. G.; Varotsos, C. A.; Kouremadas, G.

    2016-08-01

    Dose-response functions (DRFs) are functions used for estimating corrosion and/or soiling levels of materials used in constructions and cultural monuments. In order to achieve this, DRFs lean on ground-based measurements of specific air pollution and climatic parameters like nitrogen oxides, ozone, temperature and others. In DRAGON 3 2015 Symposium we presented a new approach which proposed a technique for using satellite-based data for the necessary parameters instead of ground-based expanding in this way: a) the usage of DRFs in cases/areas where there is no availability of in situ measurements, b) the applicability of satellite-based data. In this work we present mapping results of deterioration levels (corrosion and soiling) for the case of Athens, Greece but also for the whole Greece country.

  7. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, pGreece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, pGreece. It should be noted that the running financial crisis in Greece seems to have many effects on quality of life, since the most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts,general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Having in mind the above situation, further analyses are needed to determine the relationship between mental health-care services, suicide rates and other psychosocial indices, in order to provide a strategic plan for a better design of mental health-care policy in Greece.

  8. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  9. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  10. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  11. Hepatitis A among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants living in hosting facilities, Greece, April to December 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellou, Kassiani; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Sideroglou, Theologia; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Kyritsi, Maria; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2017-01-26

    An increased number of hepatitis A cases among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants residing in hosting facilities in Greece were recorded between April and December 2016. In total, 177 laboratory-confirmed symptomatic cases were reported; of these, 149 (84%) occurred in hosting camps mostly among Syrian children under 15 years. All cases reported symptom onset after their entry into the country. Public health interventions focused on hygiene measures and vaccination.

  12. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals in Greece and the Impact of Macroeconomic Shocks from the Countries of Tourists’ Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Gounoploulos, D.; Petmezas, D.; Santamaria, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper generates short-term forecasts on tourist arrivals in Greece and performs impulse response analysis to measure the impact of macroeconomic shocks from the origin country on future tourism demand. We find the ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model outperforms exponential smoothing models in forecasting the direction of one year out of sample forecasts. However, this does not translate into point forecasting accuracy. Impulse response analysis on the impact of unemployment and tourists’ cost of livin...

  13. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is characteristic of terrestrial higher plant origin. Low CPI values (1.6-3.4) were recorded only in Acheloos river, where very low n-alkane concentrations were also found, suggesting transport of limited amounts of terrigenous organic material in this case. The highest PAH concentrations were again measured in Asopos and Evros estuary (800-1200 ng/g), followed by Axios, Aliakmons, Strymon, Acheloos and Acherontas (220 - 650 ng/g), whereas very low

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  15. Mortality by Cause of Death Among Immigrants and Natives in a South European Country: The Case of Greece, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine for the first time in Greece mortality by cause of death among immigrants. The analysis makes use of vital registration statistics for 2010-2012 and census data for 2011; standardised mortality ratios are estimated for four distinct groups: natives, migrants from EU-27 (excluding Greece), other Europeans (mainly Albanians) and those from all other countries (mainly Asia/Africa). All immigrants seem to experience favourable mortality from neoplasms but higher mortality from external causes in comparison to Greeks. The results regarding cardiovascular diseases are mixed. Persons originating in Asian/African regions exhibit higher mortality from infectious diseases and TB. The findings highlight the specificities of immigrant mortality which stem from pre-existing conditions in the country of origin as well as from the adverse socio-economic environment in the country of destination. As immigrants experience some excessive 'avoidable' mortality implementation of appropriate measures should be a social policy priority.

  16. A new Leiobunum species from Greece (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaman, Ivo M.

    1996-01-01

    Leiobunum gruberi nov. spec. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from northern Greece (Macedonia, Leptokaria) is described and figured. This species is closely related to Leiobunum seriatum Simon, 1878, known from the Near East, Cyprus and eastern Anatolia. A short review of known taxa of the genus

  17. Public investment and regional growth and convergence : Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Psycharis, Yannis; Tselios, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of public investment on regional economic growth and convergence at the NUTS 3 level in Greece. Using a new database of public expenditure per region for the period 19782007, it proposes a model which captures not just the impact of public investment in Greek prefectu

  18. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  19. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes of Computer Science Teachers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…

  20. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizu...

  1. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  2. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states...

  3. Economic voting under the economic crisis: Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nezi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Having joined the Eurozone in 2001, Greece experienced a short period of economic euphoria before confronting a major financial crisis some nine years later. In the period between joining the Eurozone and accepting the joint IMF/EU bailout package, the economic situation facing Greek voters changed

  4. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  5. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  6. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  7. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  8. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  9. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (terms of sediment texture, 41% of the beaches were found to consist mostly of medium and coarse sands (gS and (g)S) and 31% of gravels with some sand presence ((s)G and sG). The exclusively sandy beaches correspond to the 11% when the exclusively gravelly beaches accounts for 16%. North sided

  10. Atherogenic risk factors among preschool children in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos M Hatzis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of atherogenic factors among preschool children of Crete, Greece. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The study population included 1189 children, aged four to seven years, examined from January to May 2005, in public kindergartens. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed. Results: Of the boys 27.4% were classified as overweight or obese (obese 10.8%. The respective percentage for girls was 28.5% (obese 9%; 7.4% percent of the boys and 7.9% of the girls had blood pressure above the ninety-fifth percentile. TC of > 200 mg / dl was found in 14.4% and LDL-C of > 130 mg / dl in 13.8% of the children. Children with serum TG of > 100 mg / dl had a significantly higher mean WC and BMI than those with triglyceride levels of ≤ 80 mg / dl (59.7 vs. 55.9 cm and 17.9 vs. 16.6 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Similarly, children with HDL-C < 45 mg / dl had significantly higher WC and BMI than children with HDL-C ≥ 60 mg / dl (57.7 vs. 53.5 cm and 17.1 vs. 16.5 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Obese children had an Odds Ratio of 2.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 − 7.85, P = 0.041 for hypertriglyceridemia, as compared to non-obese children. Conclusion: Levels of obesity and especially central obesity were strongly related to other atherogenic risk factors in Cretan preschool children indicating the presence of this major public health problem in early ages.

  11. SAR Interferometric Analysis Of Ground Deformation At Santorini Volcano (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elena; Foumelis, Michael; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2012-01-01

    The core of the present study builds on ground deformation monitoring by SAR Interferometry at Santorini Volcanic Complex (Greece). Dataset used for this case study, include the entire archive of ERS SAR and ENVISAT ASAR data for both ascending and descending orbits covering almost two decades of observations (1992-2010). Deformation signals of millimeter-level accuracy were retrieved from both SAR and ASAR datasets, by way of the Interferometric Stacking technique. The linear rate of differential phases and the corresponding errors were estimated by averaging the unwrapped differential interferograms. Subsequently, vertical deformation rates were calculated by the combination of LOS measurements in ascending and descending acquisition geometries. The observed ground deformation shows mainly subsidence in the central part of Santorini Caldera, at Nea Kammeni Island, equal to -5.1 ±0.7 mm/yr, and -6.3 ±1.2 mm/yr for the periods 1992-2000 and 2003-2010 respectively, while both signs of movements (uplift and subsidence) of lower scale magnitude were recognized elsewhere on the volcano. In fact, higher deformation rates for the period after 2003 (ranging between -4.6 mm/yr and 5.6 mm/yr), compared to the lower values of the period 1992-2000 (from -1.7 mm/yr to 2.7 mm/yr), indicate increase in the undergoing deformation of the volcanic complex. Finally, this work presents an attempt to obtain integrated interferometric results of ground deformation from both ERS and ENVISAT sensors in order to allow future investigations on the deformation sources of the volcanic complex, which could be further exploited in the volcanic hazard and risk assessment.

  12. The Economic Crisis in Greece and Its Impact on the Seasonality of Suicides in the Athens Greater Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Gkerekou, Maria; Paraschakis, Antonios; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-01-01

    The economic crisis and the implementation of austerity measures in Greece lead to significant socioeconomic changes. The effects of the crisis were mainly felt by the Greek population during the years 2011 and 2012. This study aimed to investigate the impact of Greece's economic crisis on the seasonality of suicides in the Athens Greater Area. Data were collected for all recorded cases of suicides committed over a 5-year period (from 2008 to 2012) from the Athens Department of Forensic Medicine. Two sub-periods were studied in relation to the economic crisis: 2008-2010 and 2011-2012. Seasonality was estimated with the Poison regression variant of the circular normal distribution. Suicide seasonality appeared significant during 2008-2010 (relative risk, RR=1.36) and strengthened in the years 2011-2012 (RR=1.69), when the impact of the austerity measures was increasingly being felt by the Greek society. Regarding the latter sub-period, seasonality was established for males (RR=1.75), individuals aged 45 years or more (RR=1.75) and suicide by hanging (RR=1.96). The economic crisis in Greece, especially in the period during its effects had a significant impact on the population's economic condition, seems to have strengthened the seasonality of suicides, while a noteworthy suicide risk of 96% was revealed for suicides by hanging (peak in early June).

  13. The Economic Crisis in Greece and Its Impact on the Seasonality of Suicides in the Athens Greater Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Gkerekou, Maria; Paraschakis, Antonios; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-01-01

    Objective The economic crisis and the implementation of austerity measures in Greece lead to significant socioeconomic changes. The effects of the crisis were mainly felt by the Greek population during the years 2011 and 2012. This study aimed to investigate the impact of Greece's economic crisis on the seasonality of suicides in the Athens Greater Area. Methods Data were collected for all recorded cases of suicides committed over a 5-year period (from 2008 to 2012) from the Athens Department of Forensic Medicine. Two sub-periods were studied in relation to the economic crisis: 2008–2010 and 2011–2012. Seasonality was estimated with the Poison regression variant of the circular normal distribution. Results Suicide seasonality appeared significant during 2008–2010 (relative risk, RR=1.36) and strengthened in the years 2011–2012 (RR=1.69), when the impact of the austerity measures was increasingly being felt by the Greek society. Regarding the latter sub-period, seasonality was established for males (RR=1.75), individuals aged 45 years or more (RR=1.75) and suicide by hanging (RR=1.96). Conclusion The economic crisis in Greece, especially in the period during its effects had a significant impact on the population's economic condition, seems to have strengthened the seasonality of suicides, while a noteworthy suicide risk of 96% was revealed for suicides by hanging (peak in early June). PMID:28096870

  14. An assessment of the external radiological impact in areas of Greece with elevated natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florou, H; Trabidou, G; Nicolaou, G

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the radiological impact assessment in three selected areas of elevated natural radioactivity in Greece is attempted, based on measurements, theoretical relations, and simple model application. These areas are Milos--an island of volcanic origin in Cyclades Archipelago, Ikaria--an island in the Eastern Aegean Sea and Loutraki--a coastal area in mainland Greece. These areas are characterized by their geothermal springs and vents, which emit fluids into the littoral and sublittoral zones. The results include: (a) the exposure dose rates assessed by a car-borne scintillation spectrometry system; (b) laboratory measurements of the activity concentrations of the gamma-emitters of 238U and 232Th series and 40K in soil, spring water, seawater and sediments by gamma-spectrometry; (c) estimations of the effective dose rate equivalents and health risk assessment for humans and external dose rates for natural aquatic populations in relation to organism habitat; and (d) a radiological evaluation for the environmental quality, in terms of the discrete zones of impact of ionizing radiation.

  15. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avramidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate – interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole – core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  16. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  17. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  18. COPD patients' medical care and support in Greece during financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitonas G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available George Mitonas,1 Alexia Juvana,2 Zoe Daniil,3 Chryssa Hatzoglou,4 Konstantinos Gourgoulianis3 1Diavata Health Center, Gennimatas General Hospital, 2Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, 3Pulmonary Medicine Department, University Hospital of Larissa, 4Physiology Department, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece Background: The need to follow a multidisciplinary strategy in chronic obstructive ­pulmonary disease (COPD management and rehabilitation in community settings in Greece raises significant questions, given the severe austerity measures being imposed at present. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical profile of patients with COPD along with the care provided in rural community settings in Greece.Methods: Two primary health care centers and 200 newly diagnosed patients over a 12-month period were involved in the study. A self-assessment questionnaire, including questions about smoking habits, the presence of comorbidities and chronic respiratory symptoms, as well as the COPD Assessment Test were used. Spirometry was performed with a dry spirometer. Obstructive spirometry was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7, according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.Results: Males comprised 70% of the sample, with cough and sputum being the prominent signs. Regarding COPD staging, 68.5% were classified in stages I/II. Arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease were the most common comorbidities. Current smokers accounted for 88.5%, while 88% were heavy drinkers. A general practitioner made the diagnosis in 68.5% of the cases, among which offspring and spouses provided home care in 38% and 8% of the cases, respectively, while an informal caregiver other than a relative was reported in 34% of the cases. No caregiver (self-care was reported in 20% of the cases. All patients of stage III and IV had a COPD Assessment Test score >10

  19. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  20. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  1. Interdependence between Greece and other European stock markets: A comparison of wavelet and VMD copula, and the portfolio implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Ali, Sajid; Ameer, Saba

    2016-09-01

    The interdependence of Greece and other European stock markets and the subsequent portfolio implications are examined in wavelet and variational mode decomposition domain. In applying the decomposition techniques, we analyze the structural properties of data and distinguish between short and long term dynamics of stock market returns. First, the GARCH-type models are fitted to obtain the standardized residuals. Next, different copula functions are evaluated, and based on the conventional information criteria and time varying parameter, Joe-Clayton copula is chosen to model the tail dependence between the stock markets. The short-run lower tail dependence time paths show a sudden increase in comovement during the global financial crises. The results of the long-run dependence suggest that European stock markets have higher interdependence with Greece stock market. Individual country's Value at Risk (VaR) separates the countries into two distinct groups. Finally, the two-asset portfolio VaR measures provide potential markets for Greece stock market investment diversification.

  2. Religiosity as a predictor of mortality: A retrospective cohort study in 1519 rural citizens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darviri, Christina; Artemiadis, Artemios; Tigani, Xanthi; Darvyri, Panagiota; Gnardellis, Charalambos

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the role of religiosity in mortality. A retrospective cohort study (mean follow-up period 131.2 ± 30.8 months) in 1519 rural citizens in Greece (57.1% women, mean age 56.9 ± 20.4 years). Measurements included education, disease status, body mass index, lifestyle, sleep-quality and self-rated health (SRH). Religiosity was assessed as composite score of praying and church attendance. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A total of 293 deaths were recorded, 59.2% of which had occurred due to cardiovascular diseases, followed by cancer diseases (17%). All-cause mortality was found increased for older people (aHR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.08-1.11, p religiosity were found to have decreased risk for all-cause mortality (aHR: .61, 95%CI: .46-.83, p = .001) compared to those in the low religiosity category. Cardiovascular mortality was also significantly associated with SRH and religiosity. Religiosity predicts mortality, in a rural population in Greece. Deciphering the mediators of religiosity and mortality relationship could facilitate future health policies.

  3. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  4. Island mortality in the past: some evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalas, Vasilis S

    2008-03-01

    This paper explores the course of infant and childhood mortality in the Greek island of Paros from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. For this purpose the method of family reconstitution has been applied to two towns on the island. Official population statistics have been used to derive basic mortality estimates for the Cyclades and Greece as a whole. Reference to other studies concerning island mortality is also made. Hence, there appears the chance to compare insular with mainland mortality and realise that insular mortality presented some distinct features. It is shown that island populations presented lower mortality than the national average until the first decades of the twentieth century. However, by the 1950s Greece's infant and childhood mortality had dropped to the same or even to lower levels than those of the islands.

  5. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  6. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth. A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z. [The University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements. (author)

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z., E-mail: s.cani@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  9. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit." excerpt

  10. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-02

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.

  11. Mismanagement, ambiguity and delusion : training primary teachers in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Bryan J.; Koutouzis, Emmanuel

    1997-01-01

    Preparing primary teachers in Greece is an area of great ambiguity and frustration for many students. This paper seeks to show the influence of social origins, characteristics and qualifications of entrants to primary teaching and its role in social mobility. The paper is based on original research with first year student teachers along with unpublished research from government sources. Outcomes of the research demonstrate a greater need for creative and strategic planning i...

  12. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Ilias; Athanasios Panoras; Andreas Angelakis

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects...

  13. Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Grémillet X.

    1993-01-01

    Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (Greece)Pages 39 - 42 (Report)Xavier GémilletA study on Corfu Island in 1986 describes an otter population strongly threatened by building activities and pollution from olive pressing factories. This present report shows the accurate situation in 1992. Otters no longer breed on the west coast, where two major populations have been extirpated. Pressure from tourist development, fishfarming and uncontrolled poaching, even in reserves, threatens remain...

  14. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  15. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Zorba, Eleni; Karpouzis, Antony; Zorbas, Alexandros; Bazas, Theodore; Zorbas, Sam; Alexopoulos, Elias; Zorbas, Ilias; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos; Konstandinidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between seven occupational dermatoses (ODs) and 20 types of work in Greece. Methods This was a prevalence epidemiologic study of certain ODs among 4,000 workers employed in 20 types of enterprise, in 104 companies, in 2006–2012, using data from company medical records, questionnaires, occupational medical, and special examinations. The χ2 test was applied to reveal statistically significant relationships between types of enterprises and occurrence of O...

  16. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literatu...

  17. Feast, Food and Fodder in Neolithic-Bronze Age Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between mundane domestic and more formal meals in recent rural Greece, as a prelude to a diachronic examination of the range of commensal behavior through the Neolithic and Bronze Age of the same region. Analysis of recent practices highlights the role of a hierarchy of low- to high-value foods. While Neolithic commensality beyond the household emphasizes equality and collective cohesion, formal commensality takes a strikingly and increasingly diacrit...

  18. INFORMAL HOUSING IN GREECE: A QUANTITATIVE SPATIAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Serafeim POLYZOS; MINETOS, Dionysios

    2009-01-01

    During the last 50 years in Greece growing demand for urban (residential and industrial) space has resulted in unplanned residential development and informal dwelling construction to the expense of agricultural and forest land uses. Despite the fact that the post-war challenge faced by the state in providing minimal housing for their citizens has been met the informal settlements phenomenon still proceeds. This situation tents to become an acute problem with serious economic, social and envir...

  19. Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

  20. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Körlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Dag Körlin talks about the Guided Imagery and Music (GIM training programme in Greece and his contribution to its development. He explains some of the main aspects of GIM as a receptive music therapy method; he points out the role of music in the therapeutic process and he talks about the importance of listening. Finally, he refers to the European Network of GIM.

  1. Impact of Olive Cultivation on Biodiversity in Messenia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellström, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The biggest threat and cause to loss of biodiversity have been found to be the intensification of agriculture under the 20th century. Messenia is one of the oldest olive cultivation areas in Greece and the landscape is dominated by olive groves characterized by extensive tillage, which causes serious erosion and might be a threat to plant diversity. Organic olive cultivation is an alternative that aims to preserve and support biodiversity. In this study the plant composition in the edge zones...

  2. Steatosis and steatohepatitis in postmortem material from Northwestern Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; D; Zois; Gerasimos; H; Baltayiannis; Anna; Bekiari; Anna; Goussia; Peter; Karayiannis; Michalis; Doukas; Demetrios; Demopoulos; Antigoni; Mitsellou; Theodoros; Vougiouklakis; Vasiliki; Mitsi; Epameinondas; V; Tsianos

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of steatosis and steatohepatitis in a series of autopsies in Northwestern Greece. METHODS: Liver biopsy material from a total of 600 autopsies performed over a period of 2 years (2006-2008) to def ine the cause of death was subjected to histological examination. Patient demographic data were also collected. Tissue sections were stained with different dyes for the evaluation of liver architecture, degree of fibrosis and other pathological conditions when necessary. RESULTS: S...

  3. Developing Youth Football Academies in Greece: Managing Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Trikalis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five academies in voluntary sector. Goals and objectives in each youth football academy were recorded in three different theoretical areas: a administrative, b coaching, and c supportive services. Data were collected through interviews via open and closed question formats from fourteen administrative and fourteen coaching staff of the corresponding teams. Qualitative analysis was applied. The results of the study indicated significant differences in operation of youth football academies according to the different sector they operated: a the commercial sector academies attempted to improve rapidly the technical skills of child footballers, using their good facilities / services, b the public sector academies aimed primarily to improve the number of children, and c the voluntary sector academies aimed mainly to identify footballers talent and excellent skills. The above results, conducted the following proposals for the overall development of youth football academies in Greece: a a new management philosophy should require to adopted by football stakeholders, b scientific methods of training and cooperation with scientific institutions should be applied, and c any action should be taken in mind the recent economic crisis in Greece. In conclusion, youth football academies in the region of Thessaly _ in which this study was conducted_ could be under development if new management strategies be adopted by football shareholders.

  4. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  5. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilou, Paraskevi

    2015-04-13

    Recently, there is a surge of interest in the use of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support across cultures. The objective of this study was to translate and make the cultural adaptation of the Greek version of the MSPSS. The study counted with a sample of 10 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The process involved the following steps of translation back translation and semantic evaluation. The former revealed good acceptance of the translated version of the instrument, which participants considered having items of easy understanding. After completing the process of validation in the country, the instrument will become available to Greek researchers to measure social support, as well as to compare results from Greece to that of other cultures in which the instrument has already been validated.

  6. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  7. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  8. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece.

  9. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  10. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  11. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

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    Andreas Ilias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects which are currently in practice are those of Thessaloniki, Chalkida, Malia, Livadia, Amfisa, Kalikratia, and Chersonissos. In Thessaloniki, at the most important wastewater reuse site, the secondary effluent of the city’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP (165,000 m3/day is used for agricultural irrigation after mixing with freshwater at a 1:5 ratio. The main crops irrigated are rice, corn, alfalfa and cotton. A few other projects are under planning, such as that at Iraklion, Agios Nikolaos and several island regions. Finally, it should be mentioned that there are several cases of indirect reuse, especially in central Greece. However, the reuse potential in Greece is limited, since effluent from Athens’s WWTP, serving approximately half of the country’s population, is not economically feasible due to the location of the plant.

  12. Analysis on smoking policies: a comparison between Armenia, Greece and

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    Theofanidis D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper discusses anti-smoking policies in Greece, Armenia and N. Zealand. A historicalperspective showing different cultural and traditional differences is also provided. Aims: The aim was to examinesmoking policies/practises in countries with polar opposite official and public attitudes towards smoking. A criticalanalysis approach was used. Discussion: Greece has responded slowly towards contemporary smoking policies.New Zealand is a country with a long standing public debate concerning tobacco legislation or self regulation and withstrong anti-tobacco policies in situ. Armenia is among the top five tobacco consuming countries worldwide, withalmost three quarters of the population smoking. It is also one of the latest countries to adopt a formal anti-smokingpolicy which was twice rejected by the local parliament and is still not fully implemented although it has becomeofficial law since 2005. Conclusions: Many Greeks perceive smoking legislation as an imposition on their rights ingeneral. It is clear that anti-tobacco policies in Greece need to consider the resistance of the adult population toconstraint on their perceived freedom. This factor and the many other reported in this paper clearly indicate that newpolicies should target the young especially those of junior school age.

  13. Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: A prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Elias Mallas; Konstantinos Giorgiotis; Georgios Karamanolis; Dimitrios Trigonis; Apostolos Markadas; Vana Sipsa; Sotirios A. Raptis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence of ulcerative colitis UC in the prefecture of Trikala, Central Greece.METHODS: A prospective and population basedepidemiological study of UC from 1990 to the end of 1994was conducted. Trikala is a semirural prefecture of Central Greece with a population of 138 946 (census 1991). Three gastroenterologists (one hospital based, two private doctors)of the prefecture participated in this study.RESULTS: During the study period, 66 new histologically verified cases of UC were recorded. The mean annual incidence of the disease in 1990-1994 was 11.2 per 105inhabitants (95%CI: 8.7-14.3). There was no difference between men and women (annual incidence: 10.5 and 12.0 per 105 inhabitants respectively), either among urban,semirural or rural populations (annual incidence: 11.7,17.1 and 9.9 per 105 inhabitants respectively). The majority (56%) of the patients never smoked and a quarter were ex-smokers. About a half of all cases had proctitis.CONCLUSION: UC is common in Central Greece and its incidence is similar to that in North-Western European countries.

  14. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  15. A survey of 222Rn concentrations in dwellings of the town of Metsovo in north-western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, K G; Stamoulis, K C; Papachristodoulou, C A

    2000-12-01

    A radon survey has been carried out of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings located in the town of Metsovo, in north-western Greece. To measure indoor radon concentrations, CR-39 detectors were installed in randomly selected houses and were exposed for about 3 mo, during summer and winter. Gamma spectroscopy measurements of the soil's radium content also were performed. The indoor radon concentration levels varied from 17.6 to 750.4 Bq m(-3), while the radium concentration of soil varied from 4.9 to 97.1 Bq m(-3). Seasonal variation of the radon levels and the influence of house features and soil are discussed.

  16. His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Alexandros Alexandris Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland and Officials from the East Macedonia and Thrace Region Greece

  17. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  18. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna

    2011-12-01

    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active.

  19. CIE, Vitamin D and DNA Damage: A Synergetic Study in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Arola, Antii; van Geffen, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald; Kouremeti, Natalia; Kazadzis, Stelios; Meleti, Chariklia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims to validate different approaches for the estimation of three photobiological effective doses: the erythemal UV, the vitamin D and that for DNA damage, using high temporal resolution surface- based measurements of solar UV from 2005-2015. Data from a UV spectrophotometer, a multi-filter radiometer, and a UV radiation pyranometer that are located in Thessaloniki, Greece are used together with empirical relations, algorithms and models in order to calculate the desired quantities. In addition to the surface-based dose retrievals, OMI/Aura and the combined SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME/MetopA satellite products are also used in order to assess the accuracy of each method for deriving the photobiological doses.

  20. Fatal human anaplasmosis associated with macrophage activation syndrome in Greece and the Public Health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Spanakis, Nikos; Spanakos, Gregory; Pervanidou, Danai; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Campos, Elsa; Petra, Theofania; Kanellopoulos, Petros; Georgiadis, George; Antalis, Emmanouil; Kontos, Vassileios; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tselentis, Yiannis; Papa, Anna; Tsakris, Athanassios; Saroglou, George

    2017-02-08

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum that has the potential to spread in new geographical areas. The first fatal case of HGA in Greece is presented. Fever of unknown origin, renal and respiratory insufficiency and development of macrophage activation syndrome characterized the clinical presentation. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the groEL gene revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The epidemiological and clinical features were collected during an epidemiological investigation. Public health measures were instituted by the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The Public Health intervention required the collaboration of epidemiologists, veterinarians and microbiologists. Emphasis was given to communication activities and misconceptions concerning canines and their role in the disease. The emergence of human anaplasmosis in a new geographical area highlights the importance of disease awareness and of the need for continued support for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance networks.

  1. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  2. Study and orientation of the Mt. Oche `Dragon House' in Euboea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2009-07-01

    In southern Euboea, Central Greece, there are several megalithic buildings known as ‘drakospita’ (or dragon houses) whose builders and purpose are unknown. On 22 March 2002 and 4 July 2004 we visited the bestpreserved of all drakospita on top of Mt. Oche, measured its dimensions and calculated its orientation based on the azimuth of sunset and moonrise. A Sirius-rise orientation corresponding to ca 1100 B.C., not inconsistent with previous archaeological dating based on artefacts found inside the structure, indicates a religious/astronomical purpose for the building. It could probably be argued that at least the famous drakospito at Mt. Oche was not only a place of worship but also an ancient astronomical observatory.

  3. Cost-effective reduction of eutrophication in the Gulf of Kalloni (Island of Lesvos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZANOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost-effective analysis by comparing the costs of measures (options to improve the quality of bathing waters in the Gulf of Kalloni (island of Lesvos, Greece in order to reduce the anthropogenic eutrophication in the coastal water of the Kalloni Gulf.The Gulf of Kalloni is a semi-enclosed gulf (115 km2 which receives municipal wastewater, agricultural activity drainage, and at times sewage from olive oil plants processing the local olives harvest. The area of study consists of the coastal waters and the river basin of which water run-off drains into the gulf. Four options are comparable in their environmental effectiveness to reduce eurtophication damages which are: municipal wastewater treatment plant, construction of dams, organic farming plus training and olive oil wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Infant feeding and professional advice in the first half of the 20th century in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlivani, Fani; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to assess the role that health professional and State policies played in shaping breastfeeding practices and attitudes in Greece during the first half of the 20th century. Original texts were used; including those concerned with breastfeeding traditions, health professionals' attitudes to breastfeeding, infant feeding patterns, partial breastfeeding, artificial feeding and State policies for the promotion of breastfeeding. Content analysis was used and breastfeeding rates were considered. In the first two decades of the 20th century, most Greek women breastfed their children, as advised by other experienced women. In the succeeding decades, health professionals and policy makers wrote books and articles praising breastfeeding albeit stressing the nursing mothers' ignorance of sanitary measures. Many health professionals were influenced by trends in developed countries and advocated novel infant feeding practices. Consequently, full breastfeeding was not promoted.

  5. Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Klontza, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece) correspondance: Corresponding author. (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Department of Chemistry--> , University of Patras--> , Rio--> - GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Marine Sciences Departmen...

  6. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  7. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania tropica) in a German tourist after travel to Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Fleischmann, Erna; Pratlong, Francine; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Löscher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We report on a German tourist returning from vacations in Southern Greece with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presenting as multiple erythematosquamous lesions caused by Leishmania tropica (zymodeme MON-57). In spite of its endemicity, only few data are available on the incidence and current distribution of CL in Greece, which may allow for an assessment of the risk for travelers.

  9. Intercultural Education and Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologou, Nektaria

    2004-01-01

    During the last ten years, intercultural education has gradually emerged in Greece as a new type of education. This paper focuses on several aspects of the implementation of intercultural education in the Greek context. Specifically, it highlights and addresses the following issues: (1) the multicultural situation in Greece and the discourse on…

  10. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  11. Augustan Greece in Strabo’s Geography: A Short Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Strabo dedicated books 8 and 9 of his Geography to Greece, which he describes in great detail. While the greater part of his narrative reads like the description of an earlier Greece, he does include some interesting notes on his own period. His descriptions largely refer to passages in Homer, whom he considers the ultimate authority, since the Iliad and Odyssey formed an important part of the then school curriculum. A recurring observation is that a number of Greek settlements, once densely populated, were in his day deserted. There is no doubt that much of Greece was left waste in the Hellenistic period, especially in the period from Polybius (2nd century B.C. to Strabo (the beginning of the Christian era. While the information from Strabo’s own time represents a very small portion of the two books, it is often of great historical interest. He mentions, for example, the rule of Gaius Iulius Eurycles in Sparta; Eurycles came into conflict with Rome because he allegedly abused his friendship with Augustus, appropriating the island of Cythera and tyrannically extending his power through Laconia. Certainly one of the most influential personages in the Greece of his day, he had inscriptions set up in his honour throughout Laconia and elsewhere in the Peloponnese.  Somewhat more attention is devoted by Strabo to Corinth, which he visited personally. According to him, the city’s affluence was due to trade: lying on the Isthmus, it controlled two ports, Cenchreae, from which ships sailed for Asia, and Lechaeum, which was its link to Greece. Strabo describes the dramatic fall of Corinth: in 146 B.C. it was burnt down by the Roman consul, Lucius Mummius, and robbed of practically all its art works, which were then used to adorn the temples in Rome, in other Italian towns and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, since many were sold as war booty. Strabo mentions that Polybius, who was in Corinth at the time, was particularly saddened by the Roman

  12. Contribution to the Cladonia mycota of Greece,including Cladonia graeca sp. nov.%Contribution to the Cladonia mycota of Greece, including Cladonia graeca sp.nov.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harrie J.M.SIPMAN; Teuvo AHTI

    2011-01-01

    From mid-elevation pine forest on the Aegean Sea island of Thasos 8 additional Cladonia species for the lichen mycota of Greece are reported.Most have a wide distribution in Europe and reach their southern limit in Greece.From schistose rock in the same area and on Evvia a new species is described,Cladonia graeca,which is probably related to C.macrophylla and C.decorticata but contains fumarprotocetraric acid instead of psoromic or perlatolic acid.

  13. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  14. Sexualities and public space in Greece:a celluloid quest

    OpenAIRE

    Kallitsis, Phevos

    2014-01-01

    Greece is a country that considers itself to be part of the Western civilization, though still a lot oriental elements exist in its culture and way of thinking. LGBT people are considered to be either invisible or pointed out as metaphorical or literal punch bag. So it was a surprise that a year after the first Athens Gay Pride (2005), two Greek movies appeared with homosexuality as their central theme. The first one 'The Blue Dress', a drama about the journey of a young boy till he turns int...

  15. Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grémillet X.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Field Survey of Lutra lutra on Corfu Island (GreecePages 39 - 42 (ReportXavier GémilletA study on Corfu Island in 1986 describes an otter population strongly threatened by building activities and pollution from olive pressing factories. This present report shows the accurate situation in 1992. Otters no longer breed on the west coast, where two major populations have been extirpated. Pressure from tourist development, fishfarming and uncontrolled poaching, even in reserves, threatens remaining otter populations. Conservation and restoration of the remaining wetlands is urgently needed.Contents | Full Text + Links | PDF (98 K

  16. The medical social centres in support of Roma in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Kotrotsou, Christina; Tsakatara, Vanta

    2013-01-01

    Roma people form the largest ethnic-minority group in Europe. They account for around 10 to 12 million people, and they face racism, discrimination and social exclusion in most countries. The Roma population of Greece currently numbers around 250 000 individuals. They have Greek nationality...... Strategic Framework for Roma 2012-2020 (http://ec.europa.eu/justice/ discrimination/roma/national- strategies/index-en. htm) builds on this initiative to provide comprehensive, cost-effective housing, employment, education and health services to Greek and undocumented Roma. Furthermore, Roma should...

  17. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

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    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  18. CPAPD Vice President Mr. Ma Biao Visits Morocco and Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    At the respective invitation of the Amadeus Institute and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Ma Biao,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and Vice President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)led a CPAPD delegation on a good-will visit to Morocco and Greece during November 10 to 19,2015.During the stay in Morocco,Mr.Ma Biao respectively met with Moroccan Senate Vice

  19. Riparian woodland flora in upland rivers of Western Greece

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    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although natural riparian woodlands are an important feature that affects the quality of aquatic conditionsin streams and rivers, surveying riparian zone flora is rarely implemented in the Mediterraneancountries. We developed a rapid assessment method for gathering standardized plot-based woody flora andvegetation data from riparian woodlands. In 2005 we surveyed 218 streamside vegetation plots at 109 sitesin upland areas of four major rivers in mainland Greece (Alfios, Acheloos, Arachthos, and Aoos. Herewe describe the survey method and provide selected results from its initial implementation. The simplicityand effectiveness of this survey procedure supports the use of rapid site-based biodiversity surveys for riparianzones alongside aquatic status assessments.

  20. Sexualities and public space in Greece:a celluloid quest

    OpenAIRE

    Kallitsis, Phevos

    2014-01-01

    Greece is a country that considers itself to be part of the Western civilization, though still a lot oriental elements exist in its culture and way of thinking. LGBT people are considered to be either invisible or pointed out as metaphorical or literal punch bag. So it was a surprise that a year after the first Athens Gay Pride (2005), two Greek movies appeared with homosexuality as their central theme. The first one 'The Blue Dress', a drama about the journey of a young boy till he turns int...

  1. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  2. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, G. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Panzone, L. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Butler-Ellis, M.C. [Silsoe Spray Applications Unit, NIAB, Building 42, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HP (United Kingdom); Capri, E. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. [TNO Innovation for Life, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands); Machera, K. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Spanoghe, P. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Glass, R. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Marchis, A. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Doanngoc, K. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hart, A. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Frewer, L.J., E-mail: Lynn.Frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  3. How the economic situation moderates the influence of available money on compulsive buying of students - A comparative study between Turkey and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    UNGER, ALEXANDER; PAPASTAMATELOU, JULIE; YOLBULAN OKAN, Elif; AYTAS, SINEM

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Few studies about compulsive buying consider the economic framing situation. This study is concerned with the impact of different economic environments - the crisis in Greece vs. the boom in Turkey - on compulsive buying tendencies of students, while taking the role of gender and available money into account. Methods: Compulsive buying was measured by a Greek and Turkish translation of the German Compulsive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch & Scherhorn, 2005) in...

  4. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  5. Improved sectoral allocation of NMVOC emissions from solvent use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Christos; Tsilingiridis, George

    2009-06-15

    Solvent use and road transport are the two most significant sources of NMVOC emissions in urban environments. The allocation of emissions to solvent-related activities is of major importance since it is a major step towards providing spatially and temporally resolved accurate emission data in air quality models and assisting the development of properly orientated emission reduction measures. In this paper an activity-specific NMVOC emission inventory from solvent use in Greece is presented. The diversity, the volume and the complexity of the relevant activity data and, in some cases, the use of the same solvent and/or product in a variety of uses are the main difficulties in solvent emission inventorying. To overcome them, an extensive market research/survey is performed, combined with a literature review and expert opinion, to determine solvent utilization factors (expressed via usage factors as solvents, or per activity and/or per process). With the aid of these usage factors, appropriate emission factors, national statistical activity data and the calculating formulas developed, emissions are estimated and attributed to each solvent-related activity. Main results indicate that the use of solvents is the second source of NMVOC emissions in Greece (72+/-4 kt in 2003), the road transport sector being the first one (171 kt). Paint applications are the most important source of solvent NMVOC emissions, accounting for 44.5+/-2.5% of the total solvent NMVOC followed by the domestic use of solvents (excluding paint), which accounts for 39+/-2% of total solvent NMVOC.

  6. Considerations on the current universal vaccination policy against hepatitis A in Greece after recent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiani Mellou

    Full Text Available Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP. Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (p<0.001. However, universal vaccination (~ 80% vaccine coverage of children had no significant effect on the annual number of reported cases (p = 0.261 and has resulted to a progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5 was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1 (p<0.001. In the last decade, one third of all reported cases were Roma (a population accounting for 1.5% of the country's total population and in 2013 three outbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a vaccination of high risk groups, b universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c education of the population and travel advice, and d enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods.

  7. Cost-Sharing Rates Increase During Deep Recession: Preliminary Data From Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Gouvalas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Measures taken over the past four years in Greece to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure have led to significant price reductions for medicines, but have also changed patient cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs. This study attempts to capture the resulting increase in patients’ out-of-pocket (OOP expenses for prescription drugs during the 2011-2014 period. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective review of financial data derived from 39 883 prescriptions, dispensed at three randomly chosen pharmacies located in Lamia, central Greece. Results The study recorded an average contribution rate per prescription as follows: 11.28% for 2011 (95% CI: 10.76-11.80, 14.10% for 2012, 19.97% for 2013, and 29.08% for 2014. Correspondingly, the mean patient charge per prescription for 2011 was €6.58 (95% CI: 6.22-6.94, €8.28 for 2012, €8.35 for 2013, and €10.87 for 2014. During the 2011-2014 period, mean percentage rate of patient contribution increased by 157.75%, while average patient charge per prescription in current prices increased by 65.22%. The use of a newly introduced internal reference price (IRP system increased the level of prescription charge at a rate of 2.41% for 2012 (100% surcharge on patients, 26.24% for 2013 (49.95% on patients and 50.04% on the appropriate health insurance funds, and 47.72% for 2014 (85.06% on patients and 14.94% on funds. Conclusion Increased cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs can reduce public pharmaceutical expenditure, but international experience shows that rising OOP expenses can compromise patients’ ability to pay, particularly when it comes to chronic diseases and vulnerable populations. Various suggestions could be effective in refining the costsharing approach by giving greater consideration to chronic patients, and to the poor and elderly.

  8. Cost-Sharing Rates Increase During Deep Recession: Preliminary Data From Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvalas, Athanasios; Igoumenidis, Michael; Theodorou, Mamas; Athanasakis, Kostas

    2016-05-28

    Measures taken over the past four years in Greece to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure have led to significant price reductions for medicines, but have also changed patient cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs. This study attempts to capture the resulting increase in patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses for prescription drugs during the 2011-2014 period. The authors conducted a retrospective review of financial data derived from 39 883 prescriptions, dispensed at three randomly chosen pharmacies located in Lamia, central Greece. The study recorded an average contribution rate per prescription as follows: 11.28% for 2011 (95% CI: 10.76-11.80), 14.10% for 2012, 19.97% for 2013, and 29.08% for 2014. Correspondingly, the mean patient charge per prescription for 2011 was €6.58 (95% CI: 6.22-6.94), €8.28 for 2012, €8.35 for 2013, and €10.87 for 2014. During the 2011-2014 period, mean percentage rate of patient contribution increased by 157.75%, while average patient charge per prescription in current prices increased by 65.22%. The use of a newly introduced internal reference price (IRP) system increased the level of prescription charge at a rate of 2.41% for 2012 (100% surcharge on patients), 26.24% for 2013 (49.95% on patients and 50.04% on the appropriate health insurance funds), and 47.72% for 2014 (85.06% on patients and 14.94% on funds). Increased cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs can reduce public pharmaceutical expenditure, but international experience shows that rising OOP expenses can compromise patients' ability to pay, particularly when it comes to chronic diseases and vulnerable populations. Various suggestions could be effective in refining the cost-sharing approach by giving greater consideration to chronic patients, and to the poor and elderly.

  9. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  10. Decadal changes in extreme daily precipitation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Nastos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes in daily precipitation totals in Greece, during the 45-year period (1957–2001 are examined. The precipitation datasets concern daily totals recorded at 21 surface meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed over the Greek region. First and foremost, the application of Factor Analysis resulted in grouping the meteorological stations with similar variation in time. The main sub groups represent the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of Greece with common precipitation characteristics. For representative stations of the extracted sub groups we estimated the trends and the time variability for the number of days (% exceeding 30 mm (equal to the 95% percentile of daily precipitation for eastern and western regions and equal to the 97.5% percentile for the rest of the country and 50 mm which is the threshold for very extreme and rare events. Furthermore, the scale and shape parameters of the well fitted gamma distribution to the daily precipitation data with respect to the whole examined period and to the 10-year sub periods reveal the changes in the intensity of the precipitation.

  11. Top Income Shares in Greece: 1957-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Chrissis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of top income shares in Greece for the period 1957 to 2010 following Piketty (2001 methodology. We present the 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% income shares estimates which are based on tax statistics. The empirical results indicate that the behavior of the alternative estimated top income shares is quite similar. A ‘flat’ Ushaped pattern for most cases seems to exist. This common pattern is more apparent for the 2.5-0.1% top income shares. The top 10% and 5% income shares seem to be more volatile, accompanied with an increasing trend by the end of the period. This paper is an attempt to extend the existing research in southern Europe by presenting the relevant Greek experience. For the whole period, country comparisons show that the 1% top income share in Greece is in lower levels than that of USA and the other European countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany.

  12. The psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Vozikis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that leads to occasional epileptic seizures, affecting the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the current psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece and to identify the main differences as compared to a former similar research. Material and Methods: A sample of 91 questionnaires, from a total of 350 inpatients with epilepsy at a Public Hospital, during the years 2008 to 2009 (response rate 26%. For data analysis, we used simple descriptive statistical analysis (at significance level of α=5% and α=10% and factor analysis, using SPSS 16.0. Results: Our research showed that the quality of life of people with epilepsy in Greece seems to have improved significantly during the last decade, as their crises have been reduced by 15,7% and their employment has increased by 13% . Conclusions: All that mean that these people are no longer been placed in the margin of society and they succeed in living a normal life with the certain limitations of their disease.

  13. Riparian Areas of Greece: Their Definition and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gounaridis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian areas are unique and of high importance ecosystems because they are adjacent to surface freshwater bodies suchas streams, rivers and lakes. They are the semi-aquatic transitional zones (ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.Water, soil and vegetation are the three main characteristics that differentiate them compared to other ecosystems.Furthermore, they are present in all biomes (from deserts to tropical forests and are found in a great range of hydrologic andgeomorphologic conditions that results in a great variety of riparian habitat types. In Greece, there are five major riparianforest habitat types that also occur in most of the semi-arid Mediterranean regions. Frequent disturbance is another uniquecharacteristic that differentiates riparian areas. The major disturbances that shape riparian areas in Greece are unpredictedflood and drought events, as well as fires but to a lesser degree. Wetlands are another important semi-aquatic ecosystemsthat many consider as synonymous to riparian areas. In reality, these two ecosystems overlap but they are also different sincewetlands are considered as “wetter” and less disturbance driven than riparian areas.

  14. Echinococcus granulosus infection dynamics in livestock of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligiannis, I; Maillard, S; Boubaker, G; Spiliotis, M; Saratsis, A; Gottstein, B; Sotiraki, S

    2015-10-01

    An epidemiological and molecular survey on the occurrence of Echinococcus hydatid cysts in livestock was conducted in Greece. In total 898 sheep, 483 goats, 38 buffaloes, 273 wild boars and 15 deer were examined and 30.2% (6.45% cyst fertility), 7.86% (3.2% cyst fertility), 42% (7.9% cyst fertility), 1.1% (0% cyst fertility), 0% of them were found infected, respectively. Infection rate in different geographical regions varied between 26.1 and 53.8% (cyst fertility 2.04 and 34.6%) in sheep, 7.33 and 13.3% (cyst fertility 0 and 3.2%) in goats. Genotyping, based on cox1 and nad1 analyses, demonstrated the predominance of E. granulosus s.s. (G1 genotype). The presence of one single genotype-complex within a relatively large spectrum of intermediate host species in Greece indicates the presence of a dominant transmission dog-sheep cycle involving additional host species which may act as disease reservoir for human infections.

  15. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  16. Tectonic field and deformation in Chalkidiki area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatza, Stavroula-Drosoula; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Greece is situated on the convergence limits, between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plate, and as a consequence, is considered as one of the most seismogenic areas on the world. Chalkidiki is part of the region of Central Macedonia in Northen Greece. The region of Chalkidiki is traversed by three faults and it is an area of great tectonic interest. On a daily basis, earthquakes occur in the seabed between the three peninsulas of Chalkidiki. Concerning the geomorphology of the area, it is covered by three types of rocks, the Serbomacedonian mass, the Perirodopiki zone and Peonia sub zone. The contact with the Serbomacedonian mass has a direct effect on tectonics of the region, since the area has a continuous tectonic activity. The neotectonic activity is characterized by normal faults, as well as horns and tectonic trenches. Velocity field and strain parameters for a deformation model are evaluated using GPS data from a geodetic network of thirty one points established in the broader area of Chalkidiki. Apart from these points, all the available observations of permanent stations in the area, were used to determine the final tectonic velocity field. All data were processed using Bernese GNSS Software v.5. The implementation of the reference system ITRF2005, was performed, using nine IGS stations, for the local network. Time series analysis for each point was used, in order to calculate the displacements and tectonic velocities. Finally, in order to investigate the strain patterns of the area, strain tensors were computed and discussed.

  17. Numerical study of a downslope windstorm in Northwestern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsis, I.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the leeside wind storm of 25-26 March 1998, the most intense wind storm of the last decade in Northwestern Greece. This wind storm produced wind gusts of ˜ 30 m s - 1 that resulted in tree uprooting, roof damaging, electric power network disruption and flooding in the lake-side areas of Ioannina city in Northwestern Greece. With the aim to identify the role of Mountain Mitsikeli near the city of Ioannina on the windstorm and to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for such orographically induced weather events, numerical simulations with MM5 model have been performed. The model results showed that a resolution of 2-km resolution is necessary in order to reproduce the localized character of the wind storm. The analysis revealed that a synergistic combination of the cross-barrier northeasterly flow, the stable layer above the mountain top and the presence of a critical level, led to the intensification of the lee side winds during the studied wind event. Sensitivity experiments with modified topography, further supported the important role of mountain Mitsikeli that stands as an isolated obstacle, on the modification of the wind field during the observed windstorm.

  18. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.

    2005-12-01

    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (Mengineer is able to calculate specific design spectra for every site while combination with available vulnerability estimates could lead to more realistic seismic risk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for the partial support of this research, in the framework of ESTIA project.

  19. Reorganisation of Oncologic Care in Greece: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouilides Christos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is becoming a major public health issue as patients enjoy longer survivals than ever before due to the introduction innovative but expensive drugs in the clinic. In addition, the ageing of the population in Greece is expected to increase the absolute incidence of cancer. The National Health System should rapidly and efficiently adapt to the new challenges, including increased pharmaceutical costs. Resources ought to be allocated rationally and efficiently while maintaining adequate coverage for the insured population. Economising due to large-scale operations should be pursued by the governmental single payor (EOPYY, so that affordable coverage remains feasible. Establishment of mechanisms to deal with new and very costly drugs should be put in place. The major changes in anchor oncologic hospitals are needed in order to play a role as regional leaders in oncologic care, including merging of similar divisions, subspecialisation of services and promotion of clinical research. These major centres could coordinate a host of satellite oncology services in other urban hospitals and in the provinces. In addition, joint operations in training and patient care should be pursued with major private centres, without mutual mistrust or obsolete inflexibilities. The current financial crisis represents an excellent opportunity for revisioning and restructuring oncologic care in Greece, taking into account the societal needs and based on flexibility and efficiency.

  20. Airborne laser altimetry in the Ionian Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    2002-09-01

    Airborne laser techniques have evolved during the last years and have been tested in several pilot projects which cover a wide range of geodetic applications. In this project, airborne laser altimetry was used to determine the sea level in coastal areas of Greece, and to connect satellite radar altimetry results over the deep sea with tide gauge stations at the coast. Because airborne laser altimetry is capable to provide sea surface heights at the decimeter to centimeter level, it allows for an independent validation of spaceborne radar altimetry results. Airborne laser data acquired along densely spaced tracks of a total of 30-h flight time were used to determine instantaneous sea surface heights of the Ionian Sea, Greece. Differential GPS and inertial platform data were utilized as ancillary information for the purpose of ensuring a precise trajectography of the aircraft. Emphasis was put on the assessment of errors and the reduction of the raw data to mean sea level by crossover analysis and the incorporation of tidal predictions. The airborne laser data yield a high-resolution sea surface over the coastal areas of the Ionian Sea. The most prominent feature is a steep gradient of the sea surface amounting to 15 m over a distance of 150 km. This slope can be followed all along the bathymetric relief between the Hellenic Arc and Hellenic Trench.

  1. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  2. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  3. Integrating Learning, Working and Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Keynote provided at the ICICTE 2007 conference, Heraklion, Crete, 12-7-2007. The keynote addresses three issues: a. Arguments to support alternative (lifelong) learning paths in our society along the predominant system of primary, secondary, post-secondary, work-training pathway. b. Introduces basic

  4. A directional Secular Variation Curve for Greece for the last 4500 years: Comparison with regional and global geomagnetic field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, E.; Tema, E.; Lanos, P.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2009-12-01

    A total of 64 Greek archaeomagnetic directional data have been used for the establishment of the variation of the Earth’s magnetic field in Greece over the past 4500 years. Most of the data come from archaeological material but some data from Santorini lava flows are also included. The data ages range from Minoan times (~2500 BC) up to the last century with a gap around 10th to 6th century BC. All data have been relocated to Athens (37.97° N, 23.72° E) using the virtual geomagnetic pole method. Data coming from direct measurements available in Greece for the last four centuries have been also added. The secular variation (SV) curves for declination and inclination have been obtained using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. For comparison, the dataset has been also analysed using the bi-variate moving average window technique with 150 years time window shifted by 75 years. The obtained smoothed curves accompanied by a 95 % confidence envelope are compared with archaeomagnetic data from Mediterranean area and with SV curves from nearby countries. The Greek curves have also been compared with the predictions of the SCHA.DIF.3K regional and the CALS7K and ARCH3K global geomagnetic field models. Despite the differences recognised between these models, the Greek archaeomagnetic SV curve is in reasonably good agreement with their basic trends. The proposed directional SV curve can contribute, together with the intensity SV curve previously published for Greece, to the reliable archaeomagnetic dating of Greek artefacts based on the full description of the Earth’s magnetic field (declination, inclination, intensity). It is clear that the continuous update of the dataset with new results from well-dated archaeological material will increase the precision of the SV curve, especially for the time periods poorly covered by data.

  5. Re-assessing the last 3,000 years of archaeological and biological sea-level data from Israel and Greece to identify East Mediterranean trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Dorit; Dean, Silas; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Bechor, Benny; Evelpidou, Niki; Baika, Kalliopi; Theodoulou, Theotokis A.

    2016-04-01

    The last 3,000 years of relative sea level (RSL) in Israel are derived primarily from archaeological indicators with additional bio-construction indicators (Dendropoma petraeum reefs at the edge of the abrasion platform along the Israeli coast). The current study examines whether sea-level fluctuations (above and mainly below present-day MSL) observed along the coast of Israel can also be observed in other East Mediterranean areas like Greece so that better evaluations can be made of local and regional driving mechanisms. There are three objectives for achieving this goal: 1) Identify new and already published archaeological and biological RSL indicators from this period in Israel and Greece; 2) Assess the reliability of both existing and new indicators using consistent standards to determine which types most accurately indicate ancient RSL and with what degree of uncertainty; 3) Correct the data for isostatic and tectonic effects. The survey collected nearly 140 archaeological indicators from Israel and about 120 from Greece. Of the Israeli indicators, some 120 were deemed reliable enough for reconstructions, whereas in Greece only 40 were, and not all of these from tectonically stable areas. The Israeli data includes 31 dates obtained from Dendropoma reefs in Israel. The higher reliability of the Israeli dataset may stem from a smaller coastline and more focused SL research over the past few decades. In Greece, many measurements were taken before precise surveying methods were available, and published without sufficient metadata. The two regional datasets reveal chronological gaps and disparities: Israel has a strong set of many indicators from the Roman Period (~2000BP) to present, but fewer from 3000-2000BP, while Greek indicators are strongly clustered in the Classical to Hellenistic Periods (2500-2000BP). On-going research is focusing now also on the last Millennial Greek sea levels (mainly the 'Venetian' period). Results however suggest some correspondence

  6. Military Dictatorship in Greece (1967-1974): The Genesis of Greek Anti-Americanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Euripides, Sophocles, Aeschylus, Aristotle to Jean - Paul Sartre , Thomas Mann, T.S. Eliot, Albert Camus and others. Hundreds of films were banned, including...Schwab and Frangos, Greece Under The Junta, p. 19. ’ 5 Jean - Paul Franceschini, "Order At A Prices The Colonels’ Greece," Atlas 21 (February 1972): 18...Finer, Leslie. "A Gleam in the Greek Dark." New Statesman 83 (April 21, 1972)s 523-524. Franceschini, Jean - Paul . "Order At A Price: The Colonels’ Greece

  7. Why do generic drugs fail to achieve an adequate market share in Greece? Empirical findings and policy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasopoulos, T; Charonis, A; Athanasakis, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Pavi, E

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, the memoranda of understanding were implemented in Greece as a measure of fiscal adjustment. Public pharmaceutical expenditure was one of the main focuses of this implementation. Numerous policies, targeted on pharma spending, reduced the pharmaceutical budget by 60.5%. Yet, generics' penetration in Greece remained among the lowest among OECD countries. This study aims to highlight the factors that affect the perceptions of the population on generic drugs and to suggest effective policy measures. The empirical analysis is based on a national cross-sectional survey that was conducted through a sample of 2003 individuals, representative of the general population. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify the determinants that affect the respondents' beliefs on the safety and the effectiveness of generic drugs. The empirical findings presented a positive and statistically significant correlation with income, bill payment difficulties, safety and effectiveness of drugs, prescription and dispensing preferences and the views toward pharmaceutical companies. Also, age and trust toward medical community have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the perception on the safety of generic drugs. Policy interventions are suggested on the bases of the empirical results on 3 major categories; (a) information campaigns, (b) incentives to doctors and pharmacists and (c) to strengthen the bioequivalence control framework and the dissemination of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections in a general hospital: patient characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Samonis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is acquiring increasing importance as a nosocomial pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the characteristics and outcome of patients with any type of S. maltophilia infection at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between 1/2005-12/2010. S. maltophilia antimicrobial susceptibility was tested with the agar dilution method. Prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%, surgical (26.5%, hematology/oncology departments (23.5%, or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%. The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%, bloodstream (16.2%, skin/soft tissue (10.3%, and intra-abdominal (8.8% infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each, and ciprofloxacin (82.4%. The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia infection in a general hospital can be associated with a good prognosis, except for the patients hospitalized in the ICU. Combination reigmens with fluoroquinolones, colistin, or tigecycline could be alternative treatment options to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  9. Management Staffing and Training Development Policies in Selected Multinational Enterprises: The Case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirotiri-Kufidu, Stella

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from foreign-owned companies in Greece suggests that cultural patterns and environmental influences cannot be ignored. However, such companies could influence human resource development in a developing country by following their home policies in training and staffing. (SK)

  10. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby); G.A. Syrogiannopoulos; I.N. Grivea; R. de Groot (Ronald); N.G. Beratis; P.W.M. Hermans (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA total of 145 penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from young carriers in Greece and analyzed by antibiotic susceptibility testing, serotyping, restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL), and penicillin-binding protein (PBP

  11. A nation without a country : Classical Greece in the writings of Jeanne Gallien (1773-1830)

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Blok

    2003-01-01

    In 1827 the University of Marburg awarded an honorary doctorate to Jeanne Gallien because of the high quality of her scholarship as attested in her essays on ancient civilization, especially that of classical Atherns and Greece.

  12. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  13. TRADITIONAL RABBITRIES ON THE ISLAND OF CRETE IN GREECE : GENERAL OUTLOOK

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A.R.; Labrinidi, S.; Kritas, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract not available. Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A.; Labrinidi, S.; Kritas, S. (2001). TRADITIONAL RABBITRIES ON THE ISLAND OF CRETE IN GREECE : GENERAL OUTLOOK. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10012.

  14. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  15. Mercury emissions from soils and fumaroles of Nea Kameni volcanic centre, Santorini (Greece)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BAGNATO, EMANUELA; TAMBURELLO, GIANCARLO; AIUPPA, ALESSANDRO; SPROVIERI, MARIO; VOUGIOUKALAKIS, GEORGE E; PARKS, MICHELLE

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited studies to date targeting mercury emissions from volcanic fumarolic systems, and no mercury flux data exist for soil or fumarolic emissions at Santorini volcanic complex, Greece...

  16. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  17. Accounting Education in Greece during the Global Financial Crisis (2000-2016)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitrios Siskos; John Marangos

    2016-01-01

    The structure of accounting education in Greece, and in the world, is facing nowadays many significant challenges since the global financial crisis has left behind many critical educational burdens...

  18. Environmental and economic effects of widespread introduction of electric vehicles in Greece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatzikomis, C I; Spentzas, K N; Mamalis, A G

    2014-01-01

    ... of electric vehicles in Greece.The expected energy consumption and life cycle economic and environmental cost of electric vehicles for the present and immediate future is estimated after a relevant literature review...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby); G.A. Syrogiannopoulos; I.N. Grivea; R. de Groot (Ronald); N.G. Beratis; P.W.M. Hermans (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA total of 145 penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from young carriers in Greece and analyzed by antibiotic susceptibility testing, serotyping, restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL), and penicillin-binding protein

  20. Physical abuse in the era of financial crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Michael; Moris, Demetrios; Davakis, Spyridon; Schizas, Dimitrios; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Greece is suffering an economic recession of enormous magnitude, but whether its health has deteriorated as a result, has not yet been well established. We aim to present and analyze differences in demographics and clinical distribution of patients victims of physical abuse examined at the surgical emergency room in an Academic institution in the era of financial crisis. A retrospective database analysis of all patients that were examined to surgical emergency room (ER), between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2014, was conducted. We only analyzed and evaluated data for the years 2008 to 2014. The number of patients being examined in the ER in 2011 was higher compared with that of 2014 and to 2008 respectively (Pcrisis. Financial crisis seems to have a multivariable effect on epidemiology and clinical diversity of the patients, victims of physical abuse, being examined in the ER.

  1. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  4. Isolation of Mycobacterium malmoense in the island of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, I S; Neonakis, I K; Gitti, Z; Spandidos, D A

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from a broncho-alveolar lavage sample of a 73-year-old cancer (small cell lung carcinoma) patient in Crete, representing the first reported case of this pathogen in Greece. The isolate was considered to be a colonizer and the patient did not receive any antimycobacterial treatment while he received chemotherapy to which he responded favourably. No signs of pulmonary infection were noted during the course of his disease. This case provides evidence of the ubiquitous nature of this mycobacterial species, believed until recently to favour cooler climates. We, therefore, propose that the index of suspicion for this pathogen should be raised particularly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency, cancer and chronic lung disease, irrespective of the geographic location.

  5. Serological survey of Q fever in Crete, southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranakis, Iosif; Kokkini, Sofia; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Sandalakis, Vassillios; Pasparaki, Eirini; Minadakis, Georgios; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligatory intracellular bacterium with worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii phase II antibodies in two different groups (high and low risk) of healthy human population and investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in the island of Crete (southern Greece). Collection and testing by IFA of 493 sample sera for IgG and IgM antibodies against C. bumetii phase II antigen indicated a prevalence of IgG antibodies of 48.7%. Of the seropositive individuals, 34% also revealed IgM seropositive antibody titers. Analysis of 225 sample sera by IFA from high risk population presented a prevalence for C. burnetii of 62.2%. Our findings revealed that C. burnetii is highly endemic in Crete, indicating a high exposure of the population to the pathogen regardless of occupation or place of residence.

  6. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  8. Mental health care delivery system in Greece: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanis, C N; Madianos, M G

    1981-01-01

    The organizational profile of the mental health care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mental health delivery system to respond more effectively to the mental health needs of the Greek population.

  9. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  10. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.J.; Nanaki, E.A.; Xydis, George

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an analysis is being done on the concept of energy and exergy utilization and an application to the residential and industrial sector of Greece. The energy and exergy flows over the period from 1990 to 2004 were taken into consideration. This period was chosen based on the data...... reliability. The energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for the residential and industrial sectors and compared to the findings of a previous study concerning the exergy efficiency of the Greek transport sector. The residential energy and exergy efficiencies for the year 2003 were 22.36% and 20.......92%, respectively, whereas the industrial energy and exergy efficiencies for the same year were 53.72% and 51.34%, respectively. The analysis of energy and exergy utilization determines the efficiency of the economy as a whole. The results can play an important role in the establishment of efficiency standards...

  11. Rockfall susceptibility map for Athinios port, Santorini Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas A.; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes rockfall susceptibility in the steep caldera slopes upstream of Athinios port, Santorini Island, Greece. The study area is situated in the internal rim of a submarine caldera where the most important problem that is recorded is the frequent rockfalls that not only cause damages to roads and vehicles but also pose a threat to people that are transported or located on the port. As a result, a methodology which combines information relatively to surficial and engineering geology, geomorphological processes, and structural analysis was adopted. The methodology incorporates evenly a maximum runout map generated by means of reach probability of rock block analysis, using the empirical model of "reach angle". Additionally volumes of rockfall events categorized and presented through a map to assist the compilation of rockfall susceptibility map which allows us to identify areas and human activities exposed to these incidents and set up several protection meters.

  12. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-03-18

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy.

  13. The Architecture of Physical Culture in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Debevec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interaction between the culture of the body and architectural creativity in Ancient Greece. This interaction is rooted in a concern for personal and group security, the basis of which was physical fitness, as well as in the immersion of Greek reality in religion, which depicted gods and goddesses in perfect human bodies. Together with a developed feeling for the community, these two aspects stimulated the design of a special architecture devoted to physical culture. Baths, gymnasiums, palaestras, stadiums, hippodromes and theatres are original flashes of Greek architectural genius. They are golden ‘vessels’ devoted to the admiration of beauty, agility and the expressive power of the body – virtues which paved the way to a godlike semblance for every Greek.

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Greece – Part 3: Deaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-A. Tselentis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present third part of the study, concerning the evaluation of earthquake hazard in Greece in terms of various ground motion parameters, deals with the deaggregation of the obtained results The seismic hazard maps presented for peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 0.2 s and 1.0 s, with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were deaggregated in order to quantify the dominant scenario. There are three basic components of each dominant scenario: earthquake magnitude (M, source-to-site distance (R and epsilon (ε. We present deaggregation maps of mean and mode values of M-R-ε triplet showing the contribution to hazard over a dense grid.

  15. Third Case of Streptococcus suis Infection in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianneta Chatzopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that can cause severe disease to both pigs and humans. Its zoonotic potential was first recognized in 1968 when the first human case of meningitis was reported in Denmark. Since then, over 1600 human cases have been reported worldwide, the vast majority of which originated in Southeast Asia, and, thus, S. suis has been fairly characterized as an emerging pathogen. Infection in humans presents most commonly as bacteremia and/or meningitis while less common clinical manifestations such as endocarditis and septic arthritis can occur. S. suis infection is extremely uncommon in Greece and this is the third human case to be reported. Correct identification is of importance for optimization of antimicrobial treatment and epidemiological monitoring.

  16. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  17. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  18. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  19. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  20. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  1. The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathrellos, George; Skilodimou, Hariklia; Maroukian, Habik

    2014-05-01

    In Greece, Middle to Late Pleistocene mountain glaciations appear to have been quite extensive, along the mountain range of Pindus, on Mt. Olympus and in the highlands of Peloponnesus. This study focuses on the Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations based on the examination of cirque formations and their elevation changes due to vertical tectonism, in certain parts of Greece, namely Pindus, Mt. Olympus and Peloponnesus. An initial spatial database of these glacial forms was created including their location and mean elevation. Some of the glaciated sites have been taken from previous literature and others were recorded from topographic maps, air photos and field work. ArcGIS 10 software was used to process the glaciated sites. A map depicting the glaciated areas of Greek regions was compiled with over 230 cirques. A cirque's top, lip and margins of each location were mapped. So altitudes of apex and lip and mean altitude of each cirque ([apex+lip]/2), were calculated. A total number of 239 inactive cirques was recorded with limestone as the dominant lithology. As one moves to the south, in the case of Pindus range and its extension in the Peloponnesus, the number of cirques decreases. These glacial forms occur at altitudes varying from 2,770 to 1,600 m.a.s.l. Thus the preservation of ice for longer periods of time is more likely at altitudes higher than 1,600 m.a.s.l. Concerning the distribution of the mean elevations of cirques one should take into consideration the tectonic activity of the study area. Especially in the Pindus range, Mount Olympus, and Peloponnesus this process is in the form of uplift. This has increased the mean elevation of the cirques in every following ice age. So, in older times many cirques were a few hundred meters lower than the more recent glacial period.

  2. Nurses perceptions about the nurse's social role in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavdaniti M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available B A C K G R O U N D : There is great evidence in nursing literature about the nurses’ perceptions on their role. Moststudies are focused on nursing practice and the actual role in hospitals, and other skills on basic-, intermediate- andadvanced- level patient care. In Greece, there are no studies examining the social role of nurses and nurses’ perceptionsabout it.A I M : Τo assess how nurses in Greece perceive their social role and investigate the factors influencing their social role.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : 342 nurses working in hospitals in the wider area of Thessaloniki were recruited inthis study. Data collection was carried out through one self-completed questionnaire developed by the researchers.R E S U L T S : 47.5% (n=162 agreed that society expects from nurses a particular behaviour, and almost half of theparticipants [51.8% (n=176] totally agreed that nurses are practicing a ‘litourgima’. 49.1% (n=165 agreed that nursesare health educators in society and another 46.3% (n=157 totally agreed that nurses undertake actions in order toeliminate patient discrimination. 47.6% (n=160 of the participants totally agreed that nurses should be dedicated toquality improvement and 40.9% of the sample (n=138 agreed that nurses should provide care during an epidemicwhile 41.3% totally agreed that nurses execute duties of other professionals. 45.7% (n=155 totally agreed that nursesshouldn’t deny care for patients with infectious diseases. A high percentage of nurses (60.1%, n=197 agreed that apart of the nursing role is patient advocacy.C O N C L U S I O N S : The findings of the present study indicate the importance of nurses’ social role, which mayallow them to empower patients to further recognize the role of nursing during hospitalization.

  3. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.

  4. Changes in tobacco industry advertising around high schools in Greece following an outdoor advertising ban: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Lazuras, Lambros; Triantafylli, Danai; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-09-01

    As tobacco advertising bans are enacted in accordance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, it is essential to assess enforcement and how the industry may circumvent such measures. During this longitudinal study, we compared the characteristics of points-of-sale (POS) advertising within 300 m of all high schools in Heraklion, Greece before (n=101 POS and 44 billboards in 2007) and after (n=106 POS in 2011) an outdoor advertising ban was implemented in 2009. Cigarette advertisements in all retailers near all high schools were assessed. Following the ban, tobacco industry billboards around schools were eradicated (from 44 to 0). The proportion of POS that had external advertisements dropped from 98% to 66% (padvertisements on the door (79.5% to 20.4%, padvertisements per POS fell from 7.4 to 3.9 (padvertising restriction in Greece has led to a reduced number of tobacco advertisements per POS, and the eradication of billboard advertising. Nevertheless, there is a need to regulate kiosks, which were identified as a key vector for tobacco advertising, and to increase compliance among regulated convenience stores.

  5. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece's organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, nearly half of the gains from the measure's application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government's revenue, i.e., losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers' high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure's inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy's deprivation of useful resources.

  6. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study conducted as part of a screening program for the promotion of community health in the primary care setting of Ormos Korthi in Andros, Greece. The objective of this study was to identify the levels of glucose and total cholesterol in individuals without major cardiovascular problems in order to identify cases of undetected dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels, in a rural population located in the southern part of Andros Island, Greece. Methods: In total, 242 in...

  7. Impact of animal health management on organic pig farming in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Papatsiros V.G.

    2011-01-01

    In Greece, organic pig farming started in 2002 and since then made significant steps forward due to the extended interesting of Greek consumer for organic products during last decade. This report aims at updating information about organic pig farming in Greece, relating production system and most health risk factors. Furthermore, in present study a animal health management program is proposed. The most common health problems that occur in the Greek organic ...

  8. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    nasal bleeding, hematuria and gross gastrointestinal bleeding. K-- F -6- Up todate 41 HFRS cases have been serologically diagnosed in Greece. The...CCHF in Greece up until April 1987, was discussed and the conclusions drawn are reported. 4 pA. : -3- B. HORAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROKE (HilS) B1...level. Two house rats (Rattus rattus) captured in a slaughter house in Thessaloniki were found to be seropositive (Table 2). _ _ I -9-. Todate

  9. Immunity from Western Policy Orientation: Revising the Relations between Greece and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Efthymiopoulos P. Marios

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes bilateral relations between Russia and Greece in the context of economic crisis in Europe taking into account historic, civilizational, economic, political and international factors. The author assesses possible opportunities which could be enjoyed with the intensifi cation of cooperation with the Russian Federation and with international organizations, such as BRICS. Moreover, the article discusses the economic situation in Greece and possible ways of crisis-management....

  10. Smoke-free hospitals in Greece: Personnel perceptions, compliance and smoking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilepi Penelope

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoke-free environments in Greece are scarce. Despite existent legislation that forbids smoking in all health care service centers, smoking is still evident. Using a random sample of hospital personnel from a large university hospital in Greece, we evaluated their smoking habits, perceptions and compliance towards hospital smoking regulations. 57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics of Macroeconomic Variables: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Kassapi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing doctoral dissertation. It examines the long run relationship between government spending on education, GDP growth and educational enrollments in all levels, for Greece in the years 1960-2012, leveling up to capture more complex dependent dynamics in time series. OECD Indicator A11 shows that, life satisfaction, civic engagement and health. are at the same level for adults with tertiary education and adults with upper secondary education for Greece. Having cond...

  12. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch. [NCSR Demokritos, INT-RP, Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  13. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  14. Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouitsis, Ilias; Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kelessis, Apostolos; Petrakakis, Maximos; Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos; Samaras, Zissis

    2015-12-01

    Airborne urban particulate and gaseous pollutants measurements were conducted at the kerbside of a busy road and at a nearby urban background site of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a winter and a summer period. The main objective was to observe how the financial crisis has affected the air quality in the city, compared to previous measurements. Compared to a study conducted in 2006, the current work suggests that although average concentrations at the traffic affected site remain higher that in the urban background station, the differences are much smaller than in the past. A number of observations suggest a scenario of decrease in traffic activity and increase in biomass burning for residential heating. On this basis, the results suggest that traffic may be less important as an air quality contributor in a financially hit city. On the contrary, domestic heating appears as a significant contributor and affects areas of the city that were earlier not being of environmental concern. Because of the impact of biomass burning in residential areas, exposure calculations are required to estimate whether traffic or biomass burning is the overall highest contributors to daily PM dosages that citizens of the city are exposed to.

  15. Public procurement of health technologies in Greece in an era of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanioti, Catherine; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Stasinopoulos, Dionysis; Kapetaneas, Nikolaos; Polyzos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Public procurement is generally an important sector of the economy and, in most countries, is controlled by the introduction of regulatory and policy mechanisms. In the Greek healthcare sector, recent legislation redefined centralized procurement through the reestablishment of a state Health Procurement Committee (EPY), with an aim to formulate a plan to reduce procurement costs of medical devices and pharmaceuticals, improve payment time, make uniform medical requests, transfer redundant materials from one hospital to another and improve management of expired products. The efforts described in this paper began in early 2010, under the co-ordination of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with the collaboration of senior staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB). The procurement practices and policies set forth by EPY and the first measurable outcomes, in terms of cost savings, resulting from these policies are presented. The importance of these measures is discussed in light of the worst economic crisis faced by Greece since the restoration of democracy in 1974, as a result of both the world financial crisis and uncontrolled government spending.

  16. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-01-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10−6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  17. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-01

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10-6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  18. Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs distributions and their relationship with sedimentological processes in Patras Harbour, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H; Papatheodorou, G; Moustakli, A; Christodoulou, D; Geraga, M

    2007-01-01

    Surficial and subsurficial sediment samples derived from gravity cores, selected from the harbour of Patras, Greece, were analyzed for grain size, water content, bulk density, specific gravity, organic carbon content and specific activities of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs. The specific activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured radiometrically. The radionuclides (238)U and (232)Th were also analyzed using the INAA. The differences found between the specific activities of the natural radionuclides measured by the two methods are of no statistical significance. The sediment cores selection was based on a detailed bathymetric and marine seismic survey. Through the study of the detailed bathymetric map and the seismic profiles it was shown that ship traffic is highly influential to the harbour bathymetry. The granulometric and geotechnical properties of the sediments and therefore the specific activities of the natural radionuclides and (137)Cs seem to be controlled by the ship traffic. Relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and granulometric/geotechnical parameters was defined after the treatment of all the analyses using R-mode factor analysis. The natural radionuclide activities are related to the fine fraction and bulk density of the sediments, while (137)Cs is mainly influenced by the organic carbon content. In addition, (238)U and (226)Ra seem to be in close relation with the heavy minerals fraction in coarse-grained sediments with high specific gravity.

  19. Bioavailability and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in Thriasio Plain, near Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Golia, Evangelia E; Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are usually found in areas of intense industrial activity. Thriasio Plain is a plain near Athens, Greece, where most of the heavy industry of the country has been situated for decades, but it also is a residential and horticultural area. We aimed at measuring the levels of PTEs in soils and indigenous plant species and assessing the health risk associated with direct soil ingestion. Samples of soils at roadsides and growing plants were collected from 31 sites of that area. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in both soils (as pseudo-total) and aerial plant tissues. We found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than maximum regulatory limits. Element concentrations in plants were rather lower than expected, probably because indigenous plants have developed excluder behaviour over time. Copper and Zn soil-to-plant coefficients were highest among the other elements; for Cu this was unexpected, and probably associated with recent Cu-releasing industrial activity. Risk assessment analysis indicated that As was the element contributing more than 50 % of the health risk related to direct soil ingestion, followed by Cr, Pb, and, surprisingly, Mn. We concluded that in a multi-element contamination situation, elevated risk of PTEs (such as As, Cr and Pb) may reduce the tolerance limits of exposure to less-toxic elements (here, Mn).

  20. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-17

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  1. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

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    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  2. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

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    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  3. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  4. Composition and production rate of medical waste from a small producer in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graikos, Anastasios; Voudrias, Evangelos; Papazachariou, Athanasios; Iosifidis, Nikolaos; Kalpakidou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rate of medical waste from the health care facility of social insurance institute, a small waste producer in Xanthi, Greece. Specifically, produced medical waste from the clinical pathology (medical microbiology) laboratory, the X-ray laboratory and the surgery and injection therapy departments of the health facility was monitored for six working weeks. A total of 240 kg medical solid waste was manually separated and weighed and 330 L of liquid medical waste was measured and classified. The hazardous waste fraction (%w/w) of the medical solid waste was 91.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 12.9% for the X-ray laboratory, 24.2% for the surgery departments and 17.6% for the injection therapy department. The infectious waste fraction (%w/w) of the hazardous medical solid waste was 75.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 0% for the X-ray laboratory, 100% for the surgery departments and 75.6% for the injection therapy department. The total hazardous medical solid waste production rate was 64+/-15 g/patient/d for the clinical pathology laboratory, 7.2+/-1.6 g/patient/d for the X-ray laboratory, 8.3+/-5.1 g/patient/d for the surgery departments and 24+/-9 g/patient/d for the injection therapy department. Liquid waste was produced by the clinical pathology laboratory (infectious-and-toxic) and the X-ray laboratory (toxic). The production rate for the clinical pathology laboratory was 0.03+/-0.003 L/patient/d and for the X-ray laboratory was 0.06+/-0.006 L/patient/d. Due to the small amount produced, it was suggested that the most suitable management scheme would be to transport the hazardous medical waste, after source-separation, to the Prefectural Hospital of Xanthi to be treated with the hospital waste. Assuming this data is representative of other small medical facilities, medical waste production can be estimated for such facilities distributed around Greece.

  5. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  6. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Vlahopoulou, M; Tsirliganis, N; Kastelis, N; Ouzounis, K; Kazakis, N

    2015-12-01

    Extensive measurements of (222)Rn in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m(-3). A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m(-3) while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq m(-3). Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th-early 20th century. Measurements of (238)U and (232)Th content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor (222)Rn was found with temperature (r(2) = 0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r(2) = 0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere (222)Rn flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m(-2) h(-1), which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  7. Suicide, unemployment and other socioeconomic factors: evidence from the economic crisis in Greece

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    Michael G. Madianos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64. Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of Forestry Students on Nature and Protected Areas in Greece

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    Georgios Efthimiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study and academic training of citizens in issues of forest and protected areas shapes the environmentally friendly attitudes to graduates. Attitudes include public beliefs and assessments of ecosystem management activities. In education it is necessary to redefine our values and ethical norms and obligations towards man and the natural environment. The field of study and gender have an impact on environmental attitudes and behaviors of students. The protected areas are subject to ample scientific research and have educational interest. The purpose of this research is to measure attitudes on Protected Areas (PA of Forestry students in Greece. The questionnaire used as a research tool, based on the scale FVS (Forest Values Scale which is suitably adapted for PA. Based on the results of this survey it was found that the majority of the sampled students showing more biocentric attitude to Protected Areas which is largely due to the subject of their studies. With regard to gender on the positive attitude towards the environment was found to be statistically significant in favor of women. Students largely support positive environmental attitudes and found that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge about protected areas and the attitude towards the environment.

  9. Fruit and vegetables consumption in relation to health and diet of medical students in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsias, George; Linardakis, Manolis; Mammas, Ioannis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2005-03-01

    In Greece, prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing during the last few decades. From a public health point of view, it is important to identify lifestyle practices associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. As part of the Clinical Nutrition course at the University of Crete School of Medicine, 507 medical students (292 men, 215 women) were examined during the period 1995-2001. Individual 24-hour dietary recalls were taken, lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and anthropometric and serum lipid measurements were performed. Fruits and vegetables were consumed by 90% of men (370 +/- 275 g/day) and 94% of women (354 +/- 283 g/day). Among non/ex-smokers who ate fruit and vegetables, 41% consumed > or = 400 g/day, compared to 31% of current smokers (p = 0.05). The risk for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 130 mg/dL, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (TC:HDL-C) > or = 5 decreased with increasing quartile of fruit and vegetables consumption (trend p Fruit and vegetable intake was favorably related to intake of dietary fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, folate, and vitamins C, E, A, B1 and B6, and inversely related to saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol. Prospective studies should be performed within the general young adult population to assess the long-term effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on chronic disease risk development.

  10. First results of an ambient seismic noise analysis in western Corinth Gulf (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Dimitrios; Paraskevopoulos, Paraskevas; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2015-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of an ambient seismic noise analysis performed in the western Corinth Gulf, Greece. The Corinth Gulf is a continental rift which separates the central Greek mainland from Peloponnese. The rift is approximately 120 km long and 10-20 km wide, with a WNW-ESE orientation, extending from the Gulf of Patras in the west, to the Gulf of Alkionides in the east. It is considered as one of the most active extensional intra-continental rifts in the world, with the geodetically measured rates of extension varying from ~5 mm/yr at the eastern part, to ~15 mm/yr at the western part. We used data from three-component broad-band seismic stations operated under the framework of the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) and the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL). After the classical processing of continuous ambient seismic noise recordings, we used both auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of single stations and station pairs, respectively, in order to retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of surface waves and estimate relative velocity changes. For estimating the relative velocity changes we used the moving-window cross spectrum analysis (MWCS) technique. This is the first attempt to characterize the ambient seismic noise properties in the area and study the possible relation between the detected relative velocity changes and the occurrence of moderate or strong earthquakes in the study area.

  11. The use of Sentinel-2 imagery for seagrass mapping: Kalloni Gulf (Lesvos Island, Greece) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Charalampis Spondylidis, Spyridon; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Seagrass meadows play a significant role in ecosystems by stabilizing sediment and improving water clarity, which enhances seagrass growing conditions. It is high on the priority of EU legislation to map and protect them. The traditional use of medium spatial resolution satellite imagery e.g. Landsat-8 (30m) is very useful for mapping seagrass meadows on a regional scale. However, the availability of Sentinel-2 data, the recent ESA's satellite with its payload Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is expected to improve the mapping accuracy. MSI designed to improve coastline studies due to its enhanced spatial and spectral capabilities e.g. optical bands with 10m spatial resolution. The present work examines the quality of Sentinel-2 images for seagrass mapping, the ability of each band in detection and discrimination of different habitats and estimates the accuracy of seagrass mapping. After pre-processing steps, e.g. radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction, image classified into four classes. Classification classes included sub-bottom composition e.g. seagrass, soft bottom, and hard bottom. Concrete vectors describing the areas covered by seagrass extracted from the high-resolution satellite image and used as in situ measurements. The developed methodology applied in the Gulf of Kalloni, (Lesvos Island - Greece). Results showed that Sentinel-2 images can be robustly used for seagrass mapping due to their spatial resolution, band availability and radiometric accuracy.

  12. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece

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    D. Founda

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the lowest temperature values occurring about 15 min after the full phase. The amplitude of the air temperature drop was not analogous to the obscuration percentage but was principally determined by the surrounding environment (mainly the sea influence, the background meteorological conditions and local cloudiness. Surface wind-speed decreased in most sites as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. This perturbation provided a unique opportunity to apply a sensitivity analysis on the effect of the eclipse to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF numerical mesoscale meteorological model. Strong anomalies, not associated with a dynamic response, were simulated over land especially in surface air temperature. The simulated temperature drop pattern was consistent with the observations.

  13. Residency Training: Determinants of burnout of neurology trainees in Attica, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Lykouri, Maria; Xirou, Sophia; Roussopoulou, Andromachi; Papageorgiou, Ermioni; Bakola, Eleni; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of burnout and identify its determinants among neurology residents in Attica, Greece. In total, 131 placements for neurology training over 18 hospitals were available. All residents were approached and were asked to participate in the study by anonymously completing a questionnaire. Job demands and resources (JD-R) were examined via a 31-item questionnaire assessing 8 factors based on the JD-R model. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The emotional exhaustion + 1 criterion was used to distinguish respondents with and without burnout. A total of 116 residents participated in the study (response rate 88.5%). In total, 18.1% of the participants were experiencing burnout. Multivariate analysis showed that each increased point in the total score of the factor regarding opportunities for professional development was associated with lowering the odds of burnout by 28.7%. Burnout among neurology residents is associated with decreased professional development. Educators and program directors need to identify those residents at high risk of burnout and design interventions to promote residents' resilience and mental health. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Environmental parameters as risk factors for human and canine Leishmania infection in Thessaly, Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Tsokana, Constantina N; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulos, Elias; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Rodi Burriel, Angeliki; Vakali, Annita; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2016-08-01

    Thessaly, Central Greece, is an endemic area for leishmaniasis with higher incidence rate during the last years. We herein investigated the geographical distribution of human leishmaniasis cases and Leishmania infected dogs in relation to environmental parameters to identify high-risk areas. All the human leishmaniasis cases (n = 82) reported to Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007 to 2014 and 85 Leishmania polymerase chain reaction positive dogs were included in this study. To analyse the data geographical information system (GIS) together with the Ecological Niche Model (ENM) were used. The most important findings of the study were: (i) Central plain of Thessaly together with the coast line and the western and eastern lowlands were identified as high-risk geographical areas. (ii) The highest percentage of the high-risk areas was found in low altitude (human settlements was found in high-risk areas. (iv) The maximum temperature of the warmest month contributes the highest per cent to define both environmental niche profiles for humans and dogs. (v) The ENM could be a useful tool for the epidemiological study of leishmaniasis. Spatial analysis may allow the design of entomological studies and identify target population in order to implement preventive measures.

  15. Image quality and patient dose in computed tomography examinations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simantirakis, G; Hourdakis, C J; Economides, S; Dimitriou, P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate image quality of various computed tomography (CT) scanners installed in Greece, as well as to investigate patient doses from common CT examinations. An image quality survey was performed in 44 CT scanners countrywide. The imaging performance of the systems was evaluated by measurements of certain parameters, such as image noise, spatial uniformity, high- and low-contrast resolution and slice thickness accuracy. Moreover, preliminary results of patient dose survey are presented. Concerning image quality, 80 % of the scanners were found to be in compliance with the national legislation and relative international guidelines for all the examined parameters. Weighted CT dose index and dose-length product values for chest and abdomen routine examinations were generally below the dose reference levels (DRLs) suggested by the European Commission. However, some scanners were found to deliver significantly higher doses than the suggested DRL for head routine examinations. Finally, differences in the performance among scanners of the same type and similar age were observed, pointing out the importance of frequent calibration, routine quality control and proper maintenance.

  16. Sharing Followers in e-Government Twitter Accounts: The Case of Greece

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    Kostas Zafiropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of e-government and online social media offers opportunities for governments to meet the demands and expectations of citizens, to provide value-added services and overcome barriers of reduced public budgets. Twitter is the most popular microblogging platform that can facilitate interaction and engagement. It is widely used by government agencies, public affairs practitioners, non-government organizations, members of Parliament and politicians. The paper aims to explore the use of Twitter by government agencies in Greece and record Twitter followers’ preferences regarding which accounts they follow. The paper records 27 Greek e-government Twitter accounts and their 107,107 followers. It uses a data mining technique, association rules and two multivariate statistical methods, multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis and proposes the use of a similarity measure, suitable for describing Twitter account proximity. In this way, the paper locates accounts that share followers. Groups of Twitter accounts are located, and their common orientation is described. The analysis not only describes Twitter account similarities and group formation, but to some extent, the followers’ preferences and habits of obtaining information through Twitter, as well.

  17. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kougemitrou, Irene [Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17671 Athens (Greece); Godelitsas, Athanasios, E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Tsabaris, Christos [Hellenic Center of Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos (Greece); Stathopoulos, Vassilis [Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, Andreas [CERECO S.A. Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, 34100 Chalkida (Greece); Gamaletsos, Platon [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Economou, George [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnai (Greece); Papadopoulos, Dimitris [APOTEFROTIRAS S.A., Ano Liossia, 19200 Elefsina (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  18. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being.

  19. Airborne PBDEs in specialized occupational settings, houses and outdoor urban areas in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Atsarou, Vassiliki [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Buildings of Chemistry Department, Voutes-Heraklion, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Buildings of Chemistry Department, Voutes-Heraklion, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece)], E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2008-09-15

    Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in workplaces, homes and urban outdoor air in Greece. The geometric mean concentrations of total PBDEs (sum of 19 congeners) in offices (205 pg m{sup -3}), internet cafes/computer rooms (127 pg m{sup -3}) and computers/electronics shops (85 pg m{sup -3}) were significantly higher than those in furniture stores (12 pg m{sup -3}), homes (8 pg m{sup -3}) and outdoor air (18 pg m{sup -3}). The daily inhalation intake of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the four occupational settings ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng day{sup -1} and it was significantly lower than the expected dietary intake ({approx}77 ng day{sup -1}). Although inhalation generally represented a small fraction of the overall daily exposure to PBDEs ({approx}1%), the results from a heavily contaminated office (10 848 pg m{sup -3} of total PBDEs) indicated that the intake from this route (65 ng day{sup -1}) may, in some extreme cases, be as important as diet. - Passive air sampling reveals that PBDEs can reach exceedingly high levels in the indoor air of specific occupational settings.

  20. Chemical restraint in routine clinical practice: a report from a general hospital psychiatric ward in Greece

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    Papamichael Georgios

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies regarding chemical restraint in routine clinical psychiatric practice. There may be wide variations between different settings and countries. Methods A retrospective study on chemical restraint was performed in the 11-bed psychiatric ward of the General Hospital of Arta, in northwestern Greece. All admissions over a 2-year-period (from March 2008 to March 2010 were examined. Results Chemical restraint was applied in 33 cases (10.5% of total admissions. From a total of 82 injections, 22 involved a benzodiazepine and/or levomepromazine, whereas 60 injections involved an antipsychotic agent, almost exclusively haloperidol (96.7% of cases, usually in combination with a benzodiazepine (61.7% of cases. In 36.4% of cases the patient was further subjected to restraint or seclusion. Conclusions In our unit, clinicians prefer the combined antipsychotic/benzodiazepine regimen for the management of patients' acute agitation and violent behaviour. Conventional antipsychotics are administrated almost exclusively and in a significant proportion of cases further coercive measures are applied. Studies on the practice of chemical restraint should be regularly performed in clinical settings.

  1. Ground deformation detection of the greater area of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece using radar interferometry techniques

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    D. Raucoules

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study SAR interferometric techniques (stacking of conventional interferograms and Permanent Scatterers, using images from satellites ERS-1 and 2, have been applied to the region of Thessaloniki (northern Greece. The period covered by the images is 1992–2000. Both techniques gave good quantitative and qualitative results. The interferometric products were used to study ground surface deformation phenomena that could be related to the local tectonic context, the exploitation of underground water and sediments compaction.

    The city of Thessaloniki shows relatively stable ground conditions. Subsidence in four locations, mainly in the area surrounding the city of Thessaloniki, has been detected and assessed. Two of the sites (Sindos-Kalochori and Langadhas were already known from previous studies as subsiding areas, using ground base measurements. On the contrary the other two sites in the northern suburbs of Thessaloniki (Oreokastro and in the south-east (airport area were unknown as areas of subsidence. A further investigation based on fieldwork is needed in these two areas. Finally, an attempt to interpret the observed deformation, according to the geological regime of the area and its anthropogenic activities, has been carried out.

  2. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

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    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  3. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece

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    D. Founda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the lowest temperature values occurring about 15 min after the full phase. The amplitude of the air temperature drop was not analogous to the obscuration percentage but was principally determined by the surrounding environment (mainly the sea influence, the background meteorological conditions and local cloudiness. Surface wind-speed decreased in most sites as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. This perturbation provided a unique opportunity to apply a sensitivity analysis on the effect of the eclipse to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF numerical mesoscale meteorological model. Strong anomalies, not associated with a dynamic response, were simulated over land especially in surface air temperature. The simulated temperature drop pattern was consistent with the observations.

  4. Teacher perceptions of communication impairment at screening stage in preschool children living in Patras, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, A; Kampanaros, M

    2001-01-01

    The general aim was to obtain piloting data for a series of experiments about the prevalence of communication impairment in preschool children in Greece. At this screening stage of the overall project, teacher perceptions of communication impairment in 57 kindergartens servicing 1113 children were examined via a questionnaire distributed in the urban region of Patras. The specific research goals were (1) to screen for specific categories of communication impairment such as articulation/phonology, receptive language, expressive language and pragmatics, hearing, stuttering, and voice, as they appear in the mainstreamed kindergarten population and (2) to offer comparative information on sex differences in communication impairment(s). The information was gathered by administration of a Greek-adapted version of the Communication Checklist for Pre-school Teachers, which was administered three times to obtain validity and reliability measures. The results were analysed separately for two studies (original and follow-up) and indicated teacher estimates of 14.4-18.7% for communication impairment in kindergarten children of the Patras region. Prevalence was higher for boys than for girls. Analysis of specific communication areas revealed that prevalence varies according to gender and category of communicative impairment. The limitations and follow-up needs of this study are discussed.

  5. Variations of 210Pb concentrations in surface air at Thessaloniki, Greece (40°N

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    Papastefanou C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb were measured over the year 2009 in ground level air at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece (40°62′ N, 22°95′E. The mean activity concentrations of 210Pb in surface air have been found to be 671 ± 213 μBq m−3. The highest values of monthly atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn and the lowest in the spring period. The higher values of 210Pb during autumn were attributed to frequent inversion conditions of the surface layers, resulting in an enrichment of radon and its decay products in surface air. The lower values during the winter months might be due to the low emanation of radon from the frozen or snow-covered soil. The minima of 210Pb concentrations during spring might reflect on higher washout during this period, which results in less emanation of radon from saturated with water soil, resulting in less production of 210Pb near ground-level air. The relative high values during summer are probably due to the higher 222Rn exhalation from the ground and due to the higher air mixing within the troposphere, which has as a result to carry down to the surface layer 210Pb whose origin is older air masses which entered into the free troposphere.

  6. Site quality assessment of degraded Quercus frainetto stands in central Greece

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    Kitikidou K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential yield of a site is measured by site index, which is defined as the dominant height of a stand at a base age. A site index model for site quality assessment of Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak stands in central Greece was developed using a base age of 50 years. Data were collected from 39 temporary sample plots of 10 x 10 m. Linear regression models widely used in site index studies were fitted to height-age data. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj, root mean square error (RMSE, bias, coefficient of determination for the prediction (R2pr and residual plots were used for the choice of the best-fitting model. The best model was H = -0.231+0.251A-0.001A2, where H is the predicted height at age A. The guide curve method was adopted in constructing the sites curves, with the chosen model as the guide curve. Based on this curve, the study area was divided into three site quality classes (I to III, with class I representing the best and class III the poorest. Also, the presence of a Simpson’s paradox in these analyses is discussed. The results showed that a 50-year-old stand in the study area attained an average dominant height of about 11, 8 and 6 m on site quality classes I, II and III, respectively. The Hungarian oak stands of the present study can be considered very low productivity stands.

  7. Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475

  8. The Last-glacial/Interglacial Transition in northern Greece: consequences on physical environments and implications for human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Antoine

    2010-05-01

    Across the Mediterranean Basin, the glacial-interglacial transition (15000-6000 BP) is the transition from hunter-gatherer societies of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Final companies to Neolithic farmers. In Epirus (northwestern Greece), the lack of archaeological sites is obvious for this period: only two cave sites have yielded Upper Paleolithic occupations and one open air site was dated to the Mesolithic. At the scale of the Tardiglacial and the Holocene, climate fluctuations have been multiple and caused palaeogeographic changes that we do not yet fully measure the amplitudes and limitations: significant change in the coastline and coastal paleogeography and modification of river systems. The prehistoric remains in a continental environment can not be easily found: they were either destroyed by marine erosion during the post-glacial rebound, or they were buried by sediment. The study we are conducting as part of a PhD in geoarchaeology tries to better understand the response of the physical backgrounds in northwestern Greece. Our study focuses on two specific areas: the delta formed by the river Thyamis (or Kalamas) and the inlet between the island of Corfu and the mainland. The first has never been paleoenvironmentaly studied. Likewise, archaeological researches in the watershed are almost nonexistent. The second study area is of paramount importance to understand the likely impact of the post-glacial rebound on the prehistoric and archaeological maps: initial investigations indicate that this space was occupied by a lake that has ceased to function around 10 000 BP. The paper will present preliminary results on the paleogeographic evolution of the delta Thyamis. In June 2009, combined measures of electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and GPR profiles have established the thickness of the Holocene sedimentation: nearly 15 meters at the upstream of the delta. To better understand the prehistoric and historical evolution of this space, a first serie

  9. The Greek mirror: the Uranians and their use of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D H

    2005-01-01

    The Uranians comprised a loosely knit group of British and American homosexual poets writing between approximately 1880 and 1930, sharing a number of basic cultural and literary assumptions derived on one hand from Walter Pater, and on the other from Walt Whitman. Although they used Oriental, Christian and other motifs, one of the major elements many shared was a use of various allusions and themes from ancient Greece, including paganism, male companionship or intimate friendship (which was not defined in terms of sameness), and democracy and a natural aristocracy of virtue, which they applied to the concerns of their own society and era. The model of male relationships which they advocated (and in at least some cases practiced) was almost uniformly asymmetrical, either by age or class, or both. In addition to their poetry, various theoretical writings by members of the group are also involved in the discussion, and this article argues that these historical/ literary allusions and themes should not be understood as means of evasion which allowed them to write of tabooed subjects safely, but as part of a consciously adopted artistic/cultural strategy for homosexual emancipation. It also suggests that their arguments should be reexamined as a corrective to the present egalitarian model of homosexuality.

  10. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  11. Psychological distress, anxiety and depression among nursing students in Greece

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    Sapountzi-Krepia D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.

  12. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  13. The retail store managers' role: Evidence from Greece

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    Zairis, A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the retail manager's role is determinant for a store's performance, and there is abundant wisdom about how to be an outstanding manager or what are the characteristics of a successful retail manager, there is no detailed description about the store managers' role or their actual work. Furthermore, the continuous developments in the retail sector have established different roles and created higher levels of responsibility for store managers. The aim of the present paper is to empirically investigate the role of retail store managers in Greece and identify any potential differences in terms of personal characteristics, tasks and various job-related factors. For the purposes of this research a survey was conducted focusing on the sectors of apparel/footwear and food, in an attempt to explore any potential differences within the two divisions. The results revealed the profile of the Greek store managers (male, over the age of 40, with a secondary level of education and more than five years of work experience and their multi-factor role. The three major roles that they perform were labeled as: sales oriented, supervisor, and customer experience oriented. The research also indicated that the two most popular sub-sectors in the Greek retail industry employ different profile managers. The issues of work experience, job satisfaction and security were also analysed.

  14. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  15. Involvement and Loyalty in Recreation Swimming in Greece: Investigating Relationships

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    Evangelia Kontogianni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study tested the validity of involvement scale (Kyle et al., 2004, examined differences according demographic characteristics and investigated possible relationships between involvement and attitudinal loyalty in context of recreational swimming. Three hundred and forty nine participants (61.9% females from a major swimming sport center in northern Greece, completed the three dimensional involvement model of Kyle’s et al (2004, and Armitage & Conner’s (1999 attitudinal loyalty’s instrument. Demographics of the sample and frequency of participation were also recorded. The results indicated high differences (p<.01 between dimensions of involvement and the frequency of participation levels supporting the predictive validity of the scale. Female subgroup and married subgroup scored significantly higher in all involvement dimensions (attraction, centrality, self-expression than males and singles respectively. Significant statistical differences existed also between involvement dimensions and age subgroups. Finally, involvement concept only partially (centrality, β=.13 and attraction, β=.47 dimensions predicted swimmers loyalty (p<.001. Marketing implications are discussed toward the development of appropriate promotion strategies from sport managers toward overcoming swimmer’s needs and broadening participants net.

  16. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype).

  17. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  18. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karanikola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  19. Mercury in the Urban Topsoil of Athens, Greece

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    Efstratios Kelepertzis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study documents the Hg content in 45 urban topsoil samples from the highly urbanized city of Athens, Greece. The Hg concentrations were quantified by applying aqua regia digestion on the <100 μm soil fraction followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS with a detection limit of 5 μg·kg−1. The median concentration of Hg in Athens soil is 96 μg·kg−1; ten out of 45 soil samples were found to contain Hg concentrations higher than 200 μg·kg−1, which is the maximum concentration value expected to be present in normal uncontaminated soils. Results obtained by multivariate principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis incorporating a large suite of chemical elements were notably effective for elucidating the anthropogenic origin of Hg in the studied soil. The elevated concentrations are most likely related to site-specific point source contamination rather than to the widely documented influences from the vehicular traffic emissions in urban settings. Given the proximity of urban population to the contaminated urban soils, we suggest the implementation of different soil extraction tests with the aim to evaluate the fraction of soil Hg available for absorption by the human body.

  20. [Pityriasis versicolor in Greece and its predisposition factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisis, N; Stratigos, J; Marcelou-Kinti, U; Capetanakis, J

    1977-11-01

    The age and seasonal incidence of 2610 patients with pityriasis versicolor in Greece were studied. Determination of the pH of Na and K ions of the sweat and the microbiol flora of the skin of pityriasis versicolor patients was undertaken. Besides these the effectiveness of a 1% selenium disulfid suspension was tested. The results indicate that the age groups of 20-29 and 30-30 years are mostly affected by the disease. A high incidence of the skin manifestation was noted during the summer and fall months. A difference of the pH of the sweat between pityriasis versicolor and healthy controls was observed, but no difference was found in the Na and K ions of the sweat among these two groups. Neither did the microbial flora from the skin lesions of patients and from corresponding sites of controls show any difference. The high relapse in this experiment indicates the relative ineffectiveness of selenium disulfid preparations when used as a 1% suspension in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  1. GREECE FACES A YIN-YANG DEVELOPMENT PHASE

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    Stefania Andra SIMIONESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept Yin-Yang represents the unity of opposites and complementarity. In this respect, from the economical point of view a positive Yin phase represents the cash flow, brings nutrition, gentleness and protection, while a negative Yin phase means capital loss, sloth and passive obedience, a positive Yang phase is translated as an action based on funds, emphasising the creation, the construction and the development of infrastructure thanks to an economical action plan, while a negative Yang phase leads to conflicts, to excessive product stocks and to a stock market collapse, causing, in this line, crisis and inflation by increasing prices and decreasing purchasing power. In the European Union, Greece faces a Yang negative phase. When having too much positive Yin monetary stimulus from the EU, the Yin-Yang balance turns in favour of a negative Yang bankrupcy and unemployment. Thus, I explore not only the Greece’s economical dimension, but also its geographic role, the synergy between culture and DNA and the last, but not the least, the human’s ability in creating a new positive Yin-Yang flourishing future.

  2. Immigrants as users of primary health services in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roupa Ε.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The migration is a multidimensional and complex problem of modern times. The social, political, economic and cultural negative circumstances prevailing in many states and communities of the world are pushing people into new places and destinations to permanent or temporary residence. In recent years, Greece is a country of immigration destination resulting in a entrance of people with different national and racial characteristics. The installation of the population in the country and use of structures and services of the state has a big change in the political, economic and social developments affecting major systems and subsystems of the state including the health system.The use of social structures and particularly of Primary Health Care, by immigrants occurs quite reduced compared to the native people. The use of Primary Health Care limited in emergencies situations and less in health prevention. Factors such as language, the high economic cost of providing medical services and remote Primary Health Care services seems to have a negative impact on search on medical treatment and nursing care. Important seen the role of the state and health professionals to use the Primary Health Care services from the immigrant population. Actions such as removing social exclusion and implementation of specialized prevention programs, can contribute greatly to the health of immigrants

  3. Snake venom poisoning in Greece. Experiences with 147 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangides, Christos Y; Koulouras, Vasilios; Kouni, Sophia N; Tzortzatos, Gerasimos V; Nikolaou, Athanasios; Pneumaticos, John; Pierrakeas, Christos; Niarchos, Constantinos; Kounis, Nicholas G; Koutsojannis, Constantinos M

    2006-01-01

    Snake venom poisoning is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. Bites from poisonous European snakes can lead to local tissue damage and systemic symptoms. Vipera ammodytes accounts for the most envenomation in Greece. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome of 147 consecutive victims of V. ammodytes admitted to our hospital from 1988 to 2003 were reviewed and analyzed. The most common symptoms and signs included fang marks (100%), pain (100%), swelling (98.64%), ecchymosis (60.54%), tachycardia (32.65%), fainting or dizziness (29.93%), fever (23.13%), enlargement of regional lymph nodes (17.69%), nausea (16.33%), hypotension (13.61%), and vomiting (12.93%). The main complications were reduced range of motion, thrombophlebitis, local hemorrhagic blister formation, skin bleeding, rhabdomyolysis, reduced sensation, acute renal failure, necrosis with tissue loss, carpal tunnel syndrome, compartment syndrome, Kounis syndrome, and digit amputation. A V. ammodytes bite is a potentially serious event that requires immediate hospital care. Yet, the majority of victims can be treated successfully with conservative methods. No deaths occurred in our series.

  4. Gender and regional differentials in health expectancy in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bagavos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Differentials and inequalities in heath status are closely related to the implementation and the sustainability of public health policies. The paper investigates differences in health expectancy as an indicator of population health among regions and between genders.Design and Methods. Based on activity limitation, we compute Healthy Life Years indicator by applying the prevalence-based Sullivan method. The analysis is based on data from the National Health Survey conducted in Greece in 2009 by the Hellenic Statistical Authority, carried out on a multistage probability sample of 6172 individuals.Results. The results show that men are more likely than women to live a greater part of their life in good health. When regions are considered (NUTS_1 and NUTS_2 levels, the resulting diversities in healthy life years are more pronounced than those in life expectancy.Conclusions. The paper provides additional insights about health status discrepancies among Greek geographic regions and between genders. The results indicate that men are more likely to report to be in good health than women, and the differences by gender are more pronounced at regional than at national level. This empirical evidence can be used for monitoring both, the population health status and the undesired differentials in health expectancy, and may therefore be a useful tool for health policies aiming at reducing heath inequalities among individuals.

  5. Soil radon as a possible earthquake precursor: Preliminary results from Ileia (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Ermioni; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Zisos, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which is directly produced by the decay of the 238U series. It is significant for the studies of Earth, in hydrogeology and atmosphere. Radon is used as a trace gas due to the long half-life (3.82-days) which allows migration at long distances. In addition, it is an alpha emitter, fact which enables detection of low levels of radon. Anomalies of radon impending earthquakes of a variety of magnitudes have been observed in soil gas, ground- and thermal-waters and in underground tunnels. Increasing is the scientific interest in this field during the last two years. However, the majority of the published papers refer to data of rather long time intervals between sequential measurements (~2-4 weeks).On the other hand, it is justified, both on laboratory and geophysical scale, that when a heterogeneous material is strained acoustic and electromagnetic (EM) emissions occur in a wide frequency spectrum, ranging from very low to very high frequencies. These emissions are considered as precursors of general fracture. In the search of soil radon as a possible earthquake precursor, a station for quick and continuous monitoring of soil radon has been installed in a very active tectonic site in Greece (Ileia, Peloponnese, SW Greece). The monitoring site is Kardamas Ileias, located 3 km south from Amaliada which is the second highly populated city. The instrumental and felt seismicity of Ileia is dominated by extensional active seismicity structures (e.g. Alfeios, Neda, Melpeia, Kiparissia-Aetos) and has shown more than 600 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 R in the last 100 years. Two earthquakes were very destructive (5.8 R on 26/3/93 and 6.8 R on 8/6/08 respectively). The station consists of a high precision active instrument (Alpha Guard-AG, Genitron Ltd.), equipped with an appropriate unit designed for pumping and measurement of radon in soil gas (Soil gas Unit, Genitron Ltd.). Soil radon is continuously pumped

  6. Misconceptions on classical mechanics by freshman university students: A case study in a Physics Department in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stylos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an empirical research study on Newton’s laws classical mechanics and its perceptions on freshman students at the Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Greece. Results and outcome measures reveal misconceptions on students’ perceptions in consideration of the fundamental concepts in freshman Physics education. The findings showed that the students continue to have the same misconceptions on concepts, such as the students of the high school. The research indicates that the students’ misconceptions remain largely throughout secondary education, which is a proof that there is no effort, where appropriate for conceptual change, according to the constructive model of learning and teaching physics. The objective intended to be reached in this communication is to provide an exchange forum of ideas that would help instructors originate the cause, and subsequently avoid misconceptions in freshman Physics education.

  7. Particle-size distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2015-03-01

    The size distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in particle sizes 7.2 μm was measured during the cold and the warm period of the year 2013 at traffic and background sites in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Mean aggregate concentrations (sum of six particle fractions) of the sum of 12 PBDE congeners (∑12PBDE) were 20.3 and 2.1 pg m-3 at the traffic and the urban background site, respectively, in the cold period exhibiting relative increase (27.1 and 2.4 pg m-3, respectively) in the warm period. At both sampling sites, more than 58% of ∑12PBDE was found to be associated with particles smaller than 0.49 μm in diameter. The outdoor workday inhalation exposure to PBDEs was estimated by calculating daily intake values for respirable, thoracic and inhalable fractions.

  8. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, C; Varacalli, S; Gino, S; Chatzikyriakidou, A; Kouvatsi, A; Triantaphyllidis, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Matullo, G; Piazza, A; Torre, C

    2004-10-04

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)--DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385--were typed in a population sample (n = 113) of unrelated males from seven different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Crete Island, and Chios Island).

  9. Is There a Need for a Higher Dance Institution in Greece? The Reality in Greek Contemporary Dance Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Is there a need for dance to enter higher education in Greece? Can contemporary dance be viewed as a discipline on its own right? These questions inspired the research conducted in three case study institutions (out of six that exist) in Greece, examining the reality within them as experienced by dance students, lecturers, course leaders and the…

  10. Is There a Need for a Higher Dance Institution in Greece? The Reality in Greek Contemporary Dance Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Is there a need for dance to enter higher education in Greece? Can contemporary dance be viewed as a discipline on its own right? These questions inspired the research conducted in three case study institutions (out of six that exist) in Greece, examining the reality within them as experienced by dance students, lecturers, course leaders and the…

  11. Spatial and temporal RF electromagnetic field exposure of children and adults in indoor micro environments in Belgium and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Günter; Markakis, Ioannis; Goeminne, Francis; Samaras, Theodoros; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-11-01

    Personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure, or exposimetry, is gaining importance in the bioelectromagnetics community but only limited data on personal exposure is available in indoor areas, namely schools, crèches, homes, and offices. Most studies are focused on adult exposure, whereas indoor microenvironments, where children are exposed, are usually not considered. A method to assess spatial and temporal indoor exposure of children and adults is proposed without involving the subjects themselves. Moreover, maximal possible daily exposure is estimated by combining instantaneous spatial and temporal exposure. In Belgium and Greece, the exposure is measured at 153 positions spread over 55 indoor microenvironments with spectral equipment. In addition, personal exposimeters (measuring EMFs of people during their daily activities) captured the temporal exposure variations during several days up to one week at 98 positions. The data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method to account for data below the detection limit. All instantaneous and maximal exposures satisfied international exposure limits and were of the same order of magnitude in Greece and Belgium. Mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting (FM) were most present. In Belgium, digital cordless phone (DECT) exposure was present for at least 75% in the indoor microenvironments except for schools. Temporal variations of the exposure were mainly due to variations of mobile telecommunication signals. The exposure was higher during daytime than at night due to the increased voice and data traffic on the networks. Total exposure varied the most in Belgian crèches (39.3%) and Greek homes (58.2%).

  12. Preliminary survey of outdoor gamma dose rates in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Anastasios B; Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the first attempt to record the radioactive background due to gamma radiation in Lesvos Island (Greece). The study reports the results from 335 outdoor total gamma effective dose rate measurements conducted using GPS navigation and a Geiger-Muller detector (Bicron, Micro Sievert) on the whole surface of the island together with a digital map produced by appropriate mapping GIS programme. The study also reports the measurements of outdoor gamma dose rates due to the 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides as estimated via in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed at 26 sites using a 3 x 3 inch NaI (thallium activated) portable detector. The results from the outdoor total gamma effective dose rates range between 0.0023 and 0.28 microSv h(-1). The highest outdoor total gamma effective dose rates (0.013-0.28 microSv h(-1)) were detected in the northeastern part of the island and the intermediate rates (0.066-0.13 microSv h(-1)) in the central region. The outdoor gamma dose rates due to 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides range between 1.7 +/- 0.8 and 154 +/- 7 nGy h(-1) with an average of 86 +/- 6 nGy h(-1). The average contribution of each of the examined radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) to the total gamma dose rate was found to be equal to 12 +/- 4% for 238U, 58 +/- 6% for 232Th and 29 +/- 7% for 40K, respectively.

  13. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis in a brown bear (Ursus arctos in Greece

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    Papadopoulos E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm is a filarial nematode found in the pulmonary circulation and the heart of susceptible hosts. It represents an important zoonotic vector-borne disease of domestic dogs and several wildlife species. Herein we report for the first time, the finding of Dirofilaria immitis worms in a brown bear killed in a vehicle collision in Northern Greece. The worms were morphologically identified; molecular examination, based on the analysis of the mitochondrial genes 12S (433 bp and CO1 (610 bp, verified the identification by demonstrating 100% similarity to D. immitis specimens deposited in GenBank. Brown bears in Greece occupy habitats that are shared with the potential wild and domestic hosts and the vectors of D. immitis and thus may be particularly susceptible to this parasite. This report contributes to the knowledge of dirofilariosis spread in Europe and on the epidemiological threats that may affect the survival of the endangered brown bear in Greece.

  14. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  15. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems.

  16. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  17. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  18. Rainwater harvesting, quality assessment and utilization in Kefalonia Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, E; Alexopoulos, A; Leotsinidis, M

    2007-05-01

    The quality of harvested rainwater which is used for domestic and drinking purposes in the northern area of Kefalonia Island in SW Greece and the factors affecting it were assessed through 3-year surveillance. In 12 seasonal samplings, 156 rainwater and 144 ground- or mixed water samples were collected from ferroconcrete storage tanks (300-1000 m3 capacity), which are adjacent to cement-paved catchment areas (600-3000 m2). Common anions and major cations as well as the metals Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were tested. The presence of three major groups of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochloride pesticides (OCPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was screened by common analytical techniques. All of the rainwater samples were within the guidelines for chemical parameters established by the 98/93/EU directive. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci were detected in 80.3%, 40.9% and 28.8% of the rainwater samples, respectively, although they were found in low concentrations. Chemical and microbiological parameters showed seasonal fluctuations. Principal component analysis revealed that microbiological parameters were affected mainly by the cleanness level of catchment areas, while chemical parameters were influenced by the sea proximity and human activities. Disinfection should be applied into the tanker trucks which distribute the water to the consumers and not into the big storage tanks in order to avoid by-products formation. Due to the lack of fluoride in rainwater samples, the consumers must become aware of the fact that the supplementation of this element is needed.

  19. Fog characteristics at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece

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    S. N. Stolaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical approach in order to study fog event characteristics occuring at the airport of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece is presented in this work. To achieve this, the seasonal and diurnal characteristics of fog are investigated using 35 years (1971–2005 of observations of meteorological parameters such as: visibility, air temperature, dew point temperature, air relative humidity, wind vector, precipitation, and cloud base height and coverage. Hourly surface observations of fifteen (15 years (1991–2005 are used to identify fog events induced by various physical mechanisms. Fog events are classified into fog types through the application of objective criteria that are derived upon fog formation processes and under the influence of various physiographic features. The temporal variability of different fog type occurrences are examined and the events are characterized according to their duration and intensity.

    The results are somehow affected by regional and local factors. Fog is mainly formed in winter time (~64% with an enhanced likelihood to appear also in late autumn (19%. The highest frequency of the fog events occurs around sunrise or 1 to 2 h before of it. The mean duration of the events is about 4.5 h. Most of them (75% are dense (visibility <400 m. The overall fog phenomenon is a combination of various types, such as: advection fog, radiation fog, cloud-base lowering fog and precipitation fog. Advection fog (30% and radiation fog (29%, which are the most common types, occur predominantly in winter and early spring time. With respect to the former type, it seems that, in many cases, already formed fog is advected from the nearby Anthemountas valley. Moreover, a considerable number of fog events (22% result from cloud-base lowering, and they frequently occur in late autumn and mid winter.

  20. Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; McCoy F. Jr.

    1984-09-30

    The well-known caldera of Thira (Santorini), Greece, was not formed during a single eruption but is composed of two overlapping calderas superimposed upon a complex volcanic field that developed along a NE trending line of vents. Before the Minoan eruption of 1400 B.C., Thira consisted of three lava shields in the northern half of the island and a flooded depression surrounded by tuff deposits in the southern half. Andesitic lavas formed the overlapping shields of the north and were contemporaneous with and, in many places, interbedded with the southern tuff deposits. Although there appears to be little difference between the composition of magmas erupted, differences in eruption style indicate that most of the activity in the northern half of the volcanic field was subaerial, producing lava flows, whereas in the south, eruptions within a flooded depression produced a sequence of mostly phreatomagmatic tuffs. Many of these tuffs are plastered onto the walls of what appears to have been an older caldera, most probably associated with an eruption of rhyodiacitic tephra 100,000 years ago. The Minoan eruption of about 1400 B.C. had four distinct phases, each reflecting a different vent geometry and eruption mechanism. The Minoan activity was preceded by minor eruptions of fine ash. (1) The eruption began with a Plinian phase, from subaerial vent(s) located on the easternmost of the lave shields. (2) Vent(s) grew toward the SW into the flooded depression. Subsequent activity deposited large-scale base surge deposits during vent widening by phreatomagnetic activity. (3) The third eruptive phase was also phreatomagmatic and produced 60% of the volume of the Minoan Tuff. This activity was nearly continuous and formed a large featureless tuff ring with poorly defined bedding.

  1. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  2. A case of Opisthorchis felineus infestation in a pilot from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselepatiotis, E; Mantadakis, E; Papoulis, S; Vassalou, E; Kotsakis, P; Samonis, G

    2003-12-01

    We describe the case of a 28-year-old man from Greece with Opistorchis felineus infestation. The patient presented with intense abdominal pain, bilious emesis and eosinophilia. He probably acquired the infection overseas, since he was a commercial airline pilot who used to fly to endemic areas and to consume raw or undercooked fish. He was successfully treated with praziquantel administered in divided doses over a single day. Opisthorchiasis is common to eastern Europe and areas of the former Soviet Union, but extremely rare in Greece. Medical personnel should be cognizant of this parasitic infection, since world travel can spread it to areas of the world unaccustomed to it.

  3. Empirical assessment of the determinants of road energy demand in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polemis, Michael L. [Athens Univ., Dept. of Economics, Athens (Greece)

    2006-05-15

    This paper attempts to cast light on the determinants of road energy demand in Greece. For this purpose, we used cointegration techniques and vector autoregression (VAR) analysis in order to capture short-run and long-run dynamics for gasoline and diesel demand, respectively. From the empirical analysis that covers the period 1978-2003, we find that in the long-run gasoline energy demand appears to be price and income inelastic while diesel demand appears to be price inelastic and income elastic. We also found that the absence of close substitutes in the road sector denotes the low level of energy switching in Greece. (Author)

  4. Smart Telecare Technology in Health and Social Primary Care Management for Personalized Approach in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Danae; Tsirintani, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies the smart telecare utility in health & social care fields for the satisfactory increase of external and internal user through personalized approach and the capability proof of continuing management improvement through quality indicators. Primary survey studies of aged people's satisfaction through smart telecare in Greece - maybe in good health or patients or socially isolated - interviewing four types involved - aged, caregivers, health or social care providers and smart technology providers or producers. The sample seems positive to smart telecare for prevention, protection, safety and security. To sum up, they believe there are organizational problems in Greece due to lack of information.

  5. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in haemodialysis patients from central Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paraskevi; Mina; Sarah; P; Georgiadou; Christos; Rizos; George; N; Dalekos; Eirini; I; Rigopoulou

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the hepatitis B virus(HBV)-DNA and the prevalence of occult HBV infection in end-stage renal failure(ESRF)patients from Central Greece. METHODS:Sera from 366 ESRF patients attending five out of six dialysis units from Central Greece were investigated for HBV-DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Only serum samples with repeatedly detectable HBV-DNA were considered positive.IgG antibodies to hepatitis C virus(anti-HCV)were tested by a third generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELIS...

  6. Barriers to participation in the social economy in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsobanoglou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis in Greece, an EU member for over 30 years, has brought to the surface the character of the Greek politico-administrative system as it handles employment, migration and associated forms of social protection. Similarly, recent attempts at legislative reforms of the operation of social economy enterprises have yet to be implemented, while the current legislation governing them, i.e. as Foundations, dates back to ...1939. The difficulties in recognising and regulating the social economy sector seem to emanate from the organisation of the overall employment security system in place. The employment relationship seems to be embedded within a bifurcated system of labour whereby the employment relationship is secure only in the public sector while the private sector is controlled by a precarious system of labour security, a separate health system and with its own political organisation. The lack of a unified national labour system does not allow the formation of a national system of employment (qualifications and, hence, a way to overcome nepotism and the political (party patronage system which defines, in a determining way, labour relations. This division is maintained by the politico-administrative labour regime put in place, under the extra-ordinary political situation that emerged after World War II (WWII. The paper explores this hidden reality defining the organisation of the employment system in Greece, its politico-administrative controls that seem to aim at ‘arresting’ the emergence of a social economy. This leads to a hidden social economy of a fragmented private labour market, which is regulated separately from the secure “public” employment sector. This rather anachronistic and discriminatory system of political order of labour divides workers in Greece. La actual crisis en Grecia, miembro de la UE desde hace más de 30 años, ha revelado el verdadero carácter del sistema político-administrativo griego, de la forma

  7. Transition from collision to subduction in Western Greece: the Katouna-Stamna active fault system and regional kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérouse, E.; Sébrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Bourlès, D.; Briole, P.; Sorel, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Arsenikos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Transition from subduction to collision occurs in Western Greece and is accommodated along the downgoing plate by the Kefalonia right-lateral fault that transfers the Hellenic subduction front to the Apulian collision front. Here we present an active tectonic study of Aitolo-Akarnania (Western Greece) that highlights how such a transition is accommodated in the overriding plate. Based on new multi-scale geomorphic and tectonic observations, we performed an accurate active fault trace mapping in the region, and provide evidence for active normal and left-lateral faulting along the Katouna-Stamna Fault (KSF), a 65-km-long NNW-striking fault system connecting the Amvrakikos Gulf to the Patras Gulf. We further show that the Cenozoic Hellenide thrusts located west of the KSF are no longer active, either in field observation or in GPS data, leading us to propose that the KSF forms the northeastern boundary of a rigid Ionian Islands-Akarnania Block (IAB). Cosmic ray exposure measurements of 10Be and 36Cl were performed on a Quaternary alluvial fan offset along the KSF (~50 m left-lateral offset). A maximum abandonment age of ~12-14 ka for the alluvial fan surface can be determined, giving an estimated KSF minimum geological left-lateral slip rate of ~4 mm year-1, in agreement with high GPS slip rates (~10 mm year-1). Despite this high slip rate, the KSF is characterized by subdued morphological evidence of tectonic activity, a gypsum-breccia bedrock and a low level of seismicity, suggesting a dominantly creeping behavior for this fault. Finally, we discuss how the IAB appears to have been progressively individualized during the Pleistocene (younger than ~1.5 Ma).

  8. Abnormal stock market returns to announcements of M&A banking deals in Greece 1996-2013

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    Anastasios KARAMANOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has undertaken a comprehensive empirical analysis of the wealth effects of bank M&As in Greece over the period 1996-2013. The purpose is to measure the performance of merger participants over the acquisition period as a deviation of how shareholders’ actual returns differ from expected returns conditional on the particular process of M&A. The authors develop a conceptual framework that integrates theoretical perspectives from economics, finance, organization theory, strategic management and human resource management to offer a broader process-oriented integrative model of the empirical evidence and theories suggested to explain acquisitions. The empirical analysis reports insignificant abnormal gains for acquiring banks, significant positive abnormal returns at 7,44% for acquired banks, and 2,91% positive abnormal returns for the combined entity, in the event window [-10;+1]. The findings indicate that, on average, the Greek bank mergers neither create nor destroy shareholder wealth. This result is consistent with the findings of other Greek event studies and the bulk of US and European event studies on M&A wealth effects. On average, acquired firm shareholders gain at the expense of the acquiring firm and market value of the combined entity appears to have little improvement around the announcement of the transaction. The conceptual framework explicitly describes that wealth effects of bank M&As in Greece over the period 1996-2013 may be a result of macroeconomic theory and perfectly competitive market, lack of strategic relatedness and synergy realization, managerial hubris, or unethical behavior of managers derived from expense preference approach of agency theory.

  9. The effect of ethnicity on prescribing practice and treatment outcome in inpatients suffering from schizophrenia in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulou Christos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies have been conducted in Greece with the aim of investigating the influence of ethnicity on the prescribing and treatment outcome of voluntarily admitted inpatients. Most studies conducted in the UK and the US, both on inpatients and outpatients, focus on the dosage of antipsychotics for schizophrenic patients and many suffer from significant methodological limitations. Using a simple design, we aimed to assess negative ethnic bias in psychotropic medication prescribing by comparing discrepancies in use between native and non-native psychiatric inpatients. We also aimed to compare differences in treatment outcome between the two groups. Methods In this retrospective study, the prescribing of medication was compared between 90 Greek and 63 non-Greek inpatients which were consecutively admitted into the emergency department of a hospital covering Athens, the capital of Greece. Participants suferred from schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Overall, groups were compared with regard to 12 outcomes, six related to prescribing and six related to treatment outcome as assesed by standardised psychometric tools. Results No difference between the two ethnic groups was found in terms of improvement in treatment as measured by GAF and BPRS-E. Polypharmacy, use of first generation antipsychotics, second generation antipsychotics and use of mood stabilizers were not found to be associated with ethnicity. However, non-Greeks were less likely to receive SSRIs-SNRIs and more likely to receive benzodiazepines. Conclusions Our study found limited evidence for ethnic bias. The stronger indication for racial bias was found in benzodiazepine prescribing. We discuss alternative explanations and give arguments calling for future research that will focus on disorders other than schizophrenia and studying non-inpatient populations.

  10. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  11. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  12. Reporting new cases of anaemia in primary care settings in Crete, Greece: a rural practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of anaemia represents an important task within primary care settings. This study reports on the frequency of new cases of anaemia among patients attending rural primary care settings in Crete (Greece and to offer an estimate of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA frequency in this study group. Methods All patients attending the rural primary health care units of twelve general practitioners (GPs on the island of Crete for ten consecutive working days were eligible to participate in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb levels were measured by portable analyzers. Laboratory tests to confirm new cases of anaemia were performed at the University General Hospital of Heraklion. Results One hundred and thirteen out of 541 recruited patients had a low value of Hb according to the initial measurement obtained by the use of the portable analyzer. Forty five (45.5% of the 99 subjects who underwent laboratory testing had confirmed anaemia. The mean value of the Hb levels in the group with confirmed anaemia, as detected by the portable analyzer was 11.1 g/dl (95% Confidence Interval (CI from 10.9 to 11.4 and the respective mean value of the Hb levels obtained from the full blood count was 11.4 g/dl (95% CI from 11.2 to 11.7 (P = 0.01. Sixteen out of those 45 patients with anaemia (35.6% had IDA, with ferritin levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion Keeping in mind that this paper does not deal with specificity or sensitivity figures, it is suggested that in rural and remote settings anaemia is still invisible and point of care testing may have a place to identify it.

  13. A large scale geophysical survey in the archaeological site of Europos (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, G. N.; Giannopoulos, A.; Tsourlos, P.; Vargemezis, G.; Tealby, J. M.; Sarris, A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Savopoulou, T.

    1994-04-01

    The results of a large scale exploration of an archaeological site by geophysical means are presented and discussed. The operation took place in the site where the ruins of the ancient city of Europos are buried. This site is in northern Greece. Resistivity prospecting was employed to detect the remnants of wall foundations in the place where the main urban complex of the ancient city once stood. The data were transformed in an image form depicting, thus, the spatial variation of resistivity in a manner that resembles the plane view of the ruins that could have been drawn if an excavation had taken place. This image revealed the urban plan of the latest times of the life of the city. Trial excavations verified the geophysical result. Magnetic prospecting in the same area complemented the resistivity data. The exact location of the fire hearths, kilns and remnants of collapsed roofs were spotted. Magnetic gradient measurements were taken in an area out of the main complex of the ancient city and revealed the location of several kilns. One of these locations was excavated and a pottery kiln was discovered. The resistivity prospecting in one of the graveyards of the ancient city showed anomalies which were expected and corresponded to monumental tombs. The locations of a few of them were excavated and large burial structures were revealed. Ground probing radar profiles were measured over the tombs which showed pronounced resistivity anomalies, so far unearthed. The relatively high resolving ability of the method assisted the interpretation in the sense that a few attributes were added. In the presented case, it was concluded that a particular tomb consists of two rooms and that it is roofless.

  14. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  15. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for coastal geomorphologic research questions in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Tilly, Nora; Ntageretzis, Konstantin; Aasen, Helge; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Coasts are areas of permanent change, influenced by gradual changes and sudden impacts. In particular, western Greece is a tectonically active region, due to the nearby plate boundary of the Hellenic Arc. The region has suffered from numerous earthquakes and tsunamis during prehistoric and historic times and is thus characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk. Additionally, strong winter storms may reach considerable dimensions. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning was applied for (i) annual change detection at seven coastal areas of western Greece for three years (2009-2011) and (ii) accurate parameter detection of large boulders, dislocated by high-energy wave impacts. The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro) for all surveys. Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. (i) For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. High-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEM) were generated from each dataset of the different years and are compared to each other, resulting in mass balances. (ii) 3D-models of dislocated boulders were reconstructed and parameters (e.g. volume in combination with density measurements, distance and height above present sea-level) were derived for the solution of wave transport equations, which estimate the minimum wave height or velocity that is necessary for boulder movement. (i) Our results show that annual changes are detectable by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning. In general, volumetric changes and affected areas are quantifiable and maps of changes can be established. On exposed beach areas, bigger changes were detectable, where seagrass and sand is eroded and gravel accumulated. In opposite, only minor changes for elevated areas are derived. Dislocated boulders on several sites showed no movement. At coastal areas with a high

  16. Modern Languages and Interculturality in the Primary Sector in England, Greece, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    Addresses concerns and issues regarding modern language teaching and learning at primary schools in Greece, Italy, Spain, and England. It focuses on the optimal age for learning and acquiring languages and to the educational reforms which have been undertaken in each country relating to early modern language teaching and learning and…

  17. Malaria and the Decline of Ancient Greece: Revisiting the Jones Hypothesis in an Era of Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christopher; Hamlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Between 1906 and 1909 the biologist Ronald Ross and the classicist W.H.S. Jones pioneered interdisciplinary research in biology and history in advancing the claim that malaria had been crucial in the decline of golden-age Greece (fourth century BCE). The idea had originated with Ross, winner of the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the importance of…

  18. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  19. Skarn and ore formation at Seriphos, Greece as a consequence of granodiorite intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, J.

    1985-01-01

    On the island of Seriphos, Greece, the shallow intrusion of a granodiorite pluton into a series of previously regionally metamorphosed gneisses, marbles and marble-bearing schists produced a contact metamorphic aureole and extensive deposits of Ca-Fe-Mg skarns and Fe-ores. Structural and petrologica

  20. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  1. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  2. The conundrum of Greece and the Eurozone: Puzzles, paradoxes and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitromilides Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three questions regarding the controversial relationship between Greece and the eurozone during the current crisis. First, why was Greece “bailed-out” in 2010? Second, why the Greek economy collapsed despite the largest “bail-out” in global financial history? Third, was the electoral mandate of the Syriza government for ending austerity while remaining in the eurozone contradictory? There are conflicting answers to all three questions and the paper compares the answers of the so called “dominant narrative” to those provided by the “counter-narrative” of the eurozone crisis. The paper reaches the following conclusions. First, the primary motivation for the “bail-out” of Greece was the maintenance of European and global financial stability. Second, although programme implementation was less successful in Greece than in other “programme” countries the catastrophic collapse of the Greek economy had more to do with the programme itself than its implementation. Third, the meaning of democratic decision-making in the Euro-group needs re-appraisal and must go beyond seeing the Greek demand of a policy reversal in the eurozone as simply a clash of democratic mandates in a 19 member monetary union. Political unity will not only improve efficiency but also democracy and accountability in eurozone policymaking.

  3. Millipedes of a maquis ecosystem (Naxos Island, Greece): Preliminary description of the population (Diplopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamaouna, M.; Geoffroy, J.-J.

    1985-01-01

    A mediterranean maquis ecosystem has been studied on the island Naxos (Greece). Five typical areas, spatially distributed as a mosaic pattern, have been characterized by the structure of the vegetation. Inside each of these units, the millipede population is composed of five species, whose main acti

  4. Skarn and ore formation at Seriphos, Greece as a consequence of granodiorite intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, J.

    1985-01-01

    On the island of Seriphos, Greece, the shallow intrusion of a granodiorite pluton into a series of previously regionally metamorphosed gneisses, marbles and marble-bearing schists produced a contact metamorphic aureole and extensive deposits of Ca-Fe-Mg skarns and Fe-ores. Structural and petrologica

  5. Metamorphism on Ios and the geological history of the Southern Cyclades, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maar, P.A. van der

    1981-01-01

    The geology and petrology of the island of los, Greece are outlined in chapter I. The geology is determined by a mantled gneiss dome which forms the basement, on top of which a marble-schist series is emplaced. The various rocks of the island are described petrologically and their mineral contents a

  6. A new species of Berinda (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from the eastern Aegean Islands, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissner, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new ground spider, Berinda idae Lissner spec. nov. is described from material collected in Kalymnos and Nisyros of the Dodecanese Islands, as well as Santorini and Christiani of the Thira island complex, Cyclades, Greece. The affinity of this species to ist congeners is briefly discussed.

  7. Taphonomic reinterpretation of a bone sample of endemic Pleistocene deer from Crete (Greece): osteoporosis versus regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attard, I.R.; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of fossil deer remains (genus Candiacervus) from Mavro Mouri cave, Crete, Greece is studied because a large proportion shows aberrant, seemingly pathological changes to the morphology and the structure of the bones. Here we show that the aberrant appearance of the Mavro Mouri bone sample ca

  8. Millipedes of a maquis ecosystem (Naxos Island, Greece): Preliminary description of the population (Diplopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Karamaouna, M.; Geoffroy, J.-J.

    1985-01-01

    A mediterranean maquis ecosystem has been studied on the island Naxos (Greece). Five typical areas, spatially distributed as a mosaic pattern, have been characterized by the structure of the vegetation. Inside each of these units, the millipede population is composed of five species, whose main activity period in the upper soil layers has been investigated monthly.

  9. Population genetic structure and secondary endosymbionts of Q Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkarakou, A; Mouton, L; Kristoffersen, J B; Dokianakis, E; Grispou, M; Bourtzis, K

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the molecular diversity of the major agricultural pest Bemisia tabaci and of its associated secondary endosymbionts in Greece. Analyzing mitochondrial DNA, we found that the Q1 (=Q west) is predominant. We used eight microsatellite polymorphic markers to study the genetic structure of 37 populations from mainland and insular Greece, collected on different host species from outdoor and protected crops as well as from non-cultivated plants. In some cases, gene flow was found to be low even between populations separated by just a few kilometres. Bayesian analysis identified two main genetic groups, the first encompassing populations from south Crete and the second composed of populations from north Crete, two other Aegean islands and mainland Greece. Genetic differentiation was not correlated with different host plant species or habitat, or greenhouse versus open environment populations. Gene flow significantly decreased with geographic distance, but no isolation by distance existed when only the samples from mainland Greece or only the samples from Crete were considered. The secondary symbionts Wolbachia and Hamiltonella were present at high frequencies while Arsenophonus, Cardinium and Rickettsia were absent from Greek populations. Multilocus sequence typing of Wolbachia identified two Wolbachia strains. These two strains were found together in most of the populations studied but never in the same host individual. Their role on the observed population structure is discussed.

  10. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  11. Culture, self-understanding and the bicultural mind : a study in Greece and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliasi, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis investigates impact of culture at the between the Dutch and the Greek cultures level by focusing in the Greek society and the within individual level in the form of Dutch-Greek biculturalism. The Netherlands is an individualist society, while Greece is traditionally considered to

  12. School Buildings in Greece: The Bioclimatic Challenge and a Photovoltaic Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patargias, Panagiotis A.; Angela, Kalianou; Galanis, George; Vassilopoulou, Marina; Drosou, Maria; Protogeropoulos, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Greece's School Buildings Organisation (SBO) is developing bioclimatic pilot schemes which are yielding positive results. Bioclimatic action has been one of the principal priorities of Greek school infrastructure planning since 2004. Among the activities undertaken by SBO to use renewable energy sources in school buildings is a pilot project to…

  13. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum from Zakynthos, Greece

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    Carmen Formisano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil extracted from dried aerial parts of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum harvested in Zakynthos, Greece, was analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were caryophyllene (13.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.5%, 4-vinyl guaiacol (6.0% and α-humulene (5.0%.

  14. The Impact of Social Media on Press Freedom in Greece: Benefits, Challenges and Limitations

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    Katerina SERAFEIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the essay is to put light on the expansion of social media in news broadcasting in Greece, highlighting their impact on press freedom and freedom of expression. Taken for granted that the media in Greece (television, radio and print press have created, except from their “traditional version”, social media profiles (facebook profile, twitter etc. in order to disseminate the news, the essay investigates the interconnection between the aforementioned use of social media and press freedom. In addition, special focus is given to the challenges that appear from the emergence of social media as news platforms and to the debate that has occurred “for” and “against” this new role of them. Moreover, the essay puts light to some crucial questions that arise:Do social media in Greece, as news platforms, extend freedom of expression and how do they accomplish that? Does the fact that social media empower journalists to provide journalism in more ways than one through tweets, postings, and video and photo uploads, enhance journalists’ freedom of expression and, in a wider sense, the freedom of the press? Has the invasion of social media in the news flow and coverage changed the media landscape in Greece?

  15. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  16. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  17. Culture, self-understanding and the bicultural mind : a study in Greece and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliasi, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis investigates impact of culture at the between the Dutch and the Greek cultures level by focusing in the Greek society and the within individual level in the form of Dutch-Greek biculturalism. The Netherlands is an individualist society, while Greece is traditionally considered to

  18. Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantaphyllou, S.; Richards, M. P.; Zerner, C.; Voutsaki, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of 39 human bone and 8 animal samples from Middle Bronze Age (or Middle Helladic, MH, ca. 2100-1700 BC) Lerna, Greece. The isotopic data indicate that the humans had a C-3 terrestrial diet while certain individuals appe

  19. Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae), a new species from the northern Peloponnese (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Iatrou, Gregory; Vold, Gert;

    2010-01-01

    Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae) is described as a new species endemic to Greece and illustrated by photographs. It occurs on rocks in a few localities in north central Peloponnese, and resembles H. taygeteum from Mt Taigetos and Mt Parnon in the south Peloponnese. Its similarities with H........ rumeliacum are also noted; the latter occurs in the Balkans and Romania...

  20. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Greece 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pupil assessment procedures and methods in Greece are set and "standardized" externally by the central authorities as defined in the legislative framework, the National Curriculum guidelines and teachers' manuals, while implementation is internal to the schools. The focus of primary schools is on formative assessment, while the lower…

  1. The medical device sector in Greece: An economic evaluation of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kaskarelis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The medical devices equipment and more specifically the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI units, open new horizons in the realization of diagnostic examinations, offering additionally an exceptionally reliable information in the process of the clinical decision-making. Aim: Aim of the present study is the general review of the medical devices sector globally but also in Greece and the economic analysis of the MRI market in Greece. Material and Methods: This study was realized using data concerning the number, the characteristics and the use of the MRI units for the year 2009. For the analysis of those data, simple methods of descriptive statistical analysis were applied. Results: The present research points out that the proportion of the MRI units per million of population ranks Greece in the third place globally after USA and Japan. Moreover, it was unveiled that only 13% of total MRI's units are installed in public hospitals, while their unequal distribution and their absence in the countryside are obvious. Conclusions: The findings confirmed the conclusion that the imperative need of strategic planning of supply, fair distribution and rational use of MRI units in Greece.

  2. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  3. On a new Petasites species from the southern Pindos (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zielinski, Jerzy; Vladimirov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Petasites anapetrovianus (Asteraceae) is described as a new species endemic to Mt Peristeri in S Pindos, Greece. It resembles P. paradoxus from the Pyrenees, Alps and Eastern Carpathians with southward extensions to Slovenia, Croatia (Velebit Mts) and Central Bosnia (Mt Vlasic) but can be easily...

  4. Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantaphyllou, S.; Richards, M. P.; Zerner, C.; Voutsaki, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of 39 human bone and 8 animal samples from Middle Bronze Age (or Middle Helladic, MH, ca. 2100-1700 BC) Lerna, Greece. The isotopic data indicate that the humans had a C-3 terrestrial diet while certain individuals appe

  5. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  6. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  7. Organic geochemistry of Amynteo lignite deposit, northern Greece: a Multi-analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Georgakopoulos, A.; Lagen, van B.

    2012-01-01

    Several lignite samples were collected from boreholes of the Amynteo opencast lignite mine, northern Greece. Organic geochemical characteristics were investigated with the help of various analytical techniques, comprising Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas-chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Four

  8. Social Pedagogy and Bullying in Schools: The Views of University Students in England, Greece and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Mylonakou-Keke, Iro; Stephens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to…

  9. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  10. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality.

  11. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  12. EU Funding and Issues of "Marketisation" of Higher Education in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvias, Dionysios

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years, tens of millions of euros from European Union (EU) funding have started to flow into Greece's state schools and universities. New departments of higher education have been established all over the country, and a new institutional framework for lifelong learning has been recently set up. Considering the above context, certain…

  13. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9%

  14. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  15. Malaria and the Decline of Ancient Greece: Revisiting the Jones Hypothesis in an Era of Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christopher; Hamlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Between 1906 and 1909 the biologist Ronald Ross and the classicist W.H.S. Jones pioneered interdisciplinary research in biology and history in advancing the claim that malaria had been crucial in the decline of golden-age Greece (fourth century BCE). The idea had originated with Ross, winner of the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the importance of…

  16. Promoting Social Justice and Enhancing Educational Success: Suggestions from Twenty Educationally Successful Roma in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkofa, Panagiota

    2017-01-01

    In Greece, Roma pupils often experience segregation through educational settings, high dropout rates, low performance outcomes, and higher levels of non-completion when compared to their Greek (non-Roma) peers. However, a small minority do stay in school and proceed to higher education. This paper draws on a set of in-depth interviews with twenty…

  17. "It Is Only Natural….": Attitudes of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities toward Sexuality in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karellou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an increasing awareness of the rights of people with intellectual disabilities, limited progress has been made in supporting people with intellectual disabilities to create and sustain intimate personal relationships in Greece. This article looks at the attitudes of 66 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities…

  18. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images: The case of Lake Plastiras, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image (TDI) focusing on the cognitive component. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, factors comprising the cognitive component of the area's TDI were identified...

  19. Consumers' attitude towards e-commerce in Post-Olympics Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbonis, P.A.; Laspita, S.

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken in Greece immediately following the 2004 Olympic Games, prior to which and during the games, the Greek population had sustained exposure to modern technologies including the Internet. This was an opportune and perhaps unique moment to determine if the Greek population wa

  20. Revisiting Kokkinopilos: Middle Pleistocene radiometric dates for stratified archaeological remains in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourloukis, V.; Karkanas, P.; Wallinga, J.

    2015-01-01

    The red-bed site of Kokkinopilos is an emblematic and yet also most enigmatic open-air Palaeolithic site in Greece, stimulating controversy ever since its discovery in 1962. While early research raised claims for stratigraphically in situ artifacts, later scholars considered the material reworked an

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-07-02

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, in Greece. Copyright © 2015 Castillo et al.

  2. On the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We document in this note the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St-Hilaire, 1817 (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf (eastern Ionian Sea, within a recently designated Wetlands National Park. Although distributional data for this species are scant, there is circumstantial evidence depicting the species as rare in Greece and the Mediterranean.

  3. Strandline and sand dune vegetation of coasts of Greece and some other Aegean countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sykora, K.V.; Babalonas, D.; Papastergiadou, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal strandline and sand-dune vegetation of Greece has been reviewed. All published relevés available were collected and classified using numerical methods (TWINSPAN). The communities studied belong to three classes, one for strandline vegetation (Cakiletea maritimae), and two for sand-dune v

  4. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9%

  5. Strandline and sand dune vegetation of coasts of Greece and some other Aegean countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sykora, K.V.; Babalonas, D.; Papastergiadou, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal strandline and sand-dune vegetation of Greece has been reviewed. All published relevés available were collected and classified using numerical methods (TWINSPAN). The communities studied belong to three classes, one for strandline vegetation (Cakiletea maritimae), and two for sand-dune

  6. Detection of beet soil-borne virus and beet virus Q in sugarbeet in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Prins, M.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Sugar beet plants with typical rhizomania symptoms were collected from the five major cultivation zones of Greece. The presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the primary causal agent of the disease, was ascertained by DAS-ELISA in 38 out of 40 fields surveyed and the positive samples

  7. Holocene paleogeographies of the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) and their geoarchaeological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Schriever, A.; Luther, J.; Handl, M.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sediments from the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) were studied to establish paleogeographical scenarios of Holocene landscape evolution. Near coast vibracore profiles revealed regressive sedimentary sequences, the base of which is dominated by marine sand and/or lagoonal mud. T

  8. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  9. Systematic Paleontology and ecology of ostracods from the Plio-Pleistocene Kallithea Bay section, Rhodes, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Annette; Thomsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and ninety five species of ostracods from the Plio-Pleistocene Kallithea Bay section, Rhodes, Greece are listed and treated systematically. One hundred and eighty one of these species are illustrated by SEM photomicrographs. The illustrations include many juvenile specimens. A short s...

  10. Dance Students' Perceptions of Tertiary Education in England and in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni; Benn, Tansin

    2011-01-01

    The comparative study examined dance students' views of their dance education and training in tertiary education (further and higher) and their perceptions about the opportunities offered in the their courses available in England (higher education) and in Greece (further education). The aim was to explore similarities and differences between…

  11. Metric sex determination from the pelvis in modern Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, M; Işcan, M Y

    2008-07-18

    The ability to determine sex from unknown skeletal remains is vital, and methods to do this on the various bones of the human skeleton have been researched extensively. Many researchers have emphasized the need for population specific data for methods which are based on measurements, as there are vast differences in body size in various populations. The pelvis is known to be the most sexually dimorphic part of the human body, and no discriminant function formulae for this bone are available for Greek or other Mediterranean groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop discriminant functions which can be used for sex determination on measurements of the pelvis of modern Greeks. A sample of 97 male and 95 female pelves in a skeletal collection housed in Heraklion, Crete, was used. Measurements were taken from the articulated pelvis, single os coxae and the sacrum. Discriminant function formulae for all measurements and various combinations were used in order to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in various parts of the pelvis, and to make the formulae usable on fragmented remains. For the single os coxae, average accuracies of 79.7-95.4% (79.1-93.5% on cross-validation) were found. However, it was found that measurements of the sciatic notch were unreliable and yielded poor results, and it is advisable that this characteristic must only be used as a last resort. Dimensions of the sacrum were not very dimorphic (average accuracy 60.9%), while measurements from the articulated pelvis yielded poorer results than that from single innominate bones. The diameter of the acetabulum was the single most dimorphic characteristic, providing on average 83.9% accuracy when used in isolation.

  12. Aspects of legal communitarianism in Greece: between Millet and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal and political percepts pertaining to ethnic belonging in Greece are closely linked to the ideological understanding of Greekness, a legacy of the Ottoman Greek-Orthodox millet system. Complementary to this image of the national self, minority protection law on Muslims and Jews was and still is partially formed through millet-like paradigms. Greece’s territorial expansion made all inhabitants of the annexed provinces Greek citizens en masse: in addition to those that were deemed eligible to belong to the Greek nation, Jewish and Muslim communities also acquired Greek citizenship. For these communities the self-autonomy of the Ottoman millet structure in education and religious matters was transformed into minority protection, through special rights (community schools, Moufti’s jurisdiction, Muslim foundations, military conscription attributable through religion to citizens of the state. En Grecia, la interpretación ideológica del carácter griego está estrechamente relacionada con los preceptos legales y políticos relativos a la pertenencia étnica, legado del sistema millet otomano griego-ortodoxo. Como complemento a esta percepción de la identidad nacional, la ley de protección de las minorías musulmanas y judías estuvo, y todavía está parcialmente formada por paradigmas milletianos. La expansión territorial de Grecia convirtió de forma masiva a los habitantes de las provincias anexadas en ciudadanos griegos: entre los que se consideró que reunían los requisitos necesarios para pertenecer a la nación griega, se encontraban las comunidades judías y musulmanas. En ambos casos, la autonomía en temas de educación y religión que disfrutaban dentro de la estructura milletiana de los otomanos, se transformó en protección minoritaria, a través de derechos especiales (escuelas de la comunidad, jurisdicción Moufti, fundaciones musulmanas, el reclutamiento militar atribuibles a los ciudadanos del estado a través de la

  13. Fluid-induced Blueschist Preservation on Syros, Cyclades, Southern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, B. I.; Huet, B.; Skelton, A. D. L.

    2012-04-01

    Local examples of preservation of high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) mineral assemblages within retrograde metamorphosed greenschist are recorded from the Cyclades, Greece. Several models have been proposed to explain the preservation of HP-LT rocks in these areas. On Sifnos, a capping effect of impermeable marble units below the preserved blueschists caused diversion of the upward, cross-layer infiltration of retrograde fluids [1]. On Tinos, blueschist preservation occurred due to retrograde fluid flow channelization along lithological contacts with high flux rates [2]. HP-LT minerals were preserved in regions adjacent to these contacts where fluid fluxes were smaller. We propose a different mechanism of blueschist preservation based on observations from a costal section near Fabrika on Syros. At this locality a high strain zone cuts through a retrograde greenschist. Along the fault a dark blue halo occurs within the greenschist. Whole rock analyses along a profile from the fault into the greenschist show that only the areas directly adjacent to the deformation zone show chemical evidence of metasomatism, whereas the areas further away are chemically similar to greenschist. Point counting of 1000 evenly spaced points in thin sections of the profile shows a clear blueschist to greenschist transition with a blueschist mineral assemblage (glaucophane+phengite+calcite) nearer to the metasomatic zone and a typical greenschist mineral assemblage (epidote+chlorite+albite) farther away. We propose the following model to explain preservation of HP-LT mineral assemblage in this locality. During retrograde metamorphism a water-rich fluid infiltrated the blueschist rock from below. This occurred close to the brittle-ductile transition. This fluid caused a reaction front to propagate into the overlying blueschist at which its mineral assemblage glaucophane+phengite+calcite was replaced by the greenschist mineral assemblage epidote+albite+chlorite. Upwards-flowing fluid

  14. Predictors of health-related quality of life in type II diabetic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydas Aristidis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting millions of people worldwide, while placing a noteworthy strain on public health funding. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Greek Type II DM patients and to identify significant predictors of the disease in this patient population. Methods The sample (N = 229, 52.8% female, 70.0 years mean age lived in a rural community of Lesvos, an island in the northeast of the Aegean Archipelagos. The generic SF-36 instrument, administered by trainee physicians, was used to measure HRQOL. Scale scores were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of sociodemographic and diabetes-related variables on HRQOL. Results The most important predictors of impaired HRQOL were female gender, diabetic complications, non-diabetic comorbidity and years with diabetes. Older age, lower education, being unmarried, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were also associated with impaired HRQOL in at least one SF-36 subscale. Multivariate regression analyses produced models explaining significant portions of the variance in SF-36 subscales, especially physical functioning (R2 = 42%, and also showed that diabetes-related indicators were more important disease predictors, compared to sociodemographic variables. Conclusion The findings could have implications for health promotion in rural medical practice in Greece. In order to preserve a good HRQOL, it is obviously important to prevent diabetes complications and properly manage concomitant chronic diseases. Furthermore, the gender difference is interesting and requires further elucidation. Modifying screening methods and medical interventions or formulating educational programs for the local population appear to be steps in the correct direction.

  15. Heulandite and mordenite-rich tuffs from Greece: a potential source for pozzolanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsopoulos, K. P.; Dunham, A. C.

    1996-09-01

    The microcystalline mass of the Pliocene tuffs of Santorini and Polyegos islands, in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece, is very rich in zeolite minerals, more specifically heulandite type 3, i.e. clinoptilolite, and mordenite. In Santorini, clinoptilolite is the dominant authigenic phase and it was formed in a semi-closed system, by the activity of interstitial water within the volcaniclastic sequence. In Polyegos, mordenite dominates and it was formed by hydrothermal alteration of pyroclastics. Experiments described in this work show that the presence of the zeolite minerals has created materials with excellent pozzolanic properties. Tuffs from the two areas were calcined at 760 °C and for 12 h and then mixed with lime in a constant ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts calcined tuff. As a result, the free lime content of the lime-calcined tuff mixtures was reduced from 25% to 2.05% (Santorini) and 1.31% (Polyegos). Compressive strength tests were carried out on concrete cubes made with 100% Portland cement as the cementitious agent, to be used as reference cubes, and concrete cubes in which the Portland cement has been replaced in 4% and 7% proportions by the calcined tuff as pozzolans. The free lime estimation and the compressive strength tests were all carried out in accordance with the British Standards Institution (BS 4550 and BS 1881) guidelines. Early stage measurements of the compressive strength showed that pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes reached values as high as 140% of the reference cubes. The pozzolan-bearing concrete cubes maintained this superior strength throughout the entire one year period of the experiments. After 360 days, they finally maintained 107% of the compressive strength of the reference cubes.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Childhood Neurodevelopment, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Michel, Angelika; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H. pylori proteins were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neurodevelopment at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence (95% CI) in cord blood, representing maternal status, was 41.5% (36.3%, 46.8%) and in 4 years old children was 6.5% (95% CI 4.8%, 8.7%). Children of H. pylori seropositive mothers had lower score in the general cognitive (-3.87, 95% CI -7.02, -0.72), verbal (-2.96, 95% CI -6.08, 0.15), perceptual performance (-3.37, 95% CI -6.60, -0.15), quantitative (-2.85, 95% CI -6.28, 0.58), and memory scale (-3.37, 95% CI -6.67, -0.07) compared to those of seronegative mothers. Seropositivity in cord blood specifically to GroEl and NapA - two of the 12 H. pylori proteins investigated - was associated with lower scores in almost all scales. At age four, H. pylori seropositive children performed worst in neurodevelopment assessment compared to their seronegative counterparts although no association reached statistically significant level. Helicobacter pylori infection in early life may be an important but preventable risk factor for poor neurodevelopment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Vent development during the Minoan eruption (1640 BC) of Santorini, Greece, as suggested by ballistic blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Minoan eruption on Santorini, Greece, was a major Plinian caldera-forming event that occurred at ca. 1640 BC. The eruption is generally divided into four distinct phases: (1) Plinian phase; (2) phreatomagmatic base-surge; (3) ash-flow phase; and (4) non-welded ignimbrite. Many ballistic blocks, mostly consisting of older lava-fragments with diameters up to several meters, were ejected during phases 2 and 3. As caldera collapse followed the eruption, the precise vent location is unknown, but its position during phase 1 has been inferred from the pumice isopachs of the Plinian deposits. The location of the vent during the following phases has been estimated by measuring thickness variations, flow directions within the pyroclastic flows and impact directions of ballistic blocks. In this study, the vent location has been estimated by analysis of the size distribution of the ballistic blocks. Phase 2 blocks show no clear size-dependant distribution pattern. Blocks ranging between 0.15 and 1.60 m in diameter are found throughout almost the entire deposit, but are concentrated in the southeastern parts and within a circle of 14 km diameter, thus suggesting a maximum range of at least 6-7 km. The center of that circle is regarded as the most probable ejection region. It is proposed that the subaerial vent of phase 1 developed into an fracture opening to the SW along the general tectonic trend. Very large blocks, up to 3 m in diameter (or possibly more) were also ejected during phase 3, with the largest ones being found only in the northern half of the island group near the caldera rim. It therefore appears that at least one other vent opened in the northern half of the caldera, possibly as a new SW-NE-trending fracture.

  18. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Moore, J. D. P.; Parks, M. M.; Alexandri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes, such as submarine volcanism. The British Admiralty, for example, have been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s. Here, we report on an analysis of historical charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, late 1866, and 1925-1928 as well as multibeam swath bathymetry surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in seafloor depth. These data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni Islands, a dacitic dome complex in the caldera center, have shallowed by up to ˜175 m and deepened by up to ˜80 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the late 1866 and 1925-1928 surveys and the largest deepening occurred during the 1925-1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys. The shallowing is attributed to the emplacement of lavas during effusive eruptions in both 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 at rates of up to 0.18 and 0.05 km3 a-1, respectively. The deepening is attributed to a load-induced viscoelastic stress relaxation following the 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 lava eruptions. The elastic thickness and viscosity that best fits the observed deepening are 1.0 km and ˜1016 Pa s, respectively. This parameter pair, which is consistent with the predictions of a shallow magma chamber thermal model, explains both the amplitude and wavelength of the historical bathymetric data and the present day rate of subsidence inferred from InSAR analysis.

  19. Cross-national diagnostic analysis of patient empowerment in England and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different NHS patient empowerment policies have been adopted in England and Greece; the voluntary sector development and its influence also differ. Although various aspects of patient empowerment have been explored in England, the patient empowerment systems’ application is under-researched. In Greece, the few relevant attempts looking at patients’ experiences focus on patient satisfaction, with only one study exploring the public hospitals managers’ perspectives on user involvement. However, patient empowerment questions may be similar in both countries.Aims and Objectives:The study aimed to explore and compare the general patient empowerment settings in the two countries, with main objectives to:a. identify and explore the relationships of national voluntary and governmental organisations,b. explore the cross-national challenges and facilitators, and make cross-national recommendations.Methodology: This is a cross-national comparative research study. A ‘diagnostic analysis’ approach, an assessment of potential and actual barriers and facilitators, including the context and potential change, was chosen. The methods used were:a. a network analysis of national voluntary and governmental organisations;b. semi-structured interviews with key representatives of these, andc. documentary analysis.Results: The network analysis revealed the potential of English organisations to influence more people, withextensive memberships and stronger interrelationship between them than the Greek organisations. Different levels of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of application of the national patient empowerment policies, systems and mechanisms were identified; being generally good in England, limited in Greece. Variable generalinformation provision, with good verbal information in England, and limited, written and verbal, information in Greece was also identified. Although the commonest cross-national perceived challenges were

  20. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave