Sample records for measured tumor characteristics

  1. The Characteristics of Vascular Growth in VX2 Tumor Measured by MRI and Micro-CT

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    X.-L. Qi


    Full Text Available Blood supply is crucial for rapid growth of a malignant tumor; medical imaging can play an important role in evaluating the vascular characterstics of tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and micro-computed tomography (CT are able to detect tumors and measure blood volumes of microcirculation in tissue. In this study, we used MR imaging and micro-CT to assess the microcirculation in a VX2 tumor model in rabbits. MRI characterization was performed using the intravascular contrast agent Clariscan (NC100150-Injection; micro-CT with Microfil was used to directly depict blood vessels with diameters as low as 17 um in tissue. Relative blood volume fraction (rBVF in the tumor rim and blood vessel density (rBVD over the whole tumor was calculated using the two imaging methods. Our study indicates that rBVF is negatively related to the volume of the tumor measured by ultrasound (R=0.90. rBVF in the tissue of a VX2 tumor measured by MRI in vivo was qualitatively consistent with the rBVD demonstrated by micro-CT in vitro (R=0.97. The good correlation between the two methods indicates that MRI studies are potentially valuable for assessing characteristics or tumor vascularity and for assessing response to therapy noninvasively.

  2. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics. (United States)

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E


    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  3. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    of cancer treatments. In the search for more effective cancer treatments, nanoparticle- based drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, that are capable of delivering their drug payload selectively to cancer cells are among the most promising approaches. Areas covered in this review: This review provides...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....... an overview of current strategies for improving the different stages of liposomal cancer therapy, which involve transporting drug-loaded liposomes through the bloodstream, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving drug release and cancer cell uptake after accumulation at the tumor target site. What...

  4. Ovarian steroid cell tumors: sonographic characteristics. (United States)

    Monteagudo, A; Heller, D; Husami, N; Levine, R U; McCaffrey, R; Timor-Tritsch, I E


    The goal of the gynecologist is to detect ovarian tumors in their earliest stages. Small virilizing tumors, which barely affect the size of the ovaries, are such lesions. Since the introduction of transvaginal sonography it is technically possible to detect small intraovarian neoplasms. Three cases of virilizing steroid cell tumors in postmenopausal women with ovarian volumes just exceeding the normal sizes for age are presented. High-frequency transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler studies to measure flow parameters were used. These small tumors had different echogenicity from the surrounding ovarian tissue and two had low impedance-to-flow values. Gray-scale transvaginal sonography combined with color Doppler studies can make the diagnosis of small steroid cell tumors easier and, at times, better than other, more costly imaging modalities.

  5. Transportation characteristics of nolatrexed in three tumor cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-lei; ZHAO Ai-guo; WU Shu-guang


    Objective:To investigate the association of the transportation characteristics of nolatrexed in tumor cells with its drug sensitivity. Methods: The sensitivity of 3 tumor cell lines, C6, SRS82 and LoVo, to nolatrexed were determined by growth inhibition study. After exposure to 20 μmol/L nolatrexed at different time intervals ranging from 0 to 30 min, or to nolatrexed at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 40μmol/L for 10 min, the intracellular drug concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: C6 was the most sensitive cell line among the three, with sensitivity 6. 8-fold and 13.8-fold those of SRS-82 and LoVo cells respectively. Transportation of nolatrexed in the 3 cell lines were qualitatively similar, which rapidly achieved steady-state within 5 min, and linear relationship between the intracellular and extracellular drug concentration was observed. The intracellular steady-state level achieved in C6 was significantly higher than those in the other two cell lines, the latter having comparable levels. Conclusion: Nolatrexed enters the cell very quickly and different transport capacities are involved in the generation of varied sensitivity to nolatrexed in tumor cells.

  6. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.


    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  7. Characteristics of cardiac troponin measurements. (United States)

    Christenson, Eric; Christenson, Robert H


    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) have displaced myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB as the preferred markers of myocardial injury and have become the cornerstones for diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). Current guidelines for MI diagnosis give specific recommendations for cTnI and cTnT assays including instructions to reliably measure values in the range of the 99th percentile of a normal reference cohort with good precision, for example, 10% total coefficient of variation. Unfortunately, the nomenclature system that has evolved for cTnI and cTnT is haphazard and unsystematic. It is key to recognize that not all cTnI and cTnT measurement methods are equivalent; hence, knowledge of local measurements is essential for effective evaluation of patients presenting with suspected non-ST elevation MI. For cTnI, the amino acid sequences frequently targeted for effective measurement include residues 41-49 and 83-93 because these regions of the molecule are stable, helping make the assays reproducible. Use of the recommended cutoff at the 99th percentile of a normal cohort is related to improved patient outcomes. Therefore, use of a troponin assay with good measurement characteristics at the 99th percentile, often referred to as 'sensitive assays', is important for patient outcomes. cTnI and cTnT assays with higher sensitivity are becoming available, and their utilization for measurement in asymptomatic populations may be useful for risk assessment and management in the future. However there is currently no evidence that these high-sensitivity assays confer an advantage in the context of MI diagnosis. Currently cTnI assays are not standardized; thus, there can be a substantial difference in values depending on the assay used. An international effort toward standardization is ongoing, but is not anticipated to be completed and implemented for a few years. Our purpose here is to add insight to important characteristics of troponin measurement techniques and how these

  8. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma (United States)


    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  9. Nonclassical characteristic functions for highly sensitive measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, T; Richter, Th.


    Characteristic functions are shown to be useful for highly sensitive measurements. Redistributions of motional Fock states of a trapped atom can be directly monitored via the most fragile nonclassical part of the characteristic function. The method can also be used for decoherence measurements in optical quantum-information systems.

  10. Lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear magnetic resonance are associated with tumor characteristics in breast cancer. (United States)

    Flote, Vidar G; Vettukattil, Riyas; Bathen, Tone F; Egeland, Thore; McTiernan, Anne; Frydenberg, Hanne; Husøy, Anders; Finstad, Sissi E; Lømo, Jon; Garred, Øystein; Schlichting, Ellen; Wist, Erik A; Thune, Inger


    High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, has been associated with breast cancer development, but the association is under debate, and whether lipoprotein subfractions is associated with breast tumor characteristics remains unclear. Among 56 women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer stage I/II, aged 35-75 years, pre-surgery overnight fasting serum concentrations of lipids were assessed, and body mass index (BMI) was measured. All breast tumors were immunohistochemically examined in the surgical specimen. Serum metabolomics of lipoprotein subfractions and their contents of cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, apolipoprotein-A1 and apolipoprotein-A2, were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Principal component analysis, partial least square analysis, and uni- and multivariable linear regression models were used to study whether lipoprotein subfractions were associated with breast cancer tumor characteristics. The breast cancer patients had following means: age at diagnosis: 55.1 years; BMI: 25.1 kg/m(2); total-Cholesterol: 5.74 mmol/L; HDL-Cholesterol: 1.78 mmol/L; Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Cholesterol: 3.45 mmol/L; triglycerides: 1.18 mmol/L. The mean tumor size was 16.4 mm, and the mean Ki67 hotspot index was 26.5%. Most (93%) of the patients had estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors (≥ 1% ER+), and 82% had progesterone receptor (PgR) positive tumors (≥ 10% PgR+). Several HDL subfraction contents were strongly associated with PgR expression: Apolipoprotein-A1 (β 0.46, CI 0.22-0.69, p lipoproteins and ER expression. Our findings hypothesize associations between different lipoprotein subfractions, and PgR expression, and Ki 67 % in breast tumors. These findings may have clinical implications, but require confirmation in larger studies.

  11. Circulating Tumor Cells Measurements in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Franck Chiappini


    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC reflects the aggressiveness nature of a tumor. Many attempts have been made to develop assays that reliably detect and enumerate the CTC during the development of the HCC. In this case, the challenges are (1 there are few markers specific to the HCC (tumor cells versus nontumor cells and (2 they can be used to quantify the number of CTC in the bloodstream. Another technical challenge consists of finding few CTC mixed with million leukocytes and billion erythrocytes. CTC detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTC can also be used to predict progression-free survival and overall survival. CTC are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. Our aim is to review and analyze the different new methods existing to detect, enumerate, and characterize the CTC in the peripheral circulation of patients with HCC.

  12. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: characteristic features on ultrasonography. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Jikuzono, Tomoo; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Yasushi


    We report a case of hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and describe the characteristic ultrasonographic features of this tumor. This was a rare tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization. The tumor had an irregular shape, a delicately jagged border, and hypoechoic and heterogeneous internal echoes on B-mode ultrasonography. Very rich intratumoral blood flow, the so-called "tumor inferno" was evident on power Doppler ultrasonography. In the clinical management of thyroid nodules, clinicians should be aware of this peculiar type of thyroid tumor and its characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  13. Circulating Tumor DNA: Measurement and Clinical Utility. (United States)

    Donaldson, Joshua; Park, Ben Ho


    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a component of the "naked" DNA found in blood. It can be isolated from plasma and represents combined genetic material from the primary tumor and metastases. Quantitative and qualitative information about a cancer, including mutations, can be derived using digital polymerase chain reaction and other technologies. This "liquid biopsy" is quicker and more easily repeated than tissue biopsy, yields real-time information about the cancer, and may suggest therapeutic options. All stages of cancer therapy have the ability to benefit from ctDNA, starting with screening for cancer before it is clinically apparent. During treatment of metastatic disease, it is useful to predict response and monitor disease progression. Currently, ctDNA is used in the clinic to select patients who may benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. In the future, ctDNA technology promises useful applications in every part of clinical oncology care. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

  14. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  15. Fatal tumors: prenatal ultrasonographic findings and clinical characteristics

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    Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The incidence of fetal tumors has been increased due to generalization of prenatal evaluation and improvement of imaging techniques. The early detection of a fetal tumor and understanding of its imaging features are very important for fetal, maternal, and neonatal care. Ultrasonography is usually used for the detection and differential diagnosis of fetal tumors, and magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used as a complementary study. Many fetal tumors have different clinical and imaging features compared with pediatric tumors. Although several fetal tumors may mimic other common anomalies, some specific imaging features may carry early accurate diagnosis of fetal tumors, which may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitate immediate postnatal treatment.

  16. Optically measured microvascular blood flow contrast of malignant breast tumors.

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    Regine Choe

    Full Text Available Microvascular blood flow contrast is an important hemodynamic and metabolic parameter with potential to enhance in vivo breast cancer detection and therapy monitoring. Here we report on non-invasive line-scan measurements of malignant breast tumors with a hand-held optical probe in the remission geometry. The probe employs diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS, a near-infrared optical method that quantifies deep tissue microvascular blood flow. Tumor-to-normal perfusion ratios are derived from thirty-two human subjects. Mean (95% confidence interval tumor-to-normal ratio using surrounding normal tissue was 2.25 (1.92-2.63; tumor-to-normal ratio using normal tissues at the corresponding tumor location in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.94-2.66, and using normal tissue in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.90-2.70. Thus, the mean tumor-to-normal ratios were significantly different from unity irrespective of the normal tissue chosen, implying that tumors have significantly higher blood flow than normal tissues. Therefore, the study demonstrates existence of breast cancer contrast in blood flow measured by DCS. The new, optically accessible cancer contrast holds potential for cancer detection and therapy monitoring applications, and it is likely to be especially useful when combined with diffuse optical spectroscopy/tomography.

  17. Measurement of photometric characteristics of daylighting systems

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    Aydinli, S.; Kaase, H. [Technical Univ., Berlin (Germany); Kischkoweit-Lopin, M. [Institut fuer Licht- und Bautechnik an der FH Koln, Cologne (Germany); Scartezzini, J. L.; Michel, L. [Ecole Poytechnuque Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Wienold, J.; Apian-Bennewitz, P. [Frauenhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)


    The photometric properties of daylighting systems determine the quality of the daylighting in the interior of a building, as well as the possible energy savings by the daylight responsive artificial lighting control systems. Photometric characteristics of daylighting systems and the principles of their measurements in laboratory facilities are described. Characteristics that depend on light incidence and observation of radiation can be measured using integrating sphere photometers or goniophotometers. Luminous transmittance measurements are usually carried out using integrating sphere photometers (cheaper and less time -consuming than measurements with a goniometer). Although the principles involved in the measurement are well understood, results frequently show certain deviations. The various errors that might be responsible for these deviations, whether attributable to the method, or the instrument, or the sample, are also discussed. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  18. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

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    M. Andreev


    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  19. Dynamic fluorescence imaging for multiparametric measurement of tumor vasculature (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Kyungsun; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungwhoi; Choi, Chulhee


    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and a promising target for cancer therapy. Blood vessel monitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluation and development of anti-angiogenic drugs. Here, we report a new noninvasive in vivo imaging tool, named dynamic fluorescence imaging (DyFI), for the simultaneous measurement of multiple vascular parameters including vascular density, perfusion rate, and permeability using spatiotemporal profiles of indocyanine green. Using DyFI in a tumor xenograft model, we quantitatively measured multiple vascular parameters in tumors and normal tissues with high spatial resolution. The multimodality of this method allowed us to find negative spatial correlations between perfusion and permeability. Moreover, DyFI was effective for revealing the early effects of an anti-angiogenic drug. We suggest that DyFI could be a useful tool for the preclinical development of anti-angiogenic drugs.

  20. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.


    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  1. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics (United States)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile


    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  2. Birth size in the most recent pregnancy and maternal mortality in premenopausal breast cancer by tumor characteristics. (United States)

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ahlgren, Johan; Adolfsson, Jan; Bahmanyar, Shahram


    The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between measures of offspring size at birth in the most recent pregnancy before premenopausal breast cancer diagnosis and the risks of maternal breast cancer mortality, taking tumor characteristics into account. We also aimed to investigate if these associations are modified by age at childbirth, time since childbirth, parity, and age at diagnosis. We followed 6,019 women from their date of premenopausal breast cancer (diagnosed from 1992 to 2008) until emigration, death or December 31st, 2009, whichever occurred first. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for parity, age at diagnosis, and education level, to estimate associations between women pregnancy, cancer characteristics and offspring birth characteristics, and mothers' mortality risk. In stratified analyses, mortality risks were estimated by tumor stage, ER or PR status. There was no association between offspring birth weight (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.99-1.01, when used as a continuous variable), birth weight for gestational age or ponderal index, and premenopausal breast cancer mortality. Similarly, in analyses stratified by tumor stage, receptor status, and time difference between last pregnancy and date of diagnosis, we found no associations between birth size and breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that "premenopausal breast cancer mortality is associated with offspring birth characteristics in the most recent pregnancy before the diagnosis" may not be valid. In addition, these associations are not modified by tumor characteristics.

  3. Characteristics of malignant tumors in 230 husband-wife pairs. (United States)

    Liu, Ju; Xu, Zhijian; Zhang, Kai; Li, Huai; Chang, Sheng; Bi, Xiaofeng; Dai, Min


    The aim of this study is to obtain a reference point for early detection of tumors in individuals whose spouses were diagnosed with malignant tumors. Data from 230 husband and wife pairs with malignant tumors were collected and analyzed from the family history records of 15,000 people who came to the Department of Cancer Prevention, Cancer Institute/Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for cancer screening between January 2009 and May 2012. The median diagnosis age was 67 years for husbands and 65 years for wives. A total of 214 cases (46.5 %) had digestive system malignancies. Respiratory system cancers were diagnosed in 64 husbands, of whom 20 (31.3 %) had spouses also with respiratory system cancer. Lung cancer ranked first for the females. The total number of lung cancer and commonly seen female-specific cancers (breast, ovarian, uterine, and cervical) was 127 (55.2 %). The difference in age at diagnosis between spouses was less than 10 years in 134 couples (58.3 %), while 77 (33.5 %) couples had an age difference less than 5 years. A family history of malignant tumors in first-degree relatives was documented in 48.3 % of the husbands and 48.7 % of the wives. The occurrence of cancer in both spouses of the couples studied resulted from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nonhereditary factors such as diet, smoking, passive smoking, and air pollution also contributed to the development of cancers. It is recommended that when husband is diagnosed with cancer, the wife should be screened focusing on lung, breast, and gynecological cancers. If the wife was diagnosed with malignant disease, then screening for lung and digestive system cancers should be emphasized in the husband.

  4. Clinical and pathological characteristics of septum pellucidum tumor and choice of surgical approaches for its resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; ZHANG Mao-zhi; ZHANG Wei; ZHAO Shang-feng; ZHAO Ji-zong; JIA Jin-xiu


    Background Tumor involving the septum pellucidum is uncommon. Surgery as the main therapeutic procedure for this lesion is a challenge to neurosurgeons. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and pathological features of septum pellucidum tumor in 41 patients and compared the curative effects of frontal transcortical, trans-sulcal and interhemispheric transcallosal approaches. Methods Clinical characteristics and the pathological features of septum pellucidum tumor were investigated retrospectively in 41 patients. The differences in postoperative residual rates, extents of tumors and resection of normal brain tissues after use of the three approaches in these patients were analyzed statistically. Results Septum pellucidum tumor is more likely to attack young or middle-aged persons. The tumor mainly presents itself as a central neurocytoma or cerebral low-grade glioma in pathology and manifests as intracranial hypertension clinically. No difference was found in the extent of tumor resection but significant difference in the extent of normal brain tissue resection and in postoperative disability rate among the three approaches. The transcortical approach brought about the most serious injury to brain tissue and the highest disability rate, Whereas the frontal transcallosal approach the lightest injury and the lowest disability rate. The injury to brain tissue and the disability rate brought about by the front trans-sulcus approach were between the above two approaches. Conclusions Operation is still regarded the major treatment for septum pellucidum tumor. Transcallosal and trans-sulcus approaches are fit with the concept of minimally invasive surgery, and transcallosal approach is the first choice for septum pellucidum tumor.

  5. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To investigate the difference of biochemical characteristics on gsp-positive and gsp-negative growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors, 18 GH-secreting pituitary tumors were examined for their clinical characteristics and gsp oncogenes. All patients received the pituitary function combinative stimulating test. It was found that there were no difference in the sex, age, tumor size, course of disease and plasma basal GH levels with gsp- positive and gsp-negative patients. The plasma levels of PRL were increased in most patients (11/18), and the plasma levels of TSH in gsp-positive patients were higher than those in gsp-negative patients (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the responses to pituitary combinative stimulating test in gsp-positive and gsp-negative patients. It was concluded that there was little difference in the clinical biochemical characteristics of gsp-positive with gsp-negative GH-secreting pituitary tumors.

  6. How to measure breast cancer tumoral size at MR imaging?

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    Thomassin-Naggara, I., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Siles, Pascale [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Trop, I. [Department of Radiology, Centre de recherche et d’investigation des maladies du sein (CRID), Hôtel Dieu, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Montréal (CHUM) (Canada); Chopier, J. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Darai, E. [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Bazot, M. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); and others


    Objective: To compare the accuracy of different MR sequences to measure tumor size. Methods: Eighty-six women (mean age: 53 years (30–78)) who underwent preoperative MRI for breast cancer were included. Maximal diameters of the index tumor (IT) and of the whole extent of the tumor (WET) were measured on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences, on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1W) sequences and on Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP) reconstructions. Agreements with pathological size were evaluated using concordance correlation coefficient (k). Results: Median pathological size of IT was 20 mm (13–25 mm, interquartile range). Median pathological size of the WET was 29 mm (16–50 mm, interquartile range). Measurement of IT showed a good concordance with pathological size, with best results using T2W (k = 0.690) compared to MIP (k = 0.667), early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.630) and early-native DCE frame (k = 0.588). IT was visible on T2W in 83.7% and accurately measured within 5 mm in 69.9%. Measurement of WET was superior using early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.642) compared to late-native frame (k = 0.635), early-native frame (k = 0.631), late-subtracted frame (k = 0.620) and MIP (k = 0.565). However, even using early-subtracted frame, WET was accurately measured within 5 mm only 39.3%. Conclusion: If visible, IT size is best measured on T2W with a good accuracy (69%) whereas WET is best estimated on early-subtracted DCE frame. However, when adjacent additional sites exist around IT, suspected surrounding disease components need to be proved by pathological analysis.

  7. Clinical characteristics and treatment of ovarian serous borderline tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Li-jian; Guo Li-na


    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) are characterized by good prognosis and occasional late recurrence. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates are all more than 90%. But traditionally patients with SBTs used to be treated with bilateral oophorectomy, hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy. A high proportion of SBTs occurred in young patients. The traditional treatment with complete excision of reproductive organs seemed to be too aggressive for young patients. It is imperative that conservative surgical procedures with fertility sparing should be employed to them. In this paper the literatures in regard to the final outcome of the conservative surgical therapy for SBTs were reviewed and the appropriate extent of conservative surgical procedures was discussed in detail.

  8. The use of a simple Likert scale to measure quality of life in brain tumor patients. (United States)

    Rogers, M P; Orav, J; Black, P M


    The use of a self-administered 10-Point Likert self-assessment quality of life scale was explored in a convenience sample of patients attending a brain tumor clinic. The original scale, developed by Priestman, was modified to be more brain-tumor specific. A total of 430 patients completed the scale at 535 different points of measurement. The patients had a variety of brain tumors ranging from meningiomas to high-grade gliomas. The Total Score of the original scale and the Modified Total Score of the brain-specific version were explored in relationship to patient demographics and available clinical characteristics: age, gender, severity of tumor, location of tumor, survival rates, prior surgery, radiation, radiosurgery, and chemotherapy. We also examined the relationship between sub-scales and these variables. On a scale of 10-100, the average Total Score was 67.83, not significantly different from the Modified Score. There were no differences between bilateral, midline, or left- versus right-sided lesions. Patients with the worst prognosis in terms of tumor type were 5-6 points lower in quality of life than patients with intermediate or relatively good prognosis. In a multiple regression model, adjusted for age, the overall score was related only to tumor severity and to gender, with women having significantly poorer functional status than men by 4 points. Both the Modified and Total Scores were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, and more specifically, poor scores on well-being, mood, physical function, house/job performance, self-care, concentration, and energy all predicted higher mortality risk. We suggest that the simplicity of this instrument may make it particularly useful for longitudinal assessment of quality of life in brain tumor patients.

  9. A system for tumor heterogeneity evaluation and diagnosis based on tumor markers measured routinely in the laboratory. (United States)

    Hui, Liu; Rixv, Liu; Xiuying, Zhou


    To develop an efficient and reliable approach to estimate tumor heterogeneity and improve tumor diagnosis using multiple tumor markers measured routinely in the clinical laboratory. A total of 161 patients with different cancers were recruited as the cancer group, and 91 patients with non-oncological conditions were required as the non-oncological disease group. The control group comprised 90 randomly selected healthy subjects. AFP, CEA, CYFRA, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, and NSE levels were measured in all these subjects with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The tumor marker with the maximum S/CO value (sample test value:cutoff value for discriminating individuals with and without tumors) was considered as a specific tumor marker (STM) for an individual. Tumor heterogeneity index (THI)=N/P (N: number of STMs; P: percentage of individuals with STMs in a certain tumor population) was used to quantify tumor heterogeneity: high THI indicated high tumor heterogeneity. The tumor marker index (TMI), TMI = STM×(number of positive tumor markers+1), was used for diagnosis. The THIs of lung, gastric, and liver cancers were 8.33, 9.63, and 5.2, respectively, while the ROC-areas under the curve for TMI were 0.862, 0.809, and 0.966. In this study, we developed a novel index for tumor heterogeneity based on the expression of various routinely evaluated serum tumor markers. Development of an evaluation system for tumor heterogeneity on the basis of this index could provide an effective diagnostic tool for some cancers. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M J


    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  11. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of chemoradiation therapy outcomes (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Kumar, Sameera; Shang, Yu; Huang, Chong; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang


    This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n=29) and incomplete response (IR) (n=18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly lower levels in tumor oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) at weeks 1 to 3, total hemoglobin concentration at week 3, and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) at week 3 were found in the IR group. In HPV-16 negative patients, significantly higher levels in tumor blood flow index and reduced scattering coefficient (μs‧) at week 3 were observed in the IR group. These hemodynamic parameters exhibited significantly high accuracy for early prediction of clinical outcomes, within the first three weeks of therapy, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.83 to 0.96.

  12. Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Unusual Thyroid Follicular-Like Morphologic Characteristics (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Elmugtaba; Abadeer, Kerolos; Zhai, Qihui (Jim)


    We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor—specifically, follicular-like characteristics—immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed. However, all were negative. All imaging studies revealed no evidence of a primary lesion other than the liver mass. In 2008, the patient's liver transplant failed because of ischemic cholangiopathy, and she underwent a second liver transplant. Seven years later, in 2015, she presented with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of intermediate grade to the lung, consistent with metastatic PHNET. She underwent left upper-lobe wedge resection to remove the tumor. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 13 years after initial diagnosis. This rare variant of PHNET had thyroid-like morphologic characteristics but there is no evidence of primary thyroid tumor or thyroid markers in the primary and recurrent hepatic tumors and lung metastasis.

  13. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements (United States)

    Libertini, Jessica M.


    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth[l]. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community[2], this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake[3]. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  14. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libertini, Jessica M [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906 (United States)], E-mail:


    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community, this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  15. Glycol chitosan/heparin immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles with a tumor-targeting characteristic for magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Yuk, Soon Hong; Oh, Keun Sang; Cho, Sun Hang; Lee, Beom Suk; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan


    We described the preparation of the glycol chitosan/heparin immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles (composite NPs) as a magnetic resonance imaging agent with a tumor-targeting characteristic. The iron oxide nanoseeds used clinically as a magnetic resonance imaging agent were immobilized into the glycol chitosan/heparin network to form the composite NPs. To induce the ionic interaction between the iron oxide nanoseeds and glycol chitosan, gold was deposited on the surface of iron oxide nanoseeds. After the immobilization of gold-deposited iron oxide NPs into the glycol chitosan network, the NPs were stabilized with heparin based on the ionic interaction between cationic glycol chitosan and anionic heparin. FE-SEM (field emission-scanning electron microscopy) and a particle size analyzer were used to observe the formation of the stabilized composite NPs, and a Jobin-Yvon Ultima-C inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used to measure the contents (%) of formed iron oxide nanoseeds as a function of reaction temperature and formed gold deposited on the iron oxide nanoparticles. We also evaluated the time-dependent excretion profile, in vivo biodistribution, circulation time, and tumor-targeting ability of the composite NPs using a noninvasive NIR fluorescence imaging technology. To observe the MRI contrast characteristic, the composite NPs were injected into the tail veins of tumor-bearing mice to demonstrate their selective tumoral distribution. The MR images were collected with conventional T(2)-weighted spin echo acquisition parameters.

  16. Time Interval Between Endometrial Biopsy and Surgical Staging for Type I Endometrial Cancer: Association Between Tumor Characteristics and Survival Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsuo, Koji; Opper, Neisha R; Ciccone, Marcia A; Garcia, Jocelyn; Tierney, Katherine E; Baba, Tsukasa; Muderspach, Laila I; Roman, Lynda D


    OBJECTIVE:To examine whether wait time between endometrial biopsy and surgical staging correlates with tumor characteristics and affects survival outcomes in patients with type I endometrial cancer...

  17. The clinical characteristics of 625 patients with malignant small bowel tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of MSBT(malignant small bowel tumors) .Methods Six hundred and twenty-five cases of MSBT were recruited in this study and their clinical records and information including age,gender,blood types,family history,personal

  18. Measurement of tumor volumes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by computed tomography (CT). Correlation with several tumor markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneshima, Manabu; Sawabu, Norio; Toya, Daishu


    Tumor volumes of HCC were measured by CT using planimeter and the clinical value of this measurement was evaluated by comparing several tumor markers. Tumor volumes measured by CT roughly agreed with those measured by angiography. In some cases, volumes from ultrasonography were smaller than those from CT and angiography. Tumor volumes measured by CT correlated significantly with the levels of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) but didn't relate to the presence of hepatoma specific ..gamma..-GTP isoenzyme (novel ..gamma..-GTP) nor to the values and positivities of LAI assay. In small HCCs (<=30 cm/sup 3/), the presence of novel ..gamma..-GTP and the levels of AFP were significantly lower than for larger tumors of HCC, but LAI assay wasn't lower. The non-tumorous volumes and the ratio of the non-tumorous volume to the whole liver volume didn't relate to the tests of liver function except for the presence of ascites.

  19. Differences in Renal Tumor Size Measurements for Computed Tomography Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Implications for Patients on Active Surveillance. (United States)

    Khan, Irtaza; Beksac, Alp Tuna; Paulucci, David J; Abaza, Ronney; Eun, Daniel D; Bhandari, Akshay; Badani, Ketan K


    To evaluate and compare the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the final pathologic tumor size of partial nephrectomy specimens. We analyzed a multi-institutional database of 807 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy for a cT1a renal mass from 2006 to 2016. Patients who had a solitary tumor with complete data on the baseline imaging modality and the tumor size (baseline and pathologic) (n = 349) were included for analysis. Baseline tumor size evaluated by both imaging modalities, in addition to the difference between the measurements and final pathologic tumor size (cm) measurements, was compared between patients who received a baseline CT (n = 276, 79.1%) and those who received an MRI (n = 73, 20.9%). There were no statistically significant differences between any baseline characteristics and receipt of a CT versus MRI. In multivariable analysis adjusting for confounders, there was no significant difference in the baseline tumor size between patients receiving an MRI and those receiving a CT (2.3 versus 2.6 cm; β = -0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.33 to 0.07; P = .208). Tumor size on imaging was smaller from final pathology by 0.43 cm on average (P = .002). Measurement error for the measured baseline versus actual pathologic tumor size did not significantly differ for patients receiving an MRI versus those receiving a CT (0.38 versus 0.44 cm; β = -0.06; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04; P = .232). Baseline renal tumor size measurements were not significantly different for CT scan and MRI. Choice of imaging modality can be based on doctor and patient preference, including cost and exposure to radiation.

  20. Giant cell tumor of bone: current review of morphological, clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi P. Georgiev


    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of bone accounts for about 5% of all primary bone tumors in adults and is still one of the most obscure and intensively examined tumors of bone. This largely results from the lack of uniform clinical, radiographic, histological or morphological aspects that allow prediction of recurrence. Classified by the World Health Organization as “an aggressive, potentially malignant lesion”, the giant cell tumor of bone could give lung metastases, could undergo malignant degeneration or could have multicentric localization. It usually develops in long bones but can also occur in unusual locations. The common presenting symptom is increasing pain at the tumor site. Standard treatment ranges from curettage to wide resection, with reports of varying oncological and functional results. The recurrence rate is high during the first 2-3 years after surgery regardless of pre-operative tumor stage. Herein, we discuss the morphological, clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics of this pathologic entity as well as its differential diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 475-485

  1. Tumor characteristics and metastatic sites may predict bevacizumab efficacy in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer


    Varol, Umut; Oktay, Esin; YILDIRIM, Mustafa; SURMELI, ZEKI GOKHAN; Dirican, Ahmet; Meydan, Nezih; KARACA, BURCAK; Karabulut, Bulent; Uslu, Ruchan


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there was an improvement in the time to disease progression (TTP) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy, according to tumor characteristics and metastatic sites. Tumor characteristics and tumor burden were considered to be predictive markers of t...

  2. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  3. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per


    -for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min parental age and birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...

  4. A Measuring Solution for Mechanical Characteristics of MO Disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mechanical characteristics of MO disk are vital for the designer of the drives and the manufacturers who provide the mass-product MO disks. So measuring mechanical characteristics is very significant. We compares the existing measuring methods and gives some novel measuring methods we adopted in details. The measuring system based upon these methods was introduced too. Some typical measuring results are also shown in this paper.

  5. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír


    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  6. Perfusion characteristics of parotid gland tumors evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Laura V., E-mail: [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gürkov, Robert [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Eichhorn, Martin E. [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Siedek, Vanessa; Krause, Eike [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Clevert, Dirk-Andre [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)


    Purpose: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) is a promising imaging modality for non-invasive analysis of parotid gland lesions because their vascularisation differs from normal gland tissue. This clinical study should further investigate CE-US as a diagnostic tool for parotid gland tumors. Materials and methods: 39 patients underwent CE-US measurements after intravenous application of a contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Italy) before surgical tumor resection. Time–intensity curves gradients were calculated and parameters of intratumoral microcirculation were analysed. The vascularisation parameters were compared among the different tumor entities as defined per definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Histological analyses revealed 17 pleomorphic adenoma, 15 cystadenolymphoma and 7 malignoma. A significant difference of area below intensity time curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) was measured in the malignant lesions compared to benign tumors (p < 0.05). A significant difference of AUC and maximum of signal increase (ΔSI{sub max}) for pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma was found (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE-US seems to be a quantitative and independent method for the assessment of malign and benign parotid gland tumors. Further studies and clinical experience will have to validate this method as a reliable diagnostic tool that facilitates preoperative planning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Pérez-Ruiz


    Full Text Available In this work we show the results obtained from several measurements, on hearing aid (HA prototype carried out atthe Acoustic Laboratory of the Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico (CCADET at the UniversidadNacional Autónoma de México (UNAM. The hearing aid has been developed at the Electronics Laboratory of thesame Center. All the electroacoustic measurements have been made according to the recommendationsestablished in the ANSI and IEC Standards for hearing aids.

  8. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  9. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wu, Shengyong, E-mail: [Institute of Tianjin Medical Imaging, Tianjin 300192 (China); Wang, Mei, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Lu, Li, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Jin, Lixin, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaboration NE Asia, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jiandong, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 200012 (China); Larson, Andrew C., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China)


    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  10. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits


    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  11. Measuring Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.


    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville, Alabama were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta, Georgia in May 1997. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace, what the benefits are of the urban forest in both mitigating the urban heat island effect, in making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and in overall cooling of the community. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect.

  12. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, J.; Mann, R.; Blickman, J.G.; Boetes, C. [University Medical Center, 430 Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kok, T. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Obdeijn, I.M. [Erasmus Medical Center Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogerbrugge, N. [University Medical Center, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    The appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases. Detection rates on both modalities were evaluated. Tumors were analyzed on morphology, density (mammography), enhancement pattern and kinetics (MRI). Overall detection was significantly better with MRI than with mammography (55/58 vs 44/57, P = 0.021). On mammography, lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (12//19 vs 3/13, P = 0.036) and with sharp margins (9/19 vs 1/13, P = 0.024). On MRI lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (16/27 vs 7/28, P = 0.010), with sharp margins (20/27 vs 7/28, P < 0.001) and with rim enhancement (7/27 vs 1/28, P = 0.025). No significant difference was found for enhancement kinetics (P = 0.667). Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins. This applies for both mammography and MRI. However the possibility of MRI to evaluate the enhancement pattern and kinetics enables the detection of characteristics suggestive for a malignancy. (orig.)

  13. Characteristic Dynamic Enhancement Pattern of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Malignant Thyroid Tumor: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Nam; Hwang, Hee Young; Shim, Young Sup; Byun, Sung Su; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gachon University College of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic dynamic enhancement pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for malignant thyroid tumor. Eight patients who were pathology proven to have a malignant thyroid tumor, preoperatively. There are 5 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 1 fine needle aspiration biopsy proven atypical cell. Based on preoperative MR imaging, we compared the dynamic MR enhancement pattern relating to the pathologic type. On contrast agent-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted image (T1WI), 5 papillary carcinoma and one medullary carcinoma showed delayed enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. In addition, one follicular carcinoma shows stronger enhancement than normal parenchyma, with one papillary carcinoma showing a persistent decrease in enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. Although this study is limited by a small patients population, the data suggests that delayed enhancement on enhanced dynamic T1WI is a possible characteristic MR finding of a malignant thyroid tumor. I think that the comparison of MR imaging between benign and malignant nodules is required for a correct characterization.

  14. Tumor location and patient characteristics of colon and rectal adenocarcinomas in relation to survival and TNM classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Hauke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Old age at diagnosis is associated with poor survival in colorectal cancer (CRC for unknown reasons. Recent data show that colonoscopy is efficient in preventing left-sided cancers only. We examine the association of Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM classes with diagnostic age and patient characteristics. Methods The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has data on TNM classes on 6,105 CRC adenocarcinoma patients. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to model tumor characteristics according to age at diagnosis, tumor localization, gender, socioeconomic status, medical region and family history. The results were compared to results from survival analysis. Results The only parameters systematically associated with TNM classes were age and tumor localization. Young age at diagnosis was a risk factor for aggressive CRC, according to stage, N and M with odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.80 to 1.93 for diagnosis before age 50 years compared to diagnosis at 80+ years. All tumor characteristics, particularly T, were worse for colon compared to rectal tumors. Right-sided tumors showed worse characteristics for all classifiers but M. The survival analysis on patients diagnosed since 2000 showed a hazard ratio of 0.55 for diagnosis before age 50 years compared to diagnosis at over 80 years and a modestly better prognosis for left-sided compared to right-sided tumors. Conclusions The results showed systematically more aggressive tumors in young compared to old patients. The poorer survival of old patients in colon cancer was not related to the available tumor characteristics. However, these partially agreed with the limited colonoscopic success with right-sided tumors.

  15. Tumor location and patient characteristics of colon and rectal adenocarcinomas in relation to survival and TNM classes. (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Santi, Irene; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo


    Old age at diagnosis is associated with poor survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) for unknown reasons. Recent data show that colonoscopy is efficient in preventing left-sided cancers only. We examine the association of Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) classes with diagnostic age and patient characteristics. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has data on TNM classes on 6,105 CRC adenocarcinoma patients. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to model tumor characteristics according to age at diagnosis, tumor localization, gender, socioeconomic status, medical region and family history. The results were compared to results from survival analysis. The only parameters systematically associated with TNM classes were age and tumor localization. Young age at diagnosis was a risk factor for aggressive CRC, according to stage, N and M with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.80 to 1.93 for diagnosis before age 50 years compared to diagnosis at 80+ years. All tumor characteristics, particularly T, were worse for colon compared to rectal tumors. Right-sided tumors showed worse characteristics for all classifiers but M. The survival analysis on patients diagnosed since 2000 showed a hazard ratio of 0.55 for diagnosis before age 50 years compared to diagnosis at over 80 years and a modestly better prognosis for left-sided compared to right-sided tumors. The results showed systematically more aggressive tumors in young compared to old patients. The poorer survival of old patients in colon cancer was not related to the available tumor characteristics. However, these partially agreed with the limited colonoscopic success with right-sided tumors.

  16. NF1-mutated melanoma tumors harbor distinct clinical and biological characteristics. (United States)

    Cirenajwis, Helena; Lauss, Martin; Ekedahl, Henrik; Törngren, Therese; Kvist, Anders; Saal, Lao H; Olsson, Håkan; Staaf, Johan; Carneiro, Ana; Ingvar, Christian; Harbst, Katja; Hayward, Nicholas K; Jönsson, Göran


    In general, melanoma can be considered as a UV-driven disease with an aggressive metastatic course and high mutational load, with only few tumors (acral, mucosal, and uveal melanomas) not induced by sunlight and possessing a lower mutational load. The most commonly activated pathway in melanoma is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the prognostic significance of mutational stratification is unclear and needs further investigation. Here, in silico we combined mutation data from 162 melanomas subjected to targeted deep sequencing with mutation data from three published studies. Tumors from 870 patients were grouped according to BRAF, RAS, NF1 mutation or triple-wild-type status and correlated with tumor and patient characteristics. We found that the NF1-mutated subtype had a higher mutational burden and strongest UV mutation signature. Searching for co-occurring mutated genes revealed the RASopathy genes PTPN11 and RASA2, as well as another RAS domain-containing gene RASSF2 enriched in the NF1 subtype after adjustment for mutational burden. We found that a larger proportion of the NF1-mutant tumors were from males and with older age at diagnosis. Importantly, we found an increased risk of death from melanoma (disease-specific survival, DSS; HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.21-3.10; P = 0.046) and poor overall survival (OS; HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.28-2.98; P = 0.01) in the NF1 subtype, which remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, and lesion type (DSS P = 0.03, OS P = 0.06, respectively). Melanoma genomic subtypes display different biological and clinical characteristics. The poor outcome observed in the NF1 subtype highlights the need for improved characterization of this group.

  17. [Clinical characteristics research of shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system in real world]. (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Chun; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Zhuang, Yan


    The study was to research the clinical characteristics of Shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system, including the characteristics of the age, the sex, the dosage, the course of the treatment and the combination drugs. The data of tumor patients injected with Shenmai injection was analyzed. The information was collected from the hospital information system (HIS) in twenty hospitals of grade III-A. The method of frequencies and association rules was used in this reaearch. The patients over 45 years old were up to 3 338, about 79.36% of the whole. The ratio of male and female was 1.73: 1. The hospitalization day between 15 and 28 was most. The complications of the hypertension and coronary heart disease happened most. The support was 5.939% and 5.099% respectively. Fifty-five patients had the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome of Qi-Yin deficiency, about 14.78% of the whole. There were 8 491 patients treated with the single dose of 81 to 100 mL, about 48.70% of the whole. The main combination drugs were dexamethasone, tropisetron and maxolon. The confidence was 44.63%, 31.22% and 20.53% respectively. The information from HIS showed that tumor patients used Shenmai injection were most quinquagenarian with smooth condition. The dose of the Shenmai injection sometimes was higher than that of the drug use instructions in clinical. Shenmai injection was most often combined with glucocorticoid, antemetic and nutritional support medicine when treating tumor in clinical.

  18. Primary diaphyseal osteosarcoma in long bones: Imaging features and tumor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Sheng, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yin, Qi-Hua, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liao, Jin-Sheng, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Lou, Jiang-Hua, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ding, Xiao-Yi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhu, Yan-Bo, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No.197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Ke-Min, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)


    Objective: This study aims to assess retrospectively the imaging features of diaphyseal osteosarcoma and compare its characteristics with that of metaphyseal osteosarcoma. Materials and methods: Eighteen pathologically confirmed diaphyseal osteosarcomas were reviewed. Images of X-ray (n = 18), CT (n = 12) and MRI (n = 15) were evaluated by two radiologists. Differences among common radiologic findings of X-ray, CT and MRI, and between diaphyseal osteosarcomas and metaphyseal osteosarcomas in terms of tumor characteristics were compared. Results: The common imaging features of diaphyseal osteosarcoma were bone destruction, lamellar periosteal reaction with/without Codman triangle, massive soft tissue mass/swelling, neoplastic bone and/or calcification. CT and MRI had a higher detection rate in detecting bone destruction (P = 0.001) as compared with that of X-ray. X-ray and CT resulted in a higher percentage in detecting periosteal reaction (P = 0.018) and neoplastic bone and/or calcification (P = 0.043) as compared with that of MRI. There was no difference (P = 0.179) in detecting soft tissue mass among three imaging modalities. When comparing metaphyseal osteosarcoma to diaphyseal osteosarcoma, the latter had the following characteristics: a higher age of onset (P = 0.022), a larger extent of tumor (P = 0.018), a more osteolytic radiographic pattern (P = 0.043). Conclusion: As compared with metaphyseal osteosarcoma, diaphysial osteosarcoma is a special location of osteosarcoma with a lower incidence, a higher age of onset, a larger extent of tumor, a more osteolytic radiographic pattern. The osteoblastic and mixed types are diagnosed easily, but the osteolytic lesion should be differentiated from Ewing sarcoma. X-ray, CT and MRI can show imaging features from different aspects with different detection rates.

  19. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per


    during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic......-based study, we confirmed earlier observations of an association between high birth weight and risk of Wilms tumor, but we found an effect only in girls. The higher risk of infants with low Apgar score might reflect hypoxia causing cell damage, adverse side effects of neonatal treatment or reverse causation...

  20. Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor :Clinical Characteristics,Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善峰; 闫丙健; 周岩冰


    Objective:To explore the clinicopathological characteristics,treatment and prognosis of extrogastrointestinal stromal tumor(EGIST).Methods:In our study,Clinicopathological data of EGISTs from January 2010 to October 2014were systematically investigated.Pathology results were rechecked.Patients also were followed Up.Prognostic factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models and univariate and multivariate with Log-rank test.Results:An amount of EGISTs cases were selected due to inclusion criteria,including 28males and 26Females,with age from 18 To78 years(median,58).Patients were follwed up.12cases were dead.The 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 91%,75%,66%.Patients undergoing R0 resection had a better 5-year overall survival rate than those undergoing R1 resection(75%vs46%,P<0.05).For patients with high risk of recurrence after surgery,the 5-year overall survival rate was 62%and 40%respectively(P<0.05).Conclusions:Tumor size,mitotic count and tumor rupture affect the prognosis of patients after resection of primary EGISTs independently.Adjuvant imatinib can effectively improve the prognosis of the patients with high risk of recurrence,and the survival rate of patients after surgery.Surgical resection is the main treatment of EGIST,and R0 resection helps to prolong the survival time.

  1. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus. (United States)

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W


    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell⁻¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia.

  2. What questionnaires to use when measuring quality of life in sacral tumor patients: the updated sacral tumor survey. (United States)

    van Wulfften Palthe, Olivier D R; Janssen, Stein J; Wunder, Jay S; Ferguson, Peter C; Wei, Guo; Rose, Peter S; Yaszemski, Micheal J; Sim, Franklin H; Boland, Patrick J; Healey, John H; Hornicek, Francis J; Schwab, Joseph H


    Patient-reported outcomes are becoming increasingly important when investigating results of patient and disease management. In sacral tumor, the symptoms of patients can vary substantially; therefore, no single questionnaire can adequately account for the full spectrum of symptoms and disability. The purpose of this study is to analyze redundancy within the current sacral tumor survey and make a recommendation for an updated version based on the results and patient and expert opinions. A survey study from a tertiary care orthopedic oncology referral center was used. The patient sample included 70 patients with sacral tumors (78% chordoma). The following 10 questionnaires included in the current sacral tumor survey were evaluated: the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Item short form, PROMIS Pain Intensity short form, PROMIS Pain Interference short form, PROMIS Neuro-QOL v1.0 Lower Extremity Function short form, PROMIS v1.0 Anxiety short form, the PROMIS v1.0 Depression short form, the International Continence Society Male short form, the Modified Obstruction-Defecation Syndrome questionnaire, the PROMIS Sexual Function Profile v1.0, and the Stoma Quality of Life tool. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to calculate the possible underlying latent traits. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to measure to what extent the questionnaires converged. We hypothesized the existence of six domains based on current literature: mental health, physical health, pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, sexual function, and urinary incontinence. To assess content validity, we surveyed 32 patients, 9 orthopedic oncologists, 1 medical oncologist, 1 radiation oncologist, and 1 orthopedic oncology nurse practitioner with experience in treating sacral tumor patients on the relevance of the domains. Reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.65 to 0.96. Coverage measured by floor and ceiling effects ranged from 0% to 52

  3. Channel Measurements and Characteristics for Cooperative Positioning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Steinböck, Gerhard; Jost, Thomas


    We have conducted an indoor channel measurement campaign to characterize the propagation channel for the development of cooperative positioning algorithms. The campaign focused particularly on the characteristics of multi-link channels with applications to positioning. In this contribution we...

  4. Edema in the retropharyngeal space associated with head and neck tumors: CT imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Noriko; Nakamura, Mamoru; Tsuda, Masashi; Saito, Haruo [National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi [Tohoku University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)


    To determine computed tomographic (CT) imaging characteristics of retropharygeal edema, we reviewed CT images in 18 patients with head and neck tumors. Retropharyngeal edema spread craniocaudally between soft palate and upper half of thyroid cartilage in all patients. No edema fluid extended above soft palate and below thyroid cartilage. Horizontally, it spread symmetrically in ten and asymmetrically in eight patients. Predominance in asymmetrical retropharyngeal edema was found on the same side as that of unilateral predominance both in lymph nodes enlargement and jugular vein stenosis/occlusion. All patients had edema also in other cervical spaces. Edema of retropharyngeal and other spaces fluctuated synchronously. In 14 patients, as primary lesion and/or cervical lymph nodes regressed, retropharyngeal edema disappeared or decreased. Retropharyngeal edema had some imaging characteristics. With knowledge of that, we could avoid diagnostic confusion when evaluating head and neck CT images. (orig.)

  5. Ki-67 Expression in Human Tumors Measured by Flow Cytometry (United States)


    proliferation. One of the first proliferation antigens to be studied was the transferrin receptor (TfR). Proliferating normal and tumor cells require iron and...obtained by incubation in NP-40. When the antibody was used to stain frozen sections of human tonsil , the chromosomes were stained. The antibody was...proliferation. When applied to frozen sections of human tonsil , the antibody appeared to be reactive with a mitotic spindle-associated protein. It bound

  6. Characteristics of children's brain tumors%儿童颅脑肿瘤的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Childrens brain tumors are the common tumors in children, which males are frequently affected than females, and most of patients are children aged 5-14 years old. The incidence rate of infratentorial tumor is higher than that of supratentorial tumor. The cases of infratentorial tumor in children accounted for 60% , and the main part is the fourth ventricle, followed by cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellar vermis, which often occurred in posterior fossa and near the midline. The main part of supratentorial tumor is the cerebral hemispheres, followed by the third ventricle and lateral ventricle. The clinical symptoms of childhood brain tumors are different with the size, characteristics, location and the damage around brain structure. The histopathological types of children's brain tumors are significantly different from that in adults. The benign tumors rarely happen in children, but the incidence rate of glioma in children is greatly higher than that in adults. The mostly pathological types were astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, ependy-moma, germ cell tumor and craniopharyngioma. The diagnosis of brain tumor in children should pay attention to the pediatric clinical characteristics, atypical clinical manifestation and detailed medical history, especially the correct and complete symptoms. Then according to the actual situation, it is urgent to carry out the necessary examination, to confirm the diagnosis and reduce the early misdiagnosis rate. The imaging examination plays a very important role in the diagnosis of children's brain tumors, so CT and MR examinations should be carried out in suspected cases as soon as possible. Surgical resection is the first choice, and reasonable postoperative radiotherapy can consolidate the operation effect and prolong survival duration. The radiotherapy accompanied with chemotherapy can improve the curative effect in malignant tumor patients after surgery.%目的 儿童颅脑肿瘤为常见的儿童肿瘤.以5~ 14岁组患儿居

  7. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L


    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  8. Measurements of the Characteristics of Transparent Material Using Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yu


    Full Text Available Digital holography is applied to measure the characteristics of transparent material. A digital hologram recording system to measure the surface of transparent material was established, and the digital holograms of transparent object were obtained in high quality. For postprocessing of hologram, the least-squares phase unwrapping algorithm was used in phase unwrapping, and the phase reconstruction image of transparent object was obtained. The information of material surfaces was measured and the characteristic was presented in 3D visualization. The validation experiment was conducted by NanoMap 500LS system; the results of validation experiment are well satisfied with the measurement by digital holography, which proved the feasibility of digital holographic technology as a good measurement tool for transparent material.

  9. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse). (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi


    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence.

  10. Heterodyne detector for measuring the characteristic of elliptically polarized microwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Michelsen, Susanne


    In the present paper, a device is introduced, which is capable of determining the three characteristic parameters of elliptically polarized light (ellipticity, angle of ellipticity, and direction of rotation) for microwave radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz. The device consists of two...... be calculated. Results from measured and calculated wave characteristics of an elliptically polarized 110 GHz microwave beam for plasma heating launched into the TEXTOR-tokamak experiment are presented. Measurement and calculation are in good agreement. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  11. Measured and calculated characteristics of wind turbine noise (United States)

    Greene, G. C.


    The results of an analytical and experimental investigation of wind turbine noise are presented. Noise calculations indicate that for configurations with the rotor downwind of the support tower, the primary source of noise is the rapid change in rotor loadings which occurs as the rotor passes through the tower wake. Noise measurements are presented for solid and truss type tower models with both upwind and downwind rotors. Upwind rotor configurations are shown to be significantly quieter than downwind configurations. The model data suggest that averaged noise measurements and noise calculations based on averaged tower wake characteristics may not accurately represent the impulsive noise characteristics of downwind rotor configurations.

  12. Incorporating Tumor Characteristics to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Breast Cancer Staging System. (United States)

    Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Clarke, Christina A; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Hunt, Kelly K; Giordano, Sharon H


    The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) breast cancer staging system provides important prognostic information. The recently published eighth edition incorporates biological markers and recommends the use of a complex "prognostic stage." In this study, we assessed the relationship between stage, breast cancer subtype, grade, and outcome in a large population-based cohort, and evaluate a risk score system incorporating tumor characteristic to the AJCC anatomic staging system. Patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer stage I-IV between 2005-2008 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. For patients with stage I-III disease, pathologic stage was recorded. For patients with stage IV disease, clinical stage was utilized. Five-year breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) rates were determined for each potential tumor size-node involvement-metastases (TNM) combination according to breast cancer subtype. A risk score point-based system using grade, estrogen receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status was designed to complement the anatomic AJCC staging system. Survival probabilities between groups were compared using log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were used. Among 43,938 patients, we observed differences in 5-year BCSS and OS for each TNM combination according to breast cancer subtype. The most favorable outcomes were seen for hormone receptor-positive tumors followed closely by HER2-positive tumors, with the worst outcomes observed for triple negative breast cancer. Our risk score system separated patients into four risk groups within each stage category (all p system incorporates biological factors into the AJCC anatomic staging system, providing accurate prognostic information. The Oncologist 2017;22:1-9 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study demonstrates that stage, but also breast cancer subtype and grade, define prognosis in a large population of breast cancer patients. It shows

  13. Method for Measuring Small Nonlinearities of Electric Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom; Meyer, Niels I; Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen


    A method is described for measuring very small deviations from linearity in electric characteristics. The measurement is based on the harmonics generated by the nonlinear element when subjected to a sine wave signal. A special bridge circuit is used to balance out the undesired harmonics...... of the signal generator together with the first harmonic frequency. The set-up measures the small-signal value and the first and second derivative with respect to voltage. The detailed circuits are given for measuring nonlinearities in Ohmic and capacitive components. In the Ohmic case, a sensitivity...

  14. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency. (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B; Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry; Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'brien, Ricky T; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul


    To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Measurement of Spectral Characteristics by Correlation Matching Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chol-Sun; Im, Song-Jin


    In this paper, we have established the couple system of a spectroscope, CCD and computer and proposed a method of the rapid measurement on spectral characteristics such as central wavelengths, relative intensities, sensitivity lines and the wavelength range and image pixel of the spectral images of a material by using the correlation matching method for the image discernment of digital spectra.

  16. Characteristics and pathological mechanism on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging after chemoembolization in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To investigate dynamic characteristics and pathological mechanism of signal in rabbit VX-2 tumor model on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after chemoembolization.METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were included in the study and forty-seven rabbit VX-2 tumor models were raised by implanting directly and intrahepatically after abdominal cavity opened. Forty VX-2 tumor models from them were divided into four groups. DWI was performed periodically and respectively for each group after chemoembolization. All VX-2 tumor samples of each group were studied by pathology. The distinction of VX-2tumors on DWI was assessed by their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The statistical significance between different time groups, different area groups or different b-value groups was calculated by using SPSS12.0 software.RESULTS: Under b-value of 100 s/mm2, ADC values were lowest at 16 h after chemoembolization in area of VX-2 tumor periphery, central, and normal liver parenchyma around tumor, but turned to increase with further elongation of chemoembolization treatment. The distinction of ADC between different time groups was significant respectively (F = 7.325, P < 0.001; F = 2.496,P < 0.048; F = 6.856, P < 0.001). Cellular edema in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery or normal liver parenchyma around tumor, increased quickly in sixteen h after chemoembolization but, from the 16th h to the 48th h, cellular edema in the area of normal liver parenchyma around tumor decreased gradually and that in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery decreased lightly at, and then increased continually. After chemoembolization, Cellular necrosis in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery was more significantly high than that before chemoembolization. The areas of dead cells in VX-2 tumors manifested low signal and high ADC value, while the areas of viable cells manifested high signal and low ADC value.CONCLUSION: DWI is able to detect and differentiate tumor necrotic areas from viable

  17. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: correlation of tumor grade and histologic characteristics with clinical outcome. (United States)

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Amy G; Wu, Chin-Lee; Young, Robert H; Braaten, Kristina; Sadow, Peter M; Nielsen, G P; Oliva, Esther


    Histologic prognostic parameters in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) are unclear. The aims were to review the clinicopathological features of PRCC, including Fuhrman grade and International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade, and to identify parameters that may be independent prognostic indicators. PRCCs in patients treated by nephrectomy were retrieved from the pathology files from 1984 to 2010. Parameters studied included tumor multifocality, size, PRCC type (1 or 2), Fuhrman grade, ISUP nucleolar grade, presence of necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and stage at presentation. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were used as prognostic measures. Of 154 PRCCs, 112 (73%) were type 1, and 42 (27%), type 2. A total of 125 patients were male, and 29, female, with ages from 26 to 86 (mean, 62.7) years. Fuhrman grade was 1 in 8 (5%), 2 in 95 (62%), 3 in 49 (32%), and 4 in 2 (1%) tumors, respectively. ISUP nucleolar grade was 1 in 47 (31%), 2 in 56 (36%), 3 in 49 (32%), and 4 in 2 (1%) tumors, respectively. Mean follow-up interval was 73.9 months (0.13-222 months). ISUP nucleolar grade was a significant predictor of both CSS and OS in univariate (CSS, P = .001; OS, P = .004) and multivariate (CSS, P = .04; OS, P = .008) analyses, whereas Fuhrman grade was only predictive of CSS in univariate (P = .001) and multivariate (P = .04) analyses. Only ISUP nucleolar grade and lymphovascular invasion were independently prognostic for CSS and OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. Therefore, the ISUP nucleolar grade appears to be superior in predicting survival in patients with PRCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lung cancer perfusion at multi-detector row CT: reproducibility of whole tumor quantitative measurements. (United States)

    Ng, Quan-Sing; Goh, Vicky; Fichte, Heinz; Klotz, Ernst; Fernie, Pat; Saunders, Michele I; Hoskin, Peter J; Padhani, Anwar R


    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess, in patients with lung cancer, the reproducibility of a quantitative whole tumor perfusion computed tomographic (CT) technique. Paired CT studies were performed in 10 patients (eight men, two women; mean age, 66 years) with lung cancer. Whole tumor permeability and blood volume were measured, and reproducibility was evaluated by using Bland-Altman statistics. Coefficient of variation of 9.49% for permeability and 26.31% for blood volume and inter- and intraobserver variability ranging between 3.30% and 6.34% indicate reliable assessment with this whole tumor technique.

  19. [Characteristics of polyamine biosynthesis regulation and tumor growth rate in hormone-dependant grafted breast tumors of mice and rats]. (United States)

    Orlovskiĭ, A A


    Effect of the inhibitors of polyamines biosynthesis on completely or partially hormone-dependant breast tumors (mouse Ca755 carcinoma and Walker W-256 carcinosarcoma) is essentially special: in contrary to hormone-dependant tumors, this effect may be not only breaking but stimulating as well. Change-over from one to another mode of reaction is conditioned, most probable, by hormonal status, which is determined by one or another estral cycle phase. Biochemical mechanisms of this change-over are closely connected with polyamines metabolism, namely the degree of polyamines (especially spermine) interconvertion and physiological reactivity level of the system controlling expression of ornithin-decarboxilase. At that, the first of these pathways is predominant for completely hormone-dependant Ca755 and the second one -for partially hormone-dependant W-256.

  20. Clinicopathologic Features and Molecular Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism Contributing to ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

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    Min-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT is useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs; however, the molecular characteristics of glucose metabolism of GIST are unknown. We evaluated 18F-FDG uptake on preoperative PET/CT of 40 patients and analyzed the expression of glycolytic enzymes in resected GIST tissues by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax cut-off value of 4.99 had a sensitivity of 89.5%, specificity was 76.2%, and accuracy of 82.5% for identifying tumors with a high risk of malignancy. We found that 18F-FDG uptake correlated positively with tumor size, risk grade, and expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, hexokinase 1 (HK1, and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA. Elevated HK and LDH activity was found in high-risk tumors. Among the isoforms of GLUT and HK, GLUT1 and HK1 expression increased with higher tumor risk grade. In addition, overexpression of glycolytic enzymes M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2 and LDHA was observed in GISTs, especially in high-risk tumors. These results suggest that upregulation of GLUT1, HK1, PKM2, and LDHA may play an important role in GIST tumorigenesis and may be useful in the preoperative prediction of malignant potential.

  1. Measurement of response of pulmonal tumors in 64-slice MDCT

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    Sohns, Christian; Sossalla, Samuel (Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology/Heart Center, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany)), e-mail:; Mangelsdorf, Johanna; Obenauer, Silvia (Dept. of Radiology, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany)); Konietschke, Frank (Dept. of Medical Statistics, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany))


    Background: Advances in CT technology from single to multi-detector row CT (MDCT) permit a high resolution and volumetric presentation of pulmonary lesions. This implicates emerging measurement techniques that need to be contrasted with established methods. Purpose: To compare bidimensional, unidimensional, and volumetric methods for evaluation of treatment response in patients with lung lesions. Material and Methods: This study comprised 68 patients with pulmonary lesions who underwent a total of 276 64-MDCTs of chest at baseline and follow-up. RECIST and WHO criteria were used for unidimensional and bidimensional methods and region growing (RG) for volumetry. Patients were classified into four response categories. Respectively, two measurement techniques were contrasted and the kappa index was calculated. For intra-observer reproducibility the relative measurement error (RME) and kappa index with regard to agreement of response categories were evaluated. Results: Comparison of WHO und RECIST criteria achieves high correlation with kappa indices of 0.76 and 0.82. In particular, lesions with moderate increase of size in the range of 25-44% for bidimensional and 12-29% for unidimensional measurement result in different response categories when applying WHO and RECIST criteria. WHO criteria delivered PD more often than RECIST. kappa indices of 0.79 and 0.87 were attained in comparison of RECIST and RG, and 0.83 and 0.84 for WHO and RG. RME was 2.82% for RECIST, 7.53% for WHO, and 8.97% for RG. Intra-observer reproducibility was 95% for RECIST, 95% for WHO, and 96% for RG. Conclusion: The comparison of all methods resulted in no statistically significant differences. WHO criteria seemed to diverge the most, they declared several lesions prematurely as progression, and showed no benefit in comparison to RECIST. RG showed the best reproducibility, considered irregular lesions, was slightly superior to RECIST, and could be applied uniformly. Unidimensional measurement

  2. A Method for Measuring Sludge Settling Characteristics in Turbulent Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben


    distribution occurs in the middle of the column. This eliminates time scale effects such as flocculation from the measurements, as the resulting settling velocity only can be found at steady state and uniform conditions. The method assumes that flocculated sludge settles faster than disintegratedsludge to make...... can be measured at arbitrarily selected combinations of turbulence and concentration. The foremost advantage of the method is that settlilng characteristics measured in this way can be utilized directly in numerical models of sedimentation tanks, process tanks, etc....

  3. Evaluation of pump characteristic from measurement of fast deceleration

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    Himr Daniel


    Full Text Available Article describes an experiment where a pump connected to the simple hydraulic circuit is decelerated. Since the deceleration is fast enough the operating point of the machine moves from the initial steady position to the breaking zone, turbine zone and back to the new steady position. A dependence of the specific energy and the torque on the flow rate was evaluated from the measurement of the input and output pressure, torque and rotational speed recorded during the deceleration. Obtained characteristic is much wider than curves obtained from regular measurement of steady state.

  4. Repeated quantitative perfusion and contrast permeability measurement in the MRI examination of a CNS tumor

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    Vonken, E.P.A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Willems, P.W.A.; Zwan, A. van der; Bakker, C.J.G.; Viergever, M.A.; Mali, W.P.T.M. [University Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)


    This study reports on the results of quantitative MRI perfusion and contrast permeability measurement on two occasions in one patient. The measurements were separated 81 days in time. The tumor grew considerably in this period, but no change was found with respect to perfusion and contrast permeability. Non-involved white matter values were reproduced to demonstrate repeatability. The presented approach to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI allows fast and repeatable quantitative assessment of perfusion and is easily integrated in a conventional brain tumor protocol. (orig.)

  5. Tumor development, growth characteristics and spectrum of genetic aberrations in the TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma.

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    Agnes Rasmuson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TH-MYCN transgenic neuroblastoma model, with targeted MYCN expression to the developing neural crest, has been used to study neuroblastoma development and evaluate novel targeted tumor therapies. METHODS: We followed tumor development in 395 TH-MYCN (129X1/SvJ mice (125 negative, 206 hemizygous and 64 homozygous mice by abdominal palpations up to 40 weeks of age. DNA sequencing of MYCN in the original plasmid construct and mouse genomic DNA was done to verify the accuracy. Copy number analysis with Affymetrix® Mouse Diversity Genotyping Arrays was used to characterize acquired genetic aberrations. RESULTS: DNA sequencing confirmed presence of human MYCN cDNA in genomic TH-MYCN DNA corresponding to the original plasmid construct. Tumor incidence and growth correlated significantly to transgene status with event-free survival for hemizygous mice at 50%, and 0% for homozygous mice. Hemizygous mice developed tumors at 5.6-19 weeks (median 9.1 and homozygous mice at 4.0-6.9 weeks (5.4. The mean treatment window, time from palpable tumor to sacrifice, for hemizygous and homozygous mice was 15 and 5.2 days, respectively. Hemizygous mice developing tumors as early as homozygous mice had a longer treatment window. Age at tumor development did not influence treatment window for hemizygous mice, whereas treatment window in homozygous mice decreased significantly with increasing age. Seven out of 10 analysed tumors had a flat DNA profile with neither segmental nor numerical chromosomal aberrations. Only three tumors from hemizygous mice showed acquired genetic features with one or more numerical aberrations. Of these, one event corresponded to gain on the mouse equivalent of human chromosome 17. CONCLUSION: Hemizygous and homozygous TH-MYCN mice have significantly different neuroblastoma incidence, tumor growth characteristics and treatment windows but overlap in age at tumor development making correct early genotyping essential to evaluate

  6. Tumor radio-sensitivity assessment by means of volume data and magnetic resonance indices measured on prostate tumor bearing rats. (United States)

    Belfatto, Antonella; White, Derek A; Mason, Ralph P; Zhang, Zhang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Baroni, Guido; Cerveri, Pietro


    Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments in the fight against prostate cancer, since it is used to control the tumor (early stages), to slow its progression, and even to control pain (metastasis). Although many factors (e.g., tumor oxygenation) are known to influence treatment efficacy, radiotherapy doses and fractionation schedules are often prescribed according to the principle "one-fits-all," with little personalization. Therefore, the authors aim at predicting the outcome of radiation therapy a priori starting from morphologic and functional information to move a step forward in the treatment customization. The authors propose a two-step protocol to predict the effects of radiation therapy on individual basis. First, one macroscopic mathematical model of tumor evolution was trained on tumor volume progression, measured by caliper, of eighteen Dunning R3327-AT1 bearing rats. Nine rats inhaled 100% O2 during irradiation (oxy), while the others were allowed to breathe air. Second, a supervised learning of the weight and biases of two feedforward neural networks was performed to predict the radio-sensitivity (target) from the initial volume and oxygenation-related information (inputs) for each rat group (air and oxygen breathing). To this purpose, four MRI-based indices related to blood and tissue oxygenation were computed, namely, the variation of signal intensity ΔSI in interleaved blood oxygen level dependent and tissue oxygen level dependent (IBT) sequences as well as changes in longitudinal ΔR1 and transverse ΔR2(*) relaxation rates. An inverse correlation of the radio-sensitivity parameter, assessed by the model, was found with respect the ΔR2(*) (-0.65) for the oxy group. A further subdivision according to positive and negative values of ΔR2(*) showed a larger average radio-sensitivity for the oxy rats with ΔR2(*)<0 and a significant difference in the two distributions (p < 0.05). Finally, a leave-one-out procedure yielded a radio

  7. Characteristics of Metachronous Gastric Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Intraepithelial Neoplasms

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    Tomoyuki Boda


    Full Text Available Background. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD has become a standard treatment method for early gastric cancer and concurrent stomach preservation. However, metachronous recurrences have become a major problem. We evaluated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of and examined the risk factors for metachronous gastric tumors. Methods. A total of 357 patients who underwent ESD for gastric tumors (245 early gastric cancers and 112 adenomas and were followed up for more than 12 months without recurrence within the first 12 months were enrolled. We investigated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of metachronous tumors after ESD. We also analyzed the potential risk factors for metachronous tumors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox’s proportional hazards model. Results. The annual incidence of metachronous tumors after ESD was 2.4%. The median period until discovery after initial ESD was 26.0 months, and the median observation period was 52.6 months. Male patients developed metachronous tumors more frequently (P=0.04, and the hazard ratio of female to male patients was 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.89. Conclusions. Patients with a previous history of gastric tumors have a high risk of subsequent gastric tumor development and male patients should be carefully followed up after ESD for gastric tumor.

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements with diffusion-weighted imaging for differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumor

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    Yu Zou


    Conclusion: Our results provide strong evidence that patients diagnosed with malignant soft-tissue tumors have low ADC values of DWI compared to those with benign soft-tissue tumors. Therefore, ADC measurements with DWI may be reliable in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors.

  9. Exploration of two methods for quantitative Mitomycin C measurement in tumor tissue in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Vásquez, Juan Luis; Gehl, Julie


    Two methods of quantifying Mitomycin C in tumor tissue are explored. A method of ultraviolet-visible absorption microscopy is developed and applied to measure the concentration of Mitomycin C in preserved mouse tumor tissue, as well as in gelatin samples. Concentrations as low as 60 μM can...... concentrations in tumor tissue....

  10. Influence of clinical characteristics and tumor size on symptoms of bladder leiomyoma: a pooled analysis of 61 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-zhou; XU Chao; ZHANG Nian-zhao; XU Zhi-shun


    Background Bladder leiomyoma is an uncommon type of bladder neoplasms.Most publications are reports of isolated cases.The influence of tumor size on patients' early symptoms was seldom analyzed.We aim to investigate the clinical characteristics of bladder leiomyoma and the influence of tumor size on patients' symptoms in Chinese population.Methods We reviewed the medical records of eight patients diagnosed with bladder leiomyoma at our department,collected 53 cases from Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),Wangfang data base,and Chinese Biological Medicine Disk,and performed a pooled analysis.The clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed and then classified into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups.The association between tumor size and the occurrence of symptoms was evaluated.Furthermore,Logistic regression model was constructed to discriminate variables.Results Women comprised the majority of the patients (49/61,80.3% ).The mean age and tumor size were (42.3±14.0)years and (45.0±25.7) mm,respectively.Among all the symptoms,irritative symptoms occurred most frequently (37.7%,23/61 ),followed by obstructive urinary symptoms (31.1%,19/61),hematuria (24.6%,15/61),and abdominal bulge or pain (14.8%,9/61).In our study,patients who were 45 years old or younger tended to be asymptomatic compared with elder ones (14/36 vs.3/25,P=0.021).The histological,as well as anatomical,location of tumor,did not show significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (P=0.306 and 0.700).Tumors larger than 30 mm in the greatest diameter would cause clinical symptoms such as obstructive urinary symptoms (P=0.048) and irritative symptoms (P=0.037).Logistic regression confirmed the association between tumor size and the occurrence of symptoms,which was related with age.Conclusions Bladder leiomyoma occurs mainly in women and most frequently with irritative symptoms.The occurrence of symptoms is related to tumor size rather than the

  11. [Meristematic characteristics of tumors initiated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in pea plants]. (United States)

    Vinogradova, A P; Lebedeva, M A; Lutova, L A


    It is known that two key groups of plant hormones--auxins and cytokinins--play an important role in plant tumor development. The formation of Agrobacterium-induced tumors results from the horizontal transfer of bacterial oncogenes involved in the biosynthesis of these hormones in the plant genome. The role of transcriptional factors in plant tumor development is poorly investigated. It can be assumed that tumor development associated with abnormal cell proliferation can be controlled by the same set of transcription factors that control normal cell proliferation and, in particular, transcription factors that regulate meristem activity. In the present study, we analyzed the histological organization and distribution of proliferating cells in tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on pea hypocotyls. In addition, the expression of a set of meristem-specific genes with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumor development was analyzed. In general, our results indicate that meristematic structures are present in A. tumefaciens-induced tumors and that the development of such tumors is associated with increased expression of a key gene regulating the root apical meristem--the WOX5 gene.

  12. Unidimensional measurement may be superior to assess primary tumor response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (United States)

    Chen, Chuanben; Lin, Xiurong; Xu, Yuanji; Bai, Penggang; Xiao, Youping; Pan, Yuhui; Li, Chao; Lin, Zhizhong; Zhang, Mingwei; Chen, Yunbin


    Application of current response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) for assessment of irregularly shaped nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a gray area with much ambiguity. Our aim was to compare unidimensional measurements (UDM) and bidimensional measurements (BDM) on magnetic resonance images in alternative planes for measurement of tumor response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with locally advanced NPC. 59 patients with untreated non-metastatic NPC were prospectively enrolled. The size or change in size of the primary tumor and retropharyngeal nodes was assessed by UDM and BDM on axial and coronal planes before and after 2 cycles of NACT. Tumor volume was considered as the reference standard. Correlation between volume and diameter was analyzed using a general linear model. The degree of agreement and discordance of response classification based on different measures were evaluated with κ statistic and McNemar's test, respectively. Both axial UDM (RECIST 1.1) and axial BDM (WHO) showed a significant association with volumetric standard. However, the agreement of axial UDM with VM was better than that of axial BDM (κ value: 0.514 to 0.372). In addition, when increasing coronal planes to evaluate tumor response with UDM and BDM, an inferior agreement between coronal BDM and VM was still observed. Notably, coronal UDM showed the best consistency with volume (κ = 0.585). Hence, axial UDM showed better correlation with volumetric measurements than axial BDM. Since coronal UDM showed high correlation to VM, we suggest further research to assess its use for response assessment of NPC after NACT.

  13. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

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    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.


    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  14. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

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    Silvio Laffita Estévez


    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  15. Detecting measurement disturbance effects: the graphical display of item characteristics. (United States)

    Schumacker, Randall E


    Traditional identification of misfitting items in Rasch measurement models have interpreted the Infit and Outfit z standardized statistic. A more recent approach made possible by Winsteps is to specify "group = 0" in the control file and subsequently view the item characteristic curve for each item against the true probability curve. The graphical display reveals whether an item follows the true probability curve or deviates substantially, thus indicating measurement disturbance. Probability of item response and logit ability are easily copied into data vectors in R software then graphed. An example control file, output item data, and subsequent preparation of an overlay graph for misfit items are presented using Winsteps and R software. For comparison purposes the data are also analyzed using a multi-dimensional (MD) mapping procedure.

  16. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of patients with brain tumor (United States)

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej


    Introduction Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH are also present in brain tumor cells. Moreover, the activity of class I isoenzymes was significantly higher in cancer than healthy brain cells. The activity of these enzymes in tumor tissue is reflected in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of brain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for brain tumors. Material and methods Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 115 patients suffering from brain tumors (65 glioblastomas, 50 meningiomas). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. Results There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of brain tumor patients compared to the controls. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 78%, specificity 85%, and positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for ADH I was 0.71. Conclusions The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as a marker for brain tumor. PMID:28261287

  17. Origin and pathological characteristics of Klatskin tumor: a case report and literature review. (United States)

    Somer, Ljiljana; Andrejić, Bojana; Milošević, Pavle


    Hilar cholangiocarcinomas involving the bifurcation of the hepatic duct are called Klatskin tumors. A resected specimen of the hilar hepatic region with Klatskin tumor was analyzed. The lining epithelium of major biliary ducts was regular, while the majority of epithelial cells lining the excretory ducts of peribiliary glands (PBGs) exhibited malignant features. The connective tissue surrounding the PBGs was infiltrated by mucinous malignant epithelial cells, sometimes in a signet-ring cell form, with perineural invasion. The tumor epithelial cells showed distinct CK 7 and CA 19-9 positivity. The described cholangiocarcinoma was classified as the Bismuth-Corlette type IIIb and originated from the excretory ducts and acinar cells of PBGs.

  18. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

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    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki


    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results

  19. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Abdou, Adel A.


    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  20. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children’s Oncology Group Report

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    Neyssa Marina


    Full Text Available Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized. We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier and compared risk across groups (log-rank test. Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45, 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered.


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    I. A. Dzhanyan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate clinical pecuiliarities of ovarian tumors in colon cancer patients and determination of complex diagnostic methods.Subject and methods. Russian N.N.  Blokhin Cancer Research Center archives were used for retrospective study, patients, who underwent treatment during 1989–2013  were included. Colon cancer patients with ovarian metastases and with synchronous or metachronous tumors were included.Results. 141 patients were included: 91 patients had colon cancer with ovarian metastases (group 1 and 50 patients had synchronous or metachronous ovarian tumours (group 2. Ovarian tumors were diagnosed during the 1 year in 74 (81.3 % patients in group 1 and in 23 (46 % in group 2. Patients in group 2 less frequently had children (9 (18.0 % vs 5 (5.5 + 2.3 %, р < 0.05, family history of cancer (3 (6 % vs 16 (17.6 %, р < 0.05 and concomitant diseases. Median CA 125 level in group 1 was 64.96 ng/ml and 180 ng/ml in group 2. Ovarian tumors had solid and cystic structure during US examination in 66 (73 % patients in group 1 and 31 (62 % patients in group 2 had solid ovarian tumors on US examination.Conclusions. The differential diagnostics of primary and metastatic ovarian tumors must include CEA, CA 19–9 and CA 125 serum levels and pelvic US.

  2. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: Influence of tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors? (United States)

    Vrieling, Alina; Seibold, Petra; Johnson, Theron S; Heinz, Judith; Obi, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Chang-Claude, Jenny


    We previously reported that lower post-diagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were associated with higher risk of overall mortality and distant disease in stage I-IV postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. This association was now re-examined in an extended dataset to investigate potential effect modification by tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Germany including 2,177 incident stage I-IV postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 50-74 years. Patients were diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 and median follow-up time was 5.3 years. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at diagnosis, study center and season of blood collection and adjusted for other prognostic factors. A meta-analysis of studies on circulating 25(OH)D and mortality in breast cancer patients was performed to summarize evidence. Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D were significantly associated with higher risk of overall mortality [hazard ratio (HR) lowest vs. highest tertile = 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.82; p-trend = 0.002] and distant disease (HR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.49; p-trend = 0.003) in stage I-IIIa but not in stage IIIb-IV breast cancer patients. No significant interaction by lifestyle factors was observed (all p-interaction > 0.05). The meta-analysis yielded significant associations with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality (lowest vs. highest quantile: HR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.88 and HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.40, respectively). In conclusion, post-diagnostic circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with overall mortality and distant disease in stage I-IIIa postmenopausal breast cancer patients. This association was not strongly modified by lifestyle factors.

  3. Thermal survival characteristics of cell subpopulations isolated from a heterogeneous human colon tumor. (United States)

    Leith, J T; Heyman, P; DeWyngaert, J K; Dexter, D L; Calabresi, P; Glicksman, A S


    Responses of a heterogeneous human colon adenocarcinoma model tumor system to in vitro hyperthermic treatment at various temperatures have been studied. This model tumor system consists of an original tumor line (DLD-1) obtained from surgical biopsy, and two derivative subpopulations termed clones A and D. These 3 tumor cell populations differ in many properties, including karyotype and DNA content, production of specific antigens, and sensitivities to other cytotoxic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs and X-irradiation. In these experiments, exponentially growing tumor cells were exposed to hyperthermia (42.2, 42.5, 43.0, 44.0, or 45.0 degrees) for graded time periods. A single-hit, multitarget equation was used to express the dependence of survival on time at a given temperature, and values for extrapolation numbers, quasi-threshold time (min), and T0 (mean lethal time; min) were obtained for the initial regions of survival. At the lower temperatures of 42.2 and 42.5 degrees, biphasic survival curves were obtained for all three tumor lines and, as a consequence, a second mean lethal time (T0,f) was also determined for the final thermal-resistant portion of the survival curves. Using the T0 values as an index of relative resistance, values at 42.2 and 42.5 degrees indicated that, in this temperature region, the parent (DLD-1) line was the most sensitive, the clone A line showed intermediate sensitivity, and the clone D line was the most resistant. In the thermally resistant portion of the survival curve, T0 values indicated that the clone A subpopulation was the most sensitive, the DLD-1 line showed intermediate sensitivity, and the clone D tumor subpopulation remained the most resistant. At the higher temperatures of 43, 44, and 45 degrees, in which thermotolerance is not observed during heat treatment, values for T0 indicated the parent (DLD-1) tumor line was still the most sensitive tumor line, and the clone A and clone D lines showed approximately equal

  4. Measurement of dynamic characteristics of metal sheet under laser shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbing Yao; Zhusheng Zhou; Bo Xing; Guilin Ding; Yanqun Tong; Jie Ping; Liangwan Li; Yongkang Zhang


    A new approach is developed to measure the dynamic characteristics of metal sheet under laser shock,including deformation velocity,strain,and strain rate.The detecting laser beam is partially shaded by the target deformation induced by the laser action.A photodiode transforms the received beam intensity real time into an electrical signal which could record the process of the target deformation.The functional relation between the electrical signal and the deformation of the metal sheet is derived.The deformation curve of a thin aluminum and the velocity curve of its deformation are also obtained during the experiment.The results indicate that the average velocity of the elastic deformation of the target can reach 2.999×103 m/s in the central area.This new method provides an approach in the study of the effect of strain rate on deformation.

  5. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio as measured on MRI: a possible predictor of breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy. (United States)

    Faermann, Renata; Sperber, Fani; Schneebaum, Schlomo; Barsuk, Daphna


    The surgical approach to breast cancer changed dramatically in the past 20 years. The surgical objective today is to remove the tumor, ensuring negative margins and good cosmetic results, and preserving the breast when possible. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an essential imaging tool prior to surgery, diagnosing additional tumors and assessing tumor extent. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio, an important predictor of breast conservation, can be measured with MRI and may change the surgical decision. To measure the tumor-to-breast volume ratio using MRI in order to assess whether there is a correlation between this ratio and the type of surgery selected (breast-conserving or mastectomy). The volumes of the tumor and the breast and the tumor-to-breast volume ratio were retrospectively calculated using preoperative breast MRI in 76 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) was performed in 64 patients and mastectomy in 12. The average tumor-to-breast volume ratio was 0.06 (6%) in the lumpectomy group and 0.30 (30%) in the mastectomy group (P < 0.0001). The tumor-to-breast volume ratio correlated with the type of surgery. As measured on MRI, this ratio is an accurate means of determining the type of surgery best suited for a given patient. It is recommended that MRI-determined tumor-to-breast volume ratio become part of the surgical planning protocol for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

  6. The distinctive molecular, pathological and clinical characteristics of BRAF-mutant colorectal tumors. (United States)

    Scartozzi, Mario; Giampieri, Riccardo; Aprile, Giuseppe; Iacono, Donatella; Santini, Daniele; dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Silvestris, Nicola; Gnoni, Antonio; Bonotto, Marta; Puzzoni, Marco; Demurtas, Laura; Cascinu, Stefano


    Several clinical series have demonstrated a notably low overall survival for colorectal cancer patients diagnosed with a BRAF-mutant tumor. A potentially interesting predictive role has also been suggested for BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Although a global consensus exists in indicating BRAF as a prognostic factor with a possible predictive activity, the clinical use of BRAF mutational status in colorectal tumors is still controversial. This article reviews the current knowledge on the use and implications of BRAF mutational status in colorectal tumors, in order to define its present role in the clinical practice. Also suggested are possible treatment strategies in this prognostically challenging group of patients. Finally, a comprehensive outlook on future developments for specifically directed anti-BRAF therapy is illustrated.

  7. Establishing Chinese medicine characteristic tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of Chinese medicine oncology. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Lei; Liu, Rui; Lin, Hong-sheng


    The features and advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer comprehensive treatment have been in the spotlight of experts both at home and abroad. However, how to evaluate the effect of CM more objectively, scientifically and systematically is still the key problem of clinical trial, and also a limitation to the development and internationalization of CM oncology. The change of tumor response evaluation system in conventional medicine is gradually consistent with the features of CM clinical effect, such as they both focus on a combination of soft endpoints (i.e. quality of life, clinical benefit, etc.) and hard endpoints (i.e. tumor remission rate, time to progress, etc.). Although experts have proposed protocols of CM tumor response evaluation criteria and come to an agreement in general, divergences still exist in the importance, quantification and CM feature of the potential endpoints. Thus, establishing a CM characteristic and wildly accepted tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of CM oncology, and also provides a more convenient and scientific platform for CM international cooperation and communication.

  8. Effects of nicotinamide and carbogen on oxygenation in human tumor xenografts measured with luminescense based fiber-optic probes. (United States)

    Bussink, J; Kaanders, J H; Strik, A M; van der Kogel, A J


    In head and neck cancer, addition of both carbogen breathing and nicotinamide to accelerated fractionated radiotherapy showed increased loco-regional control rates. An assay based on the measurement of changes in tumor pO(2) in response to oxygenation modification could be helpful for selecting patients for these new treatment approaches. The fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device, OxyLite, was used to measure changes in pO(2), at a single position in tumors, after treatment with nicotinamide and carbogen in three human xenograft tumor lines with different vascular architecture and hypoxic patterns. Pimonidazole was used as a marker of hypoxia and was analyzed with a digital image processing system. At the position of pO(2) measurement, half of the tumors showed a local increase in pO(2) after nicotinamide administration. Steep increases in pO(2) were measured in most tumors during carbogen breathing although the increase was less pronounced in tumor areas with a low pre-treatment pO(2). A trend towards a faster local response to carbogen breathing for nicotinamide pre-treated tumors was found in all three lines. There were significant differences in hypoxic fractions, based on pimonidazole binding, between the three tumor lines. There was no correlation between hypoxic marker binding and the response to carbogen breathing. Temporal changes in local pO(2) can be measured with the OxyLite. This system was used to quantitate the effects of oxygen modifying treatments. Rapid increases in pO(2) during carbogen breathing were observed in most tumor areas. The locally measured response to nicotinamide was smaller and more variable. Bio-reductive hypoxic cell marker binding in combination with OxyLite pO(2) determination gives spatial information about the distribution patterns of tumor hypoxia at the microscopic level together with the possibility to continuously measure changes in pO(2) in specific tumor areas.

  9. Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches for the Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ciulla


    Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.

  10. Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches for the Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Tumors (United States)

    Ciulla, Carlo; Veljanovski, Dimitar; Rechkoska Shikoska, Ustijana; Risteski, Filip A.


    This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i) bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii) bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii) monovariate sinc, and (iv) bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i) classic-curvature, (ii) signal resilient to interpolation, (iii) intensity-curvature measure and (iv) intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i) the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii) the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional. PMID:26644943

  11. Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Alagaratnam, Sharmini


    , endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT...

  12. Bone Metastases in carcinoid tumors : Clinical features, imaging characteristics, and markers of bone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, WG; van der Veer, E; Jager, PL; van der Jagt, EJ; Piers, BA; Kema, IP; de Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB


    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of bone metastases in patients with carcinoid tumors and to determine the diagnostic value of imaging techniques and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on the entire group of patients with ca

  13. Electro-clinical characteristics and postoperative outcome of medically refractory tumoral temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Samhita


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Very few studies have specifically addressed surgical treatment and outcome of patients with tumor-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. AIM: To define the postoperative seizure outcome and the factors that influenced the outcome of patients with tumor-related TLE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected patients whose surgical pathology revealed a temporal lobe neoplasm and who had completed > 1 year of postoperative follow-up. We reviewed the clinical, EEG, radiological and pathological data, and the seizure outcome of these patients and assessed the factors that influenced the outcome. RESULTS: Out of the 409 patients who underwent surgery for refractory TLE during the 8-year study period, there were 34 (8.3% patients with temporal lobe neoplasms. The median age at surgery was 20 years and the median duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was 9.0 years. MRI revealed tumor in the mesial location in 21 (61.8% patients. Interictal and ictal epileptiform EEG abnormalities were localized to the side of th lesion in the majority. Mesial temporal lobe structures were included in the resection, if they were involved by the tumor; otherwise, lesionectomy alone was performed. During a median follow-up of 4 years, 27 (79% patients were completely seizure-free. The only factor that predicted long-term seizure-free outcome was being seizure-free during the first two postoperative years. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasize the fact that in patients with tumoral TLE, when the seizures are medically refractory, surgery offers potential for cure of epilepsy in the majority.

  14. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors: the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale. (United States)

    Goebel, Simone; Kaup, Lea; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian


    Preoperative anxiety is a major problem in patients with brain tumors and is of high clinical relevance. However, to date no instruments have been validated for the assessment of preoperative anxiety for this patient group. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) has shown promising results for the assessment of preoperative anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine its psychometric properties and the optimal cutoff score for patients with intracranial tumors to make it applicable in the neurosurgical setting. The sample totaled 180 neurosurgical patients with intracranial tumors. Patients were administered the APAIS along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as the gold standard against which the APAIS was compared. Patients scoring 11 or above in the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were defined as clinical cases having anxiety. The psychometric properties of the APAIS were evaluated for a postulated 2-factor structure, Cronbach α, and correlations. The postulated 2-factor structure could not be replicated. Instead, we found a 3-factor solution (anxiety about the operation, anxiety about the anesthesia, information requirement). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve ranged from ≥0.65 to ≥0.77. Optimal cutoff scores were calculated. The cutoff score for the anxiety scale was ≥10 for the whole sample and men only, and was ≥11 for women only. Analysis of the psychometric properties yielded satisfactory results (eg. Cronbach α for the anxiety scale >0.84). Despite its brevity, the APAIS is valid and recommendable for the assessment of preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors. As this is the first validation study focusing on patients with severe diseases and major surgeries, we recommend the application of our cutoff scores also for patients similar to our study population with regard to disease and surgery severity.

  15. Set of instruments for measuring the characteristics of optical waveguides in a production environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Svirid


    Full Text Available Developed a set of instruments, which includes instruments for measuring aperture characteristics of OB, OB dispersion characteristics and the loss agents. Considered applicable measurement methods, the design and specifications of the devices.

  16. Efficacy and toxicity in brain tumor treatment - quantitative Measurements using advanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Søren


    and are now being used for presurgical and radiation therapy (RT) planning. More advanced MRI sequences have gained attention. Sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have entered the clinical world concurrently......From the clinical introduction in the 1980s, MRI has grown to become an indispensable brain imaging modality, mainly due to its excellent ability to visualize soft tissues. Morphologically, T1- and T2-weighted brain tumor MRI have been part of routine diagnostic radiology for more than two decades...... with the introduction of magnets with higher field strength. Ongoing technical development has enabled a change from semiquantitative measurements to a true quantitative approach. This step is expected to have a great impact on the treatment of brain tumor patients in the future. The aim of this Ph.D. dissertation...

  17. Molecular characteristics of two esophageal carcinosarcomas: a hint for theclonality of carcinomatic and sarcomatic tumor components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MH Sun; G Mechtersheimer; P Moellera; CH Herfarth; MV Knebel Doeberitz; HK Scharkert; T Lehnert; J Gebert


    AIM To study the clonality of the esophageal carcinosarcoma by using molecular approaches.METHODS Two esophageal carcinosarcomas were included in the study. Tumor area from dysplasticlesion, squamout cell carcinoma, basaloid cell carcinoma and spindle cell elements were microdissectedseparately. Each element was analyzed with 14 microsatellite markers and direct sequenced for p53 gene andras gene mutation.RESULTS Both tumors displayed a typical histologic feature of carcinosarcoma. Both cases showed thedivergent differentiation by immunohistochemistry study. In case 1 the identical LOH at p53 and hMLH1 lociwas detected. The heterogenous LOH was detected only in carcinosarcoma at RB1 and BRCA1 loci, whilethe LOH at ACTC locus was seen only in sarcoma. The same mutation of the splice site of exon 6-intron 6displayed in the two tumor elements. In case 2, a coordinate LOH at RB locus was demonstrated in threetypes of tumor elements: sqamous carcinoma, basaloid carcinoma and spindle cell element. A heterogenousLOH was seen only in spindle cells at TAP1 locus. No mutation in exon 5-8 of p53 gene has been found incase 2. No mutation of K-ras gene was found.CONCLUSION Although the different differentiation, the two elements of esophageal carcinosarcoma mayhave a single clonality. The p53 gene mutation occurred before the two differentiation directions switched.The distinct molecular genotype can be determined through molecular biological analysis. The microsatelliteprofiling can serve as an approach to find out which genetic alteration occurs before or after thedifferentiation is determines.

  18. The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and Characteristics (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0707 TITLE: The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and...3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on...Accomplishments: Specific Aim 1: To demonstrate that differences in normal breast epithelial hierarchy between African American and Caucasian

  19. Early-Stage Breast Cancer in the Octogenarian: Tumor Characteristics, Treatment Choices, and Clinical Outcomes (United States)

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Herold, Christina I.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna


    Background Nodal staging with sentinel node biopsy (SLNB), post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (RT), and endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors is valuable in the treatment of early-stage (stages 1 or 2) breast cancer but used less often for elderly women. Methods This retrospective study investigated women referred for surgical evaluation of biopsy-proven primary early-stage invasive breast cancer from January 2001 to December 2010. Clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and outcomes for women ages 80–89 years and 50–59 years were compared. Results The study identified 178 eligible women ages 80–89 years and 169 women ages 50–59 years. The elderly women more often had grade 1 or 2 disease (p = 0.003) and ER+ tumors (p = 0.007) and less frequently had undergone adjuvant therapies (all p ≤ 0.001). Lumpectomy was performed more commonly for the elderly (92 vs. 83 %, p = 0.02), and axillary surgery was less commonly performed (46 vs. 96 %; p < 0.001). Fewer elderly women had undergone post-lumpectomy RT (42 vs. 89 %; p < 0.001) and ET for ER+ tumors (72 vs. 95 %; p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 56 months for the 80- to 89-year old group and 98 months for the 50- to 59-year-old group, death from breast cancer was similar (4 vs. 5 %; p = 0.5). The two groups respectively experienced 7 versus 6 locoregional recurrences and 11 versus 13 distant recurrences. Conclusions The octogenarians had disease survivorship similar to that of the younger women despite less frequent use of adjuvant therapies, likely reflecting lower-risk disease features. Whether increased use of axillary surgery, post-lumpectomy RT, and/or ET for ER+ tumors would further improve outcomes is an important area for further study, but treatment should not be deferred solely on the basis of age. PMID:27364507

  20. Development of a New Measurement for Team Communication Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Operating crew which includes senior reactor operator (SRO), reactor operator (RO), turbine operator (TO), electrical operator (EO) and shift supervisor (SS) performs a task in main control room (MCR) in nuclear power plant. To perform a task adequately, each operator should not only carry out individual.s task but also cooperate with other operators. In this paper, a new measurement method based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) and speech act coding scheme for team communication characteristics is developed. Social network analysis describes structure and patters of relationships, and seeks to understand both their causes and consequences. It has two types of models which constitutes of graph models and matrix models. In the case of graph models, members of the network are represented as points or nodes, with lines (an arrow for directed model) drawn between pairs of nodes to show a relationship between them. In the case of matrix model, it presents a network in the form of an array of units arranged in row and columns. The row represents network members and the columns represent the same set of members in identical sequence of affiliation which is associated with members. In a cell of matrix model, one represents relationship between members and zero means no relationship. As a speech act coding scheme is the classification system of language act types that are embodied to concretize it, the contents of conversation may be classified in each type and applied to many areas. Using speech act coding scheme, the value in the cell of the matrix model and intensity of line of the graph model is counted. When social network analysis is extended, more information can be obtained such as direct or indirect relationship, team cohesion, team coordination, clique and etc. In this study, team communication characteristics are obtained using social network analysis. When the upper and lower is same, there is indirect relationship between members otherwise there is direct

  1. ENABLE (Exportable Notation and Bookmark List Engine): an Interface to Manage Tumor Measurement Data from PACS to Cancer Databases. (United States)

    Goyal, Nikhil; Apolo, Andrea B; Berman, Eliana D; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Levine, Jason E; Glod, John W; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Machado, Laura B; Folio, Les R


    Oncologists evaluate therapeutic response in cancer trials based on tumor quantification following selected "target" lesions over time. At our cancer center, a majority of oncologists use Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 quantifying tumor progression based on lesion measurements on imaging. Currently, our oncologists handwrite tumor measurements, followed by multiple manual data transfers; however, our Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) (Carestream Health, Rochester, NY) has the ability to export tumor measurements, making it possible to manage tumor metadata digitally. We developed an interface, "Exportable Notation and Bookmark List Engine" (ENABLE), which produces prepopulated RECIST v1.1 worksheets and compiles cohort data and data models from PACS measurement data, thus eliminating handwriting and manual data transcription. We compared RECIST v1.1 data from eight patients (16 computed tomography exams) enrolled in an IRB-approved therapeutic trial with ENABLE outputs: 10 data fields with a total of 194 data points. All data in ENABLE's output matched with the existing data. Seven staff were taught how to use the interface with a 5-min explanatory instructional video. All were able to use ENABLE successfully without additional guidance. We additionally assessed 42 metastatic genitourinary cancer patients with available RECIST data within PACS to produce a best response waterfall plot. ENABLE manages tumor measurements and associated metadata exported from PACS, producing forms and data models compatible with cancer databases, obviating handwriting and the manual re-entry of data. Automation should reduce transcription errors and improve efficiency and the auditing process.

  2. Characteristics of liver on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging: Dynamic and image pathological investigation in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Jian-Bin Liu; Zhong He; Ke Jin; Cong Ma; Jun Xiang; Jian-Hun Xiao; Wei-Jian Chen


    AIM: To investigate dynamical and image pathological characteristics of the liver on magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the rabbit VX-2 tumor model.METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were included in the study and VX-2 tumor piece was implanted intrahepatically. Fifteen animals received two intrahepatic implantations while 25 had one intrahepatical implantation. DWI, T1-and T2-weighted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were carried out on the 7th and the 14th d after implantation and DWI was conducted, respectively on the 21th d. Ten VX-2 tumor samples were studied pathologically.RESULTS: The rate of lump detected by DWI, T1WI and T2WI was 78.7%,10.7% and 53.5% (χ2= 32.61, P<0.001) on the 7th d after implantation and 95.8%,54.3% and 82.9% (χ2= 21.50, P<0.001) on the 14th d. The signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI was uniform and it was equal on the map of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The signal of VX tumors did not decrease on the 7th d after implantation, most of them slowly growing during the week following implantation without significant cell dying within the tumor. VX-2 tumors grew increasingly within 14 d after implantation but the signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI or on the map of ADC was uniform or uneven and ADC of VX tumors decreased obscurely or slightly because tumor necrosis was still not obvious. On the 21th d after implantation, the signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI or on the map of ADC was uneven because tumor necrosis was evident and ADC of VX-2 tumor necrotic areas decreased. The areas of viable cells in VX-2 tumors manifested a high signal on DWI and a low signal on the map of ADC. The areas of dead cells or necrosis in VX-2 tumors manifested low signals on DWI and low, equal or high signals on the map of ADC but they manifested high signals on DWI and on the map of ADC at the same time when the areas of necrotic tumor became liquefied or cystic. The border of tumors on DWI appeared gradually distinct and

  3. [Pathological anatomical characteristics of Klatskin tumors. Classification, current molecular biological aspects, prognosis factors]. (United States)

    Munding, J; Tannapfel, A


    Klatskin tumors are a distinct subgroup of cholangiocarcinomas which are a surgical challenge due to their special localization. Different localizations do not show great differences concerning histomorphology and precursor lesions. With respect to molecular alterations there are only small differences. Accurate clinical and histomorphological diagnosis is important for therapy and especially the prediction of prognosis as well as standardized processing of the resection specimen if the carcinoma is resectable. Additionally, accurate lymph node dissection is necessary. Concerning molecular markers further investigations are needed to develop individualized therapy regimes.

  4. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, Stefanie; Heindel, Walter [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Referenzzentrum Mammographie Muenster, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Batzler, W.U. [Epidemiologisches Krebsregister, NRW (Germany); Decker, T. [Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie und Brust-Screening-Referenzpathologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Hense, H.W. [Inst. fuer Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany)


    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of {<=} 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  5. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji


    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  6. Clinicopathologic and Molecular Characteristics of Familial Cherubism with Associated Odontogenic Tumorous Proliferations. (United States)

    Argyris, Prokopios P; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Hu, Ying; Reichenberger, Ernst J; Koutlas, Ioannis G


    Cherubism is a rare autosomal dominant condition affecting the jaws and caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the adapter protein SH3BP2 that maps to chromosome 4p16.3. Cherubism is characterized by symmetrically developing bone lesions in the maxilla and mandible. The lesions have been radiographically and histopathologically well-described. Here, we present a family with cherubism with two of its members featuring odontogenic tumorous proliferations in association with persistent central giant cell lesions (CGCL). Specifically, the proband, a 25-year-old male, developed a radiolucent lesion characterized histologically by central odontogenic fibroma-like proliferation in association with a CGCL component, while his mother, at age 57, was diagnosed with primary intraosseous odontogenic carcinoma with areas of benign fibro-osseous lesions. In both patients the lesions occurred in the anterior mandible and presented with clinical enlargement. The son underwent incisional biopsy and did not have additional treatment. His mother underwent extensive mandibulectomy due to widespread tumor. The son has two affected children with classic cherubism while a third child at age 5, had not shown any features of the disease. Mutation analysis of three affected members resulted in the identification of a heterozygous mutation in SH3BP2 (c.1244G>C; p.Arg415Pro). To the best of our knowledge, association of cherubism with odontogenic neoplastic lesions has hitherto not been reported in the literature, thus suggesting a relationship between cherubism with disturbed odontogenesis.

  7. Alpha shape theory for 3D visualization and volumetric measurement of brain tumor progression using magnetic resonance images. (United States)

    Hamoud Al-Tamimi, Mohammed Sabbih; Sulong, Ghazali; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi


    Resection of brain tumors is a tricky task in surgery due to its direct influence on the patients' survival rate. Determining the tumor resection extent for its complete information via-à-vis volume and dimensions in pre- and post-operative Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) requires accurate estimation and comparison. The active contour segmentation technique is used to segment brain tumors on pre-operative MR images using self-developed software. Tumor volume is acquired from its contours via alpha shape theory. The graphical user interface is developed for rendering, visualizing and estimating the volume of a brain tumor. Internet Brain Segmentation Repository dataset (IBSR) is employed to analyze and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of tumor volume. Accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the estimated volume using the proposed method with that of gold-standard. Segmentation by active contour technique is found to be capable of detecting the brain tumor boundaries. Furthermore, the volume description and visualization enable an interactive examination of tumor tissue and its surrounding. Admirable features of our results demonstrate that alpha shape theory in comparison to other existing standard methods is superior for precise volumetric measurement of tumor.

  8. Improvement of Parameter Estimations in Tumor Growth Inhibition Models on Xenografted Animals: Handling Sacrifice Censoring and Error Caused by Experimental Measurement on Larger Tumor Sizes. (United States)

    Pierrillas, Philippe B; Tod, Michel; Amiel, Magali; Chenel, Marylore; Henin, Emilie


    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of censoring due to animal sacrifice on parameter estimates and tumor volume calculated from two diameters in larger tumors during tumor growth experiments in preclinical studies. The type of measurement error that can be expected was also investigated. Different scenarios were challenged using the stochastic simulation and estimation process. One thousand datasets were simulated under the design of a typical tumor growth study in xenografted mice, and then, eight approaches were used for parameter estimation with the simulated datasets. The distribution of estimates and simulation-based diagnostics were computed for comparison. The different approaches were robust regarding the choice of residual error and gave equivalent results. However, by not considering missing data induced by sacrificing the animal, parameter estimates were biased and led to false inferences in terms of compound potency; the threshold concentration for tumor eradication when ignoring censoring was 581, but the true value was 240


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina


    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina


    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  11. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance using quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the preoperative evaluation of tumor grade in cerebral gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres, E-mail: [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal and University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, NO-0407 Oslo (Norway); Kulle, Bettina, E-mail: [Department of Biostatistics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Gadmar, Oystein B., E-mail: [Interventional Centre, Oslo University Hospital and Institute for Hospital Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Nakstad, Per H., E-mail: [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal and University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, NO-0407 Oslo (Norway)


    Purpose: Tumor grading is very important both in treatment decision and evaluation of prognosis. While tissue samples are obtained as part of most therapeutic approaches, factors that may result in inaccurate grading due to sampling error (namely, heterogeneity in tissue sampling, as well as tumor-grade heterogeneity within the same tumor specimen), have led to a desire to use imaging better to ascertain tumor grade. The purpose in our study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under the curve (AUC), and accuracy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) or both in grading primary cerebral gliomas. Materials and methods: We performed conventional MR imaging (MR), DWI, and MRSI in 74 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas: 37 glioblastomas multiform (GBM) and 22 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 15 patients had low-grade gliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC in tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, as well as ADC in tumor to ADC in peritumoral edema) were determined from three regions of interest. The average of the mean, maximum, and minimum for ADC variables was calculated for each patient. The metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at intermediate TE were assessed from spectral maps in the solid portion of tumor, peritumoral edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Tumor grade determined with the two methods was then compared with that from histopathologic grading. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine optimum thresholds for tumor grading. Measures of diagnostic examination performance, such as sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, AUC, and accuracy for identifying high-grade gliomas were also calculated

  12. Measuring the Frequency Occurrence of Handwriting and Handprinting Characteristics. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark E; Vastrick, Thomas W; Boulanger, Michèle; Schuetzner, Ellen


    The premise of this study was to take a valid population sampling of handwriting and handprinting and assess how many times each of the predetermined characteristic is found in the samples. Approximately 1500 handwriting specimens were collected from across the United States and pared to obtain a representative sample of the U.S. adult population according to selected demographics based on age, sex, ethnicity, handedness, education level, and location of lower-grade school education. This study has been able to support a quantitative assessment of extrinsic and intrinsic effects in handwriting and handprinting for the six subgroups. Additional results include analyses of the interdependence of characteristics. This study found that 98.55% of handprinted characteristics and 97.39% of cursive characteristics had an independence correlation of under 0.2. The conclusions support use of the product rule in general, but with noted caveats. Finally, this study provides frequency occurrence proportions for 776 handwriting and handprinting characteristics. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Radiolabeled red blood cells for the direct measurement of the blood flow kinetics in experimental tumors after photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Paquette, Benoit; Rousseau, Jacques; Ouellet, Rene; van Lier, Johan E.


    Red blood cells from BALB/c mice were labeled with short-lived (gamma) -emitting 99mTc and injected in EMT-6 tumor-bearing animals as a probe for the blood circulation. 99mTc-concentrations in light-exposed versus non-treated tumors were established for different photosensitizers at various dye doses and time intervals post-photodynamic therapy. At minimal dye doses for tumor cure, Photofrin IITM induced a doubling of the tumor radioactivity within the first hour post-PDT, followed by a marked decrease in the 99mTc-concentration at 24 hours post PDT. This pattern is characteristic of extensive hemorrhage followed by occlusion of the blood vessels. Under similar conditions the mono- and tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanines induced tumor response without prolonged effects on the tumor radioactivity levels. Accordingly, with the latter sensitizers, indirect cell kill via obstruction of the blood supply does not appear to constitute a major factor in eliciting a tumor response.

  14. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine sulfate liposomes in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao YAN; Zhong-ling ZHU; Zheng-zi QIAN; Ge HU; Hua-qing WANG; Wan-hui LIU; Guang CHENG


    Aim:To evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of vincristine sulfate liposomes (VSLI) in patients with advanced solid tumors.Methods:In single-dose pharmacokinetic study,16 patients were administered VSLI (1.5,2.0,or 2.3 mg.m-2) through intravenous infusion.Another 6 patients receiving vincristine sulfate (VCR,2.0 mg) were taken as the control.In multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study,12 patients were administered VSLI (1.5 or 1.8 mg.m-2) through intravenous infusion weekly for 4 consecutive weeks.The plasma concentration of VSLI was determined using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method.Results:After intravenous infusion of the single dose of VSLI,the plasma concentrations were characterized by bi-exponential decline curves.No statistically significant differences were observed between the main pharmacokinetic parameters in the 3 dose groups.Compared with the patients receiving VCR,the patients treated with VSLI displayed an increase in the area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC),and a decrease in plasma clearance rates.On the 4th cycle in the multiple-dose study,the plasma concentration of VCR in all subjects prior to the weekly administration was below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ).The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters from the subjects in the multiple-and single-dose (1.5 mgm-2) groups had no significant differences.Although the administration of liposomal VCR may significantly elevate the plasma concentration of VCR,VSLI-associated adverse events were similar to those associated with conventional VCR.Conclusion:VSLI exhibits a lower clearance and a higher AUC compared with conventional VCR.No accumulation was observed in patients exposed to VSLI for 4 consecutive weeks.VSLI was generally tolerated in the subjects.The phase Ⅱ dose of VSLI may be recommended as 4 doses of 1.5 mg·m-2 for treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors.

  15. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Their Characteristics and Their Roles in Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga


    Full Text Available Cancer tissues are composed of cancer cells and the surrounding stromal cells (e.g., fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and immune cells, in addition to the extracellular matrix. Most studies investigating carcinogenesis and the progression, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of cancer have focused on alterations in cancer cells, including genetic and epigenetic changes. Recently, interactions between cancer cells and the stroma have attracted considerable attention, and increasing evidence has accumulated on this. Several researchers have gradually clarified the origins, features, and roles of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, a major component of the cancer stroma. CAFs function in a similar manner to myofibroblasts during wound healing. We previously reported the relationship between CAFs and angiogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a central role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses, and important roles in the progression, including proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, of several cancers. We showed that CAFs are an important IL-6 source and that anti-IL-6 receptor antibody suppressed angiogenesis and inhibited tumor-stroma interactions. Furthermore, CAFs contribute to drug-resistance acquisition in cancer cells. The interaction between cancer cells and the stroma could be a potential target for anti-cancer therapy.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of the Characteristics of Stromal and Parenchymal Components of Colon Tumors (United States)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Shulha, A. V.; Maskevich, S. A.


    We consider the dependence of the spectral properties of eosin and hematoxylin (dyes routinely used in histology as contrast agents) on their localization in biological tissues with different levels of pathology: benign and malignant neoplasms and sigmoid colonic crypts. We have analyzed the fluorescent images and fluorescence spectra of the parenchyma and stromal elements. We have established that on going from physiologically normal cells to tumor cells, the contribution to the absorption cross section of histologic sections due to hematoxylin increases. In pathologically altered cells in a colonic crypt, we observe a hypsochromic effect in the fluorescence spectra of the samples with appreciable quenching of the fluorescence, while in the model systems the reverse effect occurs: a shift of the fluorescence maximum toward the red region. We discuss the influence on the indicated effects from local pH and the polarity of the dye environment in the model systems and histologic sections. As the systems modeling the polarity and acidity of the biological media, we use aqueous solutions of the dyes with different pH values and synthetic polyelectrolytes.

  17. Tumor characteristics and the clinical outcome of invasive lobular carcinoma compared to infiltrating ductal carcinoma in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao A-Yong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to compare the baseline demographics, standard pathologic factors and long-term clinical outcomes between ILC and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC using a large database. Methods Clinicopathologic features, overall survival (OS, and recurrence/metastasis-free survival (RFS were compared between 2,202 patients with IDC and 215 patients with ILC. Results ILC was significantly more likely to be associated with a favorable phenotype, but the incidence of contralateral breast cancer was higher for ILC patients than for IDC patients (8.4% vs. 3.9%; P =0.001. The frequencies of recurrence/metastasis (P = 0.980 and death (P = 0.064 were similar among patients with IDC and patients with ILC after adjustment for tumor size and nodal status. The median follow-up was 42.8 months. Conclusions Chinese women with ILCs do not have better clinical outcomes than their counterparts with IDC. Management decisions should be based on individual patient and tumor biologic characteristics, and not on lobular histology.

  18. Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus:Assessment Based on Clinical and Computer Tomography Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC complicated by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT have an extremely poor prognosis. It is important to select adequate therapeutic options based on reliable prognostic factors using imaging studies and clinical data. Prognostic factors were analyzed in patients with HCC with PVTT in the first branch or main trunk of the portal vein. From 2000 to 2007, 107 consecutive patients with HCC with PVTT in the major portal vein were reviewed, and diagnostic images and clinical characteristics were retrospectively observed. Thirty-eight possible prognostic factors for survival were analyzed by the log-rank test and multivariate analysis using Coxʼs proportional hazards model. Median overall survival was 14 months following PVTT diagnosis. Survival rates at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years were 72.1%, 52.6%, 32.6%, and 29.6%, respectively. Independent prognostic factors for longer survival included:patient age <65 years, Child-Pugh classification A/B, PVTT treatment, accumulation of Lipiodol in the PVTT after TACE, initial radical treatment for HCC, HCC located in a single lobe of the liver, and no invasion of HCC to the hepatic vein or bile duct. Survival was associated with liver function, tumor extension, and treatment for HCC and PVTT.

  19. Quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids, DNA, CD45 and cytokeratin for circulating tumor cell identification in a model system (United States)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A.


    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) identification has applications in both early detection and monitoring of solid cancers. The rarity of CTCs, expected at ~1-50 CTCs per million nucleated blood cells (WBCs), requires identifying methods based on biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for accurate identification. Discovery of biomarkers with ever higher sensitivity and specificity to CTCs is always desirable to potentially find more CTCs in cancer patients thus increasing their clinical utility. Here, we investigate quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids with the biomarker panel of DNA, Cytokeratin (CK), and CD45 commonly used to identify CTCs. We engineered a device for labeling suspended cell samples with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. We used it to prepare samples for 4 channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total data acquired at high resolution from one sample is ~ 1.3 GB. We developed software to perform the automated segmentation of these images into regions of interest (ROIs) containing individual cells. We quantified image features of total signal, spatial second moment, spatial frequency second moment, and their product for each ROI. We performed measurements on pure WBCs, cancer cell line MCF7 and mixed samples. Multivariable regressions and feature selection were used to determine combination features that are more sensitive and specific than any individual feature separately. We also demonstrate that computation of spatial characteristics provides higher sensitivity and specificity than intensity alone. Statistical models allowed quantification of the required sensitivity and specificity for detecting small levels of CTCs in a human blood sample.

  20. Geometric characteristics of clouds from ceilometer measurements and radiosounding methods


    Costa Surós, Montse


    Improving methods for automatic and continuous description of cloud has a huge importance in order to determine the role of clouds in climate and their contribution to climate change. The geometric characteristics of clouds, such as the cloud cover and the cloud vertical structure (CVS), including the cloud base height (CBH) which is linked to cloud type, are very important for describing the impact clouds have on the atmosphere. It is presented a complete study of the cloud cover and the...

  1. Measurements, characteristics, and origin of new electromagnetic interference on magnetocardiographic measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hong-Fang; Cai Wen-Yan; Wei Yu-Ke; Liu Zheng-Hao; Wang Qian; Wang Yue; Dai Yuan-Dong; Ma Ping


    In order to eliminate the influence of the large-amplitude magnetic field noise that has complicated magnetocardiographic studies since October 2009,we have performed high-accuracy measurement of the environmental magnetic field noise in the vicinity of Beijing Subway Line 4 using a three-component height Tc radio frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).By analysing the spatial form and other characteristics of the time and the frequency domains and by calculating the circumferential magnetic field distribution based on a duel-end feeding system model,we reach the following conclusions:(i) the main source of magnetic field noise is the magnetic field generated by the subway trains,and (ii) the magnetic field interference results mainly from the imbalance between traction current and return rail current that is caused by the leakage current.

  2. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of radiation therapy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Shang, Yu; Li, Xingzhe; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang


    Radiation therapy is a principal modality for head and neck cancers and its efficacy depends on tumor hemodynamics. Our laboratory developed a hybrid diffuse optical instrument allowing for simultaneous measurements of tumor blood flow and oxygenation. In this study, the clinically involved cervical lymph node was monitored by the hybrid instrument once a week over the treatment period of seven weeks. Based on treatment outcomes within one year, patients were classified into a complete response group (CR) and an incomplete response group (IR) with remote metastasis and/or local recurrence. A linear mixed models was used to compare tumor hemodynamic responses to the treatment between the two groups. Interestingly, we found that human papilloma virus (HPV-16) status largely affected tumor hemodynamic responses. For HPV-16 negative tumors, significant differences in blood flow index (BFI, p = 0.007) and reduced scattering coefficient (μs', p = 0.0005) were observed between the two groups; IR tumors exhibited higher μs' values and a continuous increase in BFI over the treatment period. For HPV-16 positive tumors, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) were significant different (p = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively); IR group showed lower [HbO2] and StO2. Our results imply HPV-16 negative tumors with higher density of vasculature (μs') and higher blood flow show poor responses to radiotherapy and HPV-16 positive tumors with lower tissue oxygenation level (lower StO2 and [HbO2]) exhibit poor treatment outcomes. Our diffuse optical measurements show the great potential for early prediction of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers.

  3. Non-thermal ablation of rabbit liver VX2 tumor by pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound with ultrasound contrast agent: Pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Zhou; Fa-Qi Li; Yan Qin; Chun-Mei Liu; Xiao-Lin Zheng; Zhi-Biao Wang


    AIM:To investigate the pathological characteristics of non-thermal damage induced by pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (PHIFU) combined with ultrasound contrast agent (UCA),SonoVue (Bracco SpA,Milan,Italy) in rabbit liver VX2 tumor.METHODS:Liver VX2 tumor models were established in 20 rabbits,which were divided randomly into PHIFU combined with ultrasound contrast agent group (PHIFU + UCA group) and sham group.In the PHIFU + UCA group,0.2 mL of SonoVue was injected intravenously into the tumor,followed by ultrasound exposure of Isp 5900 W/cm2.The rabbits were sacrificed one day after ultrasound exposure.Specimens of the exposed tumor tissues were obtained and observed pathologically under light microscope and transmission electron microscope.The remaining tumor tissues were sent for 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining.RESULTS:Before TTC staining,tumor tissues in both the sham and the PHIFU + UCA groups resembled gray fish meat.After TTC staining,the tumor tissues were uniformly stained red,with a clear boundary between tumor tissue and normal tissue.Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in PHIFU + UCA group,with cytoplasmic vacuoles of various sizes,chromatin margination and karyopyknosis.Electron microscopic examination revealed tumor cell volume reduction,karyopyknosis,chromatin margination,intercellular space widening,the presence of high electron-density apoptotic bodies and vacuoles in cytoplasm.CONCLUSION:The non-thermal effects of PHIFU combined with UCA can be used to ablate rabbit liver VX2 tumors.

  4. Peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors: differences in diffusion characteristics evaluated with diffusion-tensor MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Cheng-Hong; Wong, Alex M.-C; Wong, Ho-Fai; Wan, Yung-Liang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Wei, Kuo-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Molecular Image Center, Tao-Yuan (China)


    We prospectively compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained. Preoperative diffusion-tensor MR imaging was performed in 15 patients with meningiomas and 11 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the contralateral hemisphere to measure the FA and MD. The FA and MD ratios were calculated for each ROI in relation to the NAWM of the contralateral hemisphere. Changes in peritumoral MD and FA, in terms of primary values and ratios, were compared using a two-sample t-test; P < 0.05 was taken as indicating statistical significance. The mean MD values (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) of the peritumoral edema for metastases and meningiomas, respectively, were 0.902 {+-} 0.057 and 0.820 {+-} 0.094, the mean MD ratios were 220.3 {+-} 22.6 and 193.1 {+-} 23.4, the mean FA values were 0.146 {+-} 0.026 and 0.199 {+-} 0.052, and the mean FA ratios were 32.3 {+-} 5.9 and 46.0 {+-} 12.1. All the values were significantly different between metastases and meningiomas (MD values P = 0.016, MD ratios P = 0.006, FA values P = 0.005, FA ratios P = 0.002). The peritumoral edema of metastatic brain tumors and meningiomas show different MD and FA on diffusion-tensor MR imaging. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of shielding characteristics in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Shin; Sasaki, Kenji; Deshimaru, Takehide; Nakashima, Fumiaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)


    In the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju, shielding measurements were made around the reactor core, the primary heat transport system (PHTS), and the fuel handling and storage system during the system start-up tests at different power levels between 0% and 45%. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the margins by which the shielding performance exceeds the original design requirements, to demonstrate the validity of the shielding analysis method, and to acquire basic data for use in future FBR design. This paper summarizes the important features of the Monju shielding structures and the shielding measurement. (author)

  6. Measuring directional characteristics of in-ear recording devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Hammershøi, Dorte


    With the availability of small in-ear headphones and miniature microphones it is possible to construct combined in-ear devices for binaural recording and playback. When mounting a microphone on the outside of an insert earphone the microphone position deviates from ideal positions in the ear canal....... The pinna and thereby also the natural sound transmission are altered by the inserted device. This paper presents a methodology for accurately measuring the directional dependent transfer functions of such in-ear devices. Pilot measurements on a commercial available device are presented and possibilities...

  7. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S


    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  8. Influence of test and person characteristics on nonparametric appropriateness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    Appropriateness measurement in nonparametric item response theory modeling is affected by the reliability of the items, the test length, the type of aberrant response behavior, and the percentage of aberrant persons in the group. The percentage of simulees defined a priori as aberrant responders tha

  9. Influence of Test and Person Characteristics on Nonparametric Appropriateness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R; Molenaar, Ivo W; Sijtsma, Klaas


    Appropriateness measurement in nonparametric item response theory modeling is affected by the reliability of the items, the test length, the type of aberrant response behavior, and the percentage of aberrant persons in the group. The percentage of simulees defined a priori as aberrant responders tha

  10. The "Test of Financial Literacy": Development and Measurement Characteristics (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Rebeck, Ken


    The "Test of Financial Literacy" (TFL) was created to measure the financial knowledge of high school students. Its content is based on the standards and benchmarks stated in the "National Standards for Financial Literacy" (Council for Economic Education 2013). The test development process involved extensive item writing and…

  11. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan;


    Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage characteris...

  12. A pilot study of the prognostic significance of metabolic tumor size measurements in PET/CT imaging of lymphomas (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Botsivali, Maria; Politis, Nikolaos; Menychtas, Dimitrios; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Chatziioannou, Sofia


    This study explores changes in metabolic tumor volume, metabolic tumor diameter, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), for earlier and more accurate identification of lymphomas' response to treatment using 18F- FDG PET/CT. Pre- and post-treatment PET/CT studies of 20 patients with Hodgkin disease (HL) and 7 patients with non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were retrospectively selected for this study. The diameter and volume of the metabolic tumor was determined by an in-house developed adaptive local thresholding technique based on a 50% threshold of the maximum pixel value within a region. Statistical analysis aimed at exploring associations between metabolic size measurements and SUVmax and the ability of the three biomarkers to predict the patients' response to treatment as defined by the four classes in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) guidelines. Results indicated moderate correlations between % change in metabolic tumor volume and % change in metabolic tumor maximum diameter (R=0.51) and between % change in maximum diameter and % change in SUVmax (R=0.52). The correlation between % change in tumor volume and % change in SUVmax was weak (R=0.24). The % change in metabolic tumor size, either volume or diameter, was a "very strong" predictor of response to treatment (R=0.89), stronger than SUVmax (R=0.63). In conclusion, metabolic tumor volume could have important prognostic value, possibly higher than maximum metabolic diameter or SUVmax that are currently the standard of practice. Volume measurements, however, should be based on robust and standardized segmentation methodologies to avoid variability. In addition, SUV-peak or lean body mass corrected SUV-peak may be a better PET biomarker than SUVmax when SUV-volume combinations are considered.

  13. Measurements of the $^{12}$C Ion Beam Microdosimetric Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Molokanov, A G


    The results of experimental studies of the $^{12}$C ion beam with the primary energy of 500 MeV/amu from the JINR Nuclotron are presented. Depth-dose distributions have been measured by means of a diamond detector. The spectra of the linear energy transfer (LET) were studied at various beam penetration depths at several points from the beam entrance up to the region behind the Bragg peak by means of chemically etched track detectors. The track parameters were measured by means of an automatic optical image analyzer LUCIA-G based on a Leitz microscope. The value of the relative biological weighted effectiveness (RBWE), characterizing the value of the RBE during tumours radiotherapy, was calculated from the measured LET spectra on the basis of a biological weighting function. RBWE increases with the depth in the phantom, reaching the maximum value of about 3 just before the Bragg peak. Afterwards it decreases rather rapidly, which is to be considered when extended tumours are to be treated.

  14. A digital oscilloscope setup for the measurement of a transistor's characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    de Buyl, Pierre


    The measure of the characteristics of a transistor is an important step in an introductory electronics course. We propose to use a digital oscilloscope with a USB connection to perform a measurement of the characteristic curves with no additional custom circuitry. The setup is presented alongside with code that allows the importation and analysis of the results with open-source software.

  15. Eddy covariance measurements in screenhouses: turbulence characteristics and flux gradients (United States)

    Dicken, U.; Cohen, S.; Tanny, J.


    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is popular in arid and semi-arid regions for decreasing water use and increasing fruit quality. However, crop water use within this unique environment is much less studied than for canopies in the open. Previous studies of our research group have established the use of the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique for reliable evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux measurements within screenhouses. These studies focused on operating conditions of the system. The present paper is a comprehensive study which examined the performance of the EC system in different types of screenhouses (shading and insect-proof), different crops (banana and pepper) at different development stages (small and large plants) and different climatic regions in Israel. The main goal was to establish guidelines for optimal application of the EC technique in screenhouses. The research consisted of 6 field campaigns: in 3 campaigns two EC systems were simultaneously deployed either vertically or horizontally, and in 3 other campaigns a single EC system was deployed at one measurement height. EC systems were deployed at different normalized system heights, Zs, which define the relative measurement heights within the air gap between the canopy top and the horizontal screened roof. System performance was examined using quality tests like energy balance closure, flux variance similarity, friction velocity, footprint modeling, energy spectrum, turbulence intensity and vertical and horizontal flux gradient analyses. Resulting energy balance closure slopes averaged 0.81±0.08 and 0.91±0.08 for the smaller and larger plants, respectively. Turbulent flows were found to be marginally developed within the air gap between the top of the plants and the horizontal screened roof. Turbulence intensity, flux variance similarity test, energy spectrum decay rate and friction velocity were essentially independent of the measurement height and were within the common range

  16. Comparison of Lumipulse® G1200 with Kryptor and Modular E170 for the measurement of 7 tumor markers


    Marlet, Julien; Bernard, Maguy


    "This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: "Comparison of LUMIPULSE® G1200 With Kryptor and Modular E170 for the Measurement of Seven Tumor Markers", which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."; Background: Tumor marker measurements are becoming essential for prognosis and follow-up of patien...

  17. In Vivo Measurements of Tumor Metabolism and Growth after Administration of Enzastaurin Using Small Animal FDG Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Pollok


    Full Text Available Background. The use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG may help to establish the antitumor activity of enzastaurin, a novel protein kinase C-beta II (PKC-II inhibitor, in mouse xenografts. Methods. The hematologic cell line RAJI and the solid tumor cell line U87MG were each implanted in NOD/SCID mice. Standard tumor growth measurements and [18F]FDG PET imaging were performed weekly for up to three weeks after tumor implantation and growth. Results. Concomitant with caliper measurements, [18F]FDG PET imaging was performed to monitor glucose metabolism. Heterogeneity of glucose uptake in various areas of the tumors was observed after vehicle or enzastaurin treatment. This heterogeneity may limit the use of [18F]FDG PET imaging to measure enzastaurin-associated changes in xenograft tumors. Conclusion. [18F]FDG PET imaging technique does not correlate with standard caliper assessments in xenografts to assess the antitumor activity of enzastaurin. Future studies are needed to determine the use of [18F]FDG PET imaging in preclinical models.

  18. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imel, Erik A; Peacock, Munro; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit


    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tumors...

  19. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi


    Full Text Available Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from an Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi Russia are analyzed. Source region effects on particle modal features, and number and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February–March of 1.72–2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June of 0.42 μg m-3 and in September–October of 0.36–0.57 μg m-3. These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated aerosol sources such as Arctic haze in early spring which increases accumulation and coarse mode numbers, and biogenic emissions in summer which affects the smaller, nucleation and Aitken mode particles. The impact of temperature dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant. Therefore, in addition to the precursor emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, the frequent Siberian forest fires, although far are suggested to play a role in Arctic aerosol composition during the warmest months. During calm and cold months aerosol concentrations were occasionally increased by nearby aerosol sources in trapping inversions. These results provide valuable information on inter-annual cycles and sources of Arctic aerosols.

  20. A new instrument for high statistics measurement of photomultiplier characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, C; Costa, M; Di Capua, F; Kulikovskiy, V; Mele, R; Migliozzi, P; Mollo, C M; Pellegrino, C; Riccobene, G; Vivolo, D


    Since the early days of experimental particle physics photomultipliers (PMTs) have played an important role in the detector design. Thanks to their capability of fast photon counting, PMTs are extensively used in the new-generation of astroparticle physics experiments, such as air, ice and water Cherenkov detectors. The use of PMTs of 3-inches or smaller diameter was made possible thanks to the capability of building detectors with large photocathode area distributed in a sustainable number of channels. Small size PMTs ($\\leq$ 3-inches) show little sensitivity to the Earth magnetic field, small transit time, stable transit time spread; the price per photocathode area is less comparing to the one for the large area PMTs, typically used so far in such applications. In this paper we report on the design and performance of a new instrument for mass characterisation of PMTs (from 1-inch to 3-inch size), capable to calibrate hundreds of PMTs per day and provide measurements of dark counts, signal amplitude, late-, ...

  1. PIV measurements and flow characteristics downstream of mangrove root models (United States)

    Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Curet, Oscar


    Mangrove forests attracted attentions as a solution to protect coastal areas exposed to sea-level rising, frequent storms, and tsunamis. Mangrove forests found in tide-dominated flow regions are characterized by their massive and complex root systems, which play a prominent role in the structure of tidal flow currents. To understand the role of mangrove roots in flow structure, we modeled mangrove roots with rigid and flexible arrays of cylinders with different spacing between them as well as different configurations. In this work, we investigate the fluid dynamics downstream of the models using a 2-D time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. We carried out experiments for four different Reynolds number based on cylinder diameters ranges from 2200 to 12000. We present time-averaged and time-resolved flow parameters including velocity distribution, vorticity, streamline, Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy. The results show that the flow structure has different vortex shedding downstream of the cylinders due to interactions of shear layers separating from cylinders surface. The spectral analysis of the measured velocity data is also performed to obtain Strouhal number of the unsteady flow in the cylinder wake.

  2. Biomass-burning particle measurements: Characteristic composition and chemical processing (United States)

    Hudson, Paula K.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Thomson, David S.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Warneke, Carsten; Holloway, John; Jost, Hans-Jürg; Hübler, Gerd


    The NOAA Lockheed Orion WP-3D aircraft intercepted a forest fire plume over Utah on 19 May 2002 during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission. Large enhancements in acetonitrile (CH3CN), carbon monoxide (CO) and particle number were measured during the fire plume interception. In the 100 s plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra from ionizing single particles in the 0.2-5 μm size range. These particles contained carbon, potassium, organics, and ammonium ions. No pure soot particles were sampled directly from the plume. By characterizing these particle mass spectra, a qualitative biomass-burning particle signature was developed that was then used to identify biomass-burning particles throughout ITCT. The analysis was extended to identify biomass-burning particles in four other missions, without the benefit of gas-phase biomass-burning tracers. During ITCT, approximately 33% of the particles sampled in the North American troposphere and 37% of the particles transported from Asia, not influenced by North American sources, were identified as biomass-burning particles. During the WB-57 Aerosol Mission (WAM), Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions near the Tropopause (ACCENT) and ACCENT 2000 missions, 7% of stratospheric particles were identified as biomass-burning particles. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) this percentage increased to 52% because the regional stratosphere was strongly affected by an active fire season.

  3. Measuring melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes elicited by dendritic cell vaccines with a tumor inhibition assay in vitro. (United States)

    Paczesny, Sophie; Shi, Honhgzhen; Saito, Hiroaki; Mannoni, Patrice; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A Karolina


    Improving cancer vaccines depends on assays measuring elicited tumor-specific T-cell immunity. Cytotoxic effector cells are essential for tumor clearance and are commonly evaluated using 51Cr release from labeled target cells after a short (4 hours) incubation with T cells. The authors used a tumor inhibition assay (TIA) that assesses the capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to control the survival/growth of EGFP-labeled tumor cell lines. TIA was validated using CD8+ T cells primed in vitro against melanoma and breast cancer cells. TIA was then used to assess the CTL function of cultured CD8+ T cells isolated from patients with metastatic melanoma who underwent vaccination with peptide-pulsed CD34+ HPCs-derived DCs. After the DC vaccination, T cells from six of eight patients yielded CTLs that could inhibit the survival/growth of melanoma cells. The results of TIA correlated with killing of tumor cells in a standard 4-hour 51Cr release assay, yet TIA allowed detection of CTL activities that appeared marginal in the 51Cr release assay. Thus, TIA might prove valuable for measuring spontaneous and induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells.

  4. Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermolenko Ia. O.


    Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.

  5. In vivo measurement of epidermal thickness changes associated with tumor promotion in murine models (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Gladish, James C.; Thuillier, Philippe; Jacques, Steven L.


    The characterization of tissue morphology in murine models of pathogenesis has traditionally been carried out by excision of affected tissues with subsequent immunohistological examination. Excision-based histology provides a limited two-dimensional presentation of tissue morphology at the cost of halting disease progression at a single time point and sacrifice of the animal. We investigate the use of noninvasive reflectance mode confocal scanning laser microscopy (rCSLM) as an alternative tool to biopsy in documenting epidermal hyperplasia in murine models exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). An automated technique utilizing average axial rCSLM reflectance profiles is used to extract epidermal thickness values from rCSLM data cubes. In comparisons to epidermal thicknesses determined from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, we find no significant correlation to rCSLM-derived thickness values. This results from method-specific artifacts: physical alterations of tissue during H&E preparation in standard histology and specimen-induced abberations in rCSLM imaging. Despite their disagreement, both histology and rCSLM methods reliably measure statistically significant thickness changes in response to TPA exposure. Our results demonstrate that in vivo rCSLM imaging provides epithelial biologists an accurate noninvasive means to monitor cutaneous pathogenesis.

  6. Noninvasive Measurement of Perfusion in Rabbit VX2 Tumors Using Flow sensitive Alternting Inversing Recovery with an Extra Radiofrequency Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction:MR arterial spin-labeling technique is useful to measure tissue perfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a novel arterial spin-labeling technique to characterize regions of hyper and hypovascularity in experimental tumors in rabbits.

  7. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjaer; Binderup, Tina;


    and reproducible measures of tumor size in mice compared with caliper measurements. Furthermore, we evaluated the accuracy of tumor volume determined from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET. METHODS: Subcutaneously implanted human breast adenocarcinoma cells in NMRI nude mice served as tumor model. Tumor volume...... systematic bias compared to reference volume. Coefficients of variation for intra-observer variation were 7% and 14% for microCT and caliper measurements, respectively. Regression coefficients between observers were 0.97 for microCT and 0.91 for caliper measurements. CONCLUSION: MicroCT was more accurate...

  8. Prognositic factors and clinicopathologic characteristics of small gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach:a retrospective analysis of 31 cases in one center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Huang; Yuan Li; Hong Zhao; Jian-Jun Zhao; Jian-Qiang Cai


    Objective:To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of small gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach. Methods:A total of 31 small gastric GIST patients, including 10 males and 21 females, with a median age of 58 years (37-81 years), who underwent surgery at any time from 1999 to 2012 were included in this study. The clinical records of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results:Abdominal discomfort and pain (10 cases, 32.3%, respectively) were the two most common complaints among the patients. All patients received surgery, 11 received gastric wedge resection, 11 received subtotal gastrectomy, 5 received laparoscopic gastric wedge resection, and 4 received endoscopic submucosal dissection. No severe adverse complication was observed. A total of 29 patients (93.5%) were followed up. During the follow-up, 2 patients were found to exhibit tumor recurrence, and 1 patient had liver metastases. One patient died of tumor progression, while another died of another malignant tumor. Median progression free survival (PFS) time was 120.3 months, and median overall survival (OS) time was 130.4 months. Conclusion:Small gastric GIST has better prognosis. Surgery is the best choice for therapy. Micro-invasive procedures are safe and effective for elective patients. Tumor necrosis, tumor bleeding, and muscle invasion are potential prognostic factors of small gastric GIST.

  9. MR imaging characteristics of osteoradionecrosis of the pelvis after radiation therapy on gynecological tumors; Pelvine Osteoradionekrosen: Magnetresonanztomographische Charakteristika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J.; Abolmaali, N.D.; Jacobi, V.; Vogl, T.J. [Institut fuer Diagnostische u. Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Hoeller, U. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie; Schiemann, M.; Obert, K. [Klinikum der J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie


    Purpose: To describe MR imaging characteristics of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the pelvis as a result of radiation therapy (RT) on gynecological tumors. Material and Methods: Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on 9 women (mean age 67.5 years) with gynecological tumors to identify ORN. T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted sequences and contrast-enhanced t{sub 1}-weighted sequences with and without fat saturation were used. The patients began developing pain after the completion of RT indicating a possible ORN a which time MRI was performed. MR images were correlated with the results of clinical examinations. Results: Depending on the time elapsed after RT, ORN presented with different signal intensities. The acquired images suggested that signal changes in T{sub 2}-weighted images as well as the different enhancement behaviour of ORN could be dependent on the time elapsed after RT. Visualisation of the affected regions was best achieved with fat-saturated T{sub 1}-weighted sequences. CT showed increased density in the affected regions corresponding to osteosclerosis. In all cases the sacroiliac joint was affected, some times bilateraly. Conclusion: MRI is helpful in detecting and characterizing ORN. Changes in signal intensity, based on histopathological tissue changes could make a chronological classification possible. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation MR-tomographischer Charakteristika pelviner Osteoradionekrosen (ORN) bei Patientinnen nach Strahlentherapie gynaekologischer Tumoren. Material und Methode: 9 Patientinnen (mittleres Alter: 67,5 Jahre) mit gynaekologischen Tumoren und gesicherten ORN wurden mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) untersucht. Die MRT wurde beim Auftreten von Beschwerden nach unterschiedlichen Zeiten nach Bestrahlungsabschluss durchgefuehrt und mit den Ergebnissen der klinischen Diagnostik korreliert. Ergebnisse: ORN kamen fuer MR in Abhaengigkeit vom Abstand zum Bestrahlungsende

  10. The influence of house characteristics on the effectiveness of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S.P.; Miles, J.C.H. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Scivyer, C.R. [Building Research Establishment, Garston (United Kingdom)


    The effectiveness of remedial measures in houses with high radon levels has been tested in 943 houses in the UK. Radon levels were measured for 3 mo before and after remediation, and the results were corrected for typical seasonal variations. Householders completed questionnaires about house characteristics and remedial measures. The results were analyzed to determine the influence of house characteristics on the effectiveness of different remedial measures. Significant differences in effectiveness were found, in particular depending on the age of the house and whether the measures were installed by a major contractor, a local builder, or the householder.

  11. Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Kidd, M. [Wren Laboratories, Branford, CT (United States); Modlin, I.M. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Severi, S.; Nicolini, S.; Paganelli, G. [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy); Drozdov, I. [Bering Limited, London (United Kingdom); Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Erasmus Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baum, R.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Theranostics Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany)


    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy. NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with {sup 177}Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 {sup 18}FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses. Statistical analyses: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival. The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ{sup 2} = 27.4; p = 1.2 x 10{sup -7}) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0

  12. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions (United States)

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.


    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  13. TRAP-silver staining, a highly sensitive assay for measuring telomerase activity in tumor tissue and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Dalla Torre


    Full Text Available Measurement of telomerase activity in clinically obtained tumor samples may provide important information for use as both a diagnostic marker and a prognostic indicator for patient outcome. In order to evaluate telomerase activity in tumor tissue without radiolabeling the product, we developed a simple telomeric repeat amplification protocol-silver-staining assay that is less time-consuming, is safe and requires minimal equipment. In addition, we determined the sensitivity of the silver-staining method by using extracts of telomerase-positive thyroid carcinoma cell lines which were serially diluted from 5,000 to 10 cells. Telomerase activity was also assayed in 19 thyroid tumors, 2 normal controls and 27 bone marrow aspirates. The results indicate that the technique permits the detection of telomerase activity from 5000 to as few as 10 cells. We propose that it could be immediately applicable in many laboratories due to the minimal amount of equipment required.

  14. Scheme for directly measuring the Wigner characteristic function via the driven Jaynes-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao


    A scheme is proposed for measuring the Wigner characteristic function of a cavity field. In the scheme an atom is sent through a slightly detuned cavity and driven by a strong resonant classical field. Then the population of the atom in the ground state directly yields the Wigner characteristic function of the cavity field.

  15. Unavoidable Human Errors of Tumor Size Measurement during Specimen Attachment after Endoscopic Resection: A Clinical Prospective Study (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu


    Objective Objective evaluation of resected specimen and tumor size is critical because the tumor diameter after endoscopic submucosal dissection affects therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated whether the true tumor diameter of gastrointestinal cancer specimens measured by flexible endoscopy is subjective by testing whether the specimen is correctly attached to the specimen board after endoscopic submucosal dissection resection and whether the size differs depending on the endoscopist who attached the specimen. Methods Seventy-two patients diagnosed with early gastric cancer who satisfied the endoscopic submucosal dissection expanded-indication guideline were enrolled. Three endoscopists were randomly selected before every endoscopic submucosal dissection. Each endoscopist separately attached the same resected specimen, measured the maximum resection diameter and tumor size, and removed the lesion from the attachment board. Results The resected specimen diameters of the 3 endoscopists were 44.5±13.9 mm (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 23–67), 37.4±12.0 mm (95% CI: 18–60), and 41.1±13.3 mm (95% CI: 20–63) mm. Comparison among 3 groups (Kruskal Wallis H- test), there were significant differences (H = 6.397, P = 0.040), and recorded tumor sizes were 38.3±13.1 mm (95% CI: 16–67), 31.1±11.2 mm (95% CI: 12.5–53.3), and 34.8±12.8 (95% CI: 11.5–62.3) mm. Comparison among 3 groups, there were significant differences (H = 6.917, P = 0.031). Conclusions Human errors regarding the size of attached resected specimens are unavoidable, but it cannot be ignored because it affects the patient’s additional treatment and/or surgical intervention. We must develop a more precise methodology to obtain accurate tumor size. Trial Registration University hospital Medical Information Network UMIN No. 000012915 PMID:25856397

  16. Establishment and characteristics of two syngeneic human osteosar-coma cell lines from primary tumor and skip metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ye ZOU; Meng ZHANG; Long-juan ZHANG; Jin WANG; Jing-nan SHEN; Gang HUANG; Song JIN; Jun-qiang YIN; Qian-chen GUO; Hao-miao LI; Lan LUO


    Aim:To characterize and compare the different biological behaviors of 2 novel human osteosarcoma cell lines,Zos and Zos-M,established respectively from the primary tumor and the skip metastasis of an osteosarcoma patient.Methods:In vitro studies included morphological observations,karyotype analysis,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assay,and cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.Subcutaneous and intravenous in-oculations into nude mice were carried out to study the tumorigenicity and the metastatic potential.RT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the os-teoblastic markers and some metastasis-related genes.Results:Both cell lines remained stable for more than 100 passages in vitro without interruption.The RT-PCR examination indicated that they retained the molecular characteristics of an osteoblastic lineage.The karyotype analysis displayed aneuploidy and various structural abnormalities.Both cell lines are tumorigenic;Zos-M differs from Zos by the former's ability to develop lung metastasis after intravenous injection.The comparison of the expression patterns of some metastasis-related genes revealed that the decreased expression of cadherin-11 in Zos-M may correlate with a high potential of metastases.Moreover,both cell lines are less sensitive to the current chemotherapy protocols.Conclusion:The establishment of osteosarcoma cell lines,Zos and Zos-M,and related animal models provide a useful resource for studying the aggressive behavior of osteosarcoma and will be helpful for screen-ing effective treatment strategies.

  17. [The value of urine cystein proteinase and serum CA125 measurement in monitoring the treatment of malignant ovarian tumor]. (United States)

    Gao, G; Peng, Z; He, B


    Urine cystein proteinase (UCP) and serum CA125 were measured in 40 patients with malignant ovarian tumor (malignant group), 40 patients with benign ovarian tumor (benign group), and 40 normal control (normal group). 28 patients in the malignant group underwent UCP and CA125 measurement pre-operation, post-operation, and during three courses of chemotherapy. The enzyme activity of UCP in the malignant group was significantly higher than that in the benign and normal groups (P 2 cm in diameter were apparantly higher than those with no residual lesions (P < 0.05). UCP and CA125 values were measured in six patients before relaparotomy. The sensitivity, specificity, accuaracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for UCP assay are 980%, 100%, 83%, 100% and 50% and those for CA125 assay are 40%, 100%, 80%, 100%, and 25%, respectively.

  18. Flow-rate Characteristics Measurement of Regulators Based on the Pressure Response in an Isothermal Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei; ZHANG Hongli; WANG Tao; PENG Guangzheng; ONEYAMA Naotake


    Regulators are important components in pneumatic system, and their flow-rate characteristics are the key parameters for designers. According to the correlatively international standard and national standard of China, which describe the flow-rate characteristics measurement method of pneumatic regulators, the pressure and the flow are measured point by point, and then the flow-rate characteristics curve is plotted point to point. This method has some disadvantages, such as equipment complexity, much air consumption, and low efficiency. To settle the problems presented above, this paper puts forward a new high efficient and energy saving flow-rate characteristics measurement method of regulators, which is based on the pressure response when charging and discharging to an isothermal tank without any flow meters. The measurement principle, the system and the steps are introduced. And the tracking differentiator is used for the data processing of the pressure difference. Two typical kinds of regulators were experimentally investigated, and their flow-rate characteristics curves were obtained with the new and the conventional method, respectively. Comparatively, it's proved that this new method is feasible because it is not only able to meet the demand of the measurement precision, but also to save energy and improve efficiency. Compared to the conventional method, the new method takes only about 1/10 amount of time and consumes about only 1/30 amount of air. Hopefully it will be able to serve as an international standard of flow-rate characteristics measurement method of regulators.

  19. Tumor size measured by preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma: relative differences according to size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis. (United States)

    Yoon, Young Hoon; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Kwak, Seo Young; Ryu, Kyeung A; Choi, Bobae; Kim, Jin-Man; Koo, Bon Seok


    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the size and features of thyroid nodules. Tumor size is a key indicator of the surgical extent of thyroid cancer. We evaluated the difference in tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We reviewed the medical records of 172 consecutive patients, who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC treatment. We compared tumor size, as measured by preoperative US, with that in postoperative specimens. And we analyzed a number of factors potentially influencing the size measurement, including cancer size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis. The mean size of the tumor measured by preoperative US was 11.4, and 10.2 mm by postoperative pathologic examination. The mean percentage difference (US-pathology/US) of tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination was 9.9 ± 19.3%, which was statistically significant (p 20.0 mm) and the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis on the tumor size discrepancy between the two measurements was analyzed, the mean percentage differences according to tumor size (9.1 vs. 11.2% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.842), calcification (9.2 vs. 10.2%, p = 0.756) and coexisting thyroiditis (17.6 vs. 9.5%, p = 0.223) did not show statistical significance. Tumor sizes measured in postoperative pathology were ~90% of those measured by preoperative US in PTC; this was not affected by tumor size, the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis. When the surgical extent of PTC treatment according to tumor size measured by US is determined, the relative difference between tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination should be considered.

  20. Quality of life among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors: the impact of child characteristics and parental psychosocial factors. (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Catrine, Kris; Gangnon, Ronald; Witt, Whitney P


    Understanding the impact of childhood cancer on the family is increasingly important. This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between child clinical characteristics and health-related quality of life (QOL) among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors, and (2) determine how parental psychosocial factors impact this relationship. Using a within-group approach, this study examined 75 children with cancer or brain tumors and their parent. In-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessed sociodemographics, psychosocial factors, and QOL. Child clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record abstraction. Regressions were performed to determine factors related to parental QOL. Children's activity limitation and active treatment status were associated with worse parental mental QOL (5.4 and 4.4 points lower, respectively; P characteristics to the model eliminated the relationship between child clinical characteristics and parental mental QOL (P > 0.05 for all child characteristics). While child clinical characteristics appear to be related to poor parental QOL, this relationship was mediated by caregiver burden and stress. Interventions to reduce burden and stress may mitigate the deleterious effects of caregiving. Systematic screening of parents' mental and physical health may facilitate interventions and improve the health and well-being of parents and children.

  1. Micro-CT imaging of tumor angiogenesis: quantitative measures describing micromorphology and vascularization. (United States)

    Ehling, Josef; Theek, Benjamin; Gremse, Felix; Baetke, Sarah; Möckel, Diana; Maynard, Juliana; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Grüll, Holger; Neeman, Michal; Knuechel, Ruth; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan


    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, and its noninvasive visualization and quantification are key factors for facilitating translational anticancer research. Using four tumor models characterized by different degrees of aggressiveness and angiogenesis, we show that the combination of functional in vivo and anatomical ex vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows highly accurate quantification of relative blood volume (rBV) and highly detailed three-dimensional analysis of the vascular network in tumors. Depending on the tumor model, rBV values determined using in vivo μCT ranged from 2.6% to 6.0%, and corresponds well with the values assessed using IHC. Using ultra-high-resolution ex vivo μCT, blood vessels as small as 3.4 μm and vessel branches up to the seventh order could be visualized, enabling a highly detailed and quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional micromorphology of tumor vessels. Microvascular parameters such as vessel size and vessel branching correlated very well with tumor aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In rapidly growing and highly angiogenic A431 tumors, the majority of vessels were small and branched only once or twice, whereas in slowly growing A549 tumors, the vessels were much larger and branched four to seven times. Thus, we consider that combining highly accurate functional with highly detailed anatomical μCT is a useful tool for facilitating high-throughput, quantitative, and translational (anti-) angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis research.

  2. Hydrolysis Profiles of Formalin Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumors Based on IOD (Integrated Optical Density and Nuclear Texture Feature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Fležar


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine optimal hydrolysis time for the Feulgen DNA staining of archival formalin fixed paraffin‐embedded surgical samples, prepared as single cell suspensions for image cytometric measurements. The nuclear texture features along with the IOD (integrated optical density of the tumor nuclei were analysed by an automated high resolution image cytometer as a function of duration of hydrolysis treatment (in 5 N HCl at room temperature. Tissue blocks of breast carcinoma, ovarian serous carcinoma, ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy and leiomyosarcoma were included in the study. IOD hydrolysis profiles showed plateau between 30 and 60 min in the breast carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma, and between 40 and 60 min in the ovarian serous carcinoma and ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy. Most of the nuclear texture features remained stable after 20 min of hydrolysis treatment. Our results indicate that the optimal hydrolysis time for IOD and for nuclear texture feature measurements, was between 40 and 60 min in the cell preparations from tissue blocks of three epithelial and one soft tissue tumor.

  3. Accounting for measurement error in biomarker data and misclassification of subtypes in the analysis of tumor data. (United States)

    Nevo, Daniel; Zucker, David M; Tamimi, Rulla M; Wang, Molin


    A common paradigm in dealing with heterogeneity across tumors in cancer analysis is to cluster the tumors into subtypes using marker data on the tumor, and then to analyze each of the clusters separately. A more specific target is to investigate the association between risk factors and specific subtypes and to use the results for personalized preventive treatment. This task is usually carried out in two steps-clustering and risk factor assessment. However, two sources of measurement error arise in these problems. The first is the measurement error in the biomarker values. The second is the misclassification error when assigning observations to clusters. We consider the case with a specified set of relevant markers and propose a unified single-likelihood approach for normally distributed biomarkers. As an alternative, we consider a two-step procedure with the tumor type misclassification error taken into account in the second-step risk factor analysis. We describe our method for binary data and also for survival analysis data using a modified version of the Cox model. We present asymptotic theory for the proposed estimators. Simulation results indicate that our methods significantly lower the bias with a small price being paid in terms of variance. We present an analysis of breast cancer data from the Nurses' Health Study to demonstrate the utility of our method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. High prevalence of malnutrition among patients with solid non-hematological tumors as found by using skinfold and circumference measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Garófolo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition in cancer patients has many causes. Nutritional status is usually assessed from weight/height indices. These present limitations for the nutritional assessment of cancer patients: their weights include tumor mass, and lean mass changes are not reflected in weight/height indices. The objective was to evaluate differences between two anthropometric methods and compare deficits, in non-hematological tumor patients and hematological disease patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Instituto de Oncologia Pediátrica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Children and adolescents were evaluated between March 1998 and January 2000. Traditional anthropometric measurements were obtained in the first month of treatment (induction therapy, by weight-for-height (W/H using z-scores index for children and body mass index (BMI for adolescents. Body composition evaluations consisted of specific anthropometric measurements: triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC and arm muscle circumference (AMC. Data were analyzed to compare nutritional assessment methods for diagnosing malnutrition prevalence. The chi-squared test was used for comparative analyses between tumor patients and hematological disease patients. RESULTS: Analysis was done on 127 patients with complete data. Higher percentages of deficits were found among tumor patients, by W/H z-scores or BMI and by MUAC and AMC. Higher percentages of deficits were shown by TSFT (40.2% and MUAC (35.4% than by W/H z-scores or BMI (18.9%. CONCLUSION: Non-hematological tumor patients presented higher malnutrition prevalence than did hematological disease patients. Body composition measurements by TSFT and MUAC detected more patients with malnutrition than did W/H or BMI.

  5. Forma tumoral da esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar: relato de caso e medida dos granulomas The tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis: case report and measure of granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raso


    Full Text Available Caso raro de forma tumoral da esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar diagnosticada pela biópsia, em um paciente de 15 anos, que apresentou sinais e sintomas neurológicos 60 dias antes da cirurgia. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão expansiva, hiperdensa, localizada no cerebelo, sugestiva de glioma. O exame histopatológico mostrou numerosos ovos de S. mansoni envolvidos por reação inflamatória granulomatosa na fase necrótico-exsudativa, confluentes, localizados principalmente na camada interna, granular, do cerebelo, formando pseudotumor no verme cerebelar e hemorragia recente na ponte. Foram medidas as áreas dos granulomas.An unusual case of the tumoral form of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni, in a 15 year-old male diagnosed by biopsy, with neurological signs and symptoms 60 days prior to surgery. Computerized tomography show a hyperdense expanding lesion located in cerebellum, suggesting glioma. Histopathological examination showed numerous S. mansoni ova involved by granulomatous inflammation in necrotic-exudative phase, located mainly in the internal, granular layer of the cerebellum, creating a pseudotumor in the cerebellar vermis and a recent hemorrhage in the trunk. The areas of granulomas were measured.

  6. Impact of epidemiological characteristics of supratentorial gliomas in adults brought about by the 2016 world health organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system. (United States)

    Jiang, Haihui; Cui, Yong; Wang, Junmei; Lin, Song


    The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) integrates both histological and molecular features in the definition of diagnostic entities. This new approach enrolls novel entities of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to reveal the epidemiological characteristics, including age at diagnosis, gender ratio, tumor distribution and survival, of these new entities. We retrospectively reclassified 1210 glioma samples according to the 2016 CNS WHO diagnostic criteria. In our cohort, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with wildtype isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) was the most common malignant tumor in the brain. Almost all gliomas were more prevalent in males, especially in the cluster of WHO grade III gliomas and IDH-wildtype GBM. Age at diagnosis was directly proportional to tumor grade. With respect to the distribution by histology, we found that gliomas concurrent with IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted or with single IDH-mutant were mainly distributed in frontal lobe, while those with IDH-wildtype were dominant in temporal lobe. Lesions located in insular lobe were more likely to be IDH-mutant astrocytoma. In summary, our results elucidated the epidemiological characteristics as well as the regional constituents of these new gliomas entities, which could bring insights into tumorigenesis and personalized treatment of Chinese glioma population.

  7. An Imaging System for Automated Characteristic Length Measurement of Debrisat Fragments (United States)

    Moraguez, Mathew; Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Cowardin, Heather; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.


    The debris fragments generated by DebriSat's hypervelocity impact test are currently being processed and characterized through an effort of NASA and USAF. The debris characteristics will be used to update satellite breakup models. In particular, the physical dimensions of the debris fragments must be measured to provide characteristic lengths for use in these models. Calipers and commercial 3D scanners were considered as measurement options, but an automated imaging system was ultimately developed to measure debris fragments. By automating the entire process, the measurement results are made repeatable and the human factor associated with calipers and 3D scanning is eliminated. Unlike using calipers to measure, the imaging system obtains non-contact measurements to avoid damaging delicate fragments. Furthermore, this fully automated measurement system minimizes fragment handling, which reduces the potential for fragment damage during the characterization process. In addition, the imaging system reduces the time required to determine the characteristic length of the debris fragment. In this way, the imaging system can measure the tens of thousands of DebriSat fragments at a rate of about six minutes per fragment, compared to hours per fragment in NASA's current 3D scanning measurement approach. The imaging system utilizes a space carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud of the article being measured and a custom developed algorithm then extracts the characteristic length from the point cloud. This paper describes the measurement process, results, challenges, and future work of the imaging system used for automated characteristic length measurement of DebriSat fragments.

  8. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990–2015)


    Vergneau-Grosset, C; Keel, MK; Goldsmith, D.; Kass, PH; Paul-Murphy, J; Hawkins, MG


    © American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved. OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the s...

  9. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease and malignant tumor in primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze clinical pathologic characteristics of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome (PBC-AIH OS) ,the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease,malignant tumor and the abdominal lymph node enlargement.Methods From January 2000 to January 2012,the clinical data of 49 patients with PBC-AIH OS were retrospectively analyzed,which included general information,clinical manifestations,biochemical parameters,immu-

  10. Super-resolution infrared time measurement method based on target dynamic characteristics (United States)

    Li, Bin; Hu, Qiuping; Tang, Zili; Zhang, Sanxi; Zhang, Hua; Yue, Peng; Liu, Biao


    High precision time control in the use of weapons and equipment is an important part of product design and development. In order to satisfy the data acquisition requirement of high accuracy and reliability in the rapid flight process, the super-resolution time measurement method based on target dynamic characteristics was put forward and proved by the cabin opening time measurement experiment. First, the changes of explosion pressure wave and image in the cabin opening process were analyzed in detail. The change regulation of explosion flame shape was analyzed by the characteristics of typical pressure wave, and then the high frequency images of the explosion process were shot by high speed camera. The change regulation of the infrared image was obtained through the comparison of visible and infrared image mechanism. Then, combined with the target motion features, and the observed station parameters, the observation model of movement process was built. On the basis of the above research, the infrared characteristic and the movement characteristic were transformed, and the super resolution model was established. For test method, combined with the actual class time measuring process in experimental design, to obtain the special radar for measuring high precision open class time as the true value of the precision appraisal. Experimental results show that the infrared feature and motion feature can realize open class time super resolution measurement, can effectively improve the accuracy and reliability of the data, to achieve specific action of high accuracy measurement that plays an important role by making use of the target dynamic characteristics.

  11. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups (United States)

    Demir, Ergül


    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  12. Developmental and Diagnostic Characteristics of Quantitative Measures of Children's Language Production. (United States)

    Klee, Thomas


    This study evaluated 9 computer-generated measures of children's language production, based on 24 children with specific language impairment and 24 normally developing children, ages 24-50 months. Three measures possessed desirable developmental and diagnostic characteristics: mean syntactic length, total number of words, and number of different…

  13. Characteristics of physical measurement consent in a population-based survey of older adults. (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; Couper, Mick P; Ofstedal, Mary Beth


    Collecting physical measurements in population-based health surveys has increased in recent years, yet little is known about the characteristics of those who consent to these measurements. To examine the characteristics of persons who consent to physical measurements across several domains, including one's demographic background, health status, resistance behavior toward the survey interview, and interviewer characteristics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2006 Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative panel survey of older adults aged 51 and older. We performed multilevel logistic regressions on a sample of 7457 respondents who were eligible for physical measurements. The primary outcome measure was consent to all physical measurements. Seventy-nine percent (unweighted) of eligible respondents consented to all physical measurements. In weighted multilevel logistic regressions controlling for respondent demographics, current health status, survey resistance indicators, and interviewer characteristics, the propensity to consent was significantly greater among Hispanic respondents matched with bilingual Hispanic interviewers, patients with diabetes, and those who visited a doctor in the past 2 years. The propensity to consent was significantly lower among younger respondents, those who have several Nagi functional limitations and infrequently participate in "mildly vigorous" activities, and those interviewed by black interviewers. Survey resistance indicators, such as number of contact attempts and interviewer observations of resistant behavior in prior wave iterations of the Health and Retirement Study were also negatively associated with physical measurement consent. The propensity to consent was unrelated to prior medical diagnoses, including high blood pressure, cancer (excluding skin), lung disease, heart abnormalities, stroke, and arthritis, and matching of interviewer and respondent on race and gender. Physical measurement consent

  14. Measurement of Characteristic Self-Similarity and Self-Diversity for Complex Mechanical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Meili; LAI Jiangfeng


    Based on similarity science and complex system theory, a new concept of characteristic self-diversity and corresponding relations between self-similarity and self-diversity for complex mechanical systems are presented in this paper. Methods of system self-similarity and self-diversity measure between main system and sub-system are studied. Numerical calculations show that the characteristic self-similarity and self-diversity measure method is validity. A new theory and method of self-similarity and self-diversity measure for complexity mechanical system is presented.

  15. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imel, E.A.; Peacock, M.; Pitukcheewanont, P.; Heller, H.J.; Ward, L.M.; Shulman, D.; Kassem, M.; Rackoff, P.; Zimering, M.; Dalkin, A.; Drobny, E.; Colussi, G.; Shaker, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hui, S.L.; Econs, M.J.


    CONTEXT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tu

  16. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Jesper


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal studies tumor size is used to assess responses to anticancer therapy. Current standard for volumetric measurement of xenografted tumors is by external caliper, a method often affected by error. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if microCT gives more accurate and reproducible measures of tumor size in mice compared with caliper measurements. Furthermore, we evaluated the accuracy of tumor volume determined from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET. Methods Subcutaneously implanted human breast adenocarcinoma cells in NMRI nude mice served as tumor model. Tumor volume (n = 20 was determined in vivo by external caliper, microCT and 18F-FDG-PET and subsequently reference volume was determined ex vivo. Intra-observer reproducibility of the microCT and caliper methods were determined by acquiring 10 repeated volume measurements. Volumes of a group of tumors (n = 10 were determined independently by two observers to assess inter-observer variation. Results Tumor volume measured by microCT, PET and caliper all correlated with reference volume. No significant bias of microCT measurements compared with the reference was found, whereas both PET and caliper had systematic bias compared to reference volume. Coefficients of variation for intra-observer variation were 7% and 14% for microCT and caliper measurements, respectively. Regression coefficients between observers were 0.97 for microCT and 0.91 for caliper measurements. Conclusion MicroCT was more accurate than both caliper and 18F-FDG-PET for in vivo volumetric measurements of subcutaneous tumors in mice.18F-FDG-PET was considered unsuitable for determination of tumor size. External caliper were inaccurate and encumbered with a significant and size dependent bias. MicroCT was also the most reproducible of the methods.



    Hikmet Ulusan


    The measurement bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting are basically included: historical cost, replacement cost, net realizable value, value in use, deprival value and fair value. The first part of this study deals with the measurement bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting. In the second part, the measurement bases for the qualitative characteristics that determine the usefulness of information provided in financial statements areanalyzed.

  18. Contrast enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma according to the tumor size on two-phase scan with spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee Eun; Yang, Dai Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Chun, Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Hyo Seon; Lee, Young Seok [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the enhancing patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and the difference of enhancing patterns according to the tumor size, using spiral CT. We reviewed 213 lesions in 76 patients who had been clinically or histopathologically diagnosed as HCC sufferer. The tumors were divided into three groups, according to size(<3 cm, 3-5 cm and >5 cm). The enhancing patterns of tumor and capsule in the early and delayed phase were analysed. The enhancing patterns of the tumor were divided into five types(high, peripheral high, mixed, iso and low attenuation) in the early phase and four types(contral high, mixed, iso, and low attenuation) in the delayed phase. The enhancing patterns of the capsule were divided into three types such as iso, low and high attenuation. High attenuating lesions in the early phase were as follows; below 3 cm, 72%:3-5 cm, 60%:above 5 cm, 49%. Mixed attenuating lesions in the early phase were as follows;below 3 cm, 1%;3-5 cm, 22%;above 5 cm, 36%. Thus, most Hx were high attenuation type in the early phase, but as the tumor became larger, less high attenuation and more mixed attenuation was demonstrated(p<0.01). There was no difference of enhancing patterns according to the tumor size in peripheral high, iso and low-attenuating lesions. In the delayed phase most of the hepatomas appeared as totally hypodense lesions. For capsules, the results were as follows; below 3 cm, 20%:3-5 cm, 58%: above 5 cm, 73%. As the tumors became larger, more capsules were demonstrated(p<0.01). The capsules were visualized as iso or low attenuating rum in the early phase and high attenuating rim in the delayed phase. To determine the enhancing patterns of HCC using spiral CT is considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of HCC.

  19. Measuring verbal psychotherapeutic techniques – A systematic review of intervention characteristics and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eGumz


    Full Text Available Language is one of the most important tools of psychotherapists. The working mechanisms of verbal therapeutic techniques, however, are still marginally understood. In part, this is due to the lack of a generally acknowledged typology as well as a gold standard for the assess-ment of verbal techniques, which limits the possibility of conducting studies focusing this topic. The present study reviews measures used in clinical research which assess directly ob-servable dimensions of verbal interventions in a reliable manner. All measures were evaluated with respect to their theoretical foundation, research goals, assessment modes, and various psychometric properties. A systematic search in databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PSYNDEX, Web of Science, Embase followed by an additional snowballing search cover-ing the years 1940-2013 yielded n=179 publications eligible for review. Within these publica-tions, 34 measures were identified showing great heterogeneity regarding the aspects under study. Only two measures reached the highest psychometric standards and can be recom-mended for clinical use without any reservation. Central problems include deficiencies in the systematization of techniques as well as their partly ambiguous and inconsistent definitions. To promote this field of research, it will be important to achieve a consensus concerning the terminology, conceptions and measures of verbal techniques.

  20. Mutual Fund Style, Characteristic-Matched Performance Benchmarks and Activity Measures: A New Approach


    Daniel Buncic; Jon E. Eggins; Robert J. Hill


    We propose a new approach for measuring mutual fund style and constructing characteristic-matched performance benchmarks that requires only portfolio holdings and two reference portfolios in each style dimension. The characteristic-matched performance benchmark literature typically follows a bottom-up approach by first matching individual stocks with benchmarks and then obtaining a portfolio’s excess return as a weighted average of the excess returns on each of its constituent stocks. Our app...

  1. Magnetic method for measuring moisture content using diamagnetic characteristics of water (United States)

    Keiji, Tsukada; Yasuaki, Matsunaga; Yuta, Nakamura; Ryota, Isshiki; Kayo, Fujimoto; Kenji, Sakai; Toshihiko, Kiwa


    Moisture content measurements of rice kernels and soil are important for agriculture. Therefore, in this study, a new measurement method using the diamagnetic characteristics of water was developed for measurements of the moisture content of rice kernels and soil. The magnetic characteristics of the samples were determined using a magnetometer developed by us based on a superconducting quantum interference device. Because of the diamagnetic characteristics of water, the susceptibility of rice kernels became more negative with increasing moisture content. In the case of soil, which is a mixture of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, a second-harmonic detection method using AC with DC bias magnetic field was applied to reduce the influence of the ferromagnetic signal. The intensity of the second-harmonic signal of a soil was determined to be proportional to its moisture content.

  2. Patient survival and tumor characteristics associated with CHEK2:p.I157T - findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. (United States)

    Muranen, Taru A; Blomqvist, Carl; Dörk, Thilo; Jakubowska, Anna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Fagerholm, Rainer; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Bojesen, Stig E; Shah, Mitul; Dunning, Alison M; Rhenius, Valerie; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Couch, Fergus J; Hart, Steven N; Figueroa, Jonine; García-Closas, Montserrat; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Andrulis, Irene L; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Lubinski, Jan; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Nevanlinna, Heli


    P.I157T is a CHEK2 missense mutation associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk. Previously, another CHEK2 mutation, the protein truncating c.1100delC has been associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Here, we have investigated patient survival and characteristics of breast tumors of germ line p.I157T carriers. We included in the analyses 26,801 European female breast cancer patients from 15 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We analyzed the association between p.I157T and the clinico-pathological breast cancer characteristics by comparing the p.I157T carrier tumors to non-carrier and c.1100delC carrier tumors. Similarly, we investigated the p.I157T associated risk of early death, breast cancer-associated death, distant metastasis, locoregional relapse and second breast cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. Additionally, we explored the p.I157T-associated genomic gene expression profile using data from breast tumors of 183 Finnish female breast cancer patients (ten p.I157T carriers) (GEO: GSE24450). Differential gene expression analysis was performed using a moderated t test. Functional enrichment was investigated using the DAVID functional annotation tool and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The tumors were classified into molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen 2013 criteria and the PAM50 gene expression signature. P.I157T was not associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-associated death or distant metastasis relapse, and there was a significant difference in prognosis associated with the two CHEK2 mutations, p.I157T and c.1100delC. Furthermore, p.I157T was associated with lobular histological type and clinico-pathological markers of good prognosis, such as ER and PR expression, low TP53 expression and low grade. Gene expression analysis suggested luminal A to be the most common subtype for p.I157T carriers and CDH1 (cadherin 1) target genes to be significantly

  3. [Study on targeting drug delivery system--the characteristics of methotrexate microsphere and experimental treatment of hepatic tumor in rats by arterial embolization]. (United States)

    Chen, Q H; Lu, W G; Ge, Q H; Sheng, Q; Zhang, Y; Xie, X H; Wang, Y; Wu, M C; Zhang, X H


    Preparation of methotrexate microsphere (MTX-ms) by emulsion-freezing technique was introduced and the experimental results proved that MTX entrapped in the microspheres exhibited good stabilities towards temperature, cobalt-60 radiation and light. The dissolution and inflation rate of the microspheres in pH 7.4 buffer solution at different times measured by Coulter counter was presented. Antitumor activity of MTX-ms after hepatic arterial embolization was examined in a model of liver tumor in Wistar rats. The group of rats treated with MTX-ms showed a rather significant reduction in tumor growth and more extended tumor necrosis as compared with the other groups, e.g. normal saline solution, MTX solution, placebo gelatin-ms and the results demonstrate that the effect of arterial chemoembolization used by MTX-ms is superior to that of the groups either using arterial chemotherapy or arterial embolization alone in treating rat liver cancer.

  4. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  5. Thickness measurement of organic films using Compton scattering of characteristic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Yun, E-mail: [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 1045, Dukjin-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 1045, Dukjin-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung-Hee [Division of Radioisotope R and D, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 1045, Dukjin-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hussein, Esam M.A. [Laboratory for Threat Materials Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5A3 (Canada)


    An X-ray scattering method is presented for determining the thickness of an organic film placed on a steel substrate. The strong peaks of characteristic X-rays are taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of backscattered photons. It is shown that the intensity of Compton scattering of characteristic X-rays is proportional to film thickness, up to the thickness of 250 {mu}m of acrylic adhesive layers. In addition, the measurement time was 300 ms, providing a simple and convenient method for on-line for thickness monitoring.

  6. Time until initiation of tumor growth is an effective measure of the anti-angiogenic effect of TNP-470 on human glioblastoma in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, M; Spang-Thomsen, M; Kristjansen, P E


    , 11, or 15 days after inoculation. The time from inoculation until initiation of exponential tumor growth was determined along with the post-therapeutic growth delay and the initial tumor doubling time (TD) for each individual tumor (n=103) on the basis of tumor volume growth curves. We found that: i......We examined the effect of the anti-angiogenic compound TNP-470 on early tumor growth characteristics following subcutaneous implantation of 1 mm3 tissue blocks of human glioblastoma U87, in nude mice. The mice received daily injections with TNP-470, 7 mg/kg, from one day before until either 3, 7......) the onset of growth of U87 xenografts was effectively inhibited by concurrent treatment with TNP-470 beyond the first three days after inoculation, ii) this effect was fully reversible upon termination of therapy, and iii) the post-therapeutic growth delay was independent of the accumulated dose...

  7. Measurement of basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics under the test facility and reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduard A Boltenko; Victor P Sharov [Elektrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Bezimyannaja Street, 6, Elektrogorsk, Moscow Region, 142530 (Russian Federation); Dmitriy E Boltenko [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation IPPE, Bondarenko Square, Obhinsk, Kaluga Region, 249020 (Russian Federation)


    Full text of publication follows: The nuclear power of Russia is based on the reactors of two types: water-water - WWER and uranium - graphite channel RBMK. The nuclear power development is possible with performance of the basic condition - level of nuclear power plants (NPP) safety should satisfy the rigid requirements. The calculated proof of NPPs safety made by means of thermal-hydraulic codes of improved estimation, verified on experimental data is the characteristic of this level. The data for code verification can be obtained at the integral facilities simulating a circulation circuit of NPP with the basic units and intended for investigation of circuit behaviour in transient and accident conditions. For verification of mathematical models in transient and accident conditions, development of physically reasonable methods for definition of the various characteristics of two-phase flow the experimental data, as the integrated characteristics of a flow, and data on the local characteristics and structure of a flow is necessary. For safety assurance of NPP it is necessary to monitor and determine the basic thermalhydraulic characteristics of reactor facility (RF). It is possible to refer coolant flow-rate, core input and output water temperature, heat-power. The description of the EREC works in the field completion and adaptation of certain methods with reference to measurements in dynamic modes of test facility conditions and development of methods for measurements of basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics of reactor facilities is presented in the paper. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Karakhan


    Full Text Available The use of current accesses to the tumors of the fourth ventricle, which fill and compress from the outside its cavity, was assessed in 28 patients. Original associated endomicrosurgical techniques were used. Two groups and five topographic types of fourth ventricle tumors are identified. Basic accesses — telovelar and supracerebellar — eliminate the necessity of dissecting the vermis cerebelli. The key endoscopic technique is to provide a simultaneous survey of the lower and upper poles of a tumor during its removal. The technique of trochlear removal of metastatic nodes from the fourth ventricle is shown. The benefits of endoscopic techniques are to early examine the vulnerable vascular and neural structures blocked by a tumor at the access step; to reduce the volume of an access itself and the traction of cerebellar and truncal structures; to completely survey the Sylvian aqueduct without additionally displacing or dissecting the vermis cerebelli; to maintain optical sharpness within sight of differently remote microstructures. Overall, incorporation of the endoscopic method realizes the principle of mini-invasive neurosurgery. 

  9. Measurement of the Resonant Characteristics of a Single Bubble Vibration by Using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Taisuke; Kotera, Hironori; Yoshida, Kenji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki


    We constructed the experimental system with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) for measuring the vibration of a single microbubble. It was demonstrated that the system enabled the capture of the vibration with an amplitude of nanometer order. We attempted to experimentally measure the resonant characteristics of a bubble attached to a wall by using the system. As a result, we succeeded in measuring the characteristics and evaluating the Q factor and the resonant radius at a driving frequency of 27.8 kHz, although these values are different from those predicted on the basis of the theory for a single free bubble. The LDV measurement system is expected to an effective tool for evaluating bubble vibrations with very small displacement amplitudes, such as the vibration of a microcapsule.

  10. Intravital Fluorescence Facilitates Measurement of Multiple Physiologic Functions and Gene Expression in Tumors of Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Dewhirst


    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the use of fluorescence imaging in vivo, with particular emphasis on oncology. It is important to note, however, that many of the methods described herein have been applied to the study of non-malignant tissues as well. Modern medicine and biology research has benefited greatly from an ever-expanding assortment of fluorescent markers and labels. These markers and labels have allowed investigators to observe the behavior and properties of cell and molecular entities of interest in the context of complicated biological systems such as a mammalian cell or a whole mouse. Methods developed to image fluorescence in whole mice have been valuable in studying patterns of tumor growth and metastases. Alternatively, more detailed information and a wide variety of endpoints can be obtained using “intravital” preparations. This review focuses on use of fluorescence imaging for intravital preparations. For detail on fluorescence imaging of whole animals, refer to reviews on this subject [1,2]. For oncologic applications, studies have focused primarily on window chamber preparations that allow for real-time visualization of tumor growth, vascularity, vascular responses to stimulation, vascular permeability, vascular orientation, flow instability, and the like. These endpoints have been used to show that there are functional differences between tumor and normal tissues with respect to these functions under baseline conditions and after therapeutic manipulation. Examples of some of these differences are provided in this review as a means to illustrate how they can be used.

  11. Cervical Coupling Motion Characteristics in Healthy People Using a Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit


    Hyunho Kim; Sang-Hoon Shin; Jeong-Kyun Kim; Young-Jae Park; Hwan-Sup Oh; Young-Bae Park


    Objective. The objectives were to show the feasibility of a wireless microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit (MEMS-IMU) to assess the time-domain characteristics of cervical motion that are clinically useful to evaluate cervical spine movement. Methods. Cervical spine movements were measured in 18 subjects with wireless IMUs. All rotation data are presented in the Euler angle system. Amount of coupling motions was evaluated by calculating the average angle ratio and the maximu...

  12. An estimation of load characteristics of an ultrasonic motor by measuring transient responses. (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Kurosawa, M; Kurebayashi, H; Ueha, S


    To measure the characteristics of ultrasonic motors, such as the maximum torque, torque-speed relationship and the frictional coefficient at the contact surface, a method in which the torque is calculated from the transient responses is proposed. The rise curve that is the transitional change in the rotor speed soon after turning on the motor gives the load characteristics, while the fall curve that is the decay of the rotor speed after turning off the motor yields the frictional coefficient of the contact surface. This method requires only a short time (the transient time of the motor) to complete the measurement. The relations between the transient responses, the load characteristics and the frictional force are analyzed, and the method is applied to a hybrid transducer type rotary motor and a traveling wave type linear motor.

  13. NOTE: Gating characteristics of an Elekta radiotherapy treatment unit measured with three types of detector (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.; Symonds-Tayler, J. Richard N.; Colgan, Ruth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Letts, Nicky; Sandin, Carlos


    The characteristics of an Elekta Precise treatment machine with a gating interface were investigated. Three detectors were used: a Farmer ionization chamber, a MatriXX ionization chamber array and an in-house, single pulse-measurement ionization chamber (IVC). Measurements were made of dosimetric accuracy, flatness and symmetry characteristics and duty cycle for a range of beam-on times and gating periods. Results were compared with a standard ungated delivery as a reference. For all beam-on times, down to 0.5 s, dosimetric differences were below ±1% and flatness and symmetry parameter variations were below ±1.5%. For the shorter beam-on times the in-house detector deviated from the other two detectors, suggesting that this device should be used in conjunction with other detectors for absolute dosimetry purposes. However, it was found to be useful for studying gated beam characteristics pulse by pulse.

  14. Improved sensitivity of circulating tumor DNA measurement using short PCR amplicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Brandslund, Ivan


    , however, presents a number of challenges that require attention. The amount of DNA is low and highly fragmented and analyses need to be optimized accordingly. KRAS ARMS-qPCR assays with amplicon lengths of 120 and 85 base pairs, respectively, were compared using positive control material (PCR fragments......) and plasma samples from 46 colorectal cancer patients known to harbor a tumor KRAS mutation. KRAS mutated DNA was detected in significantly more clinical samples using the short amplicon assays compared to the long amplicon assays (74% vs. 61%, p=0.03). The level of mutated DNA in plasma was on average three...

  15. Primary Tumor Characteristics Are Important Prognostic Factors for Sorafenib-Treated Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study (United States)

    Kim, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Lee, Sang Eun; Seo, Ill Young; Kim, Tae Nam; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Seo, Seong Il; Song, Kanghyon; Kwak, Cheol


    We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated with sorafenib. We investigated 177 patients, including 116 who received sorafenib as first-line therapy, using the Cox regression model. During a median follow-up period of 19.2 months, the PFS and OS were 6.4 and 32.6 months among all patients and 7.4 months and undetermined for first-line sorafenib-treated patients, respectively. Clinical T3-4 stage (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56) and a primary tumor size >7 cm (HR 0.34) were significant prognostic factors for PFS among all patients, as were tumor size >7 cm (HR 0.12), collecting system invasion (HR 5.67), and tumor necrosis (HR 4.11) for OS (p < 0.05). In first-line sorafenib-treated patients, ≥4 metastatic lesions (HR 28.57), clinical T3-4 stage (HR 4.34), collecting system invasion (univariate analysis HR 2.11; multivariate analysis HR 0.07), lymphovascular invasion (HR 13.35), and tumor necrosis (HR 6.69) were significant prognosticators of PFS, as were bone metastasis (HR 5.49) and clinical T3-4 stages (HR 4.1) for OS (p < 0.05). Our study thus identified a number of primary tumor-related characteristics as important prognostic factors in sorafenib-treated mRCC patients.

  16. Measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" (United States)

    Bondareva, A. P.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.


    Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM) are actively integrated in various optical systems for dynamic diffractive optical elements imaging. To achieve the best performance, high stability and linearity of phase modulation is required. This article presents results of measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of state of the art LC SLM with HD resolution "HoloEye PLUTO VIS".

  17. A setup for measuring characteristics of microwave electric vacuum devices with open resonance structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Ruban, A. I.; Vorob’ev, G. S.


    A new modification of the universal experimental setup for measuring electrodynamic characteristics of microwave generators with open resonance structures of the orotron–diffraction-radiation-generator type is described. To expand the functional capabilities and the electronic frequency-tuning ra...

  18. All Fiber-optic Fluorescent Spectral Measurement and Analysis on Alga Chla/c Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fluorescent principle used for measuring alga characteristic parameters and the optimum structure design of the instrument are discussed. The fluorescent spectrum of Chla/c and the time-resolved different spectrum ΔA(λ,t) are given. The research provides an effective method for considering the density and the classification of algae, which will be helpful to monitor sea pollution.

  19. A Note on Some Sampling Characteristics of the Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) (United States)

    Shirkey, Edwin C.; Dziuban, Charles D.


    Distributional characteristics of the measure of sampling adequacy (MSA) were investigated in sample correlation matrices generated from multivariate normal populations with covariance matrix equal to the identity. Systematic variation of sample size and number of variables resulted in minimal fluctuation of the overall MSA from .50. (Author/RC)

  20. Cervical Coupling Motion Characteristics in Healthy People Using a Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunho Kim


    Full Text Available Objective. The objectives were to show the feasibility of a wireless microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit (MEMS-IMU to assess the time-domain characteristics of cervical motion that are clinically useful to evaluate cervical spine movement. Methods. Cervical spine movements were measured in 18 subjects with wireless IMUs. All rotation data are presented in the Euler angle system. Amount of coupling motions was evaluated by calculating the average angle ratio and the maximum angle ratio of the coupling motion to the primary motion. Reliability is presented with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. Results. Entire time-domain characteristics of cervical motion were measured with developed MEMS-IMU system. Cervical range of motion (CROM and coupling motion range were measured with high ICCs. The acquired data and calculated parameters had similar tendency with the previous studies. Conclusions. We evaluated cervical motion with economic system using a wireless IMU of high reliability. We could directly measure the three-dimensional cervical motion in degrees in realtime. The characteristics measured by this system may provide a diagnostic basis for structural or functional dysfunction of cervical spine. This system is also useful to demonstrate the effectiveness of any intervention such as conventional medical treatment, and Korean medical treatment, exercise therapy.

  1. Measurement of ventilation- and perfusion-mediated cooling during laser ablation in ex vivo human lung tumors. (United States)

    Vietze, Andrea; Koch, Franziska; Laskowski, Ulrich; Linder, Albert; Hosten, Norbert


    Perfusion-mediated tissue cooling has often been described in the literature for thermal ablation therapies of liver tumors. The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling effects of both perfusion and ventilation during laser ablation of lung malignancies. An ex vivo lung model was used to maintain near physiological conditions for the specimens. Fourteen human lung lobes containing only primary lung tumors (non-small cell lung cancer) were used. Laser ablation was carried out using a Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and laser fibers with 30 mm diffusing tips. Continuous invasive temperature measurement in 10 mm distance from the laser fiber was performed. Laser power was increased at 2 W increments starting at 10 W up to a maximum power of 12-20 W until a temperature plateau around 60 °C was reached at one sensor. Ventilation and perfusion were discontinued for 6 min each to assess their effects on temperature development. The experiments lead to 25 usable temperature profiles. A significant temperature increase was observed for both discontinued ventilation and perfusion. In 6 min without perfusion, the temperature rose about 5.5 °C (mean value, Pcooling are significant influencing factors on temperature development during thermal ablation. They should be taken into account during the planning and preparation of minimally invasive lung tumor treatment in order to achieve complete ablation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement and simulation of Joule heating during treatment of B-16 melanoma tumors in mice with nanosecond pulsed electric fields. (United States)

    Pliquett, Uwe; Nuccitelli, Richard


    Experimental evidence shows that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) trigger apoptosis in skin tumors. We have postulated that the energy delivered by nsPEF is insufficient to impart significant heating to the treated tissue. Here we use both direct measurements and theoretical modeling of the Joule heating in order to validate this assumption. For the temperature measurement, thermo-sensitive liquid crystals (TLC) were used to determine the surface temperature while a micro-thermocouple (made from 30 μm wires) was used for measuring the temperature inside the tissue. The calculation of the temperature distribution used an asymptotic approach with the repeated calculation of the electric field, Joule heating and heat transfer, and the subsequent readjustment of the electrical tissue conductivity. This yields a temperature distribution both in space and time. It can be shown that for the measured increase in temperature an unexpectedly high electrical conductivity of the tissue would be required, which was indeed found by using voltage and current monitoring during the experiment. Using impedance measurements within t(after)=50 μs after the pulse revealed a fast decline of the high conductivity state when the electric field ceases. The experimentally measured high conductance of a skin fold (mouse) between plate electrodes was about 5 times higher than those of the maximally expected conductance due to fully electroporated membrane structures (G(max)/G(electroporated))≈5. Fully electroporated membrane structure assumes that 100% of the membranes are conductive which is estimated from an impedance measurement at 10 MHz where membranes are capacitively shorted. Since the temperature rise in B-16 mouse melanoma tumors due to equally spaced (Δt=2 s) 300 ns-pulses with E=40 kV/cm usually does not exceed ΔΤ=3 K at all parts of the skin fold between the electrodes, a hyperthermic effect on the tissue can be excluded.

  3. The Characteristic of Residual Charge for Water-tree Degraded XLPE and the Measurement Method (United States)

    Ebinuma, Yasumitsu; Masui, Noriaki

    Recently the measurement of residual charge has been studying as insulation deterioration diagnosis of XLPE insulated cables. Authors have studied the measurement process and the charge characteristic. The specimens are XLPE sheets of 1mm which are degraded with water-trees. There are four processes of charge removal, charge injection, ground and charge release in the measurement. The process of charge removal was introduced to measure a little charge successfully. In the process of charge injection, it was confirmed that the relation between the applied dc voltage and the charge was examined, and the higher dc voltage was, more the charge was. In addition, it has been showed that the applied process of the dc voltage greatly influences the measured charge. In the process of ground, the grounding period is changed and the charge is measured. It has been showed that the grounding period doesn't influence the measured charge greatly. In the process of charge release, the frequency and the period of applied ac voltage were changed and the charge was measured. It has been showed that neither the frequency nor the period of ac voltage greatly influence the charge measured. In addition, the dc voltage was superimposed to ac voltage, and the charge was measured. It has been showed that the charge measured changes greatly even if the dc voltage is low. The method of the insulation deterioration measurement of cable was examined from these results, and the measurement conditions and a newer method were suggested.

  4. Semi-automatic liver tumor segmentation with hidden Markov measure field model and non-parametric distribution estimation. (United States)

    Häme, Yrjö; Pollari, Mika


    A novel liver tumor segmentation method for CT images is presented. The aim of this work was to reduce the manual labor and time required in the treatment planning of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), by providing accurate and automated tumor segmentations reliably. The developed method is semi-automatic, requiring only minimal user interaction. The segmentation is based on non-parametric intensity distribution estimation and a hidden Markov measure field model, with application of a spherical shape prior. A post-processing operation is also presented to remove the overflow to adjacent tissue. In addition to the conventional approach of using a single image as input data, an approach using images from multiple contrast phases was developed. The accuracy of the method was validated with two sets of patient data, and artificially generated samples. The patient data included preoperative RFA images and a public data set from "3D Liver Tumor Segmentation Challenge 2008". The method achieved very high accuracy with the RFA data, and outperformed other methods evaluated with the public data set, receiving an average overlap error of 30.3% which represents an improvement of 2.3% points to the previously best performing semi-automatic method. The average volume difference was 23.5%, and the average, the RMS, and the maximum surface distance errors were 1.87, 2.43, and 8.09 mm, respectively. The method produced good results even for tumors with very low contrast and ambiguous borders, and the performance remained high with noisy image data.

  5. Interobserver variability among measurements of the maximum and mean standardized uptake values on 18F-FDG PET/CT and measurements of tumor size on diagnostic CT in patients with pulmonary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Erh Huang (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)); Chih-Feng Chen (Dept. of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)); Yu-Jie Huang (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)); Konda, Sheela D.; Appelbaum, Daniel E.; Yonglin Pu (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)), e-mail:


    Background: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) imaging has been shown to be an accurate method for diagnosing pulmonary lesions, and the standardized uptake value (SUV) has been shown to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. Purpose: To survey the interobserver variability of SUVmax and SUVmean measurements on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and compare them with tumor size measurements on diagnostic CT scans in the same group of patients with focal pulmonary lesions. Material and Methods: Forty-three pulmonary nodules were measured on both 18F-FDG PET/CT and diagnostic chest CT examinations. Four independent readers measured the SUVmax and SUVmean of the 18F-FDG PET images, and the unidimensional nodule size of the diagnostic CT scans (UDCT) in all nodules. The region of interest (ROI) for the SUV measurements was drawn manually around each tumor on all consecutive slices that contained the nodule. The interobserver reliability and variability, represented by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (COV), respectively, were compared among the three parameters. The correlation between the SUVmax and SUVmean was also analyzed. Results: There was 100% agreement in the SUVmax measurements among the 4 readers in the 43 pulmonary tumors. The ICCs for the SUVmax, SUVmean, and UDCT by the four readers were 1.00, 0.97, and 0.97, respectively. The root-mean-square values of the COVs for the SUVmax, SUVmean, and UDCT by the four readers were 0%, 13.56%, and 11.03%, respectively. There was a high correlation observed between the SUVmax and SUVmean (Pearson's r=0.958; P <0.01). Conclusion: This study has shown that the SUVmax of lung nodules can be calculated without any interobserver variation. These findings indicate that SUVmax is a more valuable parameter than the SUVmean or UDCT for the evaluation of therapeutic effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy on serial studies

  6. Research on Nonlinear Characteristics of Image Measurement System for Instantaneous Concentration Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jing


    Full Text Available Quantitative measurement on instantaneous concentration field not only can provide scientific methods for people measuring environment wind tunnel, but also can provide important data for solving convection--diffusion problem in practical project. The established large environment and wind engineering wind tunnel needs to develop the measurement system of instantaneous concentration field in order to study concentration field of environmental pollution diffusion. Based on collecting, analyzing and selecting a large number of literatures, the paper comprehensively studies the image measurement of instantaneous concentration field, and develops the complete software and hardware system. And the developed measurement system is used to measure the results, and the nonlinear characteristics of instable concentration field are studied. Combined with experimental fluid mechanics, information technology, optical scattering and imaging theory, the paper makes quantitative calculation on instability of concentration field from an experimental point of view, which provides an important experimental result for using numerical method to explore the instability of concentration field.

  7. Measurement system for determination of current-voltage characteristics of PV modules (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Borawski, Mateusz; Sawicki, Aleksander


    The realization of a laboratory stand for testing photovoltaic panels is presented here. The project of the laboratory stand was designed in SolidWorks software. The aim of the project was to control the electrical parameters of a PV panel. For this purpose a meter that measures electrical parameters i.e. voltage, current and power, was realized. The meter was created with the use of LabJack DAQ device and LabVIEW software. The presented results of measurements were obtained in different conditions (variable distance from the source of light, variable tilt angle of the panel). Current voltage characteristics of photovoltaic panel were created and all parameters could be detected in different conditions. The standard uncertainties of sample voltage, current, power measurements were calculated. The paper also gives basic information about power characteristics and efficiency of a solar cell.

  8. Measuring the Dynamic Characteristics of a Low Specific Speed Pump—Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Cathrin Walseth


    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an experiment performed to obtain the dynamic characteristics of a reversible pump-turbine model. The characteristics were measured in an open loop system where the turbine initially was run on low rotational speed before the generator was disconnected allowing the turbine to go towards runaway. The measurements show that the turbine experience damped oscillations in pressure, speed and flow rate around runaway corresponding with presented stability criterion in published literature. Results from the experiment is reproduced by means of transient simulations. A one dimensional analytical turbine model for representation of the pump-turbine is used in the calculations. The simulations show that it is possible to reproduce the physics in the measurement by using a simple analytical model for the pump-turbine as long as the inertia of the water masses in the turbine are modeled correctly.

  9. Characteristics measurement methodology of the large-size autostereoscopic 3D LED display (United States)

    An, Pengli; Su, Ping; Zhang, Changjie; Cao, Cong; Ma, Jianshe; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan


    Large-size autostereoscopic 3D LED displays are commonly used in outdoor or large indoor space, and have the properties of long viewing distance and relatively low light intensity at the viewing distance. The instruments used to measure the characteristics (crosstalk, inconsistency, chromatic dispersion, etc.) of the displays should have long working distance and high sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for characteristics measurement based on a distribution photometer with a working distance of 5.76m and the illumination sensitivity of 0.001 mlx. A display panel holder is fabricated and attached on the turning stage of the distribution photometer. Specific test images are loaded on the display separately, and the luminance data at the distance of 5.76m to the panel are measured. Then the data are transformed into the light intensity at the optimum viewing distance. According to definitions of the characteristics of the 3D displays, the crosstalk, inconsistency, chromatic dispersion could be calculated. The test results and analysis of the characteristics of an autostereoscopic 3D LED display are proposed.

  10. Method to measure the phase modulation characteristics of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. (United States)

    Wu, Yunlong; Nie, Jinsong; Shao, Li


    The universal liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) is widely used in many aspects of optical studies. The working principles and applications of LC-SLM were introduced briefly. The traditional Twyman-Green interference method, which was used to measure the phase modulation characteristics of a liquid spatial light modulator, had some obvious disadvantages in practice. To avoid these issues, the traditional Twyman-Green interference method was improved. Also, a new method to process interference fringes and measure the shift distances and cycles automatically by computers was proposed. The phase modulation characteristics of P512-1064 LC-SLM produced by the Meadowlark Company were measured to verify the validity of the newly proposed method. In addition, in order to compensate and correct the nonlinear characteristics of the phase modulation curve, three universal inverse interpolation methods were utilized. The root mean squared error and residual sum of squares between the calibrated phase modulation curve and the ideal phase modulation curve were reduced obviously by taking advantage of the inverse interpolation methods. Subsequently, the method of shape-preserving subsection cubic interpolation had acquired the best performance with high computation efficiency. Experiments have been performed to verify the validity of the interpolation method. The experimental results showed that the phase modulation characteristics of LC-LSM could be acquired and calibrated automatically with convenience and high efficiency by utilizing the newly proposed processing method.

  11. The fuzzy two-load method for measurement of ducted one-port source characteristics (United States)

    Dokumaci, Erkan


    Knowledge of source characteristics is important for the calculation of sound pressure level and insertion loss of a silencer in sourced ducts. Measurement is usually the only feasible approach for the determination of source characteristics. The present paper is concerned with the measurement methods based on the Helmholtz-Thévenin equivalent of ducted one-port plane wave sources. Existing methods are classified as crisp and over-determined methods. In the crisp methods, the measured data are just sufficient for unique characterization of the source. This calls for two loads if their phase relative to the source is known, otherwise three loads are required. Over-determined methods use more number of loads than the crisp methods and are motivated for possible minimization of variations due to measurement errors. The point estimates for the source parameters are, however, still subject to some uncertainty, but estimation of confidence intervals is not feasible because the loads do not constitute a probability sample. The present paper proposes an approach which can yield the source characteristics in intervals from auto-power spectral density measurements with only two loads. The method is based on a novel Apollonian circle formulation. It is called the fuzzy two-load method, because uncertainty inherent to measurements is modelled by fuzzification of a characteristic parameter of the Apollonian circle of two loads. Fuzzy number transformations leading to the source pressure strength, sound pressure level and insertion loss interval predictions are discussed in depth. The paper includes an application showing the working features of the fuzzy two-load method.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of Guizhou Permian coal measure strata and analysis of the control factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-dong; LIU Ling; WEI Huai-rui; CUI Yu-chao; CHENG Wei


    Based on element geochemical studies of the main Permian exploitable coal measure strata in Western Guizhou, the element geochemical distribution characteristics of the main exploitable coal measures were revealed in the regions of Dafang,Qianxi, Weining, Hezhang, Zhijin, etc., of Guizhou Province, and the results show that their element contents are mainly affected by terrestrial material supply. Coal measures formed in the delta plain environment where sufficient terrestrial materials are supplied contain relatively abundant trace elements and rare-earth elements, whereas those formed in the tidal-flat environment influenced greatly by seawater have relatively low contents of trace elements and rare-earth elements, mainly controlled by the geological fact that basalts the parent rocks from source regions contain high trace elements and rare-earth elements. In addition, coal measures affected by later hydrothermal activities and fault tectonics contain a large amount of harmful elements. According to the rules of distribution of elements in coal measures, a new idea was put forward to classify coal-forming environments by using the geochemical composition characteristics, which is of great significance in dissolving the problem of whether coal measures were formed either in delta environments or in tidal-flat environments in Western Guizhou. At the same time, the rules of distribution of elements in the main exploitable coal measures in Western Guizhou were fully understood, which is of direct significance in utilizing coal resources on the basis of classification of coals, as well as in developing the coal chemical industry.

  13. A UGV-based laser scanner system for measuring tree geometric characteristics (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Lan, Yubin; Zheng, Yongjun; Lee, Kevin; Cui, Suxia; Lian, Jian-ao


    This paper introduces a laser scanner based measurement system for measuring crop/tree geometric characteristics. The measurement system, which is mounted on a Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), contains a SICK LMS511 PRO laser scanner, a GPS, and a computer. The LMS511 PRO scans objects within distance up to 80 meters with a scanning frequency of 25 up to 100Hz and with an angular resolution of 0.1667° up to 1°. With an Ethernet connection, this scanner can output the measured values in real time. The UGV is a WIFI based remotely controlled agricultural robotics system. During field tests, the laser scanner was mounted on the UGV vertically to scan crops or trees. The UGV moved along the row direction with certain average travel speed. The experimental results show that the UGV's travel speed significantly affects the measurement accuracy. A slower speed produces more accurate measuring results. With the developed measurement system, crop/tree canopy height, width, and volume can be accurately measured in a real-time manner. With a higher spatial resolution, the original data set may even provide useful information in predicting crop/tree growth and productivity. In summary, the UGV based measurement system developed in this research can measure the crop/tree geometric characteristics with good accuracy and will work as a step stone for our future UGV based intelligent agriculture system, which will include variable rate spray and crop/tree growth and productivity prediction through analyzing the measured results of the laser scanner system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev


    Full Text Available Introduction: The tests of good measure characteristics are a multiple matter of interest. They can be property used in the work of selecting young athletes as well as programming the physical activities and giving marks in classes. There are many authors who have conducted researches and established measure characteristics of motor tests. Measure characteristics are constantly an actual issue for research. This research was conducted with the aim of establishing and comparing the measure characteristics of the used motor tests of movement frequencies with 11-year-old students from Macedonia and Kosovo. Methods: The sample of respondents consists of 180 male students at the age of 11 (100 from Macedonia and 80 from Kosovo. They were tested with three composite motor tests to assess the movement frequency. For the obtained data there calculated: basic descriptive parameters, Pearson coefficient of correlation, factor analyse, Cronbach α and Spearman-Brown’s coefficients (Vincent, 2005. Results: On the based of the received results, it is obvious that regarding the three tests satisfactory measure characteristics are established (validity and reliability. Discussion: In kinesiology, by using motor tests, we indirectly form a concept about the motor abilities of the respondents. That is why, it is of great importance to use tests that have satisfactory measure characteristics. The used tests are recommended for application in assessing motor abilities’ movement frequency. The final results correspond to a great extent with the researches of Metikos et al, (1989, Georgiev (1996, 2007, Pireva (2013 and other. References: Georgiev G (1996. Definiranje na stepenot na faktorskata validnost, relijabilnost i drugi merni karakteristiki vo biomotorniot prostor kaj učenicite od dvata pola od 11-godišna vozrast. (Magisterski trud, Univerzitet “Sv. Kiril i Metodij”, Fakultet za fizička kultura, Skopje. Georgiev G (2007. Sport i nauka, 5, 224

  15. Measurement of the optical characteristics of electrowetting prism array for three-dimensional display (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Yoon-Sun; Choi, Kyuwhan; Kwon, Yongjoo; Bae, Jungmok; Morozov, Alexander; Lee, Hong-Seok


    Recently liquid-based optical devices are emerging as attractive components in three-dimensional (3D) display for its compact structure and fast response time. Among them an electrowetting prism array is one of the promising 3D devices. It steers a beam, which enables to provide corresponding perspectives to observer. For high quality autostereoscopic 3D displays the important factors are the beam steering angle and the beam profile, the optical characteristics. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the optical characteristics of the liquid prism and show experimental results on our prototype electrowetting prism array, which consists of prisms with 200um by 200um size. A modified 4-f system is adopted for the proposed method. It provides two kinds of information of the optical characteristics of the liquid prism at the image plane and at the Fourier plane. First, the proposed measurement setup magnifies the image of the liquid micro prism array so that we can observe the status of the each prism array directly with bare eye and align a mask easily for selecting a prism to be examined at the image plane. Secondly, the steering angle can be calculated by measuring the displacement of the beam at the Fourier plane, where the angular profiles that have important information on the oilwater interface is observed precisely. The principle of the proposed method will be explained, and the measured optical characteristics from experimental results on the liquid prism we fabricated will be provided, which proves the validity of the measurement method.

  16. Fractal Characteristics and Fractal Dimension Measurement on Broken Surfaces of Aluminum Electric Porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhiyuan; ZHOU Anning


    The characteristics of broken surfaces were researched by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a reflection microscope, and the fractal dimensions of broken surfaces were measured by the Slit Island method. The experimental results indicate that the broken surface of aluminum electric porcelain is a fractal body in statistics, and the fractal dimensions of broken surfaces are different with the different amplification multiple value.In all of measured fractal dimensions,both of values measured in 100× under reflection microscope and in 500× under SEM are maximum, whereas the values measured in 63× under reflection microscope and in 2000× under SEM are obviously minimum. The fractal dimensions of broken surfaces are also affected by the degrees of gray comparison and the kinds of measuring methods. The relationships between the fractal dimensions of broken surfaces and porcelain bend strengths are that they are in positive correlation on the low multiples and in negative correlation on the high multiples.

  17. Androgen receptor expresion in breast cancer: Relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors, prognosis, and expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Rosario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we analyze, in patients with breast cancer, the tumor expression of androgen receptors (AR, its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and with the expression of several matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs, as well as with prognosis. Methods An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against AR, MMPs -1, -2, -7, -9, -11, -13, -14, and TIMPs -1, -2 and -3. More than 2,800 determinations on tumor specimens from 111 patients with primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (52 with axillary lymph node metastases and 59 without them and controls were performed. Staining results were categorized using a score based on the intensity of the staining and a specific software program calculated the percentage of immunostained cells automatically. Results A total of 83 cases (74.8% showed a positive immunostaining for AR, but with a wide variation in the staining score values. There were no significant associations between the total immunostaining scores for AR and any clinicopathological parameters. However, score values for MMP-1, -7 and -13, were significantly higher in AR-positive tumors than in AR-negative tumors. Likewise, when we considered the cellular type expressing each factor, we found that AR-positive tumors had a higher percentage of cases positive for MMP-1, -7, -11, and TIMP-2 in their malignant cells, as well as for MMP-1 in intratumoral fibroblasts. On the other hand, multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with AR-positive tumors have a significant longer overall survival than those with AR-negative breast carcinomas (p = 0.03. Conclusion Our results confirm that AR are commonly expressed in breast cancer, and are correlated with the expression of some MMPs and TIMP-2. Although we found a specific value of AR expression to be a prognostic indicator in breast cancer, the functional role of AR in these

  18. A retrospective analysis of clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of ovarian tumors in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paes Marcela F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is sixth most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies. Despite the great impact ovarian cancer has on women's health and its great impact in public economy, Brazil still lacks valuable information concerning epidemiological aspects of this disease Methods We've compiled clinical data of all ovarian tumors registered at the two public hospitals of reference (1997 - 2007, such as: patients' age at diagnosis, tumor histological type, tumor stage, chemotherapy regimens, chemotherapy responsiveness, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results Women's mean age at diagnosis was 54.67 ± 13.84 for ovarian cancer, 46.15 ± 11.15 for borderline tumors, and 42.01 ± 15.06 for adenomas. Among epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 30.1% were of serous, 13.7% were of mucinous, and 13.7% were of endometrioid type; exceptionally serous carcinoma was diagnosed in women younger than 30 years old. Endometrioid cancer had lower disease-free survival than others (p Discussion Our data agreed with other studies regarding mean patients' age at diagnosis, histological type frequency, FIGO stages distribution, and chemotherapy regimens. However, the histological type distribution, with equal contribution of mucinous and endometrioid types seems to be a unique characteristic of the studied highly miscegenated population. Conclusion We have enlighten the profile of the studied ovarian cancer population, which might enable the development of more efficient political strategies to control this malignancy that is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women.

  19. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990-2015). (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Keel, M Kevin; Goldsmith, Dayna; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G


    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized. RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

  20. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita


    Full Text Available Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system.

  1. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System (United States)

    Kinoshita, Tetsuo


    Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system. PMID:25897499

  2. Measurements of thermal characteristics in silicon germanium un-cooled micro-bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Mario; Torres, Alfonso; Kosarev, Andrey [National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Z.P. 7200 Puebla (Mexico); Ambrosio, Roberto; Mireles, Jose [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Electrical Department, Av. Del Charro 450 N, Z.P. 32310, C. J., Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia, Maria [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Physics Department, Av. San Claudio S/N Z.P. 72570 Puebla (Mexico)


    We present a study of the thermal characteristics of an infrared detector (un-cooled micro-bolometer), based on an amorphous silicon germanium film (a-Si{sub x}Ge{sub y}:H), deposited by plasma at low temperature ({proportional_to} 300 C) and compatible with the standard CMOS technology. These films have been studied due to their high performance characteristics as high activation energy (E{sub a}{approx} 0.37 eV), high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR{approx} -0.047 K{sup -1}) and moderate room temperature conductivity ({sigma}{sub RT}{approx} 2x10{sup -5}{omega} cm), which provides a moderate pixel resistance (R{sub cell}{approx}3.5x10{sup 8}{omega}). We have used two simple methods to calculate the thermal characteristics of the micro-bolometer. The thermal conductance (G{sub th}) has been obtained from the electrical I(U) characteristics in the range where self heating due to bias is not presented. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance and as well the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance have been obtained by measuring the I(U) characteristics in the device at different temperature values. Finally the results of both methods have been compared. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Prognostic significance of metabolic tumor volume measured by {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in operable primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jahae; Yoo, Su Woong; Kang, Sae Ryung; Cho, Sang Geon; Oh, Jong Ryool; Chong, Ari; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung; Yoon, Jung Han; Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigated whether PET indices measured by {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer. We reviewed 53 patients with operable primary breast cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. PET indices, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), were measured in the primary breast tumor (P), metastatic lymph nodes (N) and total tumor (T). The cox proportional hazards model was used with age, tumor size, clinical lymph node status, method od of surgery, presence or absence of neoadjuvant chemo therapy, histological type, histological grade, hormone grade, hormone receptors and HER2 status to predict disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow up period was 50 months (range, 17 73 months), during which 17 patients had recurrent disease and nine of whom died. The univariate analysis showed that high SUV of N (N{sup SUV,} =0.011), MTV of N (N{sup MTV,} =0.011) and MTV of T (T{sup MTV,} =0.045) as well as high histological grade (=0.008), negative estrogen ( =0.045) and negative progesterone ( =0.029) receptor status were associated with shorter DFS. High N{sup SUV(}=0.035) and N{sup MTV(} =0.035) and T{sup MTV(}=0.035)as well as high histological grade (=0.012) and negative estrogen receptor status ( =0.009)were associated with shorted OS. N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTw}ere found to be significantly associated with high histological grade ( =0.005). However, those failed to be statistically significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis PET indices seem to be useful in the preoperative evaluation of prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer, N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTVm}ight be considerable factors associated with patient outcome in operable breast cancer.

  4. Measurement of Drive Characteristics of Linear Induction Motor with Experimental Equipment Implemented Disc-shaped Secondary Side (United States)

    Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki

    The ordinary experimental equipment has a long stroke or a large cylindrical rotating secondary side in order to measure the drive characteristics of Linear Induction Motor (LIM). In this paper, we propose the measurement method of the drive characteristics of LIM with the experimental equipment implemented a disc-shaped secondary side. This method makes the experimental equipment smaller in size. It has been shown that the drive characteristics of LIM can be successfully measured.

  5. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)


    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  6. Application of double laser interferometer in the measurement of translational stages' roll characteristics (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Shen, Lu; Ke, Youlong; Hou, Wenmei; Ju, Aisong; Yang, Wei; Luo, Jialin


    In order to achieve rapid measurement of larger travel translation stages' roll-angle error in industry and to study the roll characteristics, this paper designs a small roll-angle measurement system based on laser heterodyne interferometry technology, test and researched on the roll characteristics of ball screw linear translation stage to fill the blank of the market. The results show that: during the operation of the ball screw linear translation stage, the workbench's roll angle changes complexly, its value is not only changing with different positions, but also shows different levels of volatility, what's more, the volatility varies with the workbench's work speed . Because of the non uniform stiffness of ball screw, at the end of each movement, the elastic potential energy being stored from the working process should release slowly, and the workbench will cost a certain time to roll fluctuate before it achieves a stable tumbling again.

  7. Measurement of cryogenic regenerator characteristics under oscillating flow and pulsating pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwanwoo Nam; Sangkwon Jeong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory


    This paper describes an experimental apparatus developed to investigate detailed thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of a regenerator at cryogenic temperature under oscillating flow and pulsating pressure conditions. Cold-end of the regenerator is maintained at approximately 85 K for G-M cryocooler type and 100 K for Stirling cryocooler type operations by means of two cryogenic heat exchangers. At both ends of the regenerator, fine hot wire probes are installed to measure the fast oscillating gas temperature and mass flow rate. The gas temperature sensors installed very close to the ends of the regenerator matrix assure precise gas temperature measurement in the regenerator. In this study, thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors of the well-defined wire-screen regenerator are fully characterized. First, pressure drop characteristics are discussed for different frequencies under room temperature. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator is obtained for different cold-end temperatures. (author)

  8. Measurement of cryogenic regenerator characteristics under oscillating flow and pulsating pressure (United States)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon


    This paper describes an experimental apparatus developed to investigate detailed thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of a regenerator at cryogenic temperature under oscillating flow and pulsating pressure conditions. Cold-end of the regenerator is maintained at approximately 85 K for G-M cryocooler type and 100 K for Stirling cryocooler type operations by means of two cryogenic heat exchangers. At both ends of the regenerator, fine hot wire probes are installed to measure the fast oscillating gas temperature and mass flow rate. The gas temperature sensors installed very close to the ends of the regenerator matrix assure precise gas temperature measurement in the regenerator. In this study, thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors of the well-defined wire-screen regenerator are fully characterized. First, pressure drop characteristics are discussed for different frequencies under room temperature. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator is obtained for different cold-end temperatures.

  9. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure. (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G


    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  10. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast and colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Ong, D C T; Ho, Y M; Rudduck, C; Chin, K; Kuo, W-L; Lie, D K H; Chua, C L M; Tan, P H; Eu, K W; Seow-Choen, F; Wong, C Y; Hong, G S; Gray, J W; Lee, A S G


    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, using both loss of heterozygosity analysis and customized microarray comparative genomic hybridization. LARG (leukemia-associated Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor) (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analysed region, is frequently underexpressed in breast and colorectal carcinomas with a reduced expression observed in all breast cancer cell lines (n=11), in 12 of 38 (32%) primary breast cancers, 5 of 10 (50%) colorectal cell lines and in 20 of 37 (54%) primary colorectal cancers. Underexpression of the LARG transcript was significantly associated with genomic loss (P=0.00334). Hypermethylation of the LARG promoter was not detected in either breast or colorectal cancer, and treatment of four breast and four colorectal cancer cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A did not result in a reactivation of LARG. Enforced expression of LARG in breast and colorectal cancer cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced cell proliferation and colony formation, as well as in a markedly slower cell migration rate in colorectal cancer cells, providing functional evidence for LARG as a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  11. Identification of characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements and unsupervised machine learning analysis (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.


    Edge localized mode (ELM) saturation mechanisms, filament dynamics, and multi-mode interactions require nonlinear models, and validation of nonlinear ELM models requires fast, localized measurements on Alfven timescales. Recently, we investigated characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements from the NSTX/NSTX-U beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system. We applied clustering algorithms from the machine learning domain to ELM time-series data. The algorithms identified two or three groups of ELM events with distinct evolution patterns. In addition, we found that the identified ELM groups correspond to distinct parameter regimes for plasma current, shape, magnetic balance, and density pedestal profile. The observed characteristic evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes suggest genuine variation in the underlying physical mechanisms that influence the evolution of ELM events and motivate nonlinear MHD simulations. Here, we review the previous results for characteristic ELM evolution patterns and parameter regimes, and we report on a new effort to explore the identified ELM groups with 2D BES measurements and nonlinear MHD simulations. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Award Numbers DE-SC0001288 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Method of Measuring Torque-Speed Characteristics of Fractional Horsepower Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murari


    Full Text Available In determining experimentally the speed-torque characteristics of fractional horsepower servomotor, accurate measurement of small torques in necessary. The paper here describes the accurate measurement of small torques of the order of 50 gm-cm or even less. Principal of eddy-current damping is used on a thin metallic disc rotating in the air-gap of an electromagnet and the reaction torque due to eddy-currents in the metallic disc is balanced with the standard weights placed in a scale-pan.

  13. Characteristics measurement of gain and refractive index of traveling-wave semiconductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Qing-yuan; Huang De-xiu; WANG Tao; KONG Xiao-jian; KE Chang-jian


    A novel method to measure the gain and refractive index characteristics of traveling-wave semiconductor optical amplifier(TMA) is presented.In-out fiber ends of TWA are used to construct an external cavity resonator to produce big ripple on amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) spectrum.By this means,Hakki-Paoli method is adopted to obtain the gain spectra of TWA over a wide spectral range.From measured longitudinal mode spacing and peak wavelength shift due to increased bias current,we further calculate the effective refractive index and the refractive index change.Special feature of refractive index change above lasing threshold is revealed and explained.

  14. Measurement of diaphragmatic length during the breathing cycle by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with an intrathoracic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian; Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monica; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmaehl, Astrid [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)


    The purpose of this study was to assess diaphragmatic length and shortening during the breathing cycle in healthy volunteers and patients with a lung tumor using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In 15 healthy volunteers and 28 patients with a solitary lung tumor, diaphragmatic motion and length were measured during the breathing cycle using a trueFISP sequence (three images per second in the coronal and sagittal plane). Time-distance curves and maximal length reduction (= shortening) of the diaphragm were calculated. The influence of tumor localization on diaphragmatic shortening was examined. In healthy volunteers maximal diaphragmatic shortening was 30% in the coronal and 34% in the sagittal orientation, with no difference between both hemithoraces. Tumors of the upper and middle lung region did not affect diaphragmatic shortening. In contrast, tumors of the lower lung region changed shortening significantly (P<0.05). In hemithoraces with a tumor in the lower region, shortening was 18% in the coronal and 19% in the sagittal plane. The ratio of diaphragmatic length change from inspiration to expiration changed significantly from healthy subjects (inspiration length >> expiratory length, P<0.05) to patients with a tumor in the lower lung region (inspiratory length = expiratory length). dMRI is a simple, non-invasive method to evaluate diaphragmatic motion and shortening in volunteers and patients during the breathing cycle. Tumors of the lower lung region have a significant influence on shortening of the diaphragm. (orig.)

  15. Normalization of gene expression measurement of tissue samples obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop LA


    Full Text Available Laura A Pop,1,* Valentina Pileczki,1,2,* Roxana M Cojocneanu-Petric,1 Bogdan Petrut,3,4 Cornelia Braicu,1 Ancuta M Jurj,1 Rares Buiga,5 Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu,6,7 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe1,8 1The Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 3Department of Surgery II – Urology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 4Department of Urology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 5Department of Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 6Department of Surgery, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 7Department of Surgical Oncology and Gynecological Oncology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sample processing is a crucial step for all types of genomic studies. A major challenge for researchers is to understand and predict how RNA quality affects the identification of transcriptional differences (by introducing either false-positive or false-negative errors. Nanotechnologies help improve the quality and quantity control for gene expression studies. Patients and methods: The study was performed on 14 tumor and matched normal pairs of tissue from patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. We assessed the RNA quantity by using the NanoDrop spectrophotometer and the quality by nano-microfluidic capillary electrophoresis technology provided by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. We evaluated the amplification status of three

  16. A New Method to Measure Trap Characteristics of Silicon Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xun; LIU Zu-Ming; QU Sheng; WANG Shu-Rong; HAO Rui-Ting; LIAO Hua


    @@ A new method to measure trap characteristics in crystalline silicon solar cells is presented.Important parameters of traps including energy level, total concentration of trapping centers and capture cross-section ratio of hole to electron are deduced using the Shockley-Read-Hall theory of crystalline silicon solar cells in base region.Based on the as-deduced model, these important parameters of traps are determined by measuring open-circuit voltages of silicon solar cells under monochromatic illumination in the wavelength range 500-1050 nm with and without bias light.The effects of wavelength and intensity of bias light on the measurement results are also discussed.The measurement system used in our experiments is very similar to a quantum efficiency test system which is commercially available.Therefore, our method is very convenient and valuable for detecting deep level traps in crystalline silicon solar cells.%A new method to measure trap characteristics in crystalline silicon solar cells is presented. Important parameters of traps including energy level, total concentration of trapping centers and capture cross-section ratio of hole to electron are deduced using the Shockley-Read-Hall theory of crystalline silicon solar cells in base region. Based on the as-deduced model, these important parameters of traps are determined by measuring open-circuit voltages of silicon solar cells under monochromatic illumination in the wavelength range 500-1050nm with and without bias light. The effects of wavelength and intensity of bias light on the measurement results are also discussed. The measurement system used in our experiments is very similar to a quantum efficiency test system which is commercially available. Therefore, our method is very convenient and valuable for detecting deep level traps in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  17. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong


    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  18. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability with t1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in brain tumors: a comparative study with two different algorithms. (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Saitta, Laura; Barletta, Laura; Bonzano, Laura; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Castellan, Lucio; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Roccatagliata, Luca


    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring different permeability parameters with T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to investigate the blood brain-barrier permeability associated with different brain tumors. The Patlak algorithm and the extended Tofts-Kety model were used to this aim. Twenty-five adult patients with tumors of different histological grades were enrolled in this study. MRI examinations were performed at 1.5 T. Multiflip angle, fast low-angle shot, and axial 3D T1-weighted images were acquired to calculate T1 maps, followed by a DCE acquisition. A region of interest was placed within the tumor of each patient to calculate the mean value of different permeability parameters. Differences in permeability measurements were found between different tumor grades, with higher histological grades characterized by higher permeability values. A significant difference in transfer constant (K (trans)) values was found between the two methods on high-grade tumors; however, both techniques revealed a significant correlation between the histological grade of tumors and their K (trans) values. Our results suggest that DCE acquisition is feasible in patients with brain tumors and that K (trans) maps can be easily obtained by these two algorithms, even if the theoretical model adopted could affect the final results.

  19. Customisation and Desirable Characteristics of a Standard Method of Measurement for Building Works in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nani


    Full Text Available This paper reports a study that identified andcategorised the modifications to the 5thEdition of the British Standard Method ofMeasurement (SMM5 of building works inGhana. Typical modifications involved ‘costinsignificant items’, ‘minor labour items’,‘custom units of measurement’, ‘methodrelated items’, ‘combinable items’,‘subordinate items’, and ‘items of minorinformative impact’. It was also observed thatthe desirable characteristics/ qualities ofstandard methods of measurement (SMM ofbuilding work were noteworthy, since theyprovide insight into the nature of a SMMrequired for the construction industry inGhana.The research reviewed available literature,various SMMs and bills of quantities (BQs.The relevance of the modifications andSMM characteristics identified wasconfirmed by a survey of the opinions ofprofessional quantity surveyors conductedthrough a carefully designed questionnaire.Inferences from the opinion survey formedthe basis for grouping both SMMmodifications found and the desired qualitiesof a SMM for Ghana.Survey respondents confirmed all theidentified modifications to the British SMM,except for the elimination of items of minorinformative impact. It was held that allinformation was relevant in measurement.Desirable characteristics of a SMM were ratedin decreasing order of relevance as: easylocation of items; cost significance; simplicity;thoroughness; ease of cost analysis; goodpractice; conciseness; adoptability; precision;industry practice; stakeholders’ opinion;custom classification; regional relevance; andinclusion of jargon. It was noted that therelevance of these characteristics may varyform one region to the other as a result oftechnological, cultural and legal differences.However, the desired SMM characteristicswere recommended as fundamental indeveloping an appropriate SMM for Ghana.

  20. Multiple breast cancer cell-lines derived from a single tumor differ in their molecular characteristics and tumorigenic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goar Mosoyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer cell lines are widely used tools to investigate breast cancer biology and to develop new therapies. Breast cancer tissue contains molecularly heterogeneous cell populations. Thus, it is important to understand which cell lines best represent the primary tumor and have similarly diverse phenotype. Here, we describe the development of five breast cancer cell lines from a single patient's breast cancer tissue. We characterize the molecular profiles, tumorigenicity and metastatic ability in vivo of all five cell lines and compare their responsiveness to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT treatment. METHODS: Five breast cancer cell lines were derived from a single patient's primary breast cancer tissue. Expression of different antigens including HER2, estrogen receptor (ER, CK8/18, CD44 and CD24 was determined by flow cytometry, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In addition, a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assay for HER2 gene amplification and p53 genotyping was performed on all cell lines. A xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to assess the tumorigenic and metastatic abilities of the breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We have isolated, cloned and established five new breast cancer cell lines with different tumorigenicity and metastatic abilities from a single primary breast cancer. Although all the cell lines expressed low levels of ER, their growth was estrogen-independent and all had high-levels of expression of mutated non-functional p53. The HER2 gene was rearranged in all cell lines. Low doses of 4-OHT induced proliferation of these breast cancer cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: All five breast cancer cell lines have different antigenic expression profiles, tumorigenicity and organ specific metastatic abilities although they derive from a single tumor. None of the studied markers correlated with tumorigenic potential. These new cell lines could serve as a model for detailed genomic and proteomic analyses to

  1. Evaluation of MRI tumor characteristics and quantitative FDG-PET assessments of cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Pathophysiologic implications for gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segtnan, E. A.; Holm, J.; Decker, J. H.


    Purpose: Using FDG-PET-based THGr methodology and MRI-based volume segmentation of key lesion characteristics, we sought to improve understanding of the implications of cerebral and cerebellar diaschisis in the diagnosis and management of supratentorial gliomas. Methods: A prospective cohort of 1...

  2. Shape measurement tools in footwear analysis: a statistical investigation of accidental characteristics over time. (United States)

    Sheets, H David; Gross, Susan; Langenburg, Glenn; Bush, Peter J; Bush, Mary A


    Presence of accidental characteristics on footwear strengthens the linkage of a given piece of footwear to a footwear impression left at a crime-scene. Thus an understanding of rate of appearance and disappearance of these characteristics is of importance. Artificial cut-marks, 1-3mm in depth, were cut into outsoles of 11 pairs of athletic shoes. Loss of these cut-marks and acquisition of new accidental characteristics/wear patterns were monitored over a seven-week time-span. Feature-vector methods were used to acquire multivariate data on wear/acquisition rates. A repeatability study indicated the feature vector method could detect small differences among shoes relative to measurement uncertainty. The shoes displayed a strong retention of artificial cut-marks over the study interval. Net rate of wear was 0.1% of the textured area of the shoe per week, predominantly in the heel and ball area. Results indicate accidental characteristics can reasonably be expected to persist over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals measured in milliseconds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingsheng; Zhang Jianhua; Yi Changping


    In order to study the time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals,measured in milliseconds,we carried out site blasting vibration tests at an open pit of the Jinduicheng Mine.Based on recorded field data and applying a combination of RSPWVD and wavelet,.we analyzed the time-frequency characteristics of recorded field data.summarized the time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals in different frequency bands and present detailed information of blasting vibration signals in milliseconds of high time-frequency resolutions.Because RSPWVD can be seen as of definite physical significance to signal energy distribution in time and frequency domains,we studied the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals for various milliseconds intervals from a perspective of energy distribution.The results indicate that the effect of milliseconds intervals on time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals is significant:the length of delay time directly affects the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals as well as the duration of energy in frequency bands.

  4. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun


    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  5. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering,and the structural health monitoring system(SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement.In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge(RSB),two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SHMS of RSB.In August 2005,Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu,the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses.In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory,the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics,the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck,and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed.Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques,and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  6. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LI AiQun; GUO Tong; XIE Jing


    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering, and the structural health monitoring system (SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement. In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB), two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SliMS of RSB. In August 2005, Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu, the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses. In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory, the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics, the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck, and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed. Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques, and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  7. FBG sensing temperature characteristic and application in oil/gas down-hole measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaomin LI; Xiaoying LIU; You LI; Shenlong YANG; Chong LIU


    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been used to sense numerous parameters such as strain, temperature, and pressure. Cost-effective multipoint measurements have been achieved by connecting FBGs in parallel, serial, and other topologies as well as by using spatial, wavelength, and time-domain multiplexing techniques. This paper presents a method of measuring temperature of the oil/gas down-hole. Detailed contents include the basic theory and characteristics of fiber gratings, analysis of the sensing mechanism of fiber-optic gratings, and the cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain; the method of making the light-source of the fiber-optic gratings and the technology of measuring wavelength shift, building an experimental system of the temperature measurement, and dealing with the experimental data. The paper makes a comparison of several kinds of FBG sensing systems used in oil/gas down-hole to measure temperature and the analysis of the experimental results of building the temperature measurement experimental sys-tem. It demonstrates that the fiber-optic grating sensing method is the best choice in all methods of measuring temperature in oil/gas down-hole, which has a brilliant applied prospect.

  8. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  9. Measurements of Cloud Characteristics with a Ceilometer and Supporting Measurements with a Water Based Condensation Particle Counter (United States)

    Vishnu, R.; Muralidas, S.; Mohankumar, G.; Varikoden, Hamza; v, Sasi Kumar; Sampath, S.; Vishnu, R.

    A Vaisala Laser Ceilometer which employs the LIDAR technique with a 910 nm laser diode for measurement of cloud base height, sky condition and vertical visibility was set up at a tropical coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (8.29° N, 76.59° E)at Kerala state, India. Measurements of cloud base height during different rain spells were made to understand the basic nature of cloud during different types of rain episodes such as convective and stratiform rains. Information on diurnal variation of cloud base height for different seasons has been obtained. The dominant altitude range of cloud occurrence is found to be below 1.5 km for clouds of all rainy seasons. The southwest monsoon clouds were dominant below 500 m also. The Ceilometer with its data on visibility also gave a picture of particles that can scatter the laser which includes water in liquid and ice phases. During dry weather conditions visibility below 1 km was found to be relatively low. To understand the cause of visibility change, a water based condensation nuclei counter manufactured by M/s TSI Inc, USA was employed and concentration monitored. An attempt was also made to get the cloud base height characteristics on a mountain slope to understand the orographic lifting of clouds due to mountain slope during different rainy seasons. At the mountain location data on cloud base measurements during cloud formation by orographic lifting of water vapour during thunderstorm months of the region is also presented and discussed.

  10. Biopsychosocial Characteristics, Using a New Functional Measure of Balance, of an Elderly Population with CLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hulla


    Full Text Available This study examined the biopsychosocial characteristics of chronic low back pain (CLBP in an understudied but increasingly larger part of the population: the elderly (i.e., 65 years and older. A new innovative physical functioning measure (postural control, which is a proxy for the common problem of slips and falls in the elderly was part of this biopsychosocial evaluation. Also, the National Institutes of Health (NIH-developed Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS was also part of this comprehensive evaluation. Two demographically-matched groups of elderly participants were evaluated: one with CLBP (n = 24; and the other without (NCLBP, n = 24. Results revealed significant differences in most of these measures between the two groups, further confirming the importance of using a biopsychosocial approach for future studies of pain and postural control in the elderly.

  11. Military Families' Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure. (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer


    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families.

  12. Military Families’ Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer


    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families. PMID:28936370

  13. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics. (United States)

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam


    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products.

  14. The interrelationship between DRIM gene expression and cytogenetic and phenotypic characteristics in human breast tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazzini Maren


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to facilitate the identification of genes involved in the metastatic phenotype we have previously developed a pair of cell lines from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, which have diametrically opposite metastatic potential in athymic mice. Differential display analysis of this model previously identified a novel gene, DRIM (down regulated in metastasis, the decreased expression of which correlated with metastatic capability. DRIM encodes a protein comprising 2785 amino acids with significant homology to a protein in yeast and C. elegans, but little else is currently known about its function or pattern of expression. In a detailed analysis of the DRIM gene locus we quantitatively evaluated gene dosage and the expression of DRIM transcripts in a panel of breast cell lines of known metastatic phenotype. Results Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analyses mapped a single DRIM gene locus to human chromosome 12q23~24, a region of conserved synteny to mouse chromosome 10. We confirmed higher expression of DRIM mRNA in the non-metastatic MDA-MB-435 clone NM2C5, relative to its metastatic counterpart M4A4, but this appeared to be due to the presence of an extra copy of the DRIM gene in the cell line's genome. The other non-metastatic cell lines in the series (T47D MCF-7, SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 contained either 3 or 4 chromosomal copies of DRIM gene. However, the expression level of DRIM mRNA in M4A4 was found to be 2–4 fold higher than in unrelated breast cells of non-metastatic phenotype. Conclusions Whilst DRIM expression is decreased in metastatic M4A4 cells relative to its non-metastatic isogenic counterpart, neither DRIM gene dosage nor DRIM mRNA levels correlated with metastatic propensity in a series of human breast tumor cell lines examined. Collectively, these findings indicate that the expression pattern of the DRIM gene in relation to the pathogenesis of breast tumor metastasis is more complex

  15. The Use of Compressive Sensing to Reconstruct Radiation Characteristics of Wide-Band Antennas from Sparse Measurements (United States)


    ARL-TR-7328 ● JUN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory The Use of Compressive Sensing to Reconstruct Radiation Characteristics of...Army Research Laboratory The Use of Compressive Sensing to Reconstruct Radiation Characteristics of Wide- Band Antennas from Sparse Measurements... Compressive Sensing to Reconstruct Radiation Characteristics of Wide-Band Antennas from Sparse Measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie


    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  17. A thru-reflect-line calibration for measuring the characteristics of high power LDMOS transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuai; Li Ke; Jiang Yibo; Cong Mifang; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng


    The impedance and output power measurements of LDMOS transistors are always a problem due to their low impedance and lead widths.An improved thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibration algorithm for measuring the characteristics of L-band high power LDMOS transistors is presented.According to the TRL algorithm,the individual two-port S parameters of each fixture half can be obtained.By de-embedding these S parameters of the test fixture,an accurate calibration can be made.The improved TRL calibration algorithm is successfully utilized to measure the characteristics of an L-band LDMOS transistor with a 90 mm gate width.The impedance of the transistor is obtained,and output power at 1 dB compression point can reach as much as 109.4 W at 1.2 GHz,achieving 1.2 W/mm power density.From the results,it is seen that the presented TRL calibration algorithm works well.

  18. Marginal dietary zinc concentration affects claw conformation measurements but not histological claw characteristics in weaned pigs. (United States)

    van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Cornillie, Pieter; Van Den Broeck, Wim; Nalon, Elena; Ampe, Bart; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Maes, Dominiek; Du Laing, Gijs; Millet, Sam


    The aim of the present study was to explore whether marginal dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations affect claw quality measurements in weaned pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups: (1) 42 mg Zn/kg diet from ingredients only (unsupplemented, marginal dietary Zn concentration below Zn requirements of 80 mg Zn/kg feed); and (2) 106 mg Zn/kg diet, where Zn was added as ZnO (common commercial dietary Zn concentration). Claw conformation characteristics were measured at the start (day 0, 4 weeks of age) and at the end (day 36) of the study, and the histological claw characteristics of horn wall and heel horn were examined on samples collected at 9 weeks of age. Non-supplemented pigs had narrower claw widths (P= 0.028) and lower toe heights (P= 0.010) at 9 weeks. The length of the dorsal border tended to be lower for the non-supplemented piglets (P= 0.092). Claw volume and claw horn size were lower (P= 0.003 and P pigs at 9 weeks of age. Horn growth and wear were lower for the non-supplemented pigs (P= 0.044 and P dietary Zn concentration affected various claw quality measurements. Marginal dietary Zn concentrations may not be sufficient to maintain claw quality in pigs.

  19. Bone tumor (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan F. Charas Santos


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the characteristics and ultrasound measurements of the spleen of healthy puppies and kittens, establishing normal standards and landmarks. We used 15 healthy male dogs and 15 healthy male cats, mixed breed and average age of six months. They were divided into two groups: G1 with 15 puppies with an average weight of 3 kg and G2 with  15 kittens with an average weight of 2 kg. The animals underwent ultrasound examination of the spleen for visualization of internal characteristics and measurement of the organ. The structural characteristics was analyzed and compared between the two species through the images obtained in the exam. The measurements were compared statistically using the SPSS program, with analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P ˂ 0.05. In both groups, we observed the splenic artery showed smaller diameter than the splenic veins. In puppies and kittens, the echotexture was visualized homogeneous and finely granular. The puppy’s spleen tends to be bigger in length   (6.87 ± 0.03 cm and width (5.95 ± 0.07 cm in relation to spleen length (4,53 ± 0,02 cm and width  (4.55 ± 0.04 in kittens. We concluded there is no difference of echotexture and splenic echogenicity between puppies and kittens, and the spleen of puppies showed bigger dimensions than in kittens. Keywords: echogenicity; size; small animals; spleen;   ultrasound.

  1. 腮腺少见肿瘤的影像学特点分析%Imaging characteristics of rare tumor of parotid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵柳燕; 陈祖华


    目的:探讨腮腺少见肿瘤的影像学特点。方法回顾性分析13例经手术病理证实腮腺少见肿瘤(淋巴上皮癌4例,肌上皮瘤3例,淋巴瘤及转移瘤各2例,恶性黑色素瘤及肌上皮癌各1例)的C T、M RI影像学表现。结果均为腮腺单侧发病,其中左侧9例,右侧6例。淋巴上皮癌位于腮腺浅叶,可累及深叶,以单发为主(3/4);沿腮腺浅叶铸形生长(3/4)可能具有一定特点;密度和信号均匀,增强轻、中度均匀强化。肌上皮瘤均为单发,位于腮腺浅叶,呈椭圆形,边缘清晰锐利,密度和信号均匀或不均匀,显著强化(2/3)可能具有提示作用。淋巴瘤具有一定特点,常表现为多发类圆形肿块(2/2),边缘光整,密度均匀,增强后中度强化,常伴颈部淋巴结肿大。恶性黑色素瘤M RI具有一定特点:T1 WI呈多发结节状高信号,T2WI呈低信号;CT及MRI增强不具特点。肌上皮癌与腮腺常见恶性肿瘤相仿。转移瘤表现与原发肿瘤密切相关。结论腮腺上述少见肿瘤部分具有一定影像学特点,有助于鉴别诊断,确诊仍依靠组织病理学和免疫组化。%Objective To study the imaging characteristics of rare tumor of parotid gland .Methods CT ,MRI imaging findings of 13 cases of rare tumor (4 cases of lymphoepithelial carcinoma ,3 cases of myoepithelioma ,2 cases of lymphoma and metastatic tumors in each 1 case of malignant melanoma and myoepithelial carcinoma in each in the parotid gland) con‐firmed by operation and pathology were retrospectively analysed .Results The lesions were located in the unilateral parot‐id gland ,in the left side (n=8) ,in the right side (n=5) .Lymphoepithelial carcinomas were located in the superficial lobe of parotid gland ,which may violate the deep lobe ,majority of single lesion (3/4) .Casting growth (3/4) along the parotid gland may have certain feature:homogeneous density

  2. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  3. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou


    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  4. Operational Characteristics and Plasma Measurements in a Low-Energy FARAD Thruster (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Best, S.; Rose, M. F.; Miller, R.; Owens, T.


    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are spacecraft propulsion devices in which energy is stored in a capacitor and then discharged through an inductive coil. The device is electrodeless, inducing a plasma current sheet in propellant located near the face of the coil. The propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (order of 10 km/s) through the interaction of the plasma current with an induced magnetic field. The Faraday Accelerator with RF-Assisted Discharge (FARAD) thruster is a type of pulsed inductive plasma accelerator in which the plasma is preionized by a mechanism separate from that used to form the current sheet and accelerate the gas. Employing a separate preionization mechanism in this manner allows for the formation of an inductive current sheet at much lower discharge energies and voltages than those found in previous pulsed inductive accelerators like the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In this paper, we present measurements aimed at quantifying the thruster's overall operational characteristics and providing additional insight into the nature of operation. Measurements of the terminal current and voltage characteristics during the pulse help quantify the output of the pulsed power train driving the acceleration coil. A fast ionization gauge is used to measure the evolution of the neutral gas distribution in the accelerator prior to a pulse. The preionization process is diagnosed by monitoring light emission from the gas using a photodiode, and a time-resolved global view of the evolving, accelerating current sheet is obtained using a fast-framing camera. Local plasma and field measurements are obtained using an array of intrusive probes. The local induced magnetic field and azimuthal current density are measured using B-dot probes and mini-Rogowski coils, respectively. Direct probing of the number density and electron temperature is performed using a triple probe.

  5. Evaluation of nuclear characteristics of DCA modification core for sub-critical measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazama, Taira [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    Critical experiments were carried out on Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA) modification core. DCA modification core has two regions, that is, test region and driver region. The test region consists of various types of fuel and moderator, while the driver region remains the same as the original DCA core (ATR simulated core). Critical characteristics were measured with various types of core patterns and were compared with calculated values based on SCALE code system. Monte Calro code KENO was found to be very accurate in the core analysis. The accuracy stays below 0.5 %dk/k in keff even if core configuration is extremely complicated. (author)

  6. PI3K/AKT/mTOR and sonic hedgehog pathways cooperate together to inhibit human pancreatic cancer stem cell characteristics and tumor growth. (United States)

    Sharma, Narinder; Nanta, Rajesh; Sharma, Jay; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Singh, Karan P; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. It is evident from growing reports that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathways are aberrantly reactivated in pancreatic CSCs. Here, we examined the efficacy of combining NVP-LDE-225 (PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ-235 (Smoothened inhibitor) on pancreatic CSCs characteristics, microRNA regulatory network, and tumor growth. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting pancreatic CSC's characteristics and tumor growth in mice by acting at the level of Gli. Combination of NVP-LDE-225 and NVP-BEZ-235 inhibited self-renewal capacity of CSCs by suppressing the expression of pluripotency maintaining factors Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and c-Myc, and transcription of Gli. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 to inhibit Lin28/Let7a/Kras axis in pancreatic CSCs. Furthermore, a superior interaction of these drugs was observed on spheroid formation by pancreatic CSCs isolated from Pankras/p53 mice. The combination of these drugs also showed superior effects on the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In addition, NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting EMT through modulation of cadherin, vimentin and transcription factors Snail, Slug and Zeb1. In conclusion, these data suggest that the combined inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Shh pathways may be beneficial for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and histopathology in the measurement of tumor and breast volume and their ratio in breast cancer patients: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; YE Jing-ming; XU Ling; DUAN Xue-ning; ZHAO Jian-xin; LIU Yin-hua


    Background Earlier studies have examined the association between the diameter of primary tumors measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology in breast cancer patients.However,the diameter does not completely describe the dimensions of the breast tumor or its volumetric proportion relative to the whole breast.The association between breast tumor volume/breast volume ratios measured by these two techniques has not been reported.Methods Seventy-three patients were recruited from female patients with primary breast tumors admitted to our center between January and December 2010.They were divided into two groups.Group A (n=46) underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM),and Group B (n=27) underwent preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy before MRM.They were examined by dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to measure breast volumes (BVs),tumor volumes (TVs),and tumor volume/breast volume ratios (TV/BV).These measurements were compared with histopathology results after MRM,and the associations between MRI and pathology were analyzed by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.Results For Group A,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by the two techniques were 0.938,0.921,and 0.897 (all P <0.001),respectively.For Group B,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios were 0.936,0.902,and 0.869 (all P<0.01),respectively.The results suggest statistically significant correlations between these parameters measured by the two techniques for both groups.Conclusion For these patients,BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by DCE-MRI significantly correlated with those determined by histopathology.

  8. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors). (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico


    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  9. Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research. (United States)

    Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman


    ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels.

  10. In vivo electrical conductivity measurements during and after tumor electroporation: conductivity changes reflect the treatment outcome. (United States)

    Ivorra, Antoni; Al-Sakere, Bassim; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M


    Electroporation is the phenomenon in which cell membrane permeability is increased by exposing the cell to short high-electric-field pulses. Reversible electroporation treatments are used in vivo for gene therapy and drug therapy while irreversible electroporation is used for tissue ablation. Tissue conductivity changes induced by electroporation could provide real-time feedback of the treatment outcome. Here we describe the results from a study in which fibrosarcomas (n = 39) inoculated in mice were treated according to different electroporation protocols, some of them known to cause irreversible damage. Conductivity was measured before, within the pulses, in between the pulses and for up to 30 min after treatment. Conductivity increased pulse after pulse. Depending on the applied electroporation protocol, the conductivity increase after treatment ranged from 10% to 180%. The most significant conclusion from this study is the fact that post-treatment conductivity seems to be correlated with treatment outcome in terms of reversibility.

  11. Accuracy and variability of tumor burden measurement on multi-parametric MRI (United States)

    Salarian, Mehrnoush; Gibson, Eli; Shahedi, Maysam; Gaed, Mena; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W.; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Chin, Joseph L.; Pautler, Stephen; Bauman, Glenn S.; Ward, Aaron D.


    Measurement of prostate tumour volume can inform prognosis and treatment selection, including an assessment of the suitability and feasibility of focal therapy, which can potentially spare patients the deleterious side effects of radical treatment. Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for diagnosis but provides limited information regarding tumour volume due to sparse tissue sampling. A non-invasive means for accurate determination of tumour burden could be of clinical value and an important step toward reduction of overtreatment. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) is showing promise for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, the accuracy and inter-observer variability of prostate tumour volume estimation based on separate expert contouring of T2-weighted (T2W), dynamic contrastenhanced (DCE), and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI sequences acquired using an endorectal coil at 3T is currently unknown. We investigated this question using a histologic reference standard based on a highly accurate MPMRIhistology image registration and a smooth interpolation of planimetric tumour measurements on histology. Our results showed that prostate tumour volumes estimated based on MPMRI consistently overestimated histological reference tumour volumes. The variability of tumour volume estimates across the different pulse sequences exceeded interobserver variability within any sequence. Tumour volume estimates on DCE MRI provided the lowest inter-observer variability and the highest correlation with histology tumour volumes, whereas the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provided the lowest volume estimation error. If validated on a larger data set, the observed correlations could support the development of automated prostate tumour volume segmentation algorithms as well as correction schemes for tumour burden estimation on MPMRI.

  12. Measurements of isocenter path characteristics of the gantry rotation axis with a smartphone application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefer, H., E-mail:; Peters, S.; Plasswilm, L. [Klinik für Radio-Onkologie, Kantonsspital St.Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 107, St.Gallen CH-9007 (Switzerland); Ingulfsen, N.; Kluckert, J. [Kantonsschule am Burggraben St.Gallen, Burggraben 21, St.Gallen CH-9000 (Switzerland)


    Purpose: For stereotactic radiosurgery, the AAPM Report No. 54 [AAPM Task Group 42 (AAPM, 1995)] requires the overall stability of the isocenter (couch, gantry, and collimator) to be within a 1 mm radius. In reality, a rotating system has no rigid axis and thus no isocenter point which is fixed in space. As a consequence, the isocenter concept is reviewed here. It is the aim to develop a measurement method following the revised definitions. Methods: The mechanical isocenter is defined here by the point which rotates on the shortest path in the room coordinate system. The path is labeled as “isocenter path.” Its center of gravity is assumed to be the mechanical isocenter. Following this definition, an image-based and radiation-free measurement method was developed. Multiple marker pairs in a plane perpendicular to the assumed gantry rotation axis of a linear accelerator are imaged with a smartphone application from several rotation angles. Each marker pair represents an independent measuring system. The room coordinates of the isocenter path and the mechanical isocenter are calculated based on the marker coordinates. The presented measurement method is by this means strictly focused on the mechanical isocenter. Results: The measurement result is available virtually immediately following completion of measurement. When 12 independent measurement systems are evaluated, the standard deviations of the isocenter path points and mechanical isocenter coordinates are 0.02 and 0.002 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The measurement is highly accurate, time efficient, and simple to adapt. It is therefore suitable for regular checks of the mechanical isocenter characteristics of the gantry and collimator rotation axis. When the isocenter path is reproducible and its extent is in the range of the needed geometrical accuracy, it should be taken into account in the planning process. This is especially true for stereotactic treatments and radiosurgery.

  13. Pretreatment Serum Cystatin C Levels Predict Renal Function, but Not Tumor Characteristics, in Patients with Prostate Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Yang


    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of Cystatin C (Cys-C in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa, we retrospectively collected the clinical information from the records of 492 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 48 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and 173 PCa patients, whose disease was newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed. Pretreatment serum Cys-C levels were compared across the various groups and then analyzed to identify relationships, if any, with clinical and pathological characteristics of the PCa patient group. There were no significant differences in serum Cys-C levels among the three groups (P > 0.05. In PCa patients with normal SCr levels, patient age was correlated with serum Cys-C level (P ≤ 0.001 but did not correlate with alkaline phosphatase (AKP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, or bone metastasis status (P > 0.05. Age and SCr contributed in part to the variations in serum Cys-C levels of PCa patients (r = 0.356, P ≤ 0.001; r = 0.520, P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, serum Cys-C levels predict renal function in patients with prostate neoplasia, but were not a biomarker for the development of prostate neoplasia, and were not correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.

  14. Determining Physical Characteristics of Coronal Loops Through Differential Emission Measure Analysis (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schemlz, J. T.; Allen, J. D.; Hubbard, P. J.


    Through the use of differential emission measure curves for points along coronal loops on the limb, physical characteristics can be determined that will help further constrain current theoretical models. This study used data obtained from observations taken on 20 Apr 1998 and 13 Nov 1997 by both the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer and the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. Pixel coordinates were established for multiple points along each loop, and the intensities of different spectral lines were calculated for each pixel. Differential emission measures curves were constructed for each of the chosen points, and the density and pressure at each position was determined. Radiative and conductive losses are also calculated from the data. The arc length of the loop was measured and the temperature scale heights for specific ions were calculated and compared to the observed heights above the limb. A significant intensity is measured for the O V line at 629.73 angstroms with a peak formation temperature of T = .26 MK in both loops about 50 scale heights above the limb. In order to account for these O V intensities, the oxygen abundance must be enhanced by a factor of 10 to 40 above normal coronal values; or the cool end (below 1 MK) of the differential emission measure curves must turn up again, even for the pixels at the top of the loops, well off the limb.

  15. TU-CD-BRB-09: Prediction of Chemo-Radiation Outcome for Rectal Cancer Based On Radiomics of Tumor Clinical Characteristics and Multi-Parametric MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, K; Yue, N [Department of Radiaiton Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Shi, L; Hu, X; Chen, Q; Sun, X; Niu, T [Sir RunRun Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)


    Purpose: To evaluate the tumor clinical characteristics and quantitative multi-parametric MR imaging features for prediction of response to chemo-radiation treatment (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients (59.7±6.9 years, from 09/2013 – 06/2014) receiving neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. All underwent MRI including anatomical T1/T2, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE)-MRI and Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DWI) prior to the treatment. A total of 151 quantitative features, including morphology/Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture from T1/T2, enhancement kinetics and the voxelized distribution from DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DWI, along with clinical information (carcinoembryonic antigen CEA level, TNM staging etc.), were extracted for each patient. Response groups were separated based on down-staging, good response and pathological complete response (pCR) status. Logistic regression analysis (LRA) was used to select the best predictors to classify different groups and the predictive performance were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Individual imaging category or clinical charateristics might yield certain level of power in assessing the response. However, the combined model outperformed than any category alone in prediction. With selected features as Volume, GLCM AutoCorrelation (T2), MaxEnhancementProbability (DCE-MRI), and MeanADC (DWI), the down-staging prediciton accuracy (area under the ROC curve, AUC) could be 0.95, better than individual tumor metrics with AUC from 0.53–0.85. While for the pCR prediction, the best set included CEA (clinical charateristics), Homogeneity (DCE-MRI) and MeanADC (DWI) with an AUC of 0.89, more favorable compared to conventional tumor metrics with an AUC ranging from 0.511–0.79. Conclusion: Through a systematic analysis of multi-parametric MR imaging features, we are able to build models with

  16. Channel Temperature Measurement of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by Forward Schottky Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Chen; FENG Shi-Wei; HU Pei-Feng; ZHAO Yan; GUO Chun-Sheng; XU Yang; CHEN Tang-Sheng; JIANG Yi-Jian


    Channel temperature measurements of multi-finger AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by forward Schottky characteristics are presented. The temperature dependence of the forward gate-source Schottky junction voltage is investigated and it is used as the temperature sensitive parameter (TSP) by pulsed switching technique. The channel-to-mounting thermal resistance of the tested AlGaN/GaN HEMT sample is 19.6℃/W. Compared with both the measured results by micro-Raman method and simulated results of a three-dimensional heat conduction model, the physical meaning of the channel temperature for AlGaN/GaN HEMT tested by pulsed switching electrical TSP method is investigated quantitatively for the first time.

  17. Experimental Study of Imbibition Characteristics of Silica Sol in Coal-Measure Mudstone Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan


    Full Text Available Coal-measure mudstone is a typical dual-porosity media, and grouting in a matrix system is dominantly controlled by the imbibition effect for silica sol. This paper studies the imbibition effect using mudstone in the Huaibei mining area and silica sol as grouting material as an example. Groutability, driving force, and diffusion difficulty affecting the imbibition effect were tested by a mercury porosimeter, nanoparticle size analyzer, optical contact-angle measuring device, surface tension meter, and rotary viscosity meter. After finely grinding a mudstone sample, a pressureless imbibition process was conducted through nuclear magnetic resonance equipment for 216 h to study colloid spontaneous migration and phase characteristics. Results show that silica sol absorption rate follows a power function and that the spectrograms of T2 are distributed in a triple peak pattern, with a tendency to move to the right of vertex time. The paper lays a theoretical and experimental foundation for field grouting in the coal mine.

  18. Measurements of control stability characteristics of a wind-tunnel model using a transfer function method (United States)

    Chopra, I.; Ballard, J. D.


    Recent state-of-the-art techniques in rotor systems include the use of active feedback to augment the dynamic control characteristics of an aircraft system. A recent test of a stoppable rotor with blade circulation blowing was conducted in the Ames Research Center's 40by 80-ft wind tunnel. A major part of the test schedule was dedicated to the acquisition of data to determine the stability of a closed-loop hub-moment feedback control system. Therefore, the open-loop control response was measured at several flight conditions to ascertain the stability of the system prior to the final closed-loop feedback control test. Measurements were made during both the stopped and rotating rotor modes, and open-loop Bode plots were obtained for the control loops associated with the moments about the longitudinal and lateral axis.

  19. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular measurements and semen characteristics in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). (United States)

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Magyar, S J; Coscarelli, K P; Grant, W E


    Blood samples and testicular measurements were obtained from 4-8 captive adult collared peccaries monthly for 18 months and from wild adult males during summer (N = 16) and winter (N = 22) seasons. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen samples were collected monthly by electroejaculation from captive males for 1 year. Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular measurements varied in a low-amplitude circannual pattern, with maximum mean testosterone concentrations in fall and winter (1150-1400 pg/ml) and minimum values in summer (500-700 pg/ml). Circannual rhythms appeared to be related to dominance. Serum testosterone levels in wild males generally were lower than in captive males, although this difference was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Semen characteristics did not exhibit a circannual rhythm. These results suggest that the male peccary remains reproductively fertile throughout the year, yet may undergo a facultative summer quiescence influenced by ambient temperature and social factors.

  20. A study on the linearity characteristics of neutron power measurement system for Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tai Ki; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Jun


    It is briefly described the general principles of neutron detection and the method of neutron measurement in the nuclear reactor which neutron flux varies widely and gamma radiation also exists. Wide-range Fission Chamber System which is excellent in electrical and mechanical performances has been selected for neutron power measurement system for Hanaro. The linearity characteristics of neutron power signals is a critical factor of the reliability in reactor power control. In particular , the linearity of the log power signal, which covers 10 decade form 10 {sup -8} %FP to 200 %FP was a matter of primary concern during commissioning. In case of the linear power signal for reactor control at high power condition, the output signals were additionally analyzed in connection with the reactor thermal power and the delayed neutron signal from the primary pipe as well asthe output signal from the compensated ion chamber as a reference signal. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 33 figs.

  1. Development and psychometric properties of a new measure for memory phenomenology: The Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire. (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Inci; Akfirat, Serap


    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measure for the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. The psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (AMCQ) were tested in three studies: the factor structure of the AMCQ was examined for childhood memories in Study 1 (N = 305); for autobiographical memories related to romantic relationships in Study 2 (N = 197); and for self-defining memories in Study 3 (N = 262). The explanatory factor analyses performed for each memory type demonstrated the consistency of the AMCQ factor structure across all memory types; while a confirmatory factor analysis on the data garnered from all three studies supported the constructs for the autobiographical memory characteristics defined by the researchers. The AMCQ consists of 63 items and 14 factors, and the internal consistency values of all 14 scales were ranged between .66 and .97. The relationships between the AMCQ scales related to gender and individual emotions, as well as the intercorrelations among the scales, were consistent with both theoretical expectations and previous findings. The results of all the three studies indicated that this new instrument is a reliable and robust measure for memory phenomenology.

  2. Determination of thermal/dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander; Tsepelev, Igor; Kovtunov, Dmitry


    Rapid development of ground based thermal cameras, drones and satellite data allows getting repeated thermal images of the surface of the lava flow. Available instrumentation allows getting a large amount of data during a single lava flow eruption. These data require development of appropriate quantitative techniques to link subsurface dynamics with observations. We present a new approach to assimilation of thermal measurements at lava's surface to the bottom of the lava flow to determine lava's thermal and dynamic characteristics. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. Using an adjoint method we develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem based on the determination of the missing boundary condition and lava flow characteristics. Numerical results show that in the case of smooth input data lava temperature and velocity can be determined with a high accuracy. A noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. The proposed approach to assimilate measured data brings an opportunity to estimate thermal budget of the lava flow.

  3. Simulation and Measurement of Neuroelectrodes' Characteristics with Integrated High Aspect Ratio Nano Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nick


    Full Text Available Improving the interface between electrodes and neurons has been the focus of research for the last decade. Neuroelectrodes should show small geometrical surface area and low impedance for measuring and high charge injection capacities for stimulation. Increasing the electrochemically active surface area by using nanoporous electrode material or by integrating nanostructures onto planar electrodes is a common approach to improve this interface. In this paper a simulation approach for neuro electrodes' characteristics with integrated high aspect ratio nano structures based on a point-contact-model is presented. The results are compared with experimental findings conducted with real nanostructured microelectrodes. In particular, effects of carbon nanotubes and gold nanowires integrated onto microelectrodes are described. Simulated and measured impedance properties are presented and its effects onto the transfer function between the neural membrane potential and the amplifier output signal are studied based on the point-contact-model. Simulations show, in good agreement with experimental results, that electrode impedances can be dramatically reduced by the integration of high aspect ratio nanostructures such as gold nanowires and carbon nanotubes. This lowers thermal noise and improves the signal-to-noise ratio for measuring electrodes. It also may increase the adhesion of cells to the substrate and thus increase measurable signal amplitudes.

  4. Effects of Blowing Ratio Measured by Liquid Crystal on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Trailing Edge Cutback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hepeng; Zhu Huiren; Kong Manzhao


    This article deals with the effects of a blowing ratio measured with narrowbend liquid crystal in transonic experiments on the heat transfer characteristics of trailing edge cutback. The experimental results are compared end contrasted in terms of available data for tra-ditional experiments with thermocouples. It is concluded that the blowing ratio exerts rather significant effects on film cooling effec-tiveness distribution of the rib center line. As the blowing ratio decreases, similar to the cooling effectiveness distribution curve of the slot center line, that of the rib center line makes a clockwise rotation about the end. When the blowing ratio increases, the regular film cooling effectiveness curve of the surface becomes rather smooth. On the whole measuring surface, the most intensive heat transfer oc-curs at the extended borderline of the slot end the rib, neither at the rib center line nor at the slot center line. The experimental results of cooling effectiveness measured with thermocouples are lower than those with liquid crystal. In addition, the transient experiments using narrowband liquid crystal can eliminate the higher errors of Nusselt numbers in measurements with thermocouples at the slot outlet.

  5. Forma tumoral da esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar: relato de caso e medida dos granulomas The tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis: case report and measure of granulomas


    Pedro Raso; Alexandre Tafuri; Ney da Fonseca Lopes; Eduardo Rossi Monteiro; Wagner Luiz Tafuri


    Caso raro de forma tumoral da esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar diagnosticada pela biópsia, em um paciente de 15 anos, que apresentou sinais e sintomas neurológicos 60 dias antes da cirurgia. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão expansiva, hiperdensa, localizada no cerebelo, sugestiva de glioma. O exame histopatológico mostrou numerosos ovos de S. mansoni envolvidos por reação inflamatória granulomatosa na fase necrótico-exsudativa, confluentes, localizados principalmente na camada inte...

  6. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  7. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya


    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo. For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin–Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells. PMID:26019631

  8. Ionospheric tomography by gradient-enhanced kriging with STEC measurements and ionosonde characteristics (United States)

    Minkwitz, David; van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald; Gerzen, Tatjana; Hoque, Mainul; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel


    The estimation of the ionospheric electron density by kriging is based on the optimization of a parametric measurement covariance model. First, the extension of kriging with slant total electron content (STEC) measurements based on a spatial covariance to kriging with a spatial-temporal covariance model, assimilating STEC data of a sliding window, is presented. Secondly, a novel tomography approach by gradient-enhanced kriging (GEK) is developed. Beyond the ingestion of STEC measurements, GEK assimilates ionosonde characteristics, providing peak electron density measurements as well as gradient information. Both approaches deploy the 3-D electron density model NeQuick as a priori information and estimate the covariance parameter vector within a maximum likelihood estimation for the dedicated tomography time stamp. The methods are validated in the European region for two periods covering quiet and active ionospheric conditions. The kriging with spatial and spatial-temporal covariance model is analysed regarding its capability to reproduce STEC, differential STEC and foF2. Therefore, the estimates are compared to the NeQuick model results, the 2-D TEC maps of the International GNSS Service and the DLR's Ionospheric Monitoring and Prediction Center, and in the case of foF2 to two independent ionosonde stations. Moreover, simulated STEC and ionosonde measurements are used to investigate the electron density profiles estimated by the GEK in comparison to a kriging with STEC only. The results indicate a crucial improvement in the initial guess by the developed methods and point out the potential compensation for a bias in the peak height hmF2 by means of GEK.

  9. Flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.


    Flight measurements of lift, drag, and angle of attack were obtained for the XB-70 airplane, a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane. This airplane had a length of over 57 meters, a takeoff gross mass of over 226,800 kilograms, and a design cruise speed of Mach 3 at an altitude of 21,340 meters. The performance measurements were made at Mach numbers from 0.72 to 3.07 and altitudes from approximately 7620 meters to 21,340 meters. The measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the techniques presently being used to design and predict the performance of aircraft in this category. Such performance characteristics as drag polars, lift-curve slopes, and maximum lift-to-drag ratios were derived from the flight data. The base drag of the airplane, changes in airplane drag with changes in engine power setting at transonic speeds, and the magnitude of the drag components of the propulsion system are also discussed.

  10. A Simple Experiment to Determine the Characteristics of an NTC Thermistor for Low-Temperature Measurement Applications (United States)

    Mawire, A.


    A simple low-cost experiment for undergraduate students to determine the characteristics of a negative temperature coefficient of resistance thermistor is presented. The experiment measures the resistance-temperature and voltage-temperature characteristics of the thermistor. Results of the resistance-temperature experiment are used to determine…

  11. A Simple Experiment to Determine the Characteristics of an NTC Thermistor for Low-Temperature Measurement Applications (United States)

    Mawire, A.


    A simple low-cost experiment for undergraduate students to determine the characteristics of a negative temperature coefficient of resistance thermistor is presented. The experiment measures the resistance-temperature and voltage-temperature characteristics of the thermistor. Results of the resistance-temperature experiment are used to determine…

  12. Middle School Characteristics That Predict Student Achievement, as Measured by the School-Wide California API Score (United States)

    Paredes, Josie Abaroa


    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through quantitative research, effective middle school characteristics that predict student achievement, as measured by the school-wide California API score. Characteristics were determined using an instrument developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), which asked middle…

  13. Study on Thermal Degradation Characteristics and Regression Rate Measurement of Paraffin-Based Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqi Hu


    Full Text Available Paraffin fuel has been found to have a regression rate that is higher than conventional HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel and, thus, presents itself as an ideal energy source for a hybrid rocket engine. The energy characteristics of paraffin-based fuel and HTPB fuel have been calculated by the method of minimum free energy. The thermal degradation characteristics were measured for paraffin, pretreated paraffin, HTPB and paraffin-based fuel in different working conditions by the using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The regression rates of paraffin-based fuel and HTPB fuel were tested by a rectangular solid-gas hybrid engine. The research findings showed that: the specific impulse of paraffin-based fuel is almost the same as that of HTPB fuel; the decomposition temperature of pretreated paraffin is higher than that of the unprocessed paraffin, but lower than that of HTPB; with the increase of paraffin, the initial reaction exothermic peak of paraffin-based fuel is reached in advance, and the initial reaction heat release also increases; the regression rate of paraffin-based fuel is higher than the common HTPB fuel under the same conditions; with the increase of oxidizer mass flow rate, the regression rate of solid fuel increases accordingly for the same fuel formulation.

  14. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements (United States)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg


    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  15. LDA measurements on the turbulent flow characteristics of a small-sized axial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Kweon [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The operating point of a small-sized axial fan for refrigerator is strongly dependent upon the system resistance. Therefore, the turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan may change significantly according to the operating point. This study represents three-dimensional turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan measured at the four operating points such as {phi}=0.1, 0.18, 0.25 and 0.32 by using fiber-optic type LDA system. This LDA system is composed of a 5 W Argon-ion laser, two optics in back-scatter mode, three BSA's, a PC, and a three-dimensional automatic traversing system. A kind of paraffin fluid is utilized for supplying particles by means of fog generator. Mean velocity profiles downstream of a small--sized axial fan along the radial distance show that both the streamwise and the tangential components exist predominantly in downstream except {phi}=0.1 and have a maximum value at the radial distance ratio of about 0.8, but the radial component, which its velocity is relatively small, is acting role that only turns flow direction to the outside or the central part of axial fan. Moreover, all of the velocity components downstream at {phi}=0.1 show much smaller than those upstream due to the static pressure rise at the low-flowrate region.

  16. Characteristics of a hot-wire microsensor for time-dependent wall shear stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefdahl, L.; Chernoray, V. [Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden); Haasl, S.; Stemme, G. [Department of Signals, Sensors and Systems, Microsystem Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044, Stockholm (Sweden); Sen, M. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 46556, Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    Hot-wire microsensors for the purpose of measuring the instantaneous velocity gradient close to a wall were designed and their characteristics were evaluated. The sensors were made using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, which permits the fabrication of various microgeometrical configurations with high precision and good repeatability. The design is based on estimates of the heat rates from the sensor wire to the air, through the supports, and to the wall. Several hot-wire configurations were fabricated with wires positioned in the range 50-250 {mu}m from the wall. Requirements for the design and details of the fabrication methodology are outlined. The hot-wire microsensors were calibrated and tested in a flat-plate boundary layer with and without pressure gradients and were found to have good steady-state characteristics. In addition, the developed sensors were used for preliminary studies of transitional phenomena and turbulence, and the sensors were found to have a good time-dependent response as well. (orig.)

  17. Measured opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened diaphragm for the Langley expansion tunnel (United States)

    Moore, J. A.


    Results from an experimental study of the opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened, 15.24 cm diameter diaphragm are presented. This diaphragm consists of a polyester film bonded to a preformed wire and is opened by passing a current pulse (capacitor discharge) through the wire. The diaphragm separates the acceleration section of the expansion tunnel from the nozzle so that the nozzle may be at a lower pressure than the acceleration section prior to a test. Opening times and cleanness of the opened area were examined for dependence on diaphragm thickness, on wire diameter, on technique of bonding the wire to the diaphragm, and on voltage and energy level of the energy source. Time histories of the pitot pressure measured at the expansion-tunnel nozzle entrance location are presented for (1) no diaphragm, (2) a flow-opened diaphragm, and (3) an electromagnetically opened diaphragm.

  18. Measurement of nonlinear coefficient and phase matching characteristics of AgGaS sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canarelli, P.; Benko, Z.; Hielscher, A.H.; Curl, R.F.; Tittle, F.K. (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice Quantum Inst., Rice Univ., Houston, TX (US))


    This paper reports on a nonlinear optical characteristics of AgGaS{sub 2} that were investigated by measuring visible parametric fluorescence with a pump wavelength of 600 nm. A value of d{sub 36}(AgGaS{sub 2}) = 31 {plus minus} 5 10{sup {minus}12} m/V for the nonlinear coefficient was determined. The temperature dependence of phase matching up to 100{degrees}C was studied. A significant temperature effect, although much smaller than the LiNbO{sub 3}, was found and results in a change in the infrared difference frequency generated of {approximately}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1} {center dot} {degrees}C{sup {minus}1}.

  19. Characteristic absorption peak of the human blood measured with differential photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new highly sensitive spectroscopy technique- differential photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is presented in this paper. The blood samples from 3 healthy persons, patients with leukemia, patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and 40 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured by the PAS technique. The normalized, the first order, and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy of the blood were gained. The results show that (ⅰ) weak absorption peaks or shoulder peaks, which could not be found using conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy, were determined by the first order and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy which significantly improve the sensitivity of detection; and (ii) that two characteristic absorption peaks were found at the wavelength of 637 and 664 nm in all persons' blood samples by the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. This experiment concludes that the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique is superior to the conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in detecting photoacoustic spectroscopy of biological samples.

  20. Electron scattering characteristics of polycrystalline metal transition films by in-situ electrical resistance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, I.G. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Physics Department, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail:; Leitao, D. [IFIMUP and IN, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Fermento, R. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Pogorelev, Y.; Sousa, J.B. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Physics Department, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)


    In-situ electrical resistance measurements were performed to obtain the scattering characteristics of very thin polycrystalline metal transition magnetic alloys grown by ion beam deposition (IBD) on specific underlayers. The experimental curves show size effects at small film thicknesses and important differences between Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15} and Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} thin layers grown on identical underlayers of Ta70 A/Ru13 A. The largest difference was observed in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} films grown on underlayers of amorphous Ta70 A. The experimental curves of electrical resistivity/conductivity variation with layer thickness were well fit within the Mayadas and Shatzkes (M-S) model, assuming specific formulations for grain growth with layer thickness.

  1. Measurement of beam characteristics from C{sup 6+} laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, A., E-mail:; Sako, K.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hattori, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    We developed a C{sup 6+} laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  2. Measurement of Solar Cell Parameters with Dark Forward I-V Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salinger


    Full Text Available The grade of a solar cell depends mainly on the quality of the starting material. During the production of this material, many impurities are left in the bulk material and form defect levels in the band-gap, which act as generation-recombination centers or charge carrier traps. These levels influence the efficiency of solar cells. Therefore knowledge of the parameters of these levels, e.g., energy position, capture cross section and concentration, is very useful for solar cell engineering. In this paper emphasis is placed on a simple and fast method for obtaining these parameters, namely measurements of dark characteristics. Preliminary results are introduced, together with the difficulties and limits of this method. 

  3. XA readout chip characteristics and CdZnTe spectral measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, L.M.; Birsa, F.; Odom, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others


    The authors report on the performance of a CdZnTe (CZT) array readout by an XA (X-ray imaging chip produced at the AMS foundry) application specific readout chip (ASIC). The array was designed and fabricated at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a prototype for the Burst Arc-Second Imaging and Spectroscopy gamma-ray instrument. The XA ASIC was obtained from Integrated Detector and Electronics (IDE), in Norway. Performance characteristics and spectral data for {sup 241}Am are presented both at room temperature and at {minus}20 C. The measured noise ({sigma}) was 2.5 keV at 60 keV at room temperature. This paper represents a progress report on work with the XA ASIC and CZT detectors. Work is continuing and in particular, larger arrays are planned for future NASA missions.

  4. 儿童卵黄囊瘤病理学特征及鉴别诊断%Pathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumor in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恪淳; 管雯斌; 许艳春; 姚晓虹; 王立峰; 祝明洁


    Objective To investigate the pathological features of yolk sac tumor ( YST) in children, determine the immunohistochemical characteristics and their role in pathological diagnosis of YST, and discuss the differential diagnosis of YST. Methods The clinical data of 21 cases of YST were retrospectively summarized, among which 8 were concerned with gonad, and the other 13 non-gonad. The characteristics of histology and immunohistochemical staining were observed. Results There were various pathological organizations for YST. There was micro capsule and reticular structure in 17 cases, embryo sinus structure in 16 cases, gland tube-gland bubble structure in 10 cases, papillary structure in 8 cases, giant cystic structure in 3 cases, intestinal type structure in 3 cases, polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure in 2 cases and mucus tumor sample structure in 1 case. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the positive expression rate of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 95. 24% (20/21), that of cytokeratin ( CK) was 100% (21/21), and that of vimentin ( Vim) was 76. 19% (16/21) . Conclusion Besides gonad (testis and ovary), YST in children can also involve non-gonad parts such as sacroiliac region, abdominopelvic cavity, cerebellum and soft tissues. The histological features of YST are diverse, which are characterized by the common structures such as micro capsule and reticular structure, inner embryo sinus structure, gland tube-gland bubble structure and papillary structure and rare structures such as giant cystic structure, intestinal type structure, mucus tumor sample structure and polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure. Histomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical findings may help to determine the pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of YST.%目的 了解儿童卵黄囊瘤(YST)的组织形态学特征,明确免疫组织化学特点及其在YST病理学诊断中的作用,探讨YST鉴别诊断要点.方法 回顾总结21例YST(性腺8

  5. Performance characteristics of a new automated method for measurement of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. (United States)

    Noordegraaf, Madelon; Wolthuis, Albert; Peters, Frans; de Groot, Monique; Hoedemakers, Rein


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory auto-immune disease affecting approximately 1%-2% of the population worldwide. RA is a potentially crippling disease since it results in malformation of the joints. RA is mostly diagnosed based on clinical manifestations but serological tests against autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (aCCP), are available. The presence of aCCP antibodies is strongly associated with a more severe, destructive disease course. Recently, a new test for the measurement of aCCP antibodies on the IMMULITE 2000(XPi) platform was developed by Siemens Healthcare. In this study we investigated the performance characteristics of this new aCCP test in four different hospital laboratories and compared the new test with three different commercially available platforms. Samples were collected from patients presented to the hospital for aCCP measurement. Serum aCCP levels were determined by aCCP (Ig)G assay for IMMULITE 2000(XPi) systems (Siemens Healthcare), ImmunoScan RA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (Eurodiagnostica), Immunocap 250 (Thermofisher) or aCCP IgG assay on the Modular system (Roche Diagnostics). The evaluation protocol consisted of within-run imprecision (20 sequential runs), between-run imprecision (16 workdays), comparison of serum and plasma measurement and method comparison. The within-run imprecision (n=20) for aCCP IgG assay on three different IMMULITE 2000(XPi) systems ranged from 3.0% to 6.9% at levels 3.2-171.2 U/mL. Between-run imprecision (n=16 days) ranged from 5.2% to 11% at levels of 3.2-106.9 U/mL. Method comparison showed good correlation when samples were measured on two different Immulite analyzers in two different hospital laboratories [0.21+0.96x (n=40)]. Method comparison of the IMMULITE 2000(XPi) aCCP test with aCCP on Immunoscan RA ELISA (n=112), Immunocap 250 (n=105) and the Modular system (n=289) resulted in a concordance of 90.2%, 93.3% and 94

  6. Reproducibility of 18F-FDG and 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine PET tumor volume measurements. (United States)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine; Aboagye, Eric O; Kenny, Laura M; Rosso, Lula; Turkheimer, Federico E; Albarghach, Nidal M; Metges, Jean-Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris


    The objective of this study was to establish the repeatability and reproducibility limits of several volume-related PET image-derived indices-namely tumor volume (TV), mean standardized uptake value, total glycolytic volume (TGV), and total proliferative volume (TPV)-relative to those of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)), commonly used in clinical practice. Fixed and adaptive thresholding, fuzzy C-means, and fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian methodology were considered for TV delineation. Double-baseline (18)F-FDG (17 lesions, 14 esophageal cancer patients) and 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) (12 lesions, 9 breast cancer patients) PET scans, acquired at a mean interval of 4 d and before any treatment, were used for reproducibility evaluation. The repeatability of each method was evaluated for the same datasets and compared with manual delineation. A negligible variability of less than 5% was measured for all segmentation approaches in comparison to manual delineation (5%-35%). SUV(max) reproducibility levels were similar to others previously reported, with a mean percentage difference of 1.8% +/- 16.7% and -0.9% +/- 14.9% for the (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT lesions, respectively. The best TV, TGV, and TPV reproducibility limits ranged from -21% to 31% and -30% to 37% for (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT images, respectively, whereas the worst reproducibility limits ranged from -90% to 73% and -68% to 52%, respectively. The reproducibility of estimating TV, mean standardized uptake value, and derived TGV and TPV was found to vary among segmentation algorithms. Some differences between (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT scans were observed, mainly because of differences in overall image quality. The smaller reproducibility limits for volume-derived image indices were similar to those for SUV(max), suggesting that the use of appropriate delineation tools should allow the determination of tumor functional volumes in PET images in a repeatable and reproducible fashion.

  7. SU-C-BRE-05: PTV Margin Determination Based On Tumor Radiobiological Characteristics and Geometric Uncertainties Derived From Daily Cone- Beam CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, J [Inlaks and Budhrani Hospital (India)


    Purpose: To determine required PTV margins for ≤1% loss in mean population TCP using systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors calculated from daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of head and neck patients. Methods: Daily CBCT images were acquired for 50 head and neck patients. The CBCT image sets acquired at each fraction were registered with planning CT to obtain positional errors for each patient for each fraction. Systematic and random errors were calculated from data collected for 50 patients as described in IPEM On Target report. CTV delineation uncertainty of 2mm is added quadratically to systematic error. Assuming a spherical target volume, the dose in each voxel of target volume is summed for each fraction in the treatment by shifting the dose grid to calculate mean population TCP inclusive of geometric uncertainties using a Monte Carlo method. These simulations were repeated for the set of Σ and σ in each axis for different PTV margins and drop in TCP for each margin are obtained. In order to study the effect of dose-response curve on PTV margins, two different σα of 0.048 Gy-1 and 0.218 Gy-1 representing steep and shallow dose-response curves are studied. Σ were 2.5, 2.5, 2.1 mm and σ were 0.3, 0.3 0.2 mm respectively in x, y and z axis respectively. Results: PTV margins based on tumor radiobiological characteristics are 4.8, 4.8 and 4 mm in x, y and z axis assuming 25 treatment fractions for σα 0.048 Gy-1 (steep) and 4.2,4.2 and 2.2 for σα of 0.218 Gy-1 (shallow). While the TCP-based margins did not differ much in x and y axis, it is considerably smaller in z axis for shallow DRC. Conclusion: TCP based margins are substantially smaller than physical dose-based margin recipes. This study also demonstrates the importance of considering tumor radiobiological characteristics while deriving margins.

  8. C 2-C 10 nonmethane hydrocarbons measured in Dallas, USA—Seasonal trends and diurnal characteristics (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Walk, T.; Gary, R.; Yao, X.; Elles, S.

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are important precursors of ozone and other photo oxidants. We presented continuous hourly average concentrations of 45 C 2-C 10 NMHCs measured in urban area of Dallas, USA from 1996 to 2004. Most of the selected compounds are good variables with less noise. The top 10 species with high ozone-generating potential were identified according to their concentrations and reactivities. The ambient concentrations of abundant anthropogenic emission hydrocarbons measured in Dallas were about 2-4 times of the background values measured in the remote areas with adjacent latitude. The time series for anthropogenic emission hydrocarbons showed an obvious seasonal cycle with relatively high concentration in winter and low concentration in summer. The sinusoidal function with a linearly decreasing factor could well fit the time series of NMHCs. The phase of seasonal cycle for the aromatic hydrocarbons of toluene, m/ p xylene and o-xylene that might come from both vehicle emission and solvent utilities evaporation was about 1 month earlier than that for alkanes and alkenes that mainly came from vehicle emission. Ambient NMHCs in Dallas decreased with a stable rate during 1996-2004. For most of compounds with high ozone-generating potential, the rate of ambient concentration decrease was higher or much higher than the rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source emission reduction estimated by EPA's National Emission Inventory. On weekdays, the morning hydrocarbon concentration peak was coincident with morning traffic rush time in Dallas. Another concentration peak was delayed to afternoon traffic rush time. The characteristics of VOCs sources, photochemical removal processes and atmospheric dilution could be interpreted by the diurnal variations of benzene/ethylbenzene (B/E), toluene/ethylbenzene (T/E) and xylene/ethylbenzene (X/E). The ratio of VOC/NO x measured in Dallas was substantially smaller than that calculated for USA cities. Ozone

  9. Tumor microcirculation during a course of combined chemoradiation in patients with primary rectal carcinoma measured with dynamic T1 mapping (United States)

    Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; De Vries, Alexander


    A recently introduced dynamic T1 mapping technique was used to investigate changes of tumor microcirculatory parameters in 16 patients with clinically staged T3) primary rectal carcinoma during a course of preoperative combined chemoradiation. For dynamic T1 mapping an ultra-fast snapshot FLASH T1 mapping sequence was implemented on a 1.5T whole body MR scanner. Acquiring a series of T1 maps contrast media (CM) uptake and washout over an examination time of 40 min was monitored. From the obtained series of T1-maps perfusion-indices (PI) were calculated as the ratio of maximum slope of the tumor CM curve and the maximum of the arterial CM curve. Using pathologic classification of the resected tumors after therapy the patient group could be divided into patients with and without response to therapy. It was found that mean pre-therapy PI values of tumors showing therapy-response were significantly lower than for tumors without no therapy-response. In addition a different behavior of PI distributions within tumors for both groups was observed. The presented study indicates that PI values and their distributions within a tumor seem to be of predictive value for therapy outcome of preoperative therapy in patients with primary rectal carcinoma.

  10. Relationship between diffusion parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion MRI and perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of soft tissue tumors. (United States)

    Marzi, Simona; Stefanetti, Linda; Sperati, Francesca; Anelli, Vincenzo


    Our aim was to evaluate the link between diffusion parameters measured by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the perfusion metrics obtained with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in soft tissue tumors (STTs). Twenty-eight patients affected by histopathologically confirmed STT were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent both DCE MRI and IVIM DWI. The perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D and perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D* were estimated using a bi-exponential function to fit the DWI data. DCE MRI was acquired with a temporal resolution of 3-5 s. Maps of the initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (IAUGC), time to peak (TTP) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were derived using commercial software. The relationships between the DCE MRI and IVIM DWI measurements were assessed by Spearman's test. To exclude false positive results under multiple testing, the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure was applied. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the differences between all variables in patients with non-myxoid and myxoid STT. No significant relationship was found between IVIM parameters and any DCE MRI parameters. Higher f and D*f values were found in non-myxoid tumors compared with myxoid tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). MSI was significantly higher in non-myxoid tumors than in myxoid tumors (p = 0.029). From the visual assessments of single clinical cases, both f and D*f maps were in satisfactory agreement with DCE maps in the extreme cases of an avascular mass and a highly vascularized mass, whereas, for tumors with slight vascularity or with a highly heterogeneous perfusion pattern, this association was not straightforward. Although IVIM DWI was demonstrated to be feasible in STT, our data did not support evident relationships between perfusion-related IVIM parameters and perfusion measured by DCE MRI.

  11. Vibration characteristics measurement of beam-like structures using infrared thermography (United States)

    Talai, S. M.; Desai, D. A.; Heyns, P. S.


    Infrared thermography (IRT) has matured and is now widely accepted as a condition monitoring tool where temperature is measured in a non-contact way. Since the late 1970s, it has been extensively used in vibrothermography (Sonic IR) non-destructive technique for the evaluation of surface cracks through the observation of thermal imaging of the vibration-induced crack heat generation. However, it has not received research attention on prediction of structural vibration behaviour, hence; the concept to date is not understood. Therefore, this paper explores its ability to fill the existing knowledge gap. To achieve this, two cantilever beam-like structures couple with a friction rod subjected to a forced excitations while infrared cameras capturing the thermal images on the friction interfaces. The analysed frictional temperature evolution using the Matlab Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and the use of the heat conduction equation in conjunction with a finite difference approach successfully identifies the structural vibration characteristics; with maximum error of 0.28% and 20.71% for frequencies and displacements, respectively. These findings are particularly useful in overcoming many limitations inherent in some of the current vibration measuring techniques applied in structural integrity management such as strain gauge failures due to fatigue.

  12. Midiendo la variabilidad en caracteres cualitativos = Measuring variability in qualitative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Basulto Santos


    Full Text Available El estudio de la variabilidad en caracteres categóricos rara vez es abordado. A partir de un enfoque menos usado de la variabilidad en variables cuantitativas, el de la disparidad, distinto al de la dispersión que, por ejemplo, proporciona la varianza, se propone la construcción de dos coeficientes de medida de la variabilidad en variables cualitativas o categóricas a los que llamamos coeficientes de disparidad. La sencillez y proximidad de los mismos permiten que sean abordados en un curso introductorio de estadística descriptiva. Ejemplos sencillos son ofrecidos para introducir las medidas y para, también, que el profesor constate la idea que el alumno tiene sobre variabilidad, dispersión y disparidad.The study of variability in categorical characteristics is rarely discussed. From a less used viewpoint of variability in quantitative variables, as it is the one of dissimilarity, which is different from the dispersion that, for example, the variance provides, we propose the construction of two coefficients that measure the variability in qualitative or categorical variables, which we call coefficients of dissimilarity. Simple examples are provided to introduce the measures, so that the teacher can also evaluate the idea students have about variability, dispersion and dissimilarity.

  13. Midiendo la variabilidad en caracteres cualitativos = Measuring variability in qualitative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Basulto Santos


    Full Text Available El estudio de la variabilidad en caracteres categóricos rara vez es abordado. A partir de un enfoque menos usado de la variabilidad en variables cuantitativas, el de la disparidad, distinto al de la dispersión que, por ejemplo, proporciona la varianza, se propone la construcción de dos coeficientes de medida de la variabilidad en variables cualitativas o categóricas a los que llamamos coeficientes de disparidad. La sencillez y proximidad de los mismos permiten que sean abordados en un curso introductorio de estadística descriptiva. Ejemplos sencillos son ofrecidos para introducir las medidas y para, también, que el profesor constate la idea que el alumno tiene sobre variabilidad, dispersión y disparidad. The study of variability in categorical characteristics is rarely discussed. From a less used viewpoint of variability in quantitative variables, as it is the one of dissimilarity, which is different from the dispersion that, for example, the variance provides, we propose the construction of two coefficients that measure the variability in qualitative or categorical variables, which we call coefficients of dissimilarity. Simple examples are provided to introduce the measures, so that the teacher can also evaluate the idea students have about variability, dispersion and dissimilarity.

  14. Applying micro-perforated panels in the measurement of sound source characteristics in a duct system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Su; Goran Pavic; LIU Bilong; LI Xiaodong; TIAN Jing


    In order to measure the acoustic characteristics of the sound source in a duct system effectively without destroying the main duct, micro-perforated panel structures were applied in the new method by attaching the side branch tubes. The effect and influence to change the acoustical impedance of the loads in a duct system was analyzed and simulated for using one layer and double-layer micro-perforated panel and back cavities with different parameters such as panel thickness, hole diameter, perforation ration, back depth and so on. The results show that the load's resistance can be changed efficiently by adjusting panel thickness, hole diameter, perforation ratio, the ratio of cross-section between ducts and tubes and other parameters; and the load's reactance can be changed efficiently by adjusting back depth and distance between micro-perforated panel and main duct. It is also found that combinative usage of one layer and double-layer of these structures can change the reactance substantially in broad frequency domain. The method and the efficient performance of the structures with micro-perforated panel in the measurement were verified by the experiment under the situations of flow and no- flow. Finally, suggestions to design and apply these structures in the above-mentioned method in application were given.

  15. Measurement and analysis on optical characteristics of Aspergillus oryzae spores in infrared band (United States)

    Li, Le; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Chen, Wei; Xu, Shilong; Zhao, Xinying


    Spore is an important part of bioaerosols. The optical characteristics of spore is a crucial parameter for study on bioaerosols. The reflection within the waveband of 2.5 to15μm were measured by squash method. Based on the measured data, Complex refractive index of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14 μm were calculated by using Krames-Kronig (K-K) relationship. Then,the mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14μm were obtained by utilizing Mie scattering theory, and the results were analyzed and discussed. The average mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores is 0.51 m2/g in the range of 3 to 5μm and 0.48m2/g in the range of 8 to 14μm. Compared with common inorganic compounds, Aspergillus oryzae spores possesses a good extinction performance in infrared band.

  16. Effects of sample dimensions and shapes on measuring soilewater characteristic curves using pressure plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Lingwei Kong; Meng Zang


    It is well known that soilewater characteristic curve (SWCC) plays an important role in unsaturated soil mechanics, but the measurement of SWCC is inconvenient. In laboratory it requires days of testing time. For fine-grained clays, it may last for a couple of months using pressure plate tests. In this study, the effects of sample dimensions and shapes on the balance time of measuring SWCCs using pressure plate tests and the shape of SWCCs are investigated. It can be found that the sample dimensions and shapes have apparent influence on the balance time. The testing durations for circular samples with smaller diameters and annular samples with larger contact area are significantly shortened. However, there is little effect of sample dimensions and shapes on the shape of SWCCs. Its mechanism is explored and discussed in details through analysing the principle of pressure plate tests and microstructure of the sample. Based on the above findings, it is found that the circular samples with smaller dimensions can accelerate the testing duration of SWCC using the pressure plate.

  17. Using Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI to Measure Inflammation in Patients With Brain Tumors or Other Conditions of the CNS (United States)


    Brain Injury; Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorder; Central Nervous System Infectious Disorder; Central Nervous System Vascular Malformation; Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident; Primary Brain Neoplasm; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumors

  18. 十二指肠球部癌临床观察(附11例报告)%The clinical characteristics of the malignant tumor of theduodenal bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾月如; 葛相栓; 刘小玲; 李建平; 王慧超


    [目的]分析十二指肠球部癌的内镜及临床特点,以提高对十二指肠癌的认识和早期诊断率.[方法]回顾性分析河南宏力医院2007年1月1日至2012年12月31日经病理确诊为十二指肠球部癌11例患者的临床资料.[结果]首发症状表现为腹痛6例,反酸3例,黑便2例.肿瘤位于十二指肠球部前壁3例,小弯侧4例,后壁2例,弥漫型2例.病理类型腺癌9例,黏液细胞癌1例,鳞状细胞癌1例.11例患者全部经组织学检查确诊.血液肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)检查10例,其中升高8(占72.72%),正常2例.6例患者具有典型的上消化道并发症,分别是食管癌术后复发、食管静脉曲张(重度)、食管高级别上皮内瘤变、胃角癌、贲门癌术后复发、反流性食管炎(LA-D级).治疗方式:外科手术治疗7例,内科化疗2例,保守治疗2例.[结论]十二指肠球部癌的首发症状多为腹痛,病变主要位于前壁及小弯侧,病理类型以腺癌为主,血肿瘤标志物CEA多升高,部分病例并发严重上消化道疾病,治疗方式主要为外科手术.总之,提高对十二指肠球部癌的全面认识,重视上消化道内镜检查及组织学检查,以便提高其诊断率.%[Objective]To analyze the endoscopic and clinical characteristics of the malignant tumor of the duodenal bulb and to improve the diagnosis and treatment.[Methods]The clinical data of eleven cases who suffered from the malignant tumor of the duodenal bulb confirmed by pathology in Henan Honliv Hospital from January 2007 to December 2012 were studied retrospectively,[Results]The primary symptoms of duodenal bulb tumors were abdominal pain in 6 cases,sour regurgitation in 3 cases,and melena in 2 cases.Three of them were located in the antetheca of the duodenal bulb,four were in the lesser curvature side and two in backwall.Two were diffuse type.For the classifications of pathology,nine were adenocarcinoma,one was mucinous cell carcinoma and one was squamous cell

  19. Creativity measured by divergent thinking is associated with two axes of autistic characteristics (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi


    Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas, and it plays a key role in scientific achievement. Moreover, individuals with autistic spectrum conditions (ASCs) tend to achieve in scientific fields. Recently, it has been proposed that low empathizing and high systemizing characterize individuals with ASCs. Empathizing is the drive to identify the mental status of other individuals and respond to it with an appropriate emotion; systemizing is the drive to analyze a system. It has been proposed that this higher systemizing underlies the scientific achievement of individuals with ASCs, suggesting the possible positive association between creativity and systemizing. However, previous findings on the association between ASCs and creativity were conflicting. Conversely, previous studies have suggested an association between prosocial traits and creativity, indicating the possible association between empathizing and creativity. Here we investigated the association between creativity measured by divergent thinking (CDT) and empathizing, systemizing, and the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is called D score. CDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. The individual degree of empathizing (empathizing quotient, EQ) and that of systemizing (systemizing quotient, SQ), and D score was measured via a validated questionnaire (SQ and EQ questionnaires). The results showed that higher CDT was significantly and positively correlated with both the score of EQ and the score of SQ but not with D score. These results suggest that CDT is positively associated with one of the characteristics of ASCs (analytical aspects), while exhibiting a negative association with another (lower social aspects). Therefore, the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing, which is strongly associated with autistic tendency, was not associated with CDT. PMID:25191299

  20. Mechanical and optical characteristics of a new fiber optical system used for cardiac contraction measurement. (United States)

    Kloppe, A; Hoeland, K; Müller, S; Hexamer, M; Nowack, G; Mügge, A; Werner, J


    In order to obtain a better physiological performance and a closer restoration of the regular rhythm of failing hearts, a new fiber optical sensor system for the measurement of cardiac contraction has been developed. It consists of an opto-electrical unit and a sensing fiber which has to be positioned in the heart. The objective of this new fiber optic sensor system is to use the inotropic information to adjust a stimulation algorithm in single or multichamber pacing or to detect arrhythmia in insufficient heart function. In this study, the mechanical and optical characteristics of different fibers are investigated. The relationship between the attenuation (with an achieved numerical maximum of 0.3 dB), the bending diameter and the angle of bending is determined in a range of 20-160 mm. The most suitable fiber for the application in cardiological problems is determined (WT8 fiber), for which the sensitivity is analyzed. Additionally, power spectra are calculated from WT8 fiber signals obtained from pig hearts, working under physiological conditions. The maximal frequency response was 23 Hz. It is concluded that the fiber optical measurement of cardiac contraction is not only feasible and reproducible, but the WT8 fiber also shows optimal behavior in the range of parameters occurring in the heart chambers. Nevertheless, in order to restrict the measured signal reliably to bending processes within the chambers only, it is concluded that a special combined fiber has to be constructed with a high sensitivity only at its terminal section within the heart.

  1. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

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    Hussien, Amr Elsayed M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Furth, Christian [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Schönberger, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, University Children’s Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Hundsdoerfer, Patrick [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charité Campus Virchow, Humboldt-University Berlin, Berlin, 13353 (Germany); Steffen, Ingo G.; Amthauer, Holger [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany)


    Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL) early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18)F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV) but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV). Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV), PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG); Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54) of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in %) were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC)-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0%) but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV.

  3. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elsayed M. Hussien


    Full Text Available Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV. Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV, PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG; Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54 of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in % were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0% but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV.

  4. Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of instruments to measure neck pain disability

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    González Luis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NDI, COM and NPQ are evaluation instruments for disability due to NP. There was no Spanish version of NDI or COM for which psychometric characteristics were known. The objectives of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the Neck Disability Index Questionnaire (NDI, and the Core Outcome Measure (COM, to validate its use in Spanish speaking patients with non-specific neck pain (NP, and to compare their psychometric characteristics with those of the Spanish version of the Northwick Pain Questionnaire (NPQ. Methods Translation/re-translation of the English versions of the NDI and the COM was done blindly and independently by a multidisciplinary team. The study was done in 9 primary care Centers and 12 specialty services from 9 regions in Spain, with 221 acute, subacute and chronic patients who visited their physician for NP: 54 in the pilot phase and 167 in the validation phase. Neck pain (VAS, referred pain (VAS, disability (NDI, COM and NPQ, catastrophizing (CSQ and quality of life (SF-12 were measured on their first visit and 14 days later. Patients' self-assessment was used as the external criterion for pain and disability. In the pilot phase, patients' understanding of each item in the NDI and COM was assessed, and on day 1 test-retest reliability was estimated by giving a second NDI and COM in which the name of the questionnaires and the order of the items had been changed. Results Comprehensibility of NDI and COM were good. Minutes needed to fill out the questionnaires [median, (P25, P75]: NDI. 4 (2.2, 10.0, COM: 2.1 (1.0, 4.9. Reliability: [ICC, (95%CI]: NDI: 0.88 (0.80, 0.93. COM: 0.85 (0.75,0.91. Sensitivity to change: Effect size for patients having worsened, not changed and improved between days 1 and 15, according to the external criterion for disability: NDI: -0.24, 0.15, 0.66; NPQ: -0.14, 0.06, 0.67; COM: 0.05, 0.19, 0.92. Validity: Results of NDI, NPQ and COM were consistent

  5. Atypically localized glomus tumors

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    Meric Ugurlar


    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  6. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.


    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  7. Imaging characteristic of orbital neurogenic tumors and clinical significance%眼眶神经源性肿瘤影像学特征及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳岩; 魏锐利


    目的 探讨超声、CT及MRI对眼眶神经源性肿瘤的诊断价值.方法 收集长征医院眼科2004年1月至2007年11月经手术治疗,具有完整病理资料的眼眶神经源性肿瘤76例,回顾分析超声、CT、MRI检查的影像学表现.结果 各种眼眶肿瘤的影像学表现均有一定的特征性.超声检杳有利于揭示病变内的组织结构.CT利于显示病变的空间位置以及相邻结构的继发改变.MRI即可以显示病变的空间位置、病变蔓延情况.也可以通过显示信号强度提示病变的内部结构.结论 联合应用眼部超声、CT、MRI是发现和诊断眼眶肿瘤的重要检查手段,对大多数肿瘤可以做出明确定性、定位诊断.%Objective To probe value of ultrasound, CT and MRI in diagnosis of four major orbital neurogenic tumors including glioma,optic nerve sheath meningioma,neurilem- morea and neurofibroma. Methods 76 patients with orbital neurogenic tumors underwent operation in Changzheng hospital during January 2004-November 2007.The patients had complete pathological data,which were referred to to evaluate locating and identifying capacity of imaging methods including ultrasound,CT and MR1.Results Some orbital tumours have characteristic manifestations respectively in iconography.The value of ultrasound is that it can reveal the neoplasm structure interior,CT can reveal the location of the neoplasm and some changes secondarily, MRI is good at revealing the location of the neoplasm and the extension.Conclusions Combination use of ultrasound, CT and an important examination method for diagnosing orbital neoplasms, and the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of orbital neoplasms in most cases can be made correctly.

  8. Research on measurement and modeling of the gastro intestine's frictional characteristics (United States)

    Wang, Kun Dong; Yan, Guo Zheng


    The frictional characteristics of an intestine are required basically for the development of a noninvasive endoscope for the human intestine. The frictional force is tested by measuring the current of the motor hauling the frictional coupons at an even speed. A multifunction data acquisition device with model NI-6008 USB is used and the data process is performed on the Labview software. Two kinds of materials with aluminum and copper are used. The surfaces are designed as triangle, rectangular, cylindrical and plane forms. The tested results indicate that the frictional resistance force includes the nominal frictional force and the visco-adhesive force. When the surface contour changes from the triangle to the rectangular, to the cylindrical and finally to the plane, the nominal frictional coefficients will decrease and the visco-adhesive force will increase. The nominal frictional force is related to the elastic restoring force, the real frictional force and the contact angle. The cohesive force is determined by the contact area and the contact angle. This research will provide some preliminary references to the design and the parameter selection of locomotion devices in the human gastro-intestine.

  9. The premonitory urge to tic: measurement, characteristics, and correlates in older adolescents and adults. (United States)

    Reese, Hannah E; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L; Crowe, Katherine; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Wilhelm, Sabine


    In addition to motor and/or vocal tics, many individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) report frequent, uncomfortable sensory phenomena that immediately precede the tics. To date, examination of these premonitory sensations or urges has been limited by inconsistent assessment tools. In this paper, we examine the psychometric properties of a nine-item self-report measure, the Premonitory Urge to Tic Scale (PUTS) and examine the characteristics and correlates of the premonitory urge to tic in a clinical sample of 122 older adolescents and adults with TS or CTD. The PUTS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, temporal stability, and concurrent validity. Premonitory urges were endorsed by the majority of individuals. Most individuals reported some relief from the urges after completing a tic and being able to stop their tics even if only temporarily. Degree of premonitory urges was not significantly correlated with age, and we did not observe any gender differences. Degree of premonitory urges was significantly correlated with estimated IQ and tic severity, but not severity of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Also, it was not related to concomitant medication status. These findings represent another step forward in our understanding of the premonitory sensations associated with TS and CTD.

  10. Patterned fabrication of single ZnO nanorods and measurement of their optoelectrical characteristics. (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Wei; Lai, Shang-Hung; Wang, Teng-Yi; Lan, Ming-Der; Ho, Mon-Shu


    This work develops a new process of growing well ordered ZnO nanorods in large scale on the Si(111) substrate. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) was adopted to produce a matrix in an extensive area. A pattern with a controlled amount of gold was formed through the nanosphere mask. The ZnO nanorods were then grown on a patterned Au/Si substrate through a metal catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The structure and characteristics of ZnO nanorods were investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM. The hexagonal nanorods were dominated at (0002) direction with a lattice constant of approximately 5.03 A. The optoelectronical properties were studied by PL emission spectroscopy. A strong UV emission at 380 nm was observed. The band gap of the single ZnO nanorod was directly measured to be 3.36 eV using a conductive AFM. The superiority of patterned ZnO nanorods indicates their great potential in field emission display arrays.

  11. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. (United States)

    Linden, Ariel


    Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.

  12. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1 all vents opened, (2 only central vents closed (3 only central vents opened and (4 all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  13. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav


    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  14. Experimental Study of Umts Radio Signal Propagation Characteristics by Field Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabona Joseph


    Full Text Available Knowledge of propagation characteristics in the mobile channel is important to the design, analysis and optimisation of a cellular system. Such need is of great concern to achieve higher quality standards, lower overall running cost, minimize transmit power, better covering of different areas with different environmental situations. Thus, received signal prediction models play an important role in the RF coverage optimization and efficient use of the available resources in wireless communication. As the demand of location based services (LBS increases in non-line of site (NLOS environment, a robust received signal prediction model is needed to enhance the accuracy of the LBS techniques. This paper presents a large scale received signal prediction model for various types of propagation environment from field measured signal data. Based on the experimental data obtained, path loss exponent and standard deviation of signal strength variability are determined. It is shown that the values of these parameters vary from study location to location in the coverage area. The results indicate that different empirical models for mean signal strength should be used in different regions of the coverage area for cellular network planning.

  15. SU-E-J-236: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Breath-Hold Lung Tumor Position Reproducibility Measured with 4D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Lapuz, C; Ludbrook, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    Purpose: Audiovisual biofeedback breath-hold (AVBH) was employed to reproduce tumor position on inhale and exhale breath-holds for 4D tumor information. We hypothesize that lung tumor position will be more consistent using AVBH compared with conventional breath-hold (CBH). Methods: Lung tumor positions were determined for seven lung cancer patients (age: 25 – 74) during to two separate 3T MRI sessions. A breathhold training session was performed prior to the MRI sessions to allow patients to become comfortable with AVBH and their exhale and inhale target positions. CBH and AVBH 4D image datasets were obtained in the first MRI session (pre-treatment) and the second MRI session (midtreatment) within six weeks of the first session. Audio-instruction (MRI: Siemens Skyra) in CBH and verbal-instruction (radiographer) in AVBH were used. A radiation oncologist contoured the lung tumor using Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems); tumor position was quantified as the centroid of the contoured tumor after rigid registration based on vertebral anatomy across two MRI sessions. CBH and AVBH were compared in terms of the reproducibility assessed via (1) the difference between the two exhale positions for the two sessions and the two inhale positions for the sessions. (2) The difference in amplitude (exhale to inhale) between the two sessions. Results: Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of two exhale (or inhale) lung tumor positions relative to each other by 33%, from 6.4±5.3 mm to 4.3±3.0 mm (p=0.005). Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of exhale and inhale amplitude by 66%, from 5.6±5.9 mm to 1.9±1.4 mm (p=0.005). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be utilized for improving the reproducibility of breath-hold lung tumor position. These results are advantageous towards achieving more accurate emerging radiation treatment planning methods, in addition to imaging and treatment modalities utilizing breath


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanping; Cao Xuetao; Wang Quanxing; Wang Yuanhe; Shi Jinghua


    In order to investigate the antitumor effects of the in vivo G-CSF gene therapy mediated by liposome and its mechanisms, human G-CSF gene was encapsulated into liposome and was directly injected into tumor mass of C26 colon adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. After direct intratumoral injection of liposome encapsulated G-CSF DNA, the subcutaneous tumor growth was dramatically inhibited and the survival time was prolonged significantly. Tumor regression could be observed in about 30%of C-26-bearing mice. By the analysis of the antitumor mechanisms, we found that anti-G41s (600ug/ml) clone could be selected from the tumor cells freshly separated from the treated C-26 tumor mass, and secretion of GCSF in the supernatant could be detected. Northern-blot also confirmed the expression of hG-CSF by the tumor cells. Higher expressions of MHC class I(H-2kd) molecule and ICAM-1 on the tumor cells could be observed. The results demonstrated that liposome can effectively transfect G-CSF gene into tumor cellsin situ, and then increase the immunogenicity of the tumor cells which may contribute to the activation of the local antitumor immune responses effectively.

  17. BOLTS: a BiOphysical Larval Tracking System for Measuring Dispersal Characteristics and Marine Population Connectivity (United States)

    Paris, C. B.; Srinivasan, A.; Kourafalou, V.; Sponaugle, S.; Cowen, R. K.


    While metapopulation research with hypothetical dispersal matrices has shown how the scales of larval dispersal, transport processes, local recruitment, and temporal and spatial variability in dispersal influence population persistence, the pattern of demographic connectivity produced by larval dispersal is still a key uncertainty. To address this problem, a coupled bio-physical model has been developed that quantifies the degree of connectivity between populations. Such spatially explicit models, forced by dynamic currents coupled to a realistic seascape and life history traits, produce dispersal kernels for a range of scales over which dispersal is practically unquantifiable by current empirical methods. The BiOphysical Larval Tracking System (BOLTS) presented here allows a Lagrangian stochastic individual-based model (IBM) to be coupled via OPENDAP framework to any 3-dimensional fields of circulation models including to domains of various resolutions through 'Lagrangian nesting'. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software in measuring the characteristics of dispersal and evaluating the variability of larval connectivity through two examples at different scales: 1) Caribbean-scale simulations of BOLTS using the large scale (resolution ~7 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) from the Global Data Assimilative Experiment (GODAE) provide us with expected connectivity patterns of a reef building coral. By seeding the model with a large number of active particles, it is possible to assemble dispersal kernels and migration matrices from the start (spawning) and the end point (settlement) of individual particle trajectories. Any single run is a stochastic realization of a probabilistic process, thus the full probability density function (pdf) of the kernel requires averaging over many dispersal events. The model output is further corroborated with empirical measures of gene flow among coral colonies around the Caribbean. 2) Coastal-scale simulations of BOLTS

  18. Incorporating biologic measurements (SF(2), CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy. (United States)

    Buffa, F M; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D; Nahum, A E; West, C M


    To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF(2)) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Measurements of SF(2) and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp(alpha,rho)). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp(alpha,rho) vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF(2) and CFE measurements alone. In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp(alpha,rho) was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p CFE alone (p = 0.015 for local control, p = 0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp(alpha,rho) emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF(2) was not. The sensitivities of tcp(alpha,rho) and SF(2) as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF(2), CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients.

  19. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance and correlation analysis using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in glial tumor grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D.; Gadmar, Oeystein B. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Schellhorn, Till [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway)


    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) values derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MR imaging) for grading of cerebral glial tumors, and to estimate the correlation between vascular permeability/perfusion parameters and tumor grades. A prospective study of 79 patients with cerebral glial tumors underwent DSC-MR imaging. Normalized relative CBV (rCBV) and relative CBF (rCBF) from tumoral (rCBVt and rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe and rCBFe), and the value in the tumor divided by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e and rCBFt/e), as well as MVL, expressed as the leakage coefficient K{sub 2} were calculated. Hemodynamic variables and tumor grades were analyzed statistically and with Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed for each of the variables. The differences in rCBVt and the maximum MVL (MVL{sub max}) values were statistically significant among all tumor grades. Correlation analysis using Pearson was as follows: rCBVt and tumor grade, r = 0.774; rCBFt and tumor grade, r = 0.417; MVL{sub max} and tumor grade, r = 0.559; MVL{sub max} and rCBVt, r = 0.440; MVL{sub max} and rCBFt, r = 0.192; and rCBVt and rCBFt, r = 0.605. According to ROC analyses for distinguishing tumor grade, rCBVt showed the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC), except for grade III from IV. Both rCBVt and MVL{sub max} showed good discriminative power in distinguishing all tumor grades. rCBVt correlated strongly with tumor grade; the correlation between MVL{sub max} and tumor grade was moderate. (orig.)

  20. Spatializing Area-Based Measures of Neighborhood Characteristics for Multilevel Regression Analyses: An Areal Median Filtering Approach. (United States)

    Oka, Masayoshi; Wong, David W S


    Area-based measures of neighborhood characteristics simply derived from enumeration units (e.g., census tracts or block groups) ignore the potential of spatial spillover effects, and thus incorporating such measures into multilevel regression models may underestimate the neighborhood effects on health. To overcome this limitation, we describe the concept and method of areal median filtering to spatialize area-based measures of neighborhood characteristics for multilevel regression analyses. The areal median filtering approach provides a means to specify or formulate "neighborhoods" as meaningful geographic entities by removing enumeration unit boundaries as the absolute barriers and by pooling information from the neighboring enumeration units. This spatializing process takes into account for the potential of spatial spillover effects and also converts aspatial measures of neighborhood characteristics into spatial measures. From a conceptual and methodological standpoint, incorporating the derived spatial measures into multilevel regression analyses allows us to more accurately examine the relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health. To promote and set the stage for informative research in the future, we provide a few important conceptual and methodological remarks, and discuss possible applications, inherent limitations, and practical solutions for using the areal median filtering approach in the study of neighborhood effects on health.

  1. Characteristics Predicting Tuberculosis Risk under Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors: Report from a Large Multicenter Cohort with High Background Prevalence. (United States)

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Erer, Sait Burak; Hatemi, Gulen; Ozguler, Yesim; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Kilic, Levent; Ertenli, Ihsan; Can, Meryem; Direskeneli, Haner; Keser, Gökhan; Oksel, Fahrettin; Dalkilic, Ediz; Yilmaz, Sedat; Pay, Salih; Balkarli, Ayse; Cobankara, Veli; Cetin, Gözde Yildirim; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Cefle, Ayse; Yazici, Ayten; Avci, Ali Berkant; Terzioglu, Ender; Ozbek, Suleyman; Akar, Servet; Gul, Ahmet


    Screening strategies for latent tuberculosis (TB) before starting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors have decreased the prevalence of TB among patients who are treated with these agents. However, despite vigilant screening, TB continues to be an important problem, especially in parts of the world with a high background TB prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to TB among a large multicenter cohort of patients who were treated with anti-TNF. Fifteen rheumatology centers participated in this study. Among the 10,434 patients who were treated with anti-TNF between September 2002 and September 2012, 73 (0.69%) had developed TB. We described the demographic features and disease characteristics of these 73 patients and compared them to 7695 patients who were treated with anti-TNF, did not develop TB, and had complete data available. Among the 73 patients diagnosed with TB (39 men, 34 women, mean age 43.6 ± 13 yrs), the most frequent diagnoses were ankylosing spondylitis (n = 38) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 25). More than half of the patients had extrapulmonary TB (39/73, 53%). Six patients died (8.2%). In the logistic regression model, types of anti-TNF drugs [infliximab (IFX), OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.88-6.10, p = 0.001] and insufficient and irregular isoniazid use (< 9 mos; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.43-6.9, p = 0.004) were independent predictors of TB development. Our results suggest that TB is an important complication of anti-TNF therapies in Turkey. TB chemoprophylaxis less than 9 months and the use of IFX therapy were independent risk factors for TB development.

  2. Understanding the diagnostic yield of current endoscopic biopsy for gastric neoplasm: A prospective single-center analysis based on tumor characteristics stratified by biopsy number and site. (United States)

    Kwack, Won G; Ho, Won J; Kim, Jae H; Lee, Jin H; Kim, Eo J; Kang, Hyoun W; Lee, Jun K


    Although there are general guidelines on endoscopic biopsy for diagnosing gastric neoplasms, they are predominantly based on outdated literature obtained with fiberscopes without analyses specific to tumor characteristics.This study aims to comprehensively characterize the contemporary endoscopic biopsy by determining the diagnostic yield across different lesion morphologies and histological stages, especially exploring how the number and site of biopsy may influence the overall yield.Biopsy samples from suspected gastric neoplasms were collected prospectively from May 2011 to August 2014 in a tertiary care medical center. A standardized methodology was used to obtain a total of 6 specimens from 2 defined sites per lesion. Rate of positive diagnosis based on the biopsy number and site was assessed for specific gastric lesion morphologies and histological stages.A total of 1080 biopsies from 180 pathologically diagnosed neoplastic lesions in 176 patients were obtained during the study. For depressed/ulcerative and polypoid lesions, the yield was already >99% by the fourth biopsy without further gain from additional biopsies. Lower overall yield was observed for infiltrative lesions (57.1% from 4 biopsies). The site of biopsy did not influence the diagnostic yield except for with infiltrative lesions in which biopsies from thickened mucosal folds were of higher yield than erosive regions.Obtaining 4 specimens may be sufficient for accurate diagnosis of a depressed/ulcerative or polypoid gastric lesion regardless of its histological stage. For infiltrative lesions, at least 5 to 6 biopsies per lesion with more representative sampling from thickened mucosal folds may be preferable.

  3. Relationship between pathological characteristics of prostate cancer and MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 as well as Caspase-9 expression in tumor tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang-Yu Ai; Xue-De Qiu


    Objective:To study the MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression in prostate cancer tissue and their relationship with the pathological characteristics of tumor.Methods:Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients who received surgical treatment in our hospital from May 2015 to March 2016 were selected as the research subjects, prostate cancer tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue were collected during surgery to determine MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression, and serum specimens were collected to determine miR-let7i, -32, -128, -196a and -218 expression levels.Results: mRNA content of MACC1 and c-Met in prostate cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue while mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 were significantly lower than those in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue, and the higher the Gleason grading and the higher the Whitmore-Prout staging, the higher the mRNA content of MACC1 and c-Met in prostate cancer tissue and the lower the mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9; serum miR-32, miR-128 and miR-196a expression levels in prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and negatively correlated with the mRNA content of Apaf-1 and Caspase-9, and the expression levels of miR-let7i and miR-218 were significantly lower than those in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and negatively correlated with MACC1 and c-Met.Conclusion: High MACC1 and c-Met expression and low Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 expression are related to the occurrence and progression of prostate cancer, and the MACC1, c-Met, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9 expression in prostate cancer tissue are regulated by miRNAs.

  4. Clinical Utility of Random Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Drug–Level Testing and Measurement of Antidrug Antibodies on the Long‐Term Treatment Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    Jani, Meghna; Chinoy, Hector; Warren, Richard B.; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Plant, Darren; Fu, Bo; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, KimmeL.; Prouse, P. J.; Moitra, R. K.; Shawe, D. J.; Nisar, M.; Fairburn, K.; Nixon, J.; Barnes, T.; Hui, M.; Coady, D.; Wright, D.; Morley, C.; Raftery, G.; Bracewell, C.; Bridges, M.; Armstrong, D.; Chuck, A. J.; Hailwood, S.; Kumar, N.; Ashok, D.; Reece, R.; O'Reilly, S. C.; Ding, T.; Badcock, L. J.; Deighton, C. M.; Raj, N.; Regan, M. R.; Summers, G. D.; Williams, R. A.; Lambert, J. R.; Stevens, R.; Wilkinson, C.; Kelly, C. A.; Hamilton, J.; Heycock, C. R.; Saravanan, V.; Cope, A.; Garrood, T.; Ng, N.; Kirkham, B.; Green, M.; Gough, A.; Lawson, C.; Das, D.; Borbas, E.; Wazir, T.; Emery, P.; Bingham, S.; Bird, H. A.; Conaghan, P.G.; Pease, C. T.; Wakefield, R. J.; Buch, M.; Bruce, I.; Gorodkin, R.; Ho, P.; Parker, B.; Smith, W.; Jenkins, E.; Mukhtyar, C.; Gaffney, K.; Macgregor, A. J.; Marshall, T.; Merry, P.; DeSilva, C.; Birrell, F. N.; Crook, P. R.; Szebenyi, B.; Bates, D.; James, D.; Gillott, T.; Alvi, A.; Grey, C.; Browning, J.; McHale, J. F.; Gaywood, I.C.; Jones, A. C.; Lanyon, P.; Pande, I.; Doherty, M.; Gupta, A.; Courtney, P. A.; Srikanth, A.; Abhishek, A.; Das, L.; Pattrick, M.; Snowden, H. N.; Bowden, A. P.; Smith, E. E.; Klimiuk, P.; Speden, D. J.; Naz, S.; Ledingham, J. M.; Hull, R. G.; McCrae, F.; Cooper, A.; Young‐Min, S. A.; Wong, E.; Shaban, R.; Woolf, A. D.; Davis, M.; Hutchinson, D.; Endean, A.; Mewar, D.; Tunn, E. J.; Nelson, K.; Kennedy, T. D.; Dubois, C.; Pauling, J.; Korendowych, E.; Jenkinson, T.; Sengupta, R.; Bhalla, A.; McHugh, N.; O'Neil, T.; Herrick, A. L.; Jones, A. K.; Cooper, R. G.; Dixon, W. G.; Harrison, B.; Buckley, C. D.; Carruthers, D. C.; Elamanchi, R.; Gordon, P. C.; Grindulis, K. A.; Khattak, F.; Raza, K.; Situnayake, K.; Akil, M.; Till, S.; Dunkley, L.; Tattersall, R.; Kilding, R.; Tait, T.; Maxwell, J.; Till, S.; Kuet, K.-P.; Plant, M. J.; Clarke, F.; Fordham, J. N.; Tuck, S.; Pathare, S. K.; Paul, A.; Marguerie, C. P.; Rigby, S. P.; Dunn, N.; Abbas, I.; Filer, C.; Abernethy, V. E.; Clewes, A. R.; Dawson, J. K.; Kitas, G.; Erb, N.; Klocke, R.; Whallett, A. J.; Douglas, K.; Pace, A.; Sandhu, R.; John, H.; Shand, L.; Lane, S.; Foster, H.; Griffiths, B.; Griffiths, I.; Kay, L.; Ng, W.-F.; Platt, P. N.; Walker, D. J.; Peterson, P.; Lorenzi, A.; Friswell, M.; Thompson, B.; Lee, M.; Pratt, A.; Hopkinson, N. D.; Dunne, C. A.; Quilty, B.; Marks, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Mulherin, D.; Chalam, S. V.; Price, T.; Sheeran, T.; Venkatachalam, S.; Baskar, S.; Al- Allaf, W.; McKenna, F.; Shah, P.; Filer, A.; Bowman, S. J.; Jobanputra, P.; Rankin, E. C.; Allen, M.; Chaudhuri, K.; Dubey, S.; Price‐Forbes, A.; Ravindran, J.; Samanta, A.; Sheldon, P.; Hassan, W.; Francis, J.; Kinder, A.; Neame, R.; Moorthy, A.; Bukhari, M.; Ottewell, L.; Palkonyai, E.; Hider, S.; Hassell, A.; Menon, A.; Dowson, C.; Kamath, S.; Packham, J.; Dutta, S.; Price, S.; Roddy, E.; Paskins, Z.; O'Reilly, D. T.; Rajagopal, V.; Bhagat, S.; Chattopadhyay, C. B.; Green, M.; Quinn, D.; Isdale, A.; Brown, A.; Saleem, B.; Foo, B.; Al Saffar, Z.; Koduri, G.


    Objective To investigate whether antidrug antibodies and/or drug non‐trough levels predict the long‐term treatment response in a large cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with adalimumab or etanercept and to identify factors influencing antidrug antibody and drug levels to optimize future treatment decisions. Methods A total of 331 patients from an observational prospective cohort were selected (160 patients treated with adalimumab and 171 treated with etanercept). Antidrug antibody levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and drug levels were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in 835 serial serum samples obtained 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of therapy. The association between antidrug antibodies and drug non‐trough levels and the treatment response (change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints) was evaluated. Results Among patients who completed 12 months of followup, antidrug antibodies were detected in 24.8% of those receiving adalimumab (31 of 125) and in none of those receiving etanercept. At 3 months, antidrug antibody formation and low adalimumab levels were significant predictors of no response according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria at 12 months (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57, 0.85]). Antidrug antibody–positive patients received lower median dosages of methotrexate compared with antidrug antibody–negative patients (15 mg/week versus 20 mg/week; P = 0.01) and had a longer disease duration (14.0 versus 7.7 years; P = 0.03). The adalimumab level was the best predictor of change in the DAS28 at 12 months, after adjustment for confounders (regression coefficient 0.060 [95% CI 0.015, 0.10], P = 0.009). Etanercept levels were associated with the EULAR response at 12 months (regression coefficient 0.088 [95% CI 0.019, 0.16], P = 0.012); however, this difference was not significant after adjustment

  5. Noninvasive Personalization of Lung Cancer Therapy Using a New, Clinical-Grade Assay for Plasma-Based Measurement and Monitoring of Tumor Genotype (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0128 TITLE:Noninvasive Personalization of Lung Cancer Therapy Using a New, Clinical-Grade Assay for Plasma-Based...Measurement and Monitoring of Tumor Genotype PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Geoffrey Oxnard, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Noninvasive Personalization of Lung Cancer Therapy Using a

  6. Wilms Tumor (United States)

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  7. Characteristics of the global thermal tropopause derived from multiple radio occultation measurements (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yuan, Yun-bin; Chai, Yan-Ju; Liou, Yuei-An; Ou, Ji-kun; Zhong, Shi-ming


    Thermal tropopause represents the region of the atmosphere where the environmental lapse rate changes from tropospheric positive to stratospheric negative. It also defines the altitude of the atmosphere beneath which significant weather perturbations occur except occasional overshooting thunderstorms in the tropical regions. Accordingly, how the temporal and spatial variability of thermal tropopause behaves is of great concern in atmospheric research and, hence, investigated in this study by using radio occultation (RO) observations obtained from seven space missions during the period from May 2001 to April 2013 (with a total of 6,075,359 occultations). While RO observations have been demonstrated to provide precise measurements of temperature profiles of the atmosphere, their results are inter-compared before further use in our analysis, showing expected high-precision observations with mean differences < 0.06 K and standard deviations < 1.6 K in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Given a rather large data set of multi- space-mission RO measurements taken globally, a very detailed description of spatial structure and variability of the tropopause is revealed, and monthly mean zonal mean tropopause parameters in each 2° latitude band from 90°S to 90°N can be obtained. Many interesting features of seasonal cycle, spatial distribution, interannual variation, and diurnal variation of the thermal tropopause are observed. For examples, except for the primary minimum in January, the equatorial tropopause temperature exhibits a secondary minimum in April, possibly caused by the strongly combined wave forcing from two hemispheres; During the boreal winter over the tropics, the distribution of tropopause temperature extrema do not totally coincide with the altitude extrema spatially, and the former has a better agreement with the locations of strong tropical convection systems; Notable zonal asymmetries in interannual characteristics are observed in both


    Hata, Yoshiya; Ichii, Koji; Yamada, Masayuki; Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Takezawa, Koichiro; Shibao, Susumu; Mitsushita, Junji; Murata, Akira; Furukawa, Aiko; Koizumi, Keigo

    Accurate evaluation on the seismic response characteristics of a road embankment is very important for the rational seismic assessment. However, in a lot of previous studies, the seismic response characteristics of an embankment were evaluated based on the results of shaking table test, centrifuge model test and dynamic FEM analysis. In this study, the transfer function and the shear wave velocity of a road embankment were evaluated based on the in-situ records of moderate earthquake observation and microtremor measurement. Test results show the possibility that the shear wave velocity of an embankment can be estimated by the earthquake observation or the microtremor measurement and the dynamic linear FEM analysis.

  9. Identification of fall risk predictors in daily life measurements: gait characteristics' reliability and association with self-reported fall history. (United States)

    Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H


    Background. Gait characteristics extracted from trunk accelerations during daily life locomotion are complementary to questionnaire- or laboratory-based gait and balance assessments and may help to improve fall risk prediction. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify gait characteristics that are associated with self-reported fall history and that can be reliably assessed based on ambulatory data collected during a single week. Methods. We analyzed 2 weeks of trunk acceleration data (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts) collected among 113 older adults (age range, 65-97 years). During episodes of locomotion, various gait characteristics were determined, including local dynamic stability, interstride variability, and several spectral features. For each characteristic, we performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the participants' self-reported number of falls in the preceding year as outcome. Reliability of gait characteristics was assessed in terms of intraclass correlations between both measurement weeks. Results. The percentages of spectral power below 0.7 Hz along the vertical and anteroposterior axes and below 10 Hz along the mediolateral axis, as well as local dynamic stability, local dynamic stability per stride, gait smoothness, and the amplitude and slope of the dominant frequency along the vertical axis, were associated with the number of falls in the preceding year and could be reliably assessed (all P 0.75). Conclusions. Daily life gait characteristics are associated with fall history in older adults and can be reliably estimated from a week of ambulatory trunk acceleration measurements.

  10. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters


    Stefanović Dragoslav; Vojnović-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemić Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kovačević Dragana


    Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

  11. 腮腺Warthin瘤与腮腺多形性腺瘤的超声对照分析%Ultrasound Characteristics of Parotid Warthin′s Tumor and Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the ultrasound characteristics of parotid Warthin's tumor and parotid pleomorphic adenoma.Methods Ultrasound characteristics were analyzed in 20 cases of parotid Warthin's tumor and 24 cases of parotid pleomorphic adenoma.Results Of the 20 cases ( 24 tumors) of parotid Warthin's Tumor, considered, 2 were with bilateral single tumors, 1 was with unilateral multiple tumors; integral capsules were found for all the 24 tumors, tumors originated from the lower posterior polar of the parotid gland in 18 cases; echoes turned out to be hypoechoic in 15 cases, while solid and mixed type echoes were detected in 6 cases and 14 cases respectively.All 24 cases of pleomorphic adenomas turned out to be unilateral witha single tumor, with 15 of them originated from the superficial lobe of the parotid gland and the other 9 located in the deep lobe; integral capsules were noticed in 20 of the 24 cases; the tumors turned out to be lobulated in 9 cases; solid homogeneous hypoe-choic echoes were detected in 6 cases, solid heterogeneous hypoechoic echoes were detected in 12 cases, the other 6 cases were characterized by mixed echoes.Color Doppler results indicated more abundant blood supply in parotid Warthin's tumors than in pleomorphic adenomas.Conclusion Parotid Warthin's tumor and parotid pleomorphic adenoma show different ultrasound characteristics, which may assist the differentiation diagnosis between them.%目的 探讨腮腺Warthin瘤与腮腺多形性腺瘤的超声鉴别要点.方法 对20例腮腺Warthin瘤和24例腮腺多形性腺瘤在超声特征方面进行总结分析.结果 20例腮腺Warthin瘤肿瘤个数共24个,2例双侧单发,1例一侧多发,一侧单发,包膜均完整;18例位于腮腺后下极,15例呈弱低回声;实质性回声6例,混合性回声14例.24例腮腺多形性腺瘤均单侧单发,15例位于腮腺浅叶,9例位于腮腺深叶;包膜完整20例,不完整4例;9例呈分叶状,实性均匀低回声6

  12. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection


    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar


    Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS) and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS) such that (i) sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii) reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and sat...

  13. Measuring of Traction and Speed Characteristics as Well as of Fuel Economy of a Car in Road Conditions (United States)

    Krivtsov, Sergey N.; Syrbakov, Andrey P.; Korchuganova, Marina A.


    This article is devoted to the identification of traction and speed characteristics as well as of fuel economy of motor vehicles in road conditions. Among common variants of measuring of the above stated values, the preference was given to the immediate gaining of factors by means of a computer-aided measuring system. There is a theoretical justification given to the suggested approach as well as methods and results allowing to provide a practically sufficient solution accuracy of the problem.

  14. Characteristics of Gafchromic XRQA2 films for kV image dose measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Chen Wenzhou; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying [Department Of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)


    Purpose: In this study, the relevant characteristics of the new Gafchromic XRQA2 film for its application in measuring kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image doses were thoroughly investigated. Methods: The film was calibrated free in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 9 cGy using 120 kVp photon beams produced by the x-ray volume imager. Films were scanned using transmission and reflection scanning modes with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. The impact of film size, region of interest for the analysis, scan uniformity, scan resolution, scan orientation and alternate scanning sides on the analysis process were investigated. Energy dependence, postirradiation growth of reflectance with time and irradiation angular dependence of the film were tested at different air kerma levels. Results: The net reflectance changed by {approx}3% when the size of the film piece changed from 1 cm x 2 cm to 10 cm x 11 cm and changed by {approx}1% when ROI changed from 0. 7 cm x 0. 7 cm to 8 cm x 8 cm, suggesting a good uniformity of the film. The film was successfully analyzed using the transmission scanning mode, calibration curves from both transmission and reflection scanning modes showed similar behavior. The calibration uncertainty was somewhat lower when the film was scanned using reflection mode (6% and 8% for reflection and transmission modes, respectively.) Higher scanning resolution came with increasing calibration uncertainty. The calibration uncertainty for reflection and transmission modes increased from {approx}3.5% to 7% and from {approx}3.5% to 9%, respectively when scanning resolution was changed from 50 to 400 dpi. Scanning the film on alternate sides using transmission mode led to variation of 16%-19% in the net optical density at doses commonly used for CBCT procedures. The film response changed by almost 10% when it was exposed to beams of two different energies (100 and 120 kVp.) Other features of the film such as film orientation

  15. Radiative Characteristics of Clouds Embedded in Smoke Derived from Airborne Multiangular Measurements (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Gatebe, Charles K.; Singh, Manoj; Varnai, Tamas; Poudyal, Rajesh


    Clouds in the presence of absorbing aerosols result in their apparent darkening, observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA), which is associated with the radiative effects of aerosol absorption. Owing to the large radiative effect and potential impacts on regional climate, above-cloud aerosols have recently been characterized in multiple satellite-based studies. While satellite data are particularly useful in showing the radiative impact of above-cloud aerosols at the TOA, recent literature indicates large uncertainties in satellite retrievals of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), which are among the most important parameters in the assessment of associated radiative effects. In this study, we analyze radiative characteristics of clouds in the presence of wildfire smoke using airborne data primarily from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites campaign in Canada during the 2008 summer season. We found a strong positive reflectance (R) gradient in the UV-visible (VIS)-near infrared (NIR) spectrum for clouds embedded in dense smoke, as opposed to an (expected) negative gradient for cloud-free smoke and a flat spectrum for smoke-free cloud cover. Several cases of clouds embedded in thick smoke were found, when the aircraft made circular/spiral measurements, which not only allowed the complete characterization of angular distribution of smoke scattering but also provided the vertical distribution of smoke and clouds (within 0.5-5 km). Specifically, the largest darkening by smoke was found in the UV/VIS, with R(sub 0.34 microns) reducing to 0.2 (or 20%), in contrast to 0.8 at NIR wavelengths (e.g., 1.27 microns). The observed darkening is associated with large AODs (0.5-3.0) and moderately low SSA (0.85-0.93 at 0.53 microns), resulting in a significantly large instantaneous aerosol forcing efficiency of 254 +/- 47 W/sq m/t. Our

  16. Radiative characteristics of clouds embedded in smoke derived from airborne multiangular measurements (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Gatebe, Charles K.; Singh, Manoj K.; Várnai, Tamás.; Poudyal, Rajesh


    Clouds in the presence of absorbing aerosols result in their apparent darkening, observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA), which is associated with the radiative effects of aerosol absorption. Owing to the large radiative effect and potential impacts on regional climate, above-cloud aerosols have recently been characterized in multiple satellite-based studies. While satellite data are particularly useful in showing the radiative impact of above-cloud aerosols at the TOA, recent literature indicates large uncertainties in satellite retrievals of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), which are among the most important parameters in the assessment of associated radiative effects. In this study, we analyze radiative characteristics of clouds in the presence of wildfire smoke using airborne data primarily from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites campaign in Canada during the 2008 summer season. We found a strong positive reflectance (R) gradient in the UV-visible (VIS)-near infrared (NIR) spectrum for clouds embedded in dense smoke, as opposed to an (expected) negative gradient for cloud-free smoke and a flat spectrum for smoke-free cloud cover. Several cases of clouds embedded in thick smoke were found, when the aircraft made circular/spiral measurements, which not only allowed the complete characterization of angular distribution of smoke scattering but also provided the vertical distribution of smoke and clouds (within 0.5-5 km). Specifically, the largest darkening by smoke was found in the UV/VIS, with R0.34μm reducing to 0.2 (or 20%), in contrast to 0.8 at NIR wavelengths (e.g., 1.27 µm). The observed darkening is associated with large AODs (0.5-3.0) and moderately low SSA (0.85-0.93 at 0.53 µm), resulting in a significantly large instantaneous aerosol forcing efficiency of 254 ± 47 W m-2 τ-1. Our observations of smoke

  17. Radiological review of pleural tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka


    Full Text Available Tumors of the pleura are not uncommon and diagnosis is clinched by combined imaging and clinical correlation. Malignant tumors are more common than benign tumors. Initial imaging modalities are chest radiography and Computed Tomography (CT. Further characterization may be required using Ultrasoundgraphy (USG, Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI and PET-CT. Biopsy remains gold standard. This article highlights various common and uncommon tumors of pleura and characteristic imaging findings.

  18. Patient Characteristics Impacting Health State Index Scores, Measured by the EQ-5D of Females with Stress Urinary Incontinence Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tincello, Douglas; Sculpher, Mark; Tunn, Ralf; Quail, Deborah; van der Vaart, Huub; Falconer, Christian; Manning, Martina; Timlin, Louise


    Objective: To describe the characteristics of women seeking treatment for symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to investigate the association of SUI symptoms with generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument. Methods: The Stress Urinary In

  19. Patient Characteristics Impacting Health State Index Scores, Measured by the EQ-5D of Females with Stress Urinary Incontinence Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tincello, Douglas; Sculpher, Mark; Tunn, Ralf; Quail, Deborah; van der Vaart, Huub; Falconer, Christian; Manning, Martina; Timlin, Louise


    Objective: To describe the characteristics of women seeking treatment for symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to investigate the association of SUI symptoms with generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument. Methods: The Stress Urinary In

  20. Transient analysis of a PV power generator charging a capacitor for measurement of the I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M. [Energy Research Centre, An Najah National University, P.O. Box 721 Nablus (PS)


    Measuring the I-V characteristics is of high importance since it can be considered as a quality and performance certificate for each PV generator. The most precise and inexpensive measuring method is represented in capacitor charging by the PV generator. Using the equivalent circuit of the PV generator with a capacitor as load and applying transient analysis on the circuit, we obtain the capacitor charging voltage and current as a function of time, as well as their differentials as a function of short circuit current and capacitor size. The derived equations facilitate the calculation of proper capacitance size for measuring the I-V characteristics, and considers the acquisition speed of the measuring system as demonstrated through two measurement samples in this paper. The capacitor size is directly and indirectly proportional to the short circuit current and open circuit voltage of the PV generator, respectively. Accordingly, the paper presents a capacitance calculation chart, which enables selecting the correct capacitance for measuring the I-V characteristics by a computerized data acquisition system. (author)

  1. SU-C-210-04: Considerable Pancreatic Tumor Motion During Breath-Hold Measured Using Intratumoral Fiducials On Fluoroscopic Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, E; Horst, A van der; Versteijne, E; Tienhoven, G van; Bel, A [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Using a breath hold (BH) technique during radiotherapy of pancreatic tumors is expected to reduce intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor motion during BH. Methods: In this pilot study, we included 8 consecutive pancreatic cancer patients. All had 2– 4 intratumoral gold fiducials. Patients were asked to perform 3 consecutive 30-second end-inhale BHs on day 5, 10 and 15 of their three-week treatment. During BH, airflow through a mouthpiece was measured using a spirometer. Any inadvertent flow of air during BH was monitored for all patients. We measured tumor motion on lateral fluoroscopic movies (57 in total) made during BH. In each movie the fiducials as a group were tracked over time in superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction using 2-D image correlation between consecutive frames. We determined for each patient the range of intra-BH motion over all movies; we also determined the absolute means and standard deviations (SDs) for the entire patient group. Additionally, we investigated the relation between inadvertent airflow during BH and the intra-BH motion. Results: We found intra-BH tumor motion of up to 12.5 mm (range, 1.0–12.5 mm) in SI direction and up to 8.0 mm (range, 1.0–8.0 mm) in AP direction. The absolute mean motion over the patient population was 4.7 (SD: 3.0) mm and 2.8 (SD: 1.2) mm in the SI and AP direction, respectively. Patients were able to perform stable consecutive BHs; during only 20% of the movies we found very small airflows (≤ 65 ml). These were mostly stepwise in nature and could not explain the continuous tumor motions we observed. Conclusion: We found substantial (up to 12.5 mm) pancreatic tumor motion during BHs. We found minimal inadvertent airflow, seen only during a minority of BHs, and this did not explain the obtained results. This work was supported by the foundation Bergh in het Zadel through the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF Kankerbestrijding) project No. UVA 2011-5271.

  2. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors. (United States)

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M


    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  3. Pituitary Tumors (United States)

    ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ...

  4. Time-Domain Optical Mammography: Initial Clinical Results on Detection and Characterization of Breast Tumors (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Moesta, K. Thomas; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mucke, Jörg; Stroszczynski, Christian; MacDonald, Rainer; Schlag, Peter M.; Rinneberg, Herbert


    Mammograms of 35 patients suspected of breast cancer were taken along craniocaudal and mediolateral projections with a dual-wavelength scanning laser pulse mammograph measuring time-resolved transmittance. Among 26 tumors known from routine clinical diagnostics, 17 tumors were detected retrospectively in optical mammograms. Effective tumor optical properties derived from a homogeneous model were used to deduce physiological information. All tumors exhibited increased total hemoglobin concentration and decreased or unchanged blood oxygen saturation compared with surrounding healthy tissue. Scatter plots based on a pixelwise analysis of individual mammograms were introduced and applied to represent correlations between characteristic quantities derived from measured distributions of times of flight of photons.

  5. Respiration gating and Bloch fitting improve pH measurements with acidoCEST MRI in an ovarian orthotopic tumor model (United States)

    Jones, Kyle M.; Randtke, Edward A.; Howison, Christine M.; Pagel, Mark D.


    We have developed a MRI method that can measure extracellular pH in tumor tissues, known as acidoCEST MRI. This method relies on the detection of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) of iopamidol, an FDA-approved CT contrast agent that has two CEST signals. A log10 ratio of the two CEST signals is linearly correlated with pH, but independent of agent concentration, endogenous T1 relaxation time, and B1 inhomogeneity. Therefore, detecting both CEST effects of iopamidol during in vivo studies can be used to accurately measure the extracellular pH in tumor tissues. Past in vivo studies using acidoCEST MRI have suffered from respiration artifacts in orthotopic and lung tumor models that have corrupted pH measurements. In addition, the non-linear fitting method used to analyze results is unreliable as it is subject to over-fitting especially with noisy CEST spectra. To improve the technique, we have recently developed a respiration gated CEST MRI pulse sequence that has greatly reduced motion artifacts, and we have included both a prescan and post scan to remove endogenous CEST effects. In addition, we fit the results by parameterizing the contrast of the exogenous agent with respect to pH via the Bloch equations modified for chemical exchange, which is less subject to over-fitting than the non-linear method. These advances in the acidoCEST MRI technique and analysis methods have made pH measurements more reliable, especially in areas of the body subject to respiratory motion.

  6. Macro- and micro-nutrient release characteristics of three polymer-coated fertilizers: Theory and measurements (United States)

    In spite of several published studies we have an incomplete understanding of the ion release mechanisms and characteristics of primary polymer-coated fertilizer (PCF) technologies. Here we extend current conceptual models describing release mechanisms and describe the critical effects of substrate m...

  7. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs (United States)

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.


    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  8. Factor analysis in predominantly severe COPD : Identification of disease heterogeneity by easily measurable characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Anzueto, Antonio R.; Jenkins, Christine; Make, Barry J.; Similowski, Thomas; Ostlund, Ollie; Eriksson, Goran S.; Calverley, Peter M.


    Background: The clinical and demographic variables defining the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. A post-hoc analysis of five randomised studies in patients with a history of previous exacerbations examined the clinical and demographic characteristics describ

  9. Designing a sampling system for concurrently measuring outdoor recreation visitation and describing visitor characteristics (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Susan M. Kocis


    Two primary information needs for managing recreation areas and the visitors to those areas are: (1) good estimates of visitation volume, and (2) accurate descriptions of visitor characteristics, such as length of stay, frequency of visit, and primary activity. For National Forests in the United States of America with large undeveloped areas, efficient sampling for the...

  10. Measuring the amplitude characteristic of an image recorder based on a CCD matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhurovich, KA; Kirillov, VP; Mikhailov, YA; Sklizkov, GV; Starodub, AN; Sudakov, OA


    A method for studying the amplitude characteristic of an image recorder designed on the basis of a charge-coupled device (CCD) matrix is described. The recorder input signal is an intensity of distribution a monochromatic light formed upon Fraunhofer diffraction of the light by two identical slits.

  11. Tumor cell metabolism (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores


    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  12. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Yimei [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)


    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4-39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54-59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7-59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response in

  13. Free magnesium levels in normal human brain and brain tumors: sup 31 P chemical-shift imaging measurements at 1. 5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Vigneron, D.B.; Murphy-Boesch, J.; Nelson, S.J.; Kessler, H.B.; Coia, L.; Curran, W.; Brown, T.R. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))


    The authors have studied a series of normal subjects and patients with brain tumors, by using {sup 31}P three-dimensional chemical shift imaging to obtain localized {sup 31}P spectra of the brain. A significant proportion of brain cytosolic ATP in normal brain is not complexed to Mg{sup 2+}, as indicated by the chemical shift {delta} of the {beta}-P resonance of ATP. The ATP {beta}P resonance position in brain thus is sensitive to changes in intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and in the proportion of ATP complexed with Mg because this shift lies on the rising portion of the {delta} vs. Mg{sup 2+} titration curve for ATP. They have measured the ATP {beta}-P shift and compared intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and fractions of free ATP for normal individuals and a limited series of patients with brain tumors. In four of the five spectra obtained from brain tissue containing a substantial proportion of tumor, intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} was increased, and the fraction of free ATP was decreased, compared with normal brain.

  14. On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sugiura


    Full Text Available We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is simultaneously measured using an on-chip force sensor composed of a hollow folded beam and probe structure. In order to measure the cellular characteristics in further detail, a sub-pixel level of resolution of probe position is required. Therefore, we utilize the phase detection of moiré fringe. Using this method, the experimental resolution of the probe position reaches 42 nm. This is approximately ten times smaller than the optical wavelength, which is the limit of sharp imaging with a microscope. Calibration of the force sensor is also important in accurately measuring cellular reaction forces. We calibrated the spring constant from the frequency response, by the proposed sensing method of the probe position. As a representative of mechanical characteristics, we measured the elastic modulus of Madin-Darby Cannie Kidney (MDCK cells. In spite of the rigid spring constant, the resolution and sensitivity were twice that achieved in our previous study. Unique cellular characteristics can be elucidated by the improvements in sensing resolution and accuracy.

  15. A long-term study of the impact of solar flares on ionospheric characteristics measured by digisondes and GNSS receivers (United States)

    Tripathi, Sharad Chandra; Haralambous, Haris; Das, Tanmay


    Solar Flares are highly transient phenomena radiating over a wide spectrum of wavelengths with EUV and X-rays imposing the most significant effect on ionospheric characteristics. This study presents an attempt to examine qualitatively and quantitatively these effects as measured by digisondes and GNSS receivers on a global scale. For this purpose we have divided the whole globe in three sectors (American, African-European and Asian) based on longitude. We have extracted data for ionospheric characteristics by scaling, manually, the ionograms being provided by DIDBase (Digital Ionogram Database) as provided by the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) during X-class flares for an approximate period of a solar cycle . We have also used TEC data extracted from GPS observations from collocated IGS Stations. Spectral analysis of Solar Flares are added to the methodology to compare the effects in terms of spectral characteristics.

  16. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram


    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  17. HCHO column density retrieval using Pandora measurements in Seoul, Korea: Temporal characteristics and comparison with OMI measurement (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Jhoon; Herman, Jay; Kim, Daewon


    We, for the first time, retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) vertical column density (VCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014. We retrieved HCHO slant column density (SCD) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method. Then HCHO SCD was converted to HCHO VCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMF), since Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHO VCDs were generally highest at 12:00 local time (LT) and were low at the 10:00 (LT) and 14:00 (LT) throughout all seasons. The mean HCHO VCDs at 12:00 LT were 1.57×1016, 2.29×1016, 9.94× 1015, and 8.33×1015 molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, whereas those at 10:00 (14:00) LT were 1.22×1016 (8.68×1015), 1.25×1016 (1.54×1016), 1.13×1016 (1.33×1016), and 6.58×1015 (5.11×1015) molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHO VCD was highest in summer due to the photo-oxidation whereas it showed the lowest value in winter during the entire measurement period. The Pandora HCHO VCDs range from 4.10×1015 molecules cm-2 to 2.89×1016 molecules cm-2. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHO VCDs obtained from the OMI were higher than those were the Pandora HCHO VCDs. We found a correlation coefficient of 0.74, with slop of 0.35 between the Pandora HCHO VCDs and the OMI HCHO VCDs. Furthermore, to investigate HCHO mixing ratio level within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), we converted Pandora HCHO VCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using an empirical linear model with the inputs of PBL data obtained from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and other meteorological data.

  18. Measurement and Determination of Friction Characteristic of Air Flow through Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong


    Full Text Available Sintered metal porous media currently plays an important role in air bearing systems. When flowing through porous media, the flow properties are generally represented by incompressible Darcy-Forchheimer regime or Ergun regime. In this study, a modified Ergun equation, which includes air compressibility effects, is developed to describe friction characteristic. Experimental and theoretical investigations on friction characteristic are conducted with a series of metal-sintered porous media. Re = 10 is selected as the boundary for a viscous drag region and a form drag region. Experimental data are first used to determine the coefficient α in the viscous drag region, and then the coefficient β in the form drag region, rather than both simultaneously. Also, the theoretical mass flow rate in terms of the modified Ergun equation provides close approximations to the experimental data. Finally, it is also known that both the air compressibility and inertial effects can obviously enhance the pressure drop.

  19. Clinical characteristics and diagnosis and treatment analysis of primary small intestinal tumor%原发性小肠肿瘤临床特点及其诊治探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄红娇; 宁守斌; 唐杰; 朱鸣; 金晓维; 毛高平


    目的:分析原发性小肠肿瘤的临床特点,探讨其诊断与治疗方法。方法回顾性总结分析我院2007—2014年收治的80例原发性小肠肿瘤患者的临床特点、病理类型与诊治方法。结果80例原发性小肠肿瘤患者以腹痛、消化道出血、贫血、肠梗阻、腹部包块、消瘦为主要临床表现。其中恶性肿瘤30例,病理类型以腺癌、恶性间质瘤、淋巴瘤、印戒细胞癌为主;良性肿瘤50例,病理类型依次为良性间质瘤、错构瘤、腺瘤、血管瘤、脂肪瘤。原发性小肠肿瘤多发生于空肠,其次为十二指肠、回肠、十二指肠与空肠交界处。气囊辅助内镜对小肠肿瘤的阳性检出率明显高于胶囊内镜、腹部CT和消化道钡剂造影检查(分别为97.5%、88.2%、68.8%、66.7%,P<0.01)。结论原发性小肠肿瘤临床表现无特异性。气囊辅助内镜在小肠肿瘤的诊断和治疗中具有重要的临床应用价值。联合应用气囊辅助内镜、胶囊内镜、腹部CT及消化道钡剂造影检查可明显提高小肠肿瘤确诊率。%ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical characteristics of primary small intestinal tumor and to explore the diagnosis and treatment. MethodsA retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical characteristics, pathological types, and diagnosis and treatment methods of 80 cases of primary small intestinal tumor in our hospital from 2007 to 2014.ResultsAmong the 80 cases, the main clinical manifestations were abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, anemia, intestinal obstruction, abdominal mass and marasmus. Among them, 30 cases of malignant tumors were mainly adenocarcinoma, malignant stromal tumor, lymphoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma, while 50 cases of benign tumors were benign stromal tumor, hamartoma, adenoma, hemangioma and lipoma. Primary small intestinal tumors mainly developed in jejunum, followed byduodenum, ileum, and the junction of the duodenum and jejunum

  20. Measurement and analysis of channel attenuation characteristics for an implantable galvanic coupling human-body communication. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Qin, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yi-He; Vai, Mang I


    In this study, an experiment was designed to verify the low power consumption of galvanic coupling human-body communication. A silver electrode (silver content: 99%) is placed in a pig leg and a sine wave signal with the power of 0 dBm is input. Compared with radio frequency communication and antenna transmission communication, attenuation is reduced by approximately 10 to 15 dB, so channel characteristics are highly improved.

  1. Temporal and spatial characteristics of surface ozone depletion events from measurements over the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Halfacre, J. W.; Knepp, T. N.; Stephens, C. R.; Pratt, K. A.; Shepson, P.; Simpson, W. R.; Peterson, P. K.; Walsh, S. J.; Matrai, P. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Netcheva, S.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter, A.


    Arctic tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) have been studied primarily from coastal sites since the mid 1980s with only a few studies occurring over the Arctic Ocean, the hypothesized site of initiation. Despite a multitude of studies, some basic characteristics of ODEs remain poorly defined, including their temporal, spatial, and meteorological characteristics. Several deployments of autonomous, ice-tethered buoys (O-Buoys) were used to elucidate such characteristics from both the Arctic Ocean and coastal sites. The apparent first order decays imply an ozone lifetime (median of 11 hours) that would correspond to a very large BrO concentration, relative to BrO observations obtained from the buoys. These results suggest that ODEs involve a large, unaccounted for source of bromine atoms, that there is a significant contribution from other mechanisms possibly not involving bromine, or that the majority of observed ODEs represent advection of previously-depleted air to the buoy site, even in the Arctic Ocean. Using backward air mass trajectories, the spatial scales for ODEs (defined by time periods with O3 ≤ 15 nmol/mol) were estimated to be ~1800 km (mode), suggesting that most of the lower troposphere above the Arctic Ocean is frequently, at least partially, depleted of ozone. Using the same method, areas estimated to be highly depleted of O3 (ice-tethered O-Buoys provide unique data to study the characteristics of ODEs; however, more remote and simultaneous surface observations over the Arctic Ocean are necessary to enable study of both the site(s) and mechanism(s) of ODE initiation.

  2. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime


    Schneider, Matthieu; Berthe, Laurent; Fabbro, Rémy; Muller, Maryse


    International audience; Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm−2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this ...

  3. Cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy and tract volume as measured by MR imaging are associated with impaired cognitive and motor function in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. (United States)

    Rueckriegel, Stefan M; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich W; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo


    Disease and therapy cause brain damage and subsequent functional loss in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors. Treatment-related toxicity factors are resection in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and, additionally, cranio-spinal irradiation together with chemotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma (MB). We tested whether damage to white matter (WM) as revealed by diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) correlated with specific cognitive and motor impairments in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Eighteen MB (mean age ± SD, 15.2 ± 4.9 y) and 14 PA (12.6 ± 5.0 y) survivors were investigated with DTI on a 3-Tesla-MR system. We identified fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM, the volume ratio of WM to gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (WM/GM + CSF), and volume of specific frontocerebellar tracts. Ataxia was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), while the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children determined full-scale intelligence quotients (FSIQ). Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) was used to assess processing speed. Handwriting automation was analyzed using a digitizing graphic tablet. The WM/GM + CSF ratio correlated significantly with cognitive measures (IQ, P = 0.002; ANT baseline speed, P = 0.04; ANT shifting attention, P = 0.004). FA of skeletonized tracts correlated significantly with FSIQ (P = 0.008), ANT baseline speed (P = 0.028) and ANT shifting attention (P = 0.045). Moreover, frontocerebellar tract volumes correlated with both the FSIQ (P = 0.011) and ICARS (P = 0.007). DTI provides a method for quantification of WM damage by tumor and by therapy-associated effects in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. DTI-derived WM integrity may be a representative marker for cognitive and motor deterioration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessing Oxidative Stress in Tumors by Measuring the Rate of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Dehydroascorbic Acid Reduction Using 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy* (United States)

    Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De-En; Williams, Michael; Wright, Alan J.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Kennedy, Brett W. C.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Dzien, Piotr; Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brindle, Kevin M.


    Rapid cancer cell proliferation promotes the production of reducing equivalents, which counteract the effects of relatively high levels of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species levels increase in response to chemotherapy and cell death, whereas an increase in antioxidant capacity can confer resistance to chemotherapy and is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major site of NADPH production in the cell, which is used to maintain the main intracellular antioxidant, glutathione, in its reduced state. Previous studies have shown that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) reduction, which can be measured in vivo using non-invasive 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, is increased in tumors and that this is correlated with the levels of reduced glutathione. We show here that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA reduction is increased in tumors that have been oxidatively prestressed by depleting the glutathione pool by buthionine sulfoximine treatment. This increase was associated with a corresponding increase in pentose phosphate pathway flux, assessed using 13C-labeled glucose, and an increase in glutaredoxin activity, which catalyzes the glutathione-dependent reduction of DHA. These results show that the rate of DHA reduction depends not only on the level of reduced glutathione, but also on the rate of NADPH production, contradicting the conclusions of some previous studies. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA can be used, therefore, to assess the capacity of tumor cells to resist oxidative stress in vivo. However, DHA administration resulted in transient respiratory arrest and cardiac depression, which may prevent translation to the clinic. PMID:27994059

  5. Millimeter wave scattering characteristics and radar cross section measurements of common roadway objects (United States)

    Zoratti, Paul K.; Gilbert, R. Kent; Majewski, Ronald; Ference, Jack


    Development of automotive collision warning systems has progressed rapidly over the past several years. A key enabling technology for these systems is millimeter-wave radar. This paper addresses a very critical millimeter-wave radar sensing issue for automotive radar, namely the scattering characteristics of common roadway objects such as vehicles, roadsigns, and bridge overpass structures. The data presented in this paper were collected on ERIM's Fine Resolution Radar Imaging Rotary Platform Facility and processed with ERIM's image processing tools. The value of this approach is that it provides system developers with a 2D radar image from which information about individual point scatterers `within a single target' can be extracted. This information on scattering characteristics will be utilized to refine threat assessment processing algorithms and automotive radar hardware configurations. (1) By evaluating the scattering characteristics identified in the radar image, radar signatures as a function of aspect angle for common roadway objects can be established. These signatures will aid in the refinement of threat assessment processing algorithms. (2) Utilizing ERIM's image manipulation tools, total RCS and RCS as a function of range and azimuth can be extracted from the radar image data. This RCS information will be essential in defining the operational envelope (e.g. dynamic range) within which any radar sensor hardware must be designed.

  6. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zaki Kotb


    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  7. Coh-Metrix Measures Text Characteristics at Multiple Levels of Language and Discourse (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur C.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Cai, Zhiqang; Conley, Mark; Li, Haiying; Pennebaker, James


    Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple measures of language and discourse that are aligned with multilevel theoretical frameworks of comprehension. Dozens of measures funnel into five major factors that systematically vary as a function of types of texts (e.g., narrative vs. informational) and grade level: narrativity, syntactic simplicity, word…

  8. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob


    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle. The ...

  9. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob;


    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle...

  10. Myoepithelial Tumors: An Update. (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y


    Primary myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue are uncommon, and have been increasingly characterized by clinicopathologic and genetic means. Tumors are classified as mixed tumor/chondroid syringoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma, and they share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with their salivary gland counterparts. However, soft tissue myoepithelial tumors are classified as malignant based on the presence of cytologic atypia, in contrast to the criterion of invasive growth in salivary gland sites. This review discusses the clinicopathologic and morphologic characteristics, distinct variants, and currently known genetic alterations of myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue, skin, and bone.

  11. Measurement of Frequency Shift Characteristics Based on LiNbO3 Waveguide Electro-Optic Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Meng; Hui-Juan Zhou; Yi Liao; Qiong Yao


    High-speed and wide-band LiNbO3 waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator has drawn great attention in the field of optical fiber communi-cation and sensor. This paper reports the research results on the measurement of frequency shift character-istics of Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator. Two measurement methods of frequency shift character-istics for high and low frequency modulations are studied in theory and experiment and demonstrate different results. The realization of a multi-wavelength optical source based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator has been introduced. The technique to reach the maximum intensity for interesting shift frequency, particularly for heterodyne detection of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing, has been given.

  12. Experimental Measurements and Mathematical Modeling of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Water Flow in a Long Pipe (United States)

    Jablonska, J.; Kozubkova, M.


    Static and dynamic characteristics of flow in technical practice are very important and serious problem and can be solved by experimental measurement or mathematical modeling. Unsteady flow presents time changes of the flow and water hammer can be an example of this phenomenon. Water hammer is caused by rapid changes in the water flow by means the closure or opening of the control valve. The authors deal with by hydraulic hammer at the multiphase flow (water and air), its one-dimensional modeling (Matlab SimHydraulics) and modeling with the use of the finite volume method (Ansys Fluent) in article. The circuit elements are defined by static and dynamic characteristics. The results are verified with measurements. The article evaluates different approaches, their advantages, disadvantages and specifics in solving of water hammer.



    Hozumi, Koki; KOMODA, Masaki; Ono, Takatsugu; TSUKANO, Yukichi; 穂積, 弘毅; 古茂田, 真幸; 小野, 孝次; 塚野, 雄吉


    In order to investigate longitudinal force and moment characteristics of a hang-glider-wing, ground run tests were conducted using a test vehicle. A hang-glider-wing was installed on a test vehicle using a six-components-balance for wind tunnel use. Aerodynamic force and moment were measrued during the vehicle run at various constant speeds. Geometrical twist distribution along the wing span was recorded as well. Measured force and moment data were corrected for possible ground effect and upw...

  14. Measurement Of The Heavy-Ion Collision Event Characteristics With The Atlas Experiment At The Lhc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grabowska-Bołd


    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at extreme energies can reproduce conditionspresent in the early Universe. The new state of very dense and hotmatter of deconfined quarks and gluons, called the Quark GluonPlasma~(QGP, is observed. This state is characterised by very lowviscosity resembling the properties of a perfect fluid. In suchmedium, the density fluctuations can be easily spread. In experimentalpractice, the size of these fluctuations is estimated by measuring theangular correlation of produced particles. The aim of this paper isto present measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy of chargedparticles produced in heavy-ion collisions using the ATLAS detector atthe LHC. Two measurement techniques are presented and compared.

  15. A new measurement method of magnetic flux density using magnetorheological fluid characteristics and a variable resistor circuit (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Han, Chulhee; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Bok


    This work proposes a new approach with which to measure the magnetic flux density using the characteristics of magnetorheological fluid (MRF) that is integrated with a variable resistor. For convenience, it is called a magnetorheological fluid variable resistor (MRF-VR) system in this study. The mechanism of the MRF-VR is based on the interaction between ferromagnetic iron particles of the MRF due to an external magnetic field, which causes its electrical resistance to be field dependent. Using this salient principle, the proposed MRF-VR system is constructed with electrodes and MRF, and its performance is demonstrated by evaluating its electrical resistive characteristics such as dimensional influence, response time, hysteresis and frequency response. After evaluating the performance characteristics, a feedback control system with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is established, and resistance-trajectory control experiments are carried out. Based on this MRF-VR system, a magnetic field-sensing system is constructed using a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and a polynomial model for calculating the magnetic flux density is formulated from the measured voltage. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed sensing system associated with the empirical polynomial model is successfully verified by comparing the calculated values of magnetic flux density with those measured by a commercial tesla meter.

  16. Identification of Synchronous Machine Magnetization Characteristics From Calorimetric Core-Loss and No-Load Curve Measurements


    Rasilo, Paavo; Abdallh, Ahmed Abou-Elyazied; Belahcen, Anouar; Arkkio, Antero; Dupre, Luc


    The magnetic material characteristics of a wound-field synchronous machine are identified based on global calorimetric core-loss and no-load curve measurements. This is accomplished by solving a coupled experimental-numerical electromagnetic inverse problem, formulated to minimize the difference between a finite-element (FE) simulation-based Kriging surrogate model and the measurement results. The core-loss estimation in the FE model is based on combining a dynamic iron-loss model and a static v...

  17. Characteristics of inertial oscillations according to the experimental measurements of currents on the Russian shelf of the Black Sea (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.


    The analysis of inertial oscillations on the Gelendzhik shelf of the Black Sea is presented. Spectral characteristics of the current fields are studied based on the measurements taken by the acoustic Doppler current profiler. Strong variability of the inertial oscillation hodographs at variations in the background shear current and diverse forms of inertial oscillations measured at a fixed point at various values of the shear current are revealed. The relation between the passage of the multidirectional jets and the trains of inertial oscillations inside the jets in the studied region are established.

  18. Evaluation of Lumipulse® G1200 for the measurement of six tumor markers: Comparison with AIA® 2000. (United States)

    de Rancher, Marie-Aude Robert; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean Claude; Ramont, Laurent


    Tumor marker assays are daily practiced, for screening and follow up of cancers. Interassay precision is an important parameter for the interpretation of the kinetics of the markers, in order to conclude to the efficiency or failure of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two automated Immunoassay analyzers, Lumipulse® G1200 and AIA® 2000. Both analyzers used an immunoassay system but with different antibodies. Six tumor markers commonly used were studied: AFP, PSA, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, CA 125 and CEA. 253 samples have been collected over a period of one month and analyzed by both analyzers. Regression of Passing-Badblock and Bland-Altman diagram were used to analyze the results for AFP (n=36), PSA (n=39), CA-125 (n=40), CA 15-3 (n=40), CA 19-9 (n=46) and CEA (n=52) were performed. Analytical performances of Lumipulse® G1200 highlighted the good inter-run and intra-run precision of the analyzer. We obtained a good correlation coefficient between Lumipulse G1200® and AIA 2000®, >0.96 for most markers except CA 19-9 which provided a correlation coefficient significantly lower than that obtained with other markers. The concordance for all markers was >94% except for CA 19-9 (83.7%). This study showed a good correlation between the two analyzers and, therefore, a transfer from one analyzer to the other is possible for the different markers studied. However, we found here the classical difficulty to transfer this type of analysis, due to the absence of method standardization. This difficulty was particularly illustrated by CA19-9. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  20. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics. (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi


    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  1. Moisture adsorption desorption characteristics of stainless steel tubing measured by ball surface acoustic wave trace moisture analyzer (United States)

    Tsuji, Toshishiro; Akao, Shingo; Oizumi, Toru; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsukahara, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Kazushi


    A ball surface acoustic wave (SAW) trace moisture analyzer (TMA) was applied to measuring the adsorption and desorption (AD) characteristics of a stainless steel tube. For the first time, two-frequency measurement for precise temperature compensation was attempted at intervals of 3 s using a burst waveform undersampling circuit. We succeeded in measuring the variations of moisture transit time and dry-down dynamics caused by inner surface treatments such as bright annealing (BA), electropolishing (EP), and electrochemical buffing (ECB) using a sample-tube length of only 100 mm at a flow rate of 0.1 L/min. Net moisture adsorption was evaluated from the measured adsorption subtracted by the background adsorption. As a result, it was found that the adsorption on the ECB tube was smaller than those on EP and BA tubes by 1/3 and 1/4, respectively, at a baseline concentration of 13 ppbv. From these results, it was demonstrated that the ball SAW TMA could be used for measuring the AD characteristics of stainless steel tubes with various surface treatments.

  2. Wilms Tumor (United States)

    ... Wilms tumor is 1 pound at diagnosis. Some children also may have nausea, stomach pain, high blood pressure (hypertension), blood in the urine, loss of appetite, or fever. Even though Wilms tumors often are ...

  3. Hypothalamic tumor (United States)

    Complications of brain surgery may include: Bleeding Brain damage Death (rarely) Infection Seizures can result from the tumor or from any surgical procedure on the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur with some tumors and ...

  4. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar


    Full Text Available Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS such that (i sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and saturation which persists in CLS, and (iii detection and identification of faults in sensors if any. These objectives are achieved by using the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL multi sensor data fusion framework in cascade to the outputs of both the sensor. The proposed liquid level measurement technique was subjected to testing with practical data and results show successful implementation of liquid level measurement system.

  5. Giant cell tumor occurring in familial Paget's disease of bone: report of clinical characteristics and linkage analysis of a large pedigree. (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Rendina, Domenico; Merlotti, Daniela; Esposito, Teresa; Amyere, Mustapha; Formicola, Daniela; Muscariello, Riccardo; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Nuti, Ranuccio; Vikkula, Mikka; Gennari, Luigi


    Neoplastic degeneration represents a rare but serious complication of Paget's disease of bone (PDB). Although osteosarcomas have been described in up to 1% of PDB cases, giant cell tumors are less frequent and mainly occur in patients with polyostotic disease. We recently characterized a large pedigree with 14 affected members of whom four developed giant cell tumors at pagetic sites. The high number of affected subjects across multiple generations allowed us to better characterize the clinical phenotype and look for possible susceptibility loci. Of interest, all the affected members had polyostotic PDB, but subjects developing giant cell tumors showed an increased disease severity with a reduced clinical response to bisphosphonate treatment and an increased prevalence of bone pain, deformities, and fractures. Together with an increased occurrence of common pagetic complications, affected patients of this pedigree also evidenced a fivefold higher prevalence of coronary artery disease with respect to either the unaffected family members or a comparative cohort of 150 unrelated PDB cases from the same geographical area. This association was further enhanced in the four cases with PDB and giant cell tumors, all of them developing coronary artery disease before 60 years of age. Despite the early onset and the severe phenotype, PDB patients from this pedigree were negative for the presence of SQSTM1 or TNFRSF11A mutations, previously associated with enhanced disease severity. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified six possible candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 20. Because the chromosome 8 and 10 loci were next to the TNFRSF11B and OPTN genes, we extended the genetic screening to these two genes, but we failed to identify any causative mutation at both the genomic and transcription level, suggesting that a different genetic defect is associated with PDB and potentially giant cell tumor of bone in this pedigree. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  6. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with temporal lobe tumors and epilepsy Características clínicas, de neuroimagem estrutural e prognóstico cirúrgico de pacientes com tumor do lobo temporal e epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 21 surgically treated patients with temporal lobe tumors and epilepsy. Evaluation included clinical data, EEG findings, structural scans, pathological diagnosis and post-surgical follow-up. There were 9 cases of ganglioglioma, 5 pilocytic astrocytoma, 3 ganglioneuroma, 2 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, 1 pleomorphic xantoastrocytoma, and 1 meningioangiomatosis. Mean follow-up time was 22 months and outcome was evaluated according to Engel's classification; 76.2% were classified in class I and 23.8% in II and III. All patients classes II and III had been submitted to mesial and neocortical resections. There were no differences related to clinical characteristics, pathological diagnosis or duration of follow-up in patients seizure-free or not. All patients had abnormal MRI and ten of these had normal CT; the MRI characteristics were compared to pathological diagnosis and specific histological characteristics of the tumors were not discernible by MRI. We concluded that MRI was essential for the diagnosis and precise location of TL tumors. Ganglioglioma was the most frequent tumor and lesionectomy associated to mesial resection doesn't guarantee a better prognosis.Este é um estudo retrospectivo de 21 pacientes com epilepsia e tumores do lobo temporal tratados cirurgicamente. A avaliação incluiu dados clínicos, eletrencefalográficos, de neuroimagem, anatomia patológica e seguimento pós-operatório. Eram 9 casos de ganglioglioma, 5 de astrocitoma pilocítico, 3 de ganglioneuroma, 2 de tumor neuroectodérmico disembrioplástico, 1 de xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico e 1 de meningoangiomatose. A média de tempo de seguimento pós-operatório foi 22 meses e o prognóstico foi avaliado de acordo com a classificação de Engel; 76,2% encontravam-se na classe I e o restante nas classes II e III. Todos os pacientes que se encontravam nas classes II e III haviam sido submetidos a ressecção do tumor e de

  7. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.


    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Brain Tumors (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  9. Odontogenic Tumors




    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  10. Phonon characteristics of high {Tc} superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany)


    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La{sub 2{minus}x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra.

  11. The radiometric characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A by using reference radiometric tarps and ground measurement (United States)

    Yeom, Jong-Min


    In this study, we performed the vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A multispectral bands by using 6S radiative transfer model, radiometric tarps, MFRSR measurements. Furthermore, to prepare the accurate input parameter, we also did experiment work to measure the BRDF of radiometric tarps based on hyperspectral gonioradiometer to compensate the observation geometry difference between satellite and ASD Fieldspec 3. Also, we measured point spread function (PSF) by using the bright star and corrected multispectral bands based on the Wiener filter. For accurate atmospheric constituent effects such as aerosol optical depth, column water, and total ozone, we used MFRSR instrument and estimated related optical depth of each gases. Based on input parameters for 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance by observed by KOMPSAT-3A and matched-up the digital number. Consequently, DN to radiance coefficients was determined based on aforementioned methods and showed reasonable statistics results.

  12. A Flexible Flow Sensor System and Its Characteristics for Fluid Mechanics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI, i.e., a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB. The sensing element, which is made of Cr/Ni/Pt with a temperature coefficient of resistance around 2,000 ppm/K, is fabricated on the FPCB by either magnetron sputtering technology or pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The sensor can be packed efficiently at high-density and integrated with signal processing circuits without additional pads. A simple fabrication process using mature technique and materials selection guarantees that the time and costs are greatly reduced. Both steady-state and transient characteristics of the sensors are experimentally tested, and the results presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensors.

  13. Measurement of two-phase particle flow based on the characteristics of particle-system scattering (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Bin


    Precise measurement of the mass of moving particles (MPM) is fundamental to the research on particle flows. In non-intrusive optical measurements, traditional discrete methods obtain the MPM by determining the connected domains on experimental pictures, leading to inevitable errors. In this study, the constitutive relationship between the MPM and the foreground grey scale value of the experimental picture is investigated on the basis of the working principle of digital cameras and the scattering theory of particle systems. This relationship is confirmed to be effective in wind-blown sand particle flow experiments using high-speed photography.

  14. Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. (United States)

    Hossain, Murshed


    The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output

  15. Simulation and measurement of the stationary and transient characteristics of the hot sphere anemometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Schijndel, A.W.M. van


    The omni-directional hot sphere anemometer, that applies a separate reference point for the temperature correction, currently is the most practical device that is used for the measurement of indoor air flows. The anemometer has been investigated, experimentally and numerically, with regard to statio

  16. Simultaneous measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors in tumor cytosols with use of /sup 125/I-labeled estradiol and of 3H-R5020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Freeman, L.; Jiang, N.S.


    We describe a dual-isotope assay for measuring the concentration of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in tumor cytosols. The concentrations of these receptors are derived from separate Scatchard-plot analyses of a single dextran-coated charcoal assay that incorporates both radioiodinated estradiol and tritiated R5020 as the labeled ligands. The two isotopes, radioiodine and tritium, are easily measured with a liquid-scintillation counter. The concentrations of estrogen and progesterone receptors derived from the dual-label assay are identical to values derived from the respective single-label assays. Moreover, values obtained from an assay with dextran-coated charcoal that incorporates radioiodinated estradiol are identical to those obtained from an assay in which tritiated estradiol is used as the labeled ligand. The dual-isotope assay requires both less time and less tissue.

  17. Dedifferentiated Peripheral Chondrosarcoma: A Review of Radiologic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Henderson


    Full Text Available Introduction. Peripheral de-differentiated chondrosarcomas are among the rarest malignant mesenchymal tumors. This tumor’s descriptive radiographic characteristics are reported but objective quantification does not exist. This investigation surveyed imaging of peripheral de-differentiated chondrosarcomas to facilitate better recognition of these uncommon tumors. Methods. Database interrogation for peripheral de-differentiated chondrosarcomas was performed; 23 patients were identified and imaging for 18 was reviewed. A musculoskeletal radiologist reviewed all studies for mineralization characteristics; presence of pre-existing osteochondromas; preserved corticomedullary continuity; adjacent cortical obliteration; soft-tissue mass; tumor necrosis; and presence of a cartilage cap. Tumor luminance was measured with computer software. Results. Mineralization was present in 17 tumors. Pre-existing exostoses were evident in nine cases, corticomedullary continuity was preserved in three cases. There was no difference in mineralization or other characteristics based on tumor location. Mean tumor luminance was 94.9 candela/m2. Conclusions. The imaging characteristics described for central de-differentiated chondrosarcomas are similar to the peripheral form of this tumor. Peripheral mineralization with a bimorphic pattern on CT scan and the presence of a soft-tissue mass should be considered worrisome for a peripheral de-differentiated chondrosarcoma, particularly in the setting of multiple hereditary exostoses.

  18. Pediatric primary central nervous system germ cell tumors of different prognosis groups show characteristic miRNome traits and chromosome copy number variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Muh-Lii


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs, are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear. Results We identified a distinct mRNA profile correlating with GCT histological differentiation and prognosis, and also present in this study the first miRNA profile of pediatric primary intracranial GCTs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were downregulated in germinomas, but miR-142-5p and miR-146a were upregulated. Genes responsible for self-renewal (such as POU5F1 (OCT4, NANOG and KLF4 and the immune response were abundant in germinomas, while genes associated with neuron differentiation, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (including SNAI2 (SLUG and TWIST2 were abundant in NGMGCTs. Clear transcriptome segregation based on patient survival was observed, with malignant NGMGCTs being closest to embryonic stem cells. Chromosome copy number variations (CNVs at cytobands 4q13.3-4q28.3 and 9p11.2-9q13 correlated with GCT malignancy and clinical risk. Six genes (BANK1, CXCL9, CXCL11, DDIT4L, ELOVL6 and HERC5 within 4q13.3-4q28.3 were more abundant in germinomas. Conclusions Our results integrate molecular profiles with clinical observations and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms causing GCT malignancy. The genes, pathways and microRNAs identified have the potential to be novel therapeutic targets.

  19. PW Characteristics during the 2013 Colorado Flood using Ground-Based GPS Measurements (United States)

    Huelsing, H. K.; Wang, J.


    During September 9-16, 2013, the Front Range region of Colorado experienced heavy rainfall that resulted in severe flooding. Precipitation totals for the event exceeded 450mm, damages to public and private properties were estimated to be over $2 billion, and 9 lives were lost. This study analyzes the characteristics of precipitable water (PW) surrounding the event using 10-years of high-resolution GPS PW data in Boulder, Colorado, which was located within the region of maximum rainfall. The characteristics examined include the temporal variability and abnormality of PW as well as the sources of moisture for the event. The temporal variability for PW in Boulder is dominated by seasonal variability with an average summertime maximum of 36mm. In 2013, the seasonal PW maximum extended into early September due to the occurrence of the flooding event. A closer examination of the temporal variability of PW surrounding this event showed that PW rapidly increased from 22mm to 32mm over the course of 1 day and values remained around 30mm for the entire event. When examining the abnormality of PW during the event, the atmosphere over Boulder was found to be near to saturation for the duration of the event and the monthly-averaged PW for September of 2013 was 25% higher than the long-term climatology. Also, the frequency distribution of September PW for Boulder is typically Gaussian, or normal, but in 2013 the distribution for September was bimodal, representing a shift in atmospheric conditions from climatology. This shift was the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. This moisture transport was the product of a stagnating, cutoff low over the southwestern United States working in conjunction with an anticyclone located over the southeastern United States. A blocking ridge located over the Canadian Rocky Mountains kept both of the synoptic features in place over the course of several days, which helped

  20. Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis Reveals Superiority of Scale-Dependent Wavelet and Spectral Measures for Assessing Cardiac Dysfunction

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Lowen, S B; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Teich, Malvin C.


    Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the suitability of various heart rate variability (HRV) measures for correctly classifying electrocardiogram records of varying lengths as normal or revealing the presence of heart failure. Scale-dependent HRV measures were found to be substantially superior to scale-independent measures (scaling exponents) for discriminating the two classes of data over a broad range of record lengths. The wavelet-coefficient standard deviation at a scale near 32 heartbeat intervals, and its spectral counterpart near 1/32 cycles per interval, provide reliable results using record lengths just minutes long. A jittered integrate-and-fire model built around a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic, though not perfect, simulation of heartbeat sequences.

  1. Volumetric methods for tumor measurements in evaluating tumor response in glioblastoma%肿瘤容积测量在胶质母细胞瘤疗效评价中价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅云; 韩艳红; 程敬亮; 史大鹏


    Objective To assess the value of tumor volume measurements on post-contrast 2D T1-weighted images to tumor response evaluation in brain glioblastoma by comparing with volumetric measurements on high resolution 3D T1-weighted images.Methods Seventy-two MRI scans from 36 adult glioblastoma patients were acquired by using a 3 Tesla MRI system.Each scanning session consisted of pre- and post-contrast thick 2D T1-weighted imaging with 5 mm slice thickness and a postcontrast high-resolution 3D acquisition with 1 mm isotropic voxels.Tumor volume measurements were performed on both 2D and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images and compared by using Wilcoxon rank test.The scans from same patient were paired, and four response categories including partial remission, progressive disease, stable disease and complete remission were used to evaluate tumor response status in all methods.Agreement of the treatment response classifications of the two methods was assessed by a weighted Kappa statistic.Results There was no significant difference between volumes measured on 2D and 3D in 72 scans (Z=1.20, P=0.23), and a high correlation was revealed between them (r=0.95, P<0.01).When the percentage changes were categorized into traditional tumor response criteria (complete remission, partial remission, stable disease, progressive disease), the Kappa coefficient between the volume on 2D and volume on 3D was 0.80 with an overall agreement of 86 %.Conclusion Volume on post-contrast 2D Ti-weighted images appears comparable to volume on 3D T1-weighted images and should be a practical alternative to volume on 3D in evaluating treatment response of brain gliobalstoma.%目的:通过与高分辨率三维(3D)增强T1 WI上肿瘤容积的比较,评价二维(2D)增强T1 WI上肿瘤容积测量在脑胶质母细胞瘤疗效评估中的价值.方法:36例成人脑胶质母细胞瘤患者的72次MRI扫描,采用3.0T MRI进行头颅常规MRI平扫和2D(层厚5 mm)及高分辨率3D(1 mm

  2. Measurement of Neutron Field Characteristics at Nuclear-Physics Instalations for Personal Radiation Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A G; Britvich, G I; Kosyanenko, E V; Pikalov, V A; Gomonov, I P


    n this work the observed data of neutron spectra on Rostov NEP, Kursk NEP and Smolensk NEP and on the reactor IRT MIPHI are submitted. For measurement of neutron spectra two types of spectrometer were used: SHANS (IHEP design ) and SDN-MS01 (FEI design). The comparison of the data measurements per-formed by those spectrometers above one-type cells on the reactor RBMK is submitted. On the basis of the 1-st horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 of the IRT reactor 4 reference fields of neutrons are investigated. It is shown, that spectra of neutrons of reference fields can be used for imitation of neutron spectra for conditions of NEP with VVER and RBMK type reactors.

  3. Measurement of mixing characteristics of the Missouri River between Sioux City, Iowa, and Plattsmouth, Nebraska (United States)

    Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Fischer, Hugo B.; Sayre, William W.


    Measurements of longitudinal dispersion, transverse mixing, channel geometry, and transverse velocity distribution were made in the Missouri River at a flow of about 33,000 cubic feet per second. The results show that the longitudinal dispersion coefficient for the 141-mile reach from Sioux City, Iowa, to Plattsmouth, Nebr., is about 16,000 square feet per second (approximately 5,600 U*d, where U* is the shear velocity and d is mean depth). The transverse mixing coefficient, Ez, for a 6-mile reach immediately downstream from Blair, Nebr., is about 1.3 square feet per second (approximately 0.6 U*d). The value of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient is one of the largest ever measured, and the value of the ratio Ez/U*d is approximately three times as large as that frequently reported for small straight channels.

  4. Measurement of electrodynamics characteristics of higher order modes for harmonic cavity at 2400 MHz (United States)

    Shashkov, Ya V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Gusarova, M. A.; Lalayan, M. V.; Bazyl, D. S.; Donetskiy, R. V.; Orlov, A. I.; Zobov, M. M.; Zavadtsev, A. A.


    In the frameworks of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade program an application of additional superconducting harmonic cavities operating at 800 MHz is currently under discussion. As a possible candidate, an assembly of two cavities with grooved beam pipes connected by a drift tube and housed in a common cryomodule, was proposed. In this article we discuss measurements of loaded Q-factors of higher order modes (HOM) performed on a scaled aluminium single cell cavity prototype with the fundamental frequency of 2400 MHz and on an array of two such cavities connected by a narrow beam pipe. The measurements were performed for the system with and without the matching load in the drift tube..

  5. Estimation of Metabolism Characteristics for Heat-Injured Bacteria Using Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement Method (United States)

    Amako, Eri; Enjoji, Takaharu; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    Constant monitoring and immediate control of fermentation processes have been required for advanced quality preservation in food industry. In the present work, simple estimation of metabolic states for heat-injured Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a micro-cell was investigated using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. Temporal change in the conductance between micro-gap (ΔG) was measured for various heat treatment temperatures. In addition, the dependence of enzyme activity, growth capacity and membrane situation for E. coli on heat treatment temperature was also analyzed with conventional biological methods. Consequently, a correlation between ΔG and those biological properties was obtained quantitatively. This result suggests that DEPIM method will be available for an effective monitoring technique for complex change in various biological states of microorganisms.

  6. Gamma-ray measurements of naturally occurring radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tzortzis, M; Christofides, S; Christodoulides, G


    Using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the terrestrial gamma radiation in all the predominant types of geological rock formations appearing in Cyprus was measured. Soil samples were collected from each rock type, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory for 24 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for Th-232 (range from 1.3 to 52.8 Bq/kg), U-238 (from 0.9 to 90.3 Bq/kg) and K-40 (from 13 to 894 Bq/kg). Elemental concentrations mean values of (2.8 +- 0.7) ppm, (1.3 +- 0.3) ppm and (0.6 +- 0.1) % were extracted, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range of 0.1-50 nGy/h, depending on the geological features, with an overall mean value of (14.7 +- 7.3) nGy/h. The corresponding effective dose rates per person outdoors were estimated to be between 0.1 and 61.4 microSv/y, assuming a 20% occupancy factor.

  7. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin [Korea Polytechnic University, Shiheung (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jeon-Soo [Future Technology Research Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO{sub 2}{sup -}, the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO{sub 2}{sup -} caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO{sub 2}{sup -} acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass.

  8. Measurement of the sound transmission characteristics of normal neck tissue using a reflectionless uniform tube. (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Xiao, Ke; Dong, Jiaqi; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi


    Understanding the sound transmission of the neck tissue is necessary and important in areas such as vocal function evaluation and electrolarynx improvement. In this paper, a simple method using a reflectionless tube was proposed to measure the neck frequency response function (NFRF) of ten normal subjects (five males and five females) during Mandarin vowel production. The NFRFs across different subjects producing different vowels were measured at different neck positions and compared to confirm the effectiveness of the method, and determine the NFRF variations in normal subjects. The results showed that the proposed method offered an easy and effective way to obtain an accurate NFRF. For normal subjects, the neck tissue can be treated as a low-pass filter, with a maximum gain at 310 Hz and a roll-off at a slope of -8.4 dB/octave, flattening out above 2000 Hz. The measurement position on the neck did not influence the shape of the NFRF, but did change the overall gains of the NFRF. In addition, there was a significant gender difference in NFRFs at the low frequencies. Finally, some potential applications of this method and the results are suggested.

  9. Measurement of the spectral characteristics and color parameters of flat objects (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Norko, Vadim E.


    Quality control of different coatings (colorful, paint, marker, safety, etc.) that are applied to the surface of various objects (both metallic and non-metallic) is an important problem. Also, there is a problem of dealing with counterfeit products. So it's necessary to distinguish the fake replicas of marking from the authentic marking of producer. To solve these problems, we propose an automated device (hardware and software complex) for analysis and control of spectral reflection characteristics, albedo and color parameters of extended (up to 150 mm × 150 mm) flat objects. It allows constructing the color image of the object surface as well as its multispectral images in selected regions of the spectrum. Herewith the color of the object surface can be calculated for various standard light sources (A, B, C, D65, E, F2, F7, F11, GE), or to any light source with a predetermined emission spectrum. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed hardware and software complex. All color settings calculations correspond to the requirements and recommendations of CIE.

  10. Contemporary update on pathology-related issues on routine workup of prostate biopsy: sectioning, tumor extent measurement, specimen orientation, and immunohistochemistry. (United States)

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Scarpelli, Marina; Galosi, Andrea B; Cheng, Liang


    While the prime goal of the needle biopsy is to diagnose prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa), once PCa is detected further descriptive information regarding the type of cancer, amount of tumor, and grade in prostate needle cores forms the cornerstone for contemporary management of the patient and to assess the potential for local cure and the risk for distant metastasis. This review gives an update on selected pathology-related issues on routine workup of prostate biopsy with special references to adequate histologic sectioning necessary to maximize cancer yield, tumor extent measurements and methodologies, specimen orientation, and the role of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of the prostate. Multiple factors influence the diagnostic yield of prostate biopsies. Many of these factors are fixed and uncontrollable. Other factors are controlled by the urologist, including number of cores obtained, method and location of biopsy, and amount of tissue obtained. The yield of cancer is also controlled by the pathologist and histotechnologist. It is necessary to report the number of cores submitted and the number of positive cores, thereby giving the fraction of positive cores. The percentage involvement by carcinoma with or without the linear extent of carcinoma of the single core with the greatest amount of tumor should also be provided. Using the marking technique, we can add a new pathological parameter: pathological orientation. Cancer or atypical lesions can be accurately located within the biopsy specimen and integrated to biopsy approach. Probably the most common use of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of the prostate is for the identification of basal cells, which are absent with rare exception in adenocarcinoma of the prostate and in general positive in mimickers of prostate cancer. If a case is still considered atypical by a uropathology expert after negative basal cell staining, positive staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase can help establish in 50

  11. An Automated System for Measuring Microphysical and Radiative Cloud Characteristics from a Tethered Balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul Lawson


    OAK-B135 The rate of climate change in polar regions is now felt to be a harbinger of possible global warming. Long-lived, relatively thin stratus clouds play a predominant role in transmitting solar radiation and trapping long wave radiation emitted from open water and melt ponds. In situ measurements of microphysical and radiative properties of Arctic and Antarctic stratus clouds are needed to validate retrievals from remote measurements and simulations using numerical models. While research aircraft can collect comprehensive microphysical and radiative data in clouds, the duration of these aircraft is relatively short (up to about 12 hours). During the course of the Phase II research, a tethered balloon system was developed that supports miniaturized meteorological, microphysical and radiation sensors that can collect data in stratus clouds for days at a time. The tethered balloon system uses a 43 cubic meter balloon to loft a 17 kg sensor package to altitudes u p to 2 km. Power is supplied to the instrument package via two copper conductors in the custom tether. Meteorological, microphysical and radiation data are recorded by the sensor package. Meteorological measurements include pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Radiation measurements are made using a 4-pi radiometer that measures actinic flux at 500 and 800 nm. Position is recorded using a GPS receiver. Microphysical data are obtained using a miniaturized version of an airborne cloud particle imager (CPI). The miniaturized CPI measures the size distribution of water drops and ice crystals from 9 microns to 1.4 mm. Data are recorded onboard the sensor package and also telemetered via a 802.11b wireless communications link. Command signals can also be sent to the computer in the sensor package via the wireless link. In the event of a broken tether, a GMRS radio link to the balloon package is used to heat a wire that burns 15 cm opening in the top of the balloon. The balloon and

  12. Pediatric liver tumors--a pictorial review. (United States)

    Jha, Priyanka; Chawla, Soni C; Tavri, Sidhartha; Patel, Chirag; Gooding, Charles; Daldrup-Link, Heike


    Hepatic masses constitute about 5-6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group after Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children can be obtained based on the age of the child, clinical information (in particular AFP) and imaging characteristics. The purpose of this review is to report typical clinical and imaging characteristics of benign and malignant primary liver tumors in children.

  13. Pediatric liver tumors - a pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Tavri, Sidhartha; Patel, Chirag; Gooding, Charles; Daldrup-Link, Heike [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chawla, Soni C. [Department of Radiological Sciences 2D115, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA (United States)


    Hepatic masses constitute about 5-6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group after Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children can be obtained based on the age of the child, clinical information (in particular AFP) and imaging characteristics. The purpose of this review is to report typical clinical and imaging characteristics of benign and malignant primary liver tumors in children. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics. (United States)

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M


    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines.

  15. Characteristics of soil salinity in the typical area of Yellow River Delta and its control measures (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Pang, Xiaoke; Liu, Hui; Wang, Qun


    The Yellow River Delta is one of important ecological areas in eastern China, however sustainable development of the Yellow River Delta is seriously restricted because of severe soil salinization. The main sources of soil salinity are chloride, sodium and sulfate ions. The distribution of soil salinity in soil profiles showed that surface accumulation of soil salt was significant in the Yellow River Delta. Some control measures including soil improvement and regulation, reasonable combination of salt-fresh water irrigation in farmland, land cover and effective drainage were put forward for soil salinity control.

  16. Laboratory measurements of physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of Lake Chicot sediment waters (United States)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.


    Reflectance, chromaticity, diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of lake bottom sediment. Mixture concentrations range from 5 ppm to 700 ppm by weight of total suspended solids in filtered deionized tap water. Upwelled reflectance is a nonlinear function of remote sensing wave lengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are useful for monitoring highly turbid waters with sediment concentrations above 100 ppm. It is found that both visible and near infrared wavelengths, beam attenuation correlates well with total suspended solids ranging over two orders of magnitude.

  17. Measuring Aseismic Slip through Characteristically Repeating Earthquakes at the Mendocino Triple Junction, Northern California (United States)

    Materna, K.; Taira, T.; Burgmann, R.


    The Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ), at the transition point between the San Andreas fault system, the Mendocino Transform Fault, and the Cascadia Subduction Zone, undergoes rapid tectonic deformation and produces more large (M>6.0) earthquakes than any region in California. Most of the active faults of the triple junction are located offshore, making it difficult to characterize both seismic slip and aseismic creep. In this work, we study aseismic creep rates near the MTJ using characteristically repeating earthquakes (CREs) as indicators of creep rate. CREs are generally interpreted as repeated failures of the same seismic patch within an otherwise creeping fault zone; as a consequence, the magnitude and recurrence time of the CREs can be used to determine a fault's creep rate through empirically calibrated scaling relations. Using seismic data from 2010-2016, we identify CREs as recorded by an array of eight 100-Hz PBO borehole seismometers deployed in the Cape Mendocino area. For each event pair with epicenters less than 30 km apart, we compute the cross-spectral coherence of 20 seconds of data starting one second before the P-wave arrival. We then select pairs with high coherence in an appropriate frequency band, which is determined uniquely for each event pair based on event magnitude, station distance, and signal-to-noise ratio. The most similar events (with median coherence above 0.95 at two or more stations) are selected as CREs and then grouped into CRE families, and each family is used to infer a local creep rate. On the Mendocino Transform Fault, we find relatively high creep rates of >5 cm/year that increase closer to the Gorda Ridge. Closer to shore and to the MTJ itself, we find many families of repeaters on and off the transform fault with highly variable creep rates, indicative of the complex deformation that takes place there.

  18. Carbon isotopic characteristics of hydrocarbon gases from coal-measure source rocks--A thermal simulation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianjing; HU Huifang; SUN Guoqiang; JI Limin


    Gaseous hydrocarbon geochemistry research through a thermal simulation experiment in combination with the natural evolution process in which natural gases were formed from coal-measure source rocks revealed that the δ13C1 values of methane vary from light to heavy along with the increase of thermal evolution degree of coal-measure source rocks, and the δ13C2 values of ethane range from -28.3‰ to -20‰ (PDB). δ13C2 value was -28‰± ( Ro= 0.45% - 0.65%) at the lower thermal evolution stage of coal-measure source rocks. After the rocks entered the main hydrocarbon-generating stage (Ro=0.65% - 1.50%), δ13C2 values generally varied within the range of -26‰ - -23‰±; with further thermal evolution of the rocks the carbon isotopes of ethane became heavier and heavier, but generally less than - 20‰.The partial carbon isotope sequence inversion of hydrogen gases is a characteristic feature of mixing of natural gases of different origins. Under the condition of specially designated type of organic matter, hydrogen source rocks may show this phenomenon via their own evolution.In the lower evolution stages of the rocks, it is mainly determined by organic precursors that gaseous hydrocarbons display partial inversion of the carbon isotope sequence and the carbon isotopic values of ethane are relatively low. These characteristic features also are related to the geochemical composition of primary soluble organic matter.

  19. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions. (United States)

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S


    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  20. Timing of nest vegetation measurement may obscure adaptive significance of nest-site characteristics: A simulation study. (United States)

    McConnell, Mark D; Monroe, Adrian P; Burger, Loren Wes; Martin, James A


    Advances in understanding avian nesting ecology are hindered by a prevalent lack of agreement between nest-site characteristics and fitness metrics such as nest success. We posit this is a result of inconsistent and improper timing of nest-site vegetation measurements. Therefore, we evaluated how the timing of nest vegetation measurement influences the estimated effects of vegetation structure on nest survival. We simulated phenological changes in nest-site vegetation growth over a typical nesting season and modeled how the timing of measuring that vegetation, relative to nest fate, creates bias in conclusions regarding its influence on nest survival. We modeled the bias associated with four methods of measuring nest-site vegetation: Method 1-measuring at nest initiation, Method 2-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate, Method 3-measuring at nest termination for successful nests and at estimated completion for unsuccessful nests, and Method 4-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate while also accounting for initiation date. We quantified and compared bias for each method for varying simulated effects, ranked models for each method using AIC, and calculated the proportion of simulations in which each model (measurement method) was selected as the best model. Our results indicate that the risk of drawing an erroneous or spurious conclusion was present in all methods but greater with Method 2 which is the most common method reported in the literature. Methods 1 and 3 were similarly less biased. Method 4 provided no additional value as bias was similar to Method 2 for all scenarios. While Method 1 is seldom practical to collect in the field, Method 3 is logistically practical and minimizes inherent bias. Implementation of Method 3 will facilitate estimating the effect of nest-site vegetation on survival, in the least biased way, and allow reliable conclusions to be drawn.

  1. [Metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumors]. (United States)

    Bouledrak, K; Walter, T; Souquet, P J; Lombard-Bohas, C


    Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms and represent 1 to 2 % of all lung tumors. In early stage of disease, the mainstay and only curative treatment is surgery. Bronchial carcinoids are generally regarded as low-grade carcinomas and metastatic dissemination is unusual. The management of the metastatic stage is not currently standardized due to a lack of relevant studies. As bronchial carcinoids and in particular their metastatic forms are rare, we apply treatment strategies that have been evaluated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, bronchial carcinoids have their own characteristic. A specific therapeutic feature of these metastatic tumors is that they require a dual approach: both anti-secretory for the carcinoid syndrome, and anti-tumoral.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  3. 测压管路动态特性实测技术研究%Study on measurement technology of dynamics characteristics of typical tubes for pressure measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世策; 韩新刚; 冀晓华; 屠荣伟; 蒋建群


    利用声音振动发生原理研制了多功能声音振动发生装置,开发了测压管路动态特性的实测技术,并对风洞试验中典型测压管路的频响特性进行了实测.采用正弦压力波对不同的测压管路进行激励,采用多点联合扫描技术提高采样频率,得到完整的正弦波动曲线.实验研究结果表明,该实验技术可以得到高频的动态压力信号和准确的频响特性曲线,为误差修正提供了依据.%By using independently developed sound vibration generating device, the measurement technology of dynamics characteristics of typical tubes for pressure measurements was developed, and the frequency response characteristics of typical tubes for fluctuating wind pressure measurements were measured. By using principle of sound vibrations, a multi-function sound vibration generating device was developed. Different pipes were excited by sine pressure waves, multi-point scanning technology was used to improve the sampling frequency for getting full curves of sine waves. Experimental results show that the experimental technique developed can be ' used to obtain high-frequency dynamic pressure signals and accurate frequency response curve for providing a basis for the error correction.

  4. Measuring tendon properties in mdx mice: cell viability and viscoelastic characteristics. (United States)

    Rizzuto, E; Musarò, A; Catizone, A; Del Prete, Z


    Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Here we assessed whether muscle wasting affects cell viability and mechanical properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and of tibialis anterior (TA) tendons from mdx dystrophic mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. mdx mice represent the classical animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and show several signs of the pathology, including a decrease in specific force and an increase of fibrotic index. Cell viability of tendons was evaluated by histological analysis, and viscoelastic properties have been assessed by a rapid measurement protocol that allowed us to compute, at the same time, tissue complex compliance for all the frequencies of interest. Confocal microscopy and mechanical properties measurements revealed that mdx tendons, compared to WT ones, have an increase in the number of dead cells and a significant reduction in tissue elasticity for all the frequencies that were tested. These findings indicate a reduced quality of the tissue. Moreover, mdx tendons have an increase in the viscous response, indicating that during dynamic loading, they dissipate more energy compared to WT. Our results demonstrate that muscular dystrophy involves not only muscle wasting, but also alteration in the viscoelastic properties of tendons, suggesting a paracrine effect of altered skeletal muscle on tendinous tissue.

  5. Measured physicochemical characteristics and biosolids-borne concentrations of the antimicrobial Triclocarban (TCC). (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C


    Triclocarban (TCC) is an active ingredient in antibacterial bar soaps, a common constituent of domestic wastewater, and the subject of recent criticism by consumer advocate groups and academic researchers alike. Activated sludge treatment readily removes TCC from the liquid waste stream and concentrates the antimicrobial in the solid fraction, which is often processed to produce biosolids intended for land application. Greater than half of the biosolids generated in the US are land-applied, resulting in a systematic release of biosolids-borne TCC into the terrestrial and, potentially, the aquatic environment. Multiple data gaps in the TCC literature (including basic physicochemical properties and biosolids concentrations) prevent an accurate, quantitative risk assessment of biosolids-borne TCC. We utilized the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guidelines to measure TCC solubility and log K(ow) values as 0.045 mg L(-1) and 3.5, respectively. The measured physicochemical 2 properties differed from computer model predictions. The mean concentration of TCC in 23 biosolids representative of multiple sludge processing methods was 19+/-11 mg kg(-1).

  6. Self-absorption characteristics of measured laser-induced plasma line shapes (United States)

    Parigger, C. G.; Surmick, D. M.; Gautam, G.


    The determination of electron density and temperature is reported from line-of-sight measurements of laser-induced plasma. Experiments are conducted in standard ambient temperature and pressure air and in a cell containing ultra-high-pure hydrogen slightly above atmospheric pressure. Spectra of the hydrogen Balmer series lines can be measured in laboratory air due to residual moisture following optical breakdown generated with 13 to 14 nanosecond, pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Comparisons with spectra obtained in hydrogen gas yields Abel-inverted line shape appearances that indicate occurrence of self-absorption. The electron density and temperature distributions along the line of sight show near-spherical rings, expanding at or near the speed of sound in the hydrogen gas experiments. The temperatures in the hydrogen studies are obtained using Balmer series alpha, beta, gamma profiles. Over and above the application of empirical formulae to derive the electron density from hydrogen alpha width and shift, and from hydrogen beta width and peak-separation, so-called escape factors and the use of a doubling mirror are discussed.

  7. Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Amiridis


    Full Text Available The influence of smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece is examined in this paper. Ten cases during 2001–2005 were identified when very high aerosol optical depth values in the free troposphere were observed with a UV-Raman lidar. Particle dispersion modeling (FLEXPART and satellite hot spot fire detection (ATSR showed that these high free tropospheric aerosol optical depths are mainly attributed to the advection of smoke plumes from biomass burning regions over Thessaloniki. The biomass burning regions were found to extend across Russia in the latitudinal belt between 45° N–55° N, as well as in Eastern Europe (Baltic countries, Western Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine. The highest frequency of agricultural fires occurred during the summer season (mainly in August. The data collected allowed the optical characterization of the smoke aerosols that arrived over Greece, where limited information has so far been available. Two-wavelength backscatter lidar measurements showed that the backscatter-related Ångström exponent ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 indicating a variety of particle sizes. UV-Raman lidar measurements showed that for smoke particles the extinction to backscatter ratios varied between 40 sr for small particles to 100 sr for large particles. Dispersion model estimations of the carbon monoxide tracer concentration profiles for smoke particles indicate that the variability of the optical parameters is a function of the age of the smoke plumes.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He


    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  9. Value Analysis Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Applied to Diagnose Breast Tumor and Characteristics Manifestation%CT和MRI应用于乳腺肿瘤诊断的价值分析与特征表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective This Paper is to study clinical value of CT and MRI applied to diagnose the breast tumor and its characteristics.Methods Fifty eight patients who were confirmed to suffer from breast cancer, by pathology admitted by the Radiology Department of the Hospital were selected as research objects, who were retrospectively analyzed and summarized according to the clinical data, patients were subject to CT and MRI examinations respectively, and two types of inspection diagnosis were contrasted and analyzed.Results MRI detected 29 patients suffering from benign breast tumor and 23 patients with breast cancer, CT detected 19 patients with benign breast tumor and 11 patients with breast cancer, the detection rate of MRI on the breast tumor was obviously higher than that of CT(p<0.05), and the difference was significant.Conclusions Both CT and MRI deliver high clinical value in diagnosis of breast tumor, their images pose certain characteristic, but MRI is capable of providing more information, and it can provide important reference basis for subsequent treatment, throwing high value of clinical application and promotion.%目的:探讨CT和MRI应用于乳腺肿瘤诊断的临床价值及其特征表现。方法以我院放射科收治的58例经病理证实的乳腺肿瘤患者为研究对象,根据其临床资料进行回顾性分析和总结,分别对其进行CT和MRI检查,对比分析两种检查方式的诊断结果。结果 MRI检出乳腺良性肿瘤29例,乳腺癌23,CT检出乳腺良性肿瘤19例,乳腺癌11例,MRI对乳腺肿瘤的检出率明显高于CT,p<0.05,差异显著。结论 CT和MRI在诊断乳腺肿瘤方面均具有较高的临床价值,其影像具有一定的特征性,但是MRI可以提供更多的信息,可以为患者的后续治疗提供重要的参考依据,具有较高的临床应用推广价值。

  10. 儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因和临床特征分析%Etiological analysis of children with tumor -associated precocious puberty and its clinical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞智东; 宁旦


    Objectives:To investigate and analyze children with tumor -associated precocious puberty and its clinical characteristics.Methods:40 children with tumor -associated precocious puberty in our hospital from January 201 3 to January 201 4 were selected as research subjects.Comprehensive analysis was conducted based on hormone level detection,breast development,testicular volume,penis length and their clinical manifestations and treatment status,to summarize the etiology and clinical characteristics of children with tumor -associated precocious puberty.Results:The experimental results showed that gender had no effect on tumor -associated precocious pu-berty,and hypothalamic hamartomas was the most common cause,with peripheral precocious puberty being the main form.The clinical characteristics of male patients were genital development,and for female children,breast devel-opment and vaginal bleeding were initial features.Conclusion:Tumor is one of the important causes leading to pre-cocious puberty,and hypothalamic hamartoma is the most common type of tumor.Therefore,attention should be paid to the development of children’s endocrine organs,as well as the diagnosis of rare tumor,for comprehensive diagnosis and timely prevention.%目的:探讨分析儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因及临床特征。方法:筛选2013年1月至2014年1月我院收治的肿瘤相关性早熟患儿40例作为研究对象。通过对其进行激素水平检测、乳房发育、睾丸容积、阴茎长度结合临床表现及治疗情况进行综合分析,总结儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因及临床特征。结果:本组实验结果表明性别对儿童肿瘤相关性早熟无影响,病因以下丘脑错构瘤较为多见,并且以外周性早熟为主要性早熟形式,其中男患儿以肾上腺皮质肿瘤、女患儿以卵巢囊肿致性早熟居多;临床特征分析中男患儿均以外生殖器发育,女患儿以乳房发育、阴道出血等为首发特征

  11. Effect of different segmentation algorithms on metabolic tumor volume measured on 18F-FDG PET/CT of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Ma, Ying; Liu, Changping


    Background and purpose It is known that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) segmentation algorithms have an impact on the metabolic tumor volume (MTV). This leads to some uncertainties in PET/CT guidance of tumor radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmentation algorithms on the PET/CT-based MTV and their correlations with the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia∼IIb and histologically proven cervical squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scan was performed before definitive surgery. GTV was measured on surgical specimens. MTVs were estimated on PET/CT scans using different segmentation algorithms, including a fixed percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (20∼60% SUVmax) threshold and iterative adaptive algorithm. We divided all patients into four different groups according to the SUVmax within target volume. The comparisons of absolute values and percentage differences between MTVs by segmentation and GTV were performed in different SUVmax subgroups. The optimal threshold percentage was determined from MTV20%∼MTV60%, and was correlated with SUVmax. The correlation of MTViterative adaptive with GTV was also investigated. Results MTV50% and MTV60% were similar to GTV in the SUVmax up to 5 (P>0.05). MTV30%∼MTV60% were similar to GTV (P>0.05) in the 50.05) in the 100.05) in the SUVmax of at least 15 group. MTViterative adaptive was similar to GTV in both total and different SUVmax groups (P>0.05). Significant differences were observed among the fixed percentage method and the optimal threshold percentage was inversely correlated with SUVmax. The iterative adaptive segmentation algorithm led to the highest accuracy (6.66±50.83%). A significantly positive correlation was also observed between MTViterative


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Branovitsky


    Full Text Available The problems relating to an automation of measurement of magnetic characteristics of electrical-sheet steel have been considered in the paper. The paper investigates efficiency of an application of some well-known iterative methods for setting the required amplitude value of a magnetic induction of the material to be tested. It is shown that the most efficient method providing a fast and stable convergence of an iterative process while testing either textured or isotropic electrical-sheet steel is a parabola method.

  13. Measurement of the Wigner Characteristic Function for the Center-of-Mass Motion of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINLi-Hua; WANGLing-Zhi; JIANGYun-Kun


    We proposed a scheme for the reconstruction of the quantum states for the center-of-mass vibrational mode of two trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are multichromatically excited by three lasers. Then measurement of the difference between probabilities of the ions being both in electronic ground and excited states directly yields the Wigner characteristic function for the center-of-mass vibrational state. The scheme can also be used to prepare entangled coherent states for the center-of-mass and relative vibrational modes.

  14. Measurements of water film characteristics on airfol surfaces from wind-tunnel tests with simulated heavy rain (United States)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Manuel, G. S.


    This paper discusses some of the surface water characteristics obtained during recent simulated heavy rain experiments conducted at the Langley Research Center. Water film distributions and discrete film thickness measurements on several model wings are discussed. The water film distributions on the upper surfaces are shown in photographs from cameras mounted above the models, and film thickness data are presented which were obtained using resistance sensors mounted flush with the upper and lower wing model surfaces. The paper also discusses potential sources of performance decrements indicated by the data.

  15. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors. (United States)

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E


    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors.

  16. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics. (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim


    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  17. Noise characteristics of thermistors: Measurement methods and results of selected devices (United States)

    Ryger, Ivan; Harber, Dave; Stephens, Michelle; White, Malcolm; Tomlin, Nathan; Spidell, Matthew; Lehman, John


    As part of the development of a spectrally uniform room-temperature absolute radiometer, we have studied the electrical noise of several bulk chip thermistors in order to estimate the noise floor and optical dynamic range. Understanding the fundamental limits of the temperature sensitivity leads inevitably to studying the noise background of the complex electro-thermal system. To this end, we employ a measurement technique based on alternating current synchronous demodulation. Results of our analysis show that the combination of a low-current noise Junction Field Effect Transisto