WorldWideScience

Sample records for measured tissue concentrations

  1. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  2. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  3. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  4. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  5. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  6. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  7. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  8. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Salimi, J.; Geranpayeh, L.; Perovani, H.

    2003-01-01

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  9. Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Pierre, T G; Clark, P R; Chua-anusorn, W; Fleming, A; Pardoe, H; Jeffrey, G P; Olynyk, J K; Pootrakul, P; Jones, S; Moroz, P

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R 2 ) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage

  10. Radioenzymatic assay for measurement of tissue concentrations of histamine: adaptation to correct for adherence of histamine to mechanical homogenizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.K.; Frey, M.J.; Reed, B.R.; Leff, A.R.; Shields, R.; Gold, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because adherence of histamine to glass is well-known, we tested for its adherence to a mechanical homogenizer commonly used in the extraction of histamine from tissue samples. During 60 sec of homogenization, 15% to 17% of the histamine originally present in the samples ''disappeared,'' and the reason for the disappearance was reversible binding of histamine to the homogenizer. Adding trace amounts of [ 14 C]histamine to each sample before homogenization and measuring the disappearance of radioactivity during homogenization permitted correction for binding to the homogenizer. This technique for correction was validated by the measurement of endogenous concentrations of histamine in the tracheal posterior membranes of six dogs (range of mean concentrations: 0.63 to 1.51 ng/mg wet weight) followed by the measurement of known amounts of exogenous histamine added before homogenization to tracheal tissue samples from the same dogs. In the latter samples, 96 +/- 13% (mean +/- SEM) of the histamine added was measured by our technique. We conclude that binding of histamine to mechanical homogenizers may be an important cause of inaccuracy of the enzymatic assay for the measurement of histamine concentrations in tissue but that such binding may but that such binding may be easily corrected for

  11. MR image enhancement as a function of tissue gadolinium concentration, measured with polarized X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Morita, Y.; White, D.L.; Kaufman, L.; Brasch, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging contrast agents alter intensities nonlinearly relative to their tissue concentrations. To extract Gd concentrations from image intensity data, a 13-tube phantom (Gd-DTPA dilutions, 0-10/sup -2/M) was imaged (2 T, 3 mm, spin echo, 300 = msec repetition time, 15 = msec echo time, 128 X 256, four excitations). Also, 18 rats were studied with Gd-DTPA or albumin-(Gd-DTPA)/sub 19/ (nine each, three doses). Liver and renal cortex were imaged before and 10 minutes after contrast material administration, with immediate killing and harvesting, and enhancement was calculated. These samples were assayed by x-ray fluorescent excitation analysis (150-kVp beam, B/sub 4/C ceramic polarizer, Mo-Cu-Ni filter, Si[Li] detector). Gd levels as low as 0.5 ppm (--3.18 x 10/sup -6/M) could be detected in liquid or solid samples. Enhancement increased with a nonlinear relationship to Gd in the range measured. This assay for Gd permits empiric assessment of the relationship between pulse variables, intensity, and paramagnet concentration, allowing Gd values to be estimated from image intensities

  12. Quantitative determination of localized tissue oxygen concentration in vivo by two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mik, Egbert G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Raat, Nicolaas J.; Ince, Can

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the use of two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements for quantitative oxygen determination in vivo. Doubling the excitation wavelength of Pd-porphyrin from visible light to the infrared allows for deeper tissue penetration and a more precise and confined

  13. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues 60 years after intake: results of TL measurements and applications for Techa River dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Verdi, E. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Veronese, I. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); El-Faramawy, N.A. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Ain Shams University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Goeksu, H.Y. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Adiyaman University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    This article focuses on the study of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues of Techa riverside residents 60 years after intake. The Techa River was contaminated by radioactive wastes in the 1950s. Contamination of the river system, including water, bottom sediment, floodplain soil, and grass, depended on the distance from the source of releases. Therefore, the average {sup 90}Sr intake was different in different settlements located downstream the river. An additional factor influencing {sup 90}Sr accumulation in the teeth is the rate of tissue mineralization at the time of intake which depended on the donor's age at the time of releases. Measurements of {sup 90}Sr concentration in various dental tissues (enamel, crown, and root dentin) of 166 teeth were performed about 60 years after the main intake using the method of thermoluminescence passive beta detection. The paper presents the current levels of tooth tissue contamination, and the tooth-to-tooth variability of {sup 90}Sr concentration in tooth tissues was assessed for the tissues which were matured at the time of massive liquid radioactive waste releases into the Techa River. A model describing the expected levels of {sup 90}Sr in matured dental tissues depending on age and intake has been elaborated for the population under study. The results obtained will be used for calculation of internal dose in enamel and for interpretation of tooth doses measured by means of the electron paramagnetic resonance method, among the population of the Techa River region. (orig.)

  14. Radioanalytical methods for the measurement of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and detection its receptor in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelesz, B.; Szilvassy, Z.; Varga, A.; Juhasz, B.; Nemeth, J.; Toth, G.K.; Toth, A.; Enyedi, A.; Felszeghy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper the development and application of a novel melanin concentrating hormone radioimmunoassay and receptor-binding assay are described. 125 I-labeling of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) was performed by iodogen and the mono-iodinated peptide was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Detection limit of the MCH specific assay was 0.2 fmol/ml. As a practical application of the novel radioimmunoassay, we measured the MCH concentration in different rat organs. High MCH concentrations were detected in the small intestine, pancreas, kidney, liver, trachea, hypothalamus and spinal cord. 125 I-MCH was also suitable for RBA to demonstrate the presence of MCH receptors in the rat brain. (author)

  15. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi,; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. - Highlights: • A method for 10B measurements in samples based on neutron autoradiography was developed. • The results were compared with those of alpha spectrometry applied on tissue and cell samples. • Boronated liposomes were developed and administered to osteosarcoma cell cultures. • Neutron autoradiography was employed to measure boron concentration due to liposomes. • Liposomes were proved to be more effective in concentrating boron in cells than BPA

  16. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  17. Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Kevin R; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S [Department of Medical Physics, Juravinski Cancer Centre and McMaster University, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 5C2 (Canada)

    2003-12-21

    Steady-state diffusion theory models of fluorescence in tissue have been investigated for recovering fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield. Spatially resolved fluorescence, excitation and emission reflectance were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and measured using a multi-fibre probe on tissue-simulating phantoms containing either aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS{sub 4}), Photofrin or meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine dihydrochloride (TPPS{sub 4}). The accuracy of the fluorophore concentration and fluorescence quantum yield recovered by three different models of spatially resolved fluorescence were compared. The models were based on: (a) weighted difference of the excitation and emission reflectance, (b) fluorescence due to a point excitation source or (c) fluorescence due to a pencil beam excitation source. When literature values for the fluorescence quantum yield were used for each of the fluorophores, the fluorophore absorption coefficient (and hence concentration) at the excitation wavelengthwas recovered with a root-mean-square accuracy of 11.4% using the point source model of fluorescence and 8.0% using the more complicated pencil beam excitation model. The accuracy was calculated over a broad range of optical properties and fluorophore concentrations. The weighted difference of reflectance model performed poorly, with a root-mean-square error in concentration of about 50%. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that there are some situations where the weighted difference of reflectance is as accurate as the other two models, although this was not confirmed experimentally. Estimates of the fluorescence quantum yield in multiple scattering media were also made by determining independently from the fitted absorption spectrum and applying the various diffusion theory models. The fluorescence quantum yields for AlPcS{sub 4} and TPPS{sub 4} were calculated to be 0.59 {+-} 0.03 and 0.121 {+-} 0

  18. Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, Kevin R; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state diffusion theory models of fluorescence in tissue have been investigated for recovering fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield. Spatially resolved fluorescence, excitation and emission reflectance were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and measured using a multi-fibre probe on tissue-simulating phantoms containing either aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS 4 ), Photofrin or meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine dihydrochloride (TPPS 4 ). The accuracy of the fluorophore concentration and fluorescence quantum yield recovered by three different models of spatially resolved fluorescence were compared. The models were based on: (a) weighted difference of the excitation and emission reflectance, (b) fluorescence due to a point excitation source or (c) fluorescence due to a pencil beam excitation source. When literature values for the fluorescence quantum yield were used for each of the fluorophores, the fluorophore absorption coefficient (and hence concentration) at the excitation wavelengthwas recovered with a root-mean-square accuracy of 11.4% using the point source model of fluorescence and 8.0% using the more complicated pencil beam excitation model. The accuracy was calculated over a broad range of optical properties and fluorophore concentrations. The weighted difference of reflectance model performed poorly, with a root-mean-square error in concentration of about 50%. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that there are some situations where the weighted difference of reflectance is as accurate as the other two models, although this was not confirmed experimentally. Estimates of the fluorescence quantum yield in multiple scattering media were also made by determining independently from the fitted absorption spectrum and applying the various diffusion theory models. The fluorescence quantum yields for AlPcS 4 and TPPS 4 were calculated to be 0.59 ± 0.03 and 0.121 ± 0.001 respectively using the point

  19. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  20. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  1. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), and Copper (Cu) concentrations were determined in bone, muscle and gill of two fish species (tilapia fish and cat-fish) collected from Tiga dam Kano, Nigeria during October, 2010. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals varied depending on the type of the tissue and fish species. Generally ...

  2. Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E J; Hammond, B R; Yeum, K J; Qin, J; Wang, X D; Castaneda, C; Snodderly, D M; Russell, R M

    2000-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids in the macular region of the retina (referred to as macular pigment [MP]). Foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin can increase MP density. Response to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin in other tissues has not been studied. The objective of this study was to examine tissue responses to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin and relations among tissues in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Seven subjects consumed spinach and corn, which contain lutein and zeaxanthin, with their daily diets for 15 wk. At 0, 4, 8, and 15 wk and 2 mo after the study, serum, buccal mucosa cells, and adipose tissue were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured. Serum and buccal cell concentrations of lutein increased significantly from baseline during dietary modification. Serum zeaxanthin concentrations were greater than at baseline only at 4 wk, whereas buccal cell and adipose tissue concentrations of zeaxanthin did not change. Adipose tissue lutein concentrations peaked at 8 wk. Changes in adipose tissue lutein concentration were inversely related to the changes in MP density, suggesting an interaction between adipose tissue and retina in lutein metabolism. To investigate the possibility of tissue interactions, we examined cross-sectional relations among serum, tissue, and dietary lutein concentrations, anthropometric measures, and MP density in healthy adults. Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men. Sex differences in lutein metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.

  3. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  4. Concentration of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in various tissues of Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Qingmei, H.; Hisamatsu, S.; Abe, T.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th in various human tissues of Japanese subjects obtained at autopsies are reported. The tissue samples were weighed, spiked with 234 Th tracer and ashed by acid. The solution was dried on a hot-plate. Separation of thorium radionuclides was accomplished through cation-exchange resin chromatography and electrodeposition. The concentrations of thorium isotopes were measured by α-spectrometry. Thorium-232 and 230 Th concentrations were found to be highest in lung, followed by bone. The maximum concentration of 228 Th was in bone. The lowest concentrations of thorium isotopes were in muscle. (author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of microbicide concentrations in fluids, gels and tissues using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranat Chuchuen

    Full Text Available Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Microbicide Concentrations in Fluids, Gels and Tissues Using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchuen, Oranat; Henderson, Marcus H.; Sykes, Craig; Kim, Min Sung; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold standard LC-MS/MS data

  7. Modeling microelectrode biosensors: free-flow calibration can substantially underestimate tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adam J H; Wall, Mark J; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2017-03-01

    Microelectrode amperometric biosensors are widely used to measure concentrations of analytes in solution and tissue including acetylcholine, adenosine, glucose, and glutamate. A great deal of experimental and modeling effort has been directed at quantifying the response of the biosensors themselves; however, the influence that the macroscopic tissue environment has on biosensor response has not been subjected to the same level of scrutiny. Here we identify an important issue in the way microelectrode biosensors are calibrated that is likely to have led to underestimations of analyte tissue concentrations. Concentration in tissue is typically determined by comparing the biosensor signal to that measured in free-flow calibration conditions. In a free-flow environment the concentration of the analyte at the outer surface of the biosensor can be considered constant. However, in tissue the analyte reaches the biosensor surface by diffusion through the extracellular space. Because the enzymes in the biosensor break down the analyte, a density gradient is set up resulting in a significantly lower concentration of analyte near the biosensor surface. This effect is compounded by the diminished volume fraction (porosity) and reduction in the diffusion coefficient due to obstructions (tortuosity) in tissue. We demonstrate this effect through modeling and experimentally verify our predictions in diffusive environments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Microelectrode biosensors are typically calibrated in a free-flow environment where the concentrations at the biosensor surface are constant. However, when in tissue, the analyte reaches the biosensor via diffusion and so analyte breakdown by the biosensor results in a concentration gradient and consequently a lower concentration around the biosensor. This effect means that naive free-flow calibration will underestimate tissue concentration. We develop mathematical models to better quantify the discrepancy between the calibration and tissue

  8. Methamphetamine and amphetamine concentrations in postmortem rabbit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Hara, K; Kudo, K

    1990-11-01

    The feasibility of detecting methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, in postmortem tissues over a 2-year period was examined. It is important to determine if the abuse and toxic effects of drugs can be proved from evidence found in decayed, submerged, or stained tissue materials. The blood, urine, liver, skeletal muscle, skin and extremity bones from rabbits given methamphetamine intravenously were kept at room temperature, under 4 different conditions: sealed in a test tube, dried in the open air, submerged in tap water and stained on gauze. Methamphetamine was present in all the samples, with slight change in concentration in case of sealed and air dried tissues. Changes varied in bones kept in water. There were considerable decreases in methamphetamine in blood and urine stains. Despite long term storage, drug abuse and/or toxicity could be determined, in all tissues examined.

  9. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than

  10. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I.E.; Pedro, Liliana D.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague–Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n = 8–10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2–6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague–Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially

  11. Actinide concentrations in tissues from cattle grazing a contaminated range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Actinide concentrations in the skeletons of the cows originally introduced into the study areas showed little increase with increased time of exposure, while those of animals born in the study areas showed a continued upward trend with time. Plutonium-239/americium-241 ratios in tissues and ingesta suggest little differentiation in the uptake of these radionuclides. However, the plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios indicate that plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man

  12. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  13. Measurement of tissue viscoelasticity with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. F.; Alizad, A.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue properties such as elasticity and viscosity have been shown to be related to such tissue conditions as contraction, edema, fibrosis, and fat content among others. Magnetic Resonance Elastography has shown outstanding ability to measure the elasticity and in some cases the viscosity of tissues, especially in the liver, providing the ability to stage fibrotic liver disease similarly to biopsy. We discuss ultrasound methods of measuring elasticity and viscosity in tissues. Many of these methods are becoming widely available in the extant ultrasound machines distributed throughout the world. Some of the methods to be discussed are in the developmental stage. The advantages of the ultrasound methods are that the imaging instruments are widely available and that many of the viscoelastic measurements can be made during a short addition to the normal ultrasound examination time. In addition, the measurements can be made by ultrasound repetitively and quickly allowing evaluation of dynamic physiologic function in circumstances such as muscle contraction or artery relaxation. Measurement of viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties will become a consistent part of clinical ultrasound examinations in our opinion.

  14. Lung Tissue Concentrations of Pyrazinamide among Patients with Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, M. Tobias; Nikolaishvili, Ketino; Sabulua, Irina; Bablishvili, Nino; Gogishvili, Shota; Avaliani, Zaza; Tukvadze, Nestani; Little, Brent; Bernheim, Adam; Read, Timothy D.; Guarner, Jeannette; Derendorf, Hartmut; Peloquin, Charles A.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Vashakidze, Sergo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improved knowledge regarding the tissue penetration of antituberculosis drugs may help optimize drug management. Patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing adjunctive surgery were enrolled. Serial serum samples were collected, and microdialysis was performed using ex vivo lung tissue to measure pyrazinamide concentrations. Among 10 patients, the median pyrazinamide dose was 24.7 mg/kg of body weight. Imaging revealed predominant lung lesions as cavitary (n = 6 patients), mass-like (n = 3 patients), or consolidative (n = 1 patient). On histopathology examination, all tissue samples had necrosis; eight had a pH of ≤5.5. Tissue samples from two patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture (pH 5.5 and 7.2). All 10 patients had maximal serum pyrazinamide concentrations within the recommended range of 20 to 60 μg/ml. The median lung tissue free pyrazinamide concentration was 20.96 μg/ml. The median tissue-to-serum pyrazinamide concentration ratio was 0.77 (range, 0.54 to 0.93). There was a significant inverse correlation between tissue pyrazinamide concentrations and the amounts of necrosis (R = −0.66, P = 0.04) and acid-fast bacilli (R = −0.75, P = 0.01) identified by histopathology. We found good penetration of pyrazinamide into lung tissue among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with a variety of radiological lesion types. Our tissue pH results revealed that most lesions had a pH conducive to pyrazinamide activity. The tissue penetration of pyrazinamide highlights its importance in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant antituberculosis treatment regimens. PMID:28373198

  15. Lung Tissue Concentrations of Pyrazinamide among Patients with Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Russell R; Heinrichs, M Tobias; Nikolaishvili, Ketino; Sabulua, Irina; Bablishvili, Nino; Gogishvili, Shota; Avaliani, Zaza; Tukvadze, Nestani; Little, Brent; Bernheim, Adam; Read, Timothy D; Guarner, Jeannette; Derendorf, Hartmut; Peloquin, Charles A; Blumberg, Henry M; Vashakidze, Sergo

    2017-06-01

    Improved knowledge regarding the tissue penetration of antituberculosis drugs may help optimize drug management. Patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing adjunctive surgery were enrolled. Serial serum samples were collected, and microdialysis was performed using ex vivo lung tissue to measure pyrazinamide concentrations. Among 10 patients, the median pyrazinamide dose was 24.7 mg/kg of body weight. Imaging revealed predominant lung lesions as cavitary ( n = 6 patients), mass-like ( n = 3 patients), or consolidative ( n = 1 patient). On histopathology examination, all tissue samples had necrosis; eight had a pH of ≤5.5. Tissue samples from two patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture (pH 5.5 and 7.2). All 10 patients had maximal serum pyrazinamide concentrations within the recommended range of 20 to 60 μg/ml. The median lung tissue free pyrazinamide concentration was 20.96 μg/ml. The median tissue-to-serum pyrazinamide concentration ratio was 0.77 (range, 0.54 to 0.93). There was a significant inverse correlation between tissue pyrazinamide concentrations and the amounts of necrosis ( R = -0.66, P = 0.04) and acid-fast bacilli ( R = -0.75, P = 0.01) identified by histopathology. We found good penetration of pyrazinamide into lung tissue among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with a variety of radiological lesion types. Our tissue pH results revealed that most lesions had a pH conducive to pyrazinamide activity. The tissue penetration of pyrazinamide highlights its importance in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant antituberculosis treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Concentration of Po-210 and Pb-210 in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lancai; Takizawa, Y.; Yamamoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Pb-210 and Po-210 in human tissues of people in Japan were determined. Various tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from the cadavers of 22 oncologic cases, mainly in Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan during the period of 1986 to 1988. Wet ashing, followed by electrochemical deposition and alpha-ray spectrometry were used to separate and determine the Pb-210 and Po-210 presented. Among the tissues analyzed the highest concentrations of Pb-210 and Po-210 were observed in bone, liver and kidneys: 1.29, 1.69 and 1.22 Bq.kg -1 respectively for Po-210, and 1.27, 0.56 and 0.43 Bq/kg for Pb-210 respectively. The Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in liver and kidney are 3.0 and 2.9 respectively. Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in other tissues are close to one. The total body burden of Pb-210 and Po-210 was found to be approximately 15.8 Bq and 19.1 Bq respectively

  17. Plasma vs heart tissue concentration in humans - literature data analysis of drugs distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, Zofia; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-03-12

    Little is known about the uptake of drugs into the human heart, although it is of great importance nowadays, when science desires to predict tissue level behavior rather than to measure it. Although the drug concentration in cardiac tissue seems a better predictor for physiological and electrophysiological changes than its level in plasma, knowledge of this value is very limited. Tissue to plasma partition coefficients (Kp) come to rescue since they characterize the distribution of a drug among tissues as being one of the input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The article reviews cardiac surgery and forensic medical studies to provide a reference for drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue. Firstly, the focus is on whether a drug penetrates into heart tissue at a therapeutic level; the provided values refer to antibiotics, antifungals and anticancer drugs. Drugs that directly affect cardiomyocyte electrophysiology are another group of interest. Measured levels of amiodarone, digoxin, perhexiline and verapamil in different sites in human cardiac tissue where the compounds might meet ion channels, gives an insight into how these more lipophilic drugs penetrate the heart. Much data are derived from postmortem studies and they provide insight to the cardiac distribution of more than 200 drugs. The analysis depicts potential problems in defining the active concentration location, what may indirectly suggest multiple mechanisms involved in the drug distribution within the heart. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  19. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  20. Studies on the concentration of antibiotics in tissues, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Incorporation of an antibiotic, Cefotetan (CTT), into the serum and oral cavity following irradiation was pharmacokinetically examined in rats. One shot of 100 mg/kg of CTT was given to the caudal vein at Day 3 to 28 following a single electron beam irradiation of 10 Gy to the mandible. The concentrations of CTT in the serum, tongue, and submandibular gland were serially determined using high performance liquid chromatography 5 to 60 min after injection. The minimum biological half-life of CTT in the serum was attained at Day 14 postirradiation. The concentrations of CTT in tissues increased and biological half-life prolonged up to Day 14 postirradiation. These values tended to return to the control values up to Day 28. There was serial correlation between a decrease in serum protein mass up to Day 21 and biological half-life of serum CTT. (N.K.)

  1. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  2. Natural U concentrations in soft tissues and bone of New York City residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; Welford, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of lung, liver, kidney and vertebrae from New York City autopsy cases were measured for naturally occurring U. An age dependency in U concentration was found in lung and vertebrae. The bone concentration was found to be a factor of 10 lower than previously reported for this tissue, thus the skeletal burden of U is estimated to be factor of 10 lower than that suggested in ICRP Publication 23

  3. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... plasma (approximately 100-fold, approximately 200-fold and approximately 1000-fold, respectively, PResistin concentrations did not differ significantly between compartments. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) showed no regional difference (P>0.05). The intra- and inter-subject variations of all...

  4. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41 Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10 -15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41 Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41 Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41 Ca concentration of less then 10 -17 referred to 40 Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41 Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41 Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged between 10 -14 to 10 -13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41 Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41 Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41 Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41 Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41 Ca concentrations. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinghorn, April; Humphries, Murray M.; Outridge, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals

  6. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinghorn, April [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Humphries, Murray M. [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Department of Natural Resource Science, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Outridge, Peter [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man [Community Health Sciences Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada)], E-mail: lchan@unbc.ca

    2008-08-25

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals.

  7. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  8. The Concentration of Nutrients in Tissues of Plantation-Grown Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bart.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Shelton; L. E. Nelson; G. L. Switzer; B. G. Blackmon

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations were determined for 10 tissues from each of 24 cottonwood trees that ranged in age from four to 16 years. Highest concentrations occurred in the most physiologically active tissues; i.e., stemtips, current branches and foliage. Tree age had little influence on the variation in nutrient concentration of tissues. Some differences in concentrations...

  9. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: → Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. → The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. → The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. → The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  10. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  11. Tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics measurement with spatially resolved NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.; Sun, J. W.; Rolfe, P.

    2010-08-01

    We describe the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the non-invasive investigation of changes in haemodynamics and oxygenation of human peripheral tissues. The goal was to measure spatial variations of tissue NIRS oxygenation variables, namely deoxy-haemoglobin (HHb), oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2), total haemoglobin (HbT), and thereby to evaluate the responses of the peripheral circulation to imposed physiological challenges. We present a skinfat- muscle heterogeneous tissue model with varying fat thickness up to 15mm and a Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport within this model. The mean partial path length and the mean photon visit depth in the muscle layer were derived for different source-detector spacing. We constructed NIRS instrumentation comprising of light-emitting diodes (LED) as light sources at four wavelengths, 735nm, 760nm, 810nm and 850nm and sensitive photodiodes (PD) as the detectors. Source-detector spacing was varied to perform measurements at different depths within forearm tissue. Changes in chromophore concentration in response to venous and arterial occlusion were calculated using the modified Lambert-Beer Law. Studies in fat and thin volunteers indicated greater sensitivity in the thinner subjects for the tissue oxygenation measurement in the muscle layer. These results were consistent with those found using Monte Carlo simulation. Overall, the results of this investigation demonstrate the usefulness of the NIRS instrument for deriving spatial information from biological tissues.

  12. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-Tribromophenol in Human Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M.; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010–2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09 ng/g lipid (range: 0.12–141 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4 ng/g lipid (range:1.31–316 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=−0.16; p=0.10 and rs=−0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. PMID:26700418

  14. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of concentration of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yuichi; Kondo, Mitsuo; Sakurai, Naoyuki

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of heavy water is measured as one of the technical management in the Fugen plant. The heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor. The measuring method depends on the theory of light absorption. The light absorption range of heavy water spreads from near infrared to infrared zone. The near infrared absorption was adopted for the purpose, as the absorption is much larger in infrared zone, and the measurement has to be conducted, limiting the apparent absorption. This measuring method is available to determine the concentration of heavy water in the broad range exactly. The preparation of heavy water sample and the measurement of the absorption spectra of near infrared ray are explained, as the experimental procedure. The sample cell was made of quartz, and the spectroscope was the Hitachi 323 type. The resolving power is 100 nm and 27 nm for the wave length of 1000 nm and 2500 nm, respectively. Concerning the measured results, the absorption was recorded in the wave length range from 600 nm to 2600 nm, and for the heavy water concentration range from 0 to 99.77 wt. %. The peaks of absorption were located at the wave length of 1450, 1660, 1920, 1970, 2020 and 2600 nm. The three kinds of fundamental vibration mode of the molecules of both light and heavy water are shown, and the peaks belong to H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O, respectively. The relation between the absorption and the heavy water concentration, and that between the transmissivity and the wave length are shown, when the cell thickness was varied to 5 mm and 20 mm, and the heavy water concentration to 21%, 62% and 99.85%. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Brachytherapy dose measurements in heterogeneous tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva F, G.; Luvizotto, J.; Salles C, T.; Guimaraes A, P. C.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rubo, R.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, Beau lieu et al. published an article providing guidance for Model-Based Dose Calculation Algorithms (MBDCAs), where tissue heterogeneity considerations are addressed. It is well-known that T G-43 formalism which considers only water medium is limited and significant dose differences have been found comparing both methodologies. The aim of the present work is to experimentally quantify dose values in heterogeneous medium using different dose measurement methods and techniques and compare them with those obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments have been performed using a Nucletron micro Selectron-Hdr Ir-192 brachytherapy source and a heterogeneous phantom composed by PMMA and different tissue equivalent cylinders like bone, lungs and muscle. Several dose measurements were obtained using tissue equivalent materials with height 1.8 cm and 4.3 cm positioned between the radiation source and the detectors. Radiochromic films, TLDs and MOSFET S have been used for the dose measurements. Film dosimetry has been performed using two methodologies: a) linearization for dose-response curve based on calibration curves to create a functional form that linearize s the dose response and b) 177 multichannel analysis dosimetry where the multiple color channels are analyzed allowing to address not only disturbances in the measurements caused by thickness variation in the film layer, but also, separate other external influences in the film response. All experiments have been simulated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Comparison of experimental results are in good agreement with calculated dose values with differences less than 6% for almost all cases. (Author)

  17. Brachytherapy dose measurements in heterogeneous tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva F, G.; Luvizotto, J.; Salles C, T.; Guimaraes A, P. C.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rubo, R., E-mail: gabrielpaivafonseca@gmail.com [Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05403-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, Beau lieu et al. published an article providing guidance for Model-Based Dose Calculation Algorithms (MBDCAs), where tissue heterogeneity considerations are addressed. It is well-known that T G-43 formalism which considers only water medium is limited and significant dose differences have been found comparing both methodologies. The aim of the present work is to experimentally quantify dose values in heterogeneous medium using different dose measurement methods and techniques and compare them with those obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments have been performed using a Nucletron micro Selectron-Hdr Ir-192 brachytherapy source and a heterogeneous phantom composed by PMMA and different tissue equivalent cylinders like bone, lungs and muscle. Several dose measurements were obtained using tissue equivalent materials with height 1.8 cm and 4.3 cm positioned between the radiation source and the detectors. Radiochromic films, TLDs and MOSFET S have been used for the dose measurements. Film dosimetry has been performed using two methodologies: a) linearization for dose-response curve based on calibration curves to create a functional form that linearize s the dose response and b) 177 multichannel analysis dosimetry where the multiple color channels are analyzed allowing to address not only disturbances in the measurements caused by thickness variation in the film layer, but also, separate other external influences in the film response. All experiments have been simulated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Comparison of experimental results are in good agreement with calculated dose values with differences less than 6% for almost all cases. (Author)

  18. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  19. Thermal damage control of dye-assisted laser tissue welding: effect of dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Shaffer, Brian S.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2001-05-01

    Successful laser-assisted tissue welding was implemented to provide proper weld strength with minimized tissue thermal injury. We investigated and compared the weld strengths and morphologic changes in porcine small intestinal submucose (SIS) and porcine ureteral tissues with various concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) and with a solid albumin sheet. The study showed that the tissues were welded at lower ICG concentration (0.05 mM) with minimized tissue thermal damage using an 800-nm wavelength diode laser.

  20. Carvedilol induces endogenous hydrogen sulfide tissue concentration changes in various mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Góralska, Marta; Macura, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol, a third generation non-selective adrenoreceptor blocker, is widely used in cardiology. Its action has been proven to reach beyond adrenergic antagonism and involves multiple biological mechanisms. The interaction between carvedilol and endogenous 'gasotransmitter' hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of carvedilol on the H2S tissue level in mouse brain, liver, heart and kidney. Twenty eight SJL strain female mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D1, n=7), 5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D2, n=7) or 10 mg/kg b.w./d of carvedilol (group D3, n=7). The control group (n=7) received physiological saline in portions of the same volume (0.2 ml). Measurements of the free tissue H2S concentrations were performed according to the modified method of Siegel. A progressive decline in H2S tissue concentration along with an increase in carvedilol dose was observed in the brain (12.5%, 13.7% and 19.6%, respectively). Only the highest carvedilol dose induced a change in H2S tissue level in the heart - an increase by 75.5%. In the liver medium and high doses of carvedilol increased the H2S level by 48.1% and 11.8%, respectively. In the kidney, group D2 showed a significant decrease of H2S tissue level (22.5%), while in the D3 group the H2S concentration increased by 12.9%. Our study has proven that carvedilol affects H2S tissue concentration in different mouse organs.

  1. Portable method of measuring gaseous acetone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of acetone in human breath samples has been previously shown to provide significant non-invasive diagnostic insight into the control of a patient's diabetic condition. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetone, which are then exhaled during respiration. Using various breath analysis methods has allowed for the accurate determination of acetone concentrations in exhaled breath. However, many of these methods require instrumentation and pre-concentration steps not suitable for point-of-care use. We have found that by immobilizing resorcinol reagent into a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membrane, a controlled organic synthesis reaction occurs with acetone in a dry carrier gas. The immobilized, highly selective product of this reaction (a flavan) is found to produce a visible spectrum color change which could measure acetone concentrations to less than ppm. We here demonstrate how this approach can be used to produce a portable optical sensing device for real-time, non-invasive acetone analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration has been shown to increase with exercise and various cell types and tissues have been suggested to be responsible for this increase. At present no studies have measured the interstitial concentration of IL-6 in skeletal muscle and connective tissue......, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-exercise in both the medial gastrocnemius muscle (not measured at rest due to risk of disabling the subsequent exercise, and 24 h and 72 h post-exercise) and the peritendinous tissue around the Achilles tendon using microdialysis catheters with a high molecular mass cut...

  3. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gozdz, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (∼ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  4. Apparatus for measuring a concentration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, H.; Ogushi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for measuring concentration of radioactivity in a fluid circulating in a cooling system or a disposal system, etc., of a nuclear power plant (e.g. coolant), the apparatus having a plurality of sampling tubes with different diameters depending on the intensities of radioactivity, and the sampling tubes having valves for switching from one fluid to another fluid. The sampling tubes are connected to the system to a discharge pipe, and are disposed in the proximity of a radiation detector adapted to issue a signal representative of radiation. The issued signal is supplied to a multichannel pulse height analyzer and a data processing system providing an indication of the concentrations of radioactivities for respective radionuclides

  5. Concentrations of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in tissues from goats and a cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.; Rasmussen, F.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in plasma and tissue from goats and a cow have been determined after a single intravenous injection. Furthermore, the concentration of the two drugs and their metabolites in plasma and tissues have been determined after continuous intravenous infusion for 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Trimethoprim was present in all tissues but brain at higher concentrations than in plasma while the concentration of sulphadoxine in the different tissues were lower than in plasma. The highest concentration of the 2 drugs and their metabolites was found in the kidney. The distribution pattern of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine was similar in cow and goats. (author)

  6. Concentrations of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in tissues from goats and a cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, P; Rasmussen, F [Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in plasma and tissue from goats and a cow have been determined after a single intravenous injection. Furthermore, the concentration of the two drugs and their metabolites in plasma and tissues have been determined after continuous intravenous infusion for 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Trimethoprim was present in all tissues but brain at higher concentrations than in plasma while the concentration of sulphadoxine in the different tissues were lower than in plasma. The highest concentration of the 2 drugs and their metabolites was found in the kidney. The distribution pattern of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine was similar in cow and goats.

  7. Determination of optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in human pleural tissue before and after Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Padawer-Curry, Jonah; Finlay, Jarod C.; Kim, Michele M.; Dimofte, Andreea; Cengel, Keith; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    PDT efficacy depends on the concentration of photosensitizer, oxygen, and light delivery in patient tissues. In this study, we measure the in-vivo distribution of important dosimetric parameters, namely the tissue optical properties (absorption μa (λ) and scattering μs ' (λ) coefficients), photofrin concentration (cphotofrin), blood oxygen saturation (%StO2), and total hemoglobin concentration (THC), before and after PDT. We characterize the inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity of these quantities and explore how these properties change as a result of PDT treatment. The result suggests the need for real-time dosimetry during PDT to optimize the treatment condition depending on the optical and physiological properties.

  8. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  9. Absolute quantitative autoradiography of low concentrations of [125I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, J.J.; Morrel, E.M.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a method for absolute quantitative autoradiographic measurement of very low concentrations of [ 125 I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue using Kodak NTB-2 nuclear emulsion. A precise linear relationship between measured silver grain density and isotope concentration was obtained with uniformly labeled standard sources composed of epoxy-embedded gelatin containing glutaraldehyde-fixed [ 125 I]-albumin. For up to 308-day exposures of 1 micron-thick tissue sections, background grain densities ranged from about two to eight grains/1000 micron 2, and the technique was sensitive to as little as about one grain/1000 micron 2 above background, which correspond to a radioactivity concentration of about 2 x 10(4) cpm/ml. A detailed statistical analysis of variability was performed and the sum of all sources of variation quantified. The half distance for spatial resolution was 1.7 micron. Both visual and automated techniques were employed for quantitative grain density analysis. The method was illustrated by measurement of in vivo transmural [ 125 I]-low-density lipoprotein [( 125 I]-LDL) concentration profiles in de-endothelialized rabbit thoracic aortic wall

  10. Effect of cooking on radionuclide concentrations in waterfowl tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four commercially raised mallar ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) were released at the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds, and subsequently collected 56 to 188 days later. Liver, gizzard, and carcass were analyzed for radionuclide concentrations before and after cooking. Significant decreases (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 140 La and /sup 110m/Ag concentrations in carcass and liver samples occurred after cooking. Radionuclide concentrations in gizzard showed no significant change in radionuclide concentrations after cooking. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs concentrations decreased by 27% in carcass after cooking and reduced the dose commitment to man by that amount

  11. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  12. A method for tissue extraction and determination of prostate concentrations of endogenous androgens by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.; Geller, J.; Geller, S.; Lopez, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method for simultaneously determining concentrations of major androgens in prostate has been developed. Extraction techniques used to isolate the androgens from minced tissue include homogenization with high-speed blades in Delsal's solvent mixture, adsorption to silica gel, followed by column and one thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Radioimmunoassays (RIA) of small aliquots of TLC eluates are used to quantitate picogram amounts of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstanediols (Diol) and to estimate testosterone (T) and androstenedione (Ad). Contamination of blanks was reduced to RIA sensitivity limits primarily by treatment of glassware in a self-cleaning oven. The specificity of the method for each androgen was established by TLC separations of known prostate metabolites, antisera specificities, and parallelism of sample aliquots to androgen RIA standards. The overall precision, in terms of coefficients of variation, was 21% for DHT and 24% for Diol. T and Ad could not be measured with acceptable precision because their very low concentrations in prostate (<=0.5 ng/g tissue) were less than RIA sensitivity limits. Accuracy studies indicated recoveries ranging from 96% for Diol to 121% for DHT. In human benign hypertrophic prostate tissue, DHT averaged 153 ng/g soluble protein (5.8 ng/g tissue) which was 17 times higher than values obtained in human spleen and kidney; Diol in prostate showed no consistent differences from values noted in kidney or spleen

  13. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  14. Device for measuring the tritium concentration in a measuring gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koran, P.

    1987-01-01

    The measuring gas is brought into contact via a measuring gas path with a diaphragm permeable to water, which separates the measuring gas path from a counter gas path leading to a proportional detector. The measuring gas path and the counter gas path are in counterflow in the area of diaphragm. The preferably hose diaphragm consists of a well-known ion exchange material, which can be used for gas drying purposes, which is permeable to water and tritium compounds similar to water, but is impermeable to other gases and liquids contained in air, particularly rare gases. In this way, the tritium concentration can be measured with great rare gas suppression. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Metal concentrations in selected organs and tissues of five Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of metalprocessing industries in the catchments of the Florida Lake and the Steynsrus farm dams reflects the low liver and kidney concentrations of Cd, Ni and Cu, respectively. The blood of the Natalspruit wetland coots contained the highest dry weight concentrations of Ni (11.4 mg/g), Cd (1.8 mg/g) and Cu ...

  16. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  17. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air concentrations near emission ... Thus heavy metals acquired through the food chain as a.

  18. Mercury concentrations in multiple tissues of Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Leah A.; Kaler, Robb S.; Kissling, Michelle L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a non-essential, toxic metal that is distributed worldwide. Mercury biomagnifies in food webs and can threaten the health of top predators such as seabirds. The Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a seabird endemic to Alaska and the Russian Far East and is a species of conservation concern in the region. We determined Hg concentrations in eggshells, guano, blood, and feathers of Kittlitz's murrelets sampled from four locations in Alaska. Mercury concentrations in eggshells, guano, and blood were low compared to other seabird species. Mean Hg concentrations of breast feathers from Adak Island and Glacier Bay were significantly greater than those from Agattu Island or Icy Bay. Two Kittlitz's murrelets at Glacier Bay and one Kittlitz's murrelet at Adak Island had Hg concentrations above those associated with impaired reproduction in other bird species, and may merit further investigation as a potential threat to individuals and populations.

  19. Comparison of metal concentrations in rat tibia tissues with various metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Gotoh, Emiko; Manabe, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kihei

    2004-12-01

    To compare metal concentrations in tibia tissues with various metallic implants, SUS316L stainless steel, Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V and V-free Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloys were implanted into the rat tibia for up to 48 weeks. After the implant was removed from the tibia by decalcification, the tibia tissues near the implant were lyophilized. Then the concentrations of metals in the tibia tissues by microwave acid digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Fe concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Fe concentration in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L implant was relatively high, and it rapidly increased up to 12 weeks and then decreased thereafter. On the other hand, the Co concentration in the tibia tissues with the Co-Cr-Mo implant was lower, and it increased up to 24 weeks and slightly decreased at 48 weeks. The Ni concentration in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L implant increased up to 6 weeks and then gradually decreased thereafter. The Cr concentration tended to be higher than the Co concentration. This Cr concentration linearly increased up to 12 weeks and then decreased toward 48 weeks in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L or Co-Cr-Mo implant. Minute quantities of Ti, Al and V in the tibia tissues with the Ti-6Al-4V implant were found. The Ti concentration in the tibia tissues with the Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta implant was lower than that in the tibia tissues with the Ti-6Al-4V implant. The Zr, Nb and Ta concentrations were also very low. The Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy with its low metal release in vivo is considered advantageous for long-term implants.

  20. Concentrations of uranium and thorium isotopes in uranium millers' and miners' tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Paschoa, A.S.; Lloyd, R.D.; Saccomanno, G.

    1985-09-01

    The alpha-emitting isotopes of uranium and thorium were determined in the lungs of 14 former uranium miners and in soft tissues and bones of three miners and two millers. These radionuclides were also determined in soft tissues and bones of seven normal controls. The average concentrations in pCi/kg wet weight in 17 former miners' lungs are as follows: 238 U, 75; 234 U, 80; 230 Th, 79. Concentrations of each nuclide ranged from 2 to 325 pCi/kg. The average ratio of 238 U/ 234 U was 0.92, ranging from 0.64 to 1.06. The mean ratio of 230 Th/ 234 U was 1.04, ranging from 0.33 to 3.54. The near equilibrium between 230 Th and /sup 238,234/U indicates that the rate of elimination of uranium and thorium from lungs is the same in former uranium miners. The concentrations of 234 U and 238 U were highest in lung; however, the concentration of 230 Th in bones was either higher than or comparable to its concentration in lung. The concentration ratios of 230 Th/ 234 U in bone of uranium miners and millers measured in our laboratory have been compared with results predicted by ICRP-30 metabolic models. These results indicate that the ICRP metabolic models for thorium and uranium were only marginally successful in predicting the ratio of 230 Th/ 234 U in bones, and that effective release rate of uranium from skeleton may be more rapid than predicted by the ICRP model. 9 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  2. Uranium concentrations in fossils measured by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Okano, Jun

    1988-01-01

    Semiquantitative analyses of uranium in fossil bones and teeth were carried out by SIMS. The results show a tendency that uranium concentrations in the fossils increase with the ages of the fossils. It is noticed that fossil bones and teeth having uranium concentration of more than several hundred ppm are not rare. (author)

  3. Concentration of uranium in human cancerous tissues of Southern Iraqi patients using fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg -1 ), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg -1 ). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)

  4. Measuring Concentration in Data with an Exogenous Order

    OpenAIRE

    Abedieh, Jasmin; Groll, Andreas; Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Concentration measures order the statistical units under observation according to their market share. However, there are situations where an order according to an exogenous variable is more appropriate or even required. The present article introduces a generalized definition of market concentration and defines a corresponding concentration measure. It is shown that this generalized concept of market concentration satisfies the common axioms of (classical) concentration measures. In an appl...

  5. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  6. Turbidimetry for measurement of radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanqiang

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a turbidimetric technique counting the tracks registered on CR-39 foils exposed to radon. Instead of eyeview through microscope, by using the differential spectrophotometer, strong correlation between the radon cumulative concentration and track turbidence was observed(r=0.999). Under the etching condition of 7.07 mol·L -1 KOH water solution at 80 o C for 16 hr, linear regression showed that the ratio of track turbidence and cumulative concentration of radon exposure was 1.99 x 10 -1 turbidence (KBq m -1 h) -1 and the determination limit was 36 KBq m -3 h. The details of the experiments are represented in this paper. (Author)

  7. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using 20F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakakura, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate 20 F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the 20 F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm 2 ·s for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of 20 F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author)

  9. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Marie; Berg, Gertrud; Ericsson, Lars; Grunditz, Torsten; Isaksson, Mats; Jansson, Svante; Nystrom, Ernst; Sodervall, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity

  11. Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shuken; Kondo, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. Method Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40 mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2 h before the surgery. Results The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface. PMID:22822928

  12. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  13. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  14. Advances in deuterium dioxide concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Woojung [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal, E-mail: nspyim@kaeri.re.kr [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Rag; Chung, Hongsuk [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheo Kyung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. • D{sub 2}O purity is analyzed using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). • OA-ICOS has advantages in terms of analysis of D{sub 2}O vapor. • OA-ICOS is expected that it can be used for accurate isotopic analyses in the future. - Abstract: The deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient reaction for fusion devices. Deuterium can be obtained by heavy water electrolysis. Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. A D{sub 2}O isotopic analysis is thus very important. A system for a heavy water analysis was built and a newly designed isotopic analysis experiment was carried out. We tried to analyze the D{sub 2}O purity using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). We found that the OA-ICOS based on measurement via laser absorption spectroscopy shows very high sensitivity. We ameliorated the sensitivity by an order of magnitude of more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}. We could make the apparatus smaller by employing very tiny diode laser and fiber optics elements of a DFB (Distributed Feedback) type. Consequently, our device has advantages in terms of maintainability and mobility even in a radioactive environment. This new method could be used for an accurate isotopic analysis in the future.

  15. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  16. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  17. Evaluation of a Method for Quantifying Eugenol Concentrations in the Fillet Tissue from Freshwater Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Porcher, Scott T; Smerud, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    AQUI-S 20E(®) (active ingredient, eugenol; AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) is being pursued for approval as an immediate-release sedative in the United States. A validated method to quantify the primary residue (the marker residue) in fillet tissue from AQUI-S 20E-exposed fish was needed. A method was evaluated for determining concentrations of the AQUI-S 20E marker residue, eugenol, in freshwater fish fillet tissue. Method accuracies from fillet tissue fortified at nominal concentrations of 0.15, 1, and 60 μg/g from six fish species ranged from 88-102%. Within-day and between-day method precisions (% CV) from the fortified tissue were ≤8.4% CV. There were no coextracted compounds from the control fillet tissue of seven fish species that interfered with eugenol analyses. Six compounds used as aquaculture drugs did not interfere with eugenol analyses. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.012 μg/g. The method was robust, i.e., in most cases, minor changes to the method did not impact method performance. Eugenol was stable in acetonitrile-water (3 + 7, v/v) for at least 14 days, in fillet tissue extracts for 4 days, and in fillet tissue stored at ~ -80°C for at least 84 days.

  18. Assessment of 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration in human tissues in Hungary following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Sztanyik, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Artificial radioisotope contamination of tissue samples of Hungarian citizens has been regularly monitored by our Institute since 1978. 90 Sr concentration of both extracted deciduous teeth and rib samples showed a slight but permanent tendency to decrease since then. 137 Cs content in the body of Hungarian individuals was monitored by whole body counter from the mid of 60s for about a decade while it became lower of the minimum detection limit (MDL). It could again be detected by in vivo measurements in May 1986, however, the 137 Cs content of human beings in Hungary fell below the detection limit within two years. Thus, the monitoring could only be continued by in vitro measuring of the 137 Cs activity concentration in human soft tissue samples

  19. Optical sensor for heat conduction measurement in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Aleman-Garcia, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a heat flux sensor using an optical fiber system to measure heat conduction in biological tissues. This optoelectronic device is based on the photothermal beam deflection of a laser beam travelling in an acrylic slab this deflection is measured with a fiber optic angle sensor. We measure heat conduction in biological samples with high repeatability and sensitivity enough to detect differences in tissues from three chicken organs. This technique could provide important information of vital organ function as well as the detect modifications due to degenerative diseases or physical damage caused by medications or therapies.

  20. Mitomycin C dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel: target tissue concentrations in the rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichien, K; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y; Oguri, A; Ando, H; Kondo, Y

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether a new, reversible thermosetting gel enhances mitomycin C transfer to target ocular tissues in the rabbit eye. A 0.1 ml solution of mitomycin C containing 0.22 microgram, 2.9 micrograms, or 28 micrograms of the agent dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel consisting of methylcellulose, citric acid, and polyethylene glycol was injected subconjunctivally in 30 New Zealand albino rabbits. Scleral and conjunctival tissues were excised at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 24 hours after the injection and mitomycin C concentrations in these tissues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration over time was approximated to a single exponential curve, and initial mitomycin C concentrations, time constants, and half life values were determined. Finally, the areas under the curves (AUCs) between 0.5 and 24 hours were calculated. The mitomycin C concentrations in the target tissues were dose dependent and decreased rapidly over 24 hours. Both the initial mitomycin C concentrations as well as AUCs in these eyes treated with mitomycin C, dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel, were higher than those in eyes treated similarly in a previous study in which the gel was not used. Applied subconjunctivally in the rabbit eye, mitomycin C dissolved in the reversible thermosetting gel enhanced transfer of the agent to the sclera and the conjunctiva.

  1. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata at the obex) tissue from 181 of these deer. Analyses revealed a wide range of concentrations of all three minerals among sampled deer (copper: 5.6-331 ppm in liver, 1.5-31.9 ppm in obex; manganese: 0.1-21.4 ppm in liver; molybdenum: 0.5-4.0 ppm in liver). Bayesian multiple regression analysis revealed a negative association between obex copper (-0.097; 95% credible interval -0.192 to -0.006) and the probability of sampled deer also being infected with CWD, as well as a positive association between liver manganese (0.158; 95% credible interval 0.066 to 0.253) and probability of infection. We could not discern whether the tendencies toward lower brain-stem copper concentrations or higher systemic manganese concentrations in infected deer preceded prion infection or rather were the result of infection and its subsequent effects, although the distribution of trace mineral concentrations in infected deer seemed more suggestive of the latter.

  2. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  3. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2007-11-01

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  4. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  5. Determination of concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Fe) in animal tissues using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINTSALAMA, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals are classified among the inorganic compounds. The latter type of metal is found in rocks, fertilizers, urban mud but may also originate from the atmospheric pollution. A particular characteristic of heavy metals is their bioaccumulation in the food chain. Therefore, lead and cadmium, which are classified as heavy metals may be easily found in animal products and can lead to food poisoning if their concentrations are higher than the maximum permissible values as requested by international agencies such as the c odex alimentarius . The values are set down and differ according to types of food for human consuption and the trading companies take action accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a quality control system through analytical laboratory measurements and testings. This study underlies the method of determination of lead, cadmium and iron in animal tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable. For each analyte, the Z-score lies between -2 and 2, indicating that the method is working properly. The analytical results showed that: (i) only beef and chicken meats and beef liver contain lead [0,09μg.g - 1; 0,29μg.g - 1]. The limit value of 0,1μg.g - 1 is almost reached in beef and chicken meats, (ii) as far as cadmium is concerned, the five studied samples contain this analyte [0,02μg.g - 1; 0,9μg.g - 1]. Except the chicken liver of which the concentration (0,15μg.g - 1) exceeds the maximum permissible value (0,1μg.g - 1), the others are in conformity with the standards and appropriate to be consumed,(iii) iron is higher in the liver and kidney samples: beef liver 282mg.g - 1, chicken liver 250 mg.g - 1, pork kidney 247mg.g - 1. The study also showed that the calcium concentration in animal tissues is low and they can be classified as poor-calcium food. [fr

  6. Nondestructive measurement for radionuclide concentration distribution in soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method has been studied for determining the concentration of radionuclide (Cs-137) distributed in a soil column. The concentration distribution was calculated from the counting rate distribution using the efficiency matrix of a detector. The concentration distribution obtained by this method, with measuring efficiencies of theoretical calculation, coincides well with that obtained by the destructive sampling method. This method is, therefore, found to be effective for the measurement of one dimensional concentration distribution. The measuring limit of this method is affected not only by the radionuclide concentration but also by the shape of concentration distribution in a soil column and also by the way it is divided into concentration blocks. It is found that, the radioactive concentration up to 2.6 x 10 -4 μCi/g (9.62 Bq/g), and also the distribution up to where the concentration reduces to half at every 1 cm of depth, can be measured by this system. The concentration blocks can be divided into 1 cm of thickness as a minimum value. (author)

  7. Effect of sucrose concentrations on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni tissue culture and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, T; Kahrizi, D; Saeidi, M; Arji, I

    2017-08-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM). Several morphological traits were measured in a 28 day period. Results analysis showed a significant variation between treatments. The highest growth rate, rooting and leaf production was obtained in medium with 100mM sucrose. The correlation between measured traits was significant at the 0.01 level. To investigation of UGT74G1, UGT76G1, UGT85C2 and KS genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT- PCR was done with the housekeeping gene of as internal control. There were significant differences between all media. The results showed thatsucrose 100 mM containing media was more desirable than others for expression of UGT76G1 and UGT85C2 genes. Whereas, the best medium for expression of UGT74G1 was sucrose 150 mM and sucrose 50 mM for KS gene. Totally, it seems that sucrose at a concentration of 100 mMprovides the best condition for stevia growth and steviol glycosides production.

  8. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Anisotropic Biological Tissue In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Lina; Jin, Bitao; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-06-01

    The accurate determination of the thermal conductivity of biological tissues has implications on the success of cryosurgical/hyperthermia treatments. In light of the evident anisotropy in some biological tissues, a new modified stepwise transient method was proposed to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities of anisotropic biological tissues. The physical and mathematical models were established, and the analytical solution was derived. Sensitivity analysis and experimental simulation were performed to determine the feasibility and measurement accuracy of simultaneously measuring the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities. The experimental system was set up, and its measurement accuracy was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of a reference standard material. The thermal conductivities of the pork tenderloin and bovine muscles were measured using the traditional 1D and proposed methods, respectively, at different temperatures. Results indicate that the thermal conductivities of the bovine muscle are lower than those of the pork tenderloin muscle, whereas the bovine muscle was determined to exhibit stronger anisotropy than the pork tenderloin muscle. Moreover, the longitudinal thermal conductivity is larger than the transverse thermal conductivity for the two tissues and all thermal conductivities increase with the increase in temperature. Compared with the traditional 1D method, results obtained by the proposed method are slightly higher although the relative deviation is below 5 %.

  9. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  10. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  11. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  12. Differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for non-invasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-06-26

    A differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique is proposed for obtaining non-invasive (NI) measurements of the glucose concentration on the human fingertip. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of tissue phantom samples containing de-ionized water (DI), glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0~500 mg/dL and 2% lipofundin. The results show that the extracted optical rotation angle increases linearly with an increasing glucose concentration, while the depolarization index decreases. The practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index properties of the human fingertips of healthy volunteers.

  13. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  14. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. A.; Roepstorff, Carsten; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however......, whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77......+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue...

  15. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  16. The effect of thyroid hormones on the white adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Biz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 overexpression may play a significant role in this process. A positive correlation between adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration has been reported. Furthermore, high serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 and PAI-1 have been observed in obese children. The present study evaluates the impact of thyroid hormone treatment on white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression and its serum concentration. Male Wistar rats (60 days old were treated for three weeks with T4 (50 µg/day, Hyper or with saline (control. Additionally, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with T4 (100 nM or T3 (100 nM. PAI-1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, while the serum concentration of PAI-1 was measured by ELISA using a commercial kit (Innovative Research, USA. Both the serum concentration of PAI-1 and mRNA levels were similar between groups in retroperitoneal and epididymal white adipose tissue. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in vitro treatment with T4 and T3 increased the gene expression of PAI-1, suggesting non-genomic and genomic effects, respectively. These results demonstrate that thyroid hormones have different effects in vitro and in vivo on PAI-1 gene expression in adipocytes.

  17. Effect-independent measures of tissue response to fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors are measures of sparing from dose fractionation, in the absence of proliferation. A desirable feature of any repair factor is that it be independent of the level of injury induced in the tissue, since otherwise the comparison of tissues on the basis of the factor would not be meaningful. The repair factors F/sub R/ and F/sub rec/ are increasing functions of D/sub 1/, and depend on level of skin reaction after fractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow. For late fibrotic reactions in the kidney, there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury that was statistically insignificant. The halftime, T/sub 1/2/, for intracellular repair processes in tissues is a measure of repair kinetics. Effect-independence is defend for T/sub 1/2/ as independence from size of dose per fraction. T/sub 1/2/ is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (1.3 hours). Therefore, early and late-responding normal tissues may be distinguished in terms of both repair capacity and repair kinetics: repair is slower in late-responding tissues, which are also more sensitive to changes in dose fractionation

  18. Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurement of the Cd content in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Huong Quynh; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1989-12-01

    Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed on thin samples prepared from different rabbit tissues, using 3 MeV proton beam for inducing x-rays from the animal tissues. This method is very sensitive and very small amounts of trace elements can be detected. Cadmium, one of the most toxic elements which can be concentrated in animal and human tissues due to environmental pollution, was detected with a limit of 0.7 ppm. The trace element concentrations obtained by PIXE were compared to those measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. PIXE method is proposed for routine analysis at the Veterinary and Food Investigating Service, Budapest, Hungary. (D.Gy.) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  20. Measured and calculated NO2 concentrations in Amsterdam in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, J.P.; Nguyen, P.L.; Van der Zee, S.

    2010-08-01

    Calculations using the Dutch standard calculation method for air quality in urban streets performed for 38 streets in Amsterdam in 2008 yield, on average, lower Nitrogen dioxide concentrations than measurements at those locations. This follows from research by the RIVM and the Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD Amsterdam). The average difference between measured and calculated concentrations is 11 %. At measuring locations of the National Air Quality Measuring Network in the Netherlands no significant underestimation of concentrations by the model is observed. The research was performed by the Dutch ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en the Environment (VROM). The air quality in the streets that were investigated is mainly determined by emissions from local traffic. The measurements have been performed during thirteen periods of four weeks each, using so called 'Palmes' diffusion tubes. These measurements have been calibrated using the European reference method that is operational in the permanent measuring stations of the GGD Amsterdam. The calculations were performed using the geometry of the roads and information of the traffic at the measuring locations. Part of the differences can be explained, as some locations are not within the scope of the model. In these situations the model is known to perform slightly less. Apart from local traffic, other sources, like shipping, also contribute to the NO2 background concentrations in streets in Amsterdam. Sources that have only globally been included in the calculation of this background concentration may influence concentrations at specific locations. Further studies on this subject will be conducted in 2010. [nl

  1. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  2. Variation of pH-measurement in platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; van Zanten, A. P.; Pietersz, R. N.; Reesink, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    To measure pH in platelet concentrates, blood gas analysers with different calibration principles may be used. In this study, variances observed in pH measurements with two types of blood gas analysers were investigated. pH was measured in crystalloid solutions (platelet additive solution (PAS-II),

  3. Concentration of Potassium in Plasma, Erythrocytes, and Muscle Tissue in Cows with Decreased Feed Intake and Gastrointestinal Ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Müller, A; Wittek, T

    2016-01-01

    Healthy cows consume large amounts of potassium and a sudden loss in appetite can lead to hypokalemia. The routine method to evaluate potassium homeostasis is the measurement of the extracellular potassium in plasma or serum, but this does not provide information about the intracellular potassium pool. To evaluate potassium homeostasis by comparing the extracellular and intracellular potassium concentration in cows with reduced feed intake and gastrointestinal ileus. Twenty cows 1-3 days postpartum (group 1) and 20 cows with gastrointestinal ileus (group 2). Observational cross-sectional study. Plasma potassium was measured by using an ion-sensitive electrode. Intracellular potassium was measured in erythrocytes and muscle tissue (muscle biopsy) by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cows of group 1 did not have hypokalemia. Overall cows with gastrointestinal ileus were hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 mmol/L ± 0.78), but potassium concentration in erythrocytes and muscle tissue was not lower than in postpartum cows. Intracellular potassium in erythrocytes varied very widely; group 1: 3497-10735 mg/kg (5559 ± 2002 mg/kg), group 2: 4139-21678 mg/kg (7473 ± 4034 mg/kg). Potassium in muscle tissue did not differ between group 1 (3356 ± 735 mg/kg wet weight) and group 2 (3407 ± 1069 mg/kg wet weight). No association between extracellular and intracellular potassium concentrations was detected. That measurement of plasma potassium concentration is not sufficient to evaluate potassium metabolism of cows. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  5. In-Vivo Techniques for Measuring Electrical Properties of Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    probe Electromagnetic energy Dielectric properties Monopole antenna In-situ tissues , Antemortem/Pos tmortem studies Renal blood flow 10 ABSTRACT... mice or rats, which were positioned beneath a fixed measurement probe. Several alternative methods involving the use of semi-rigid or flexible coaxial

  6. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  7. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  8. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  9. A novel semi-quantitative method for measuring tissue bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, G; Volarevic, V; Raicevic, S; Tanaskovic, I; Milicic, B; Vulovic, T; Arsenijevic, S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a new semi-quantitative method for measuring the extent of bleeding in pathohistological tissue samples. To test our novel method, we recruited 120 female patients in their first trimester of pregnancy and divided them into three groups of 40. Group I was the control group, in which no dilation was applied. Group II was an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using classical mechanical dilators. Group III was also an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using a hydraulic dilator. Tissue samples were taken from the patients' cervical canals using a Novak's probe via energetic single-step curettage prior to any dilation in Group I and after dilation in Groups II and III. After the tissue samples were prepared, light microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs at 100x magnification. The surfaces affected by bleeding were measured in the microphotographs using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program and its "polylines" function. The lines were used to mark the area around the entire sample (marked A) and to create "polyline" areas around each bleeding area on the sample (marked B). The percentage of the total area affected by bleeding was calculated using the formula: N = Bt x 100 / At where N is the percentage (%) of the tissue sample surface affected by bleeding, At (A total) is the sum of the surfaces of all of the tissue samples and Bt (B total) is the sum of all the surfaces affected by bleeding in all of the tissue samples. This novel semi-quantitative method utilizes the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program, which is simple to use and widely available, thereby offering a new, objective and precise approach to estimate the extent of bleeding in tissue samples.

  10. Aquatic respiration rate measurements at low oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Holtappels

    Full Text Available Despite its huge ecological importance, microbial oxygen respiration in pelagic waters is little studied, primarily due to methodological difficulties. Respiration measurements are challenging because of the required high resolution of oxygen concentration measurements. Recent improvements in oxygen sensing techniques bear great potential to overcome these limitations. Here we compare 3 different methods to measure oxygen consumption rates at low oxygen concentrations, utilizing amperometric Clark type sensors (STOX, optical sensors (optodes, and mass spectrometry in combination with (18-18O2 labeling. Oxygen concentrations and consumption rates agreed well between the different methods when applied in the same experimental setting. Oxygen consumption rates between 30 and 400 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were measured with high precision and relative standard errors of less than 3%. Rate detection limits in the range of 1 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were suitable for rate determinations in open ocean water and were lowest at the lowest applied O2 concentration.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin concentrations is not accounted for by differences in adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M; Pietrobelli, A; Vasselli, J R; Heymsfield, S B; Leibel, R L

    2001-09-01

    Circulating concentrations of leptin normalized to total adipose tissue mass are significantly greater in females than in males. Rates of leptin expression (per gram of adipose tissue) are significantly greater in subcutaneous (SAT) than visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the relative amount of fat stored as SAT vs VAT is significantly greater in pre-menopausal females than in males. Gender-related differences in the relative amounts of SAT and VAT may account for the greater circulating leptin concentration relative to fat-mass in females than males. We examined body composition and anatomic fat distribution by dual energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and post-absorptive circulating concentrations of leptin and insulin in 58 subjects (26 females, 32 males). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, treating gender as a dichotomous variable, were performed to determine inter-relationships among leptin concentrations and insulin concentrations, VAT and SAT. Body composition by DEXA and MRI were highly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P<0.0001). There were significant gender effects on leptin/total fat mass (males, 0.17+/-0.01 ng/ml/kg; females, 0.49+/-0.05 ng/ml/kg; P<0.0001) and relative amounts of fat in SAT and VAT depots (ratio of SAT/VAT; males, 12.3+/-1.5; females, 32.9+/-3.2; P<0.0001). Circulating leptin concentration was significantly correlated with insulin concentration (P=0.001), SAT (P<0.0001) and gender (P=0.033). Circulating concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated with VAT, but not SAT, in males and with SAT, but not VAT, in females. The sexual dimorphism in the relationship between leptin and adipose tissue mass cannot be explained by differences in the relative amounts of VAT and SAT. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration appears to reflect, at least in part, effects of circulating concentrations of gonadal steroids (especially androgens) and/or primary genetic differences that are

  12. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Fazlic, R.; Tresnjo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m 3 . The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  13. Effects of different concentrations of pollen extract on brain tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant capacities of pollen extract applied at different concentrations on biochemical parameters in brain tissues of rainbow trouts. Methods: The effective concentration of pollen was determined with some biochemical parameters in brain tissues of fish treated at various concentrations of the pollen extract (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L for 96 h. The malondialdehyde levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and amounts of total free sulfhydryl groups were analyzed in fish brain. Results: The malondialdehyde levels decreased in groups of 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L pollen-treated compared to control group (P<0.05. The highest level of total antioxidant status (P<0.05 and the lowest value (P<0.05 of the total oxidant status was 10 mg/L concentration of pollen. Oxidative stress index and level of sulfhydryl groups showed lowest values (P<0.05 in 10 mg/L pollen treated group compared with control group. Conclusions: To apply the pollen to fish reduces the detrimental effects and modulates oxidative status via activating antioxidant defense systems at brain tissue. As a result, pollen can be added up to 10 mg/L to the medium of rainbow trout to improve health of fish.

  14. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  15. THE MAIN NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION FROM INTRA TISSUE WATER OF BENTHOS ORAGANISMS FROM MURES BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrographic basin of Mures river, aboard an altitude gradient, were taken samples of intra tissue waters from benthonic organisms for research the nutrients concentrations. The reference point was represented by a dairy caw farm where the agricultural fields of this is applied the organic fertilization with manure. The intra tissue water samples from benthonic organisms were prelevated in spring and autumn and the prelevate dates are the same with spread manure dates. At the intra tissue water level, concentrations value of N and P are bigger at the second data prelevations than first data prelevations and we can conclude that the benthonic oligochetas activity increase, more than, they density increase in Mures basin. The high concentrations of NH4 show as that Mures basin is a zone characterized by high degree of anoxia and this fact is supported by significant differences between seasonal prelevations. The explication is the manifestation to the cumulated and at distance effects of introduction in water to some organic products, very probably washed from neighborhoods agricultural field. Were calculated values of Student test for seasonal comparisons and were founded significant differences between nutrients concentration values at first and second prelevations.

  16. Measurement of human normal tissue and tumour responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The scarcity of quantitative measures of normal tissue damage and tumour response in patients undergoing radiotherapy is an obstacle to the clinical evaluation of new treatment strategies. Retrospective studies of complications in critical normal tissues taught important lessons in the past concerning the potential dangers of hypofractionation. However, it is unethical to use serious complications as planned end-points in prospective studies. This paper reviews the desirable characteristics of clinical end-points required to compare alternative treatments employing radiotherapy, with emphasis on simple scales applied by clinicians or even the patients themselves

  17. Effect of Graphite Concentration on Shear-Wave Speed in Gelatin-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Elasticity-based imaging modalities are becoming popular diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Gelatin-based, tissue mimicking phantoms that contain graphite as the acoustic scattering material are commonly used in testing and validating elasticity-imaging methods to quantify tissue stiffness. The gelatin bloom strength and concentration are used to control phantom stiffness. While it is known that graphite concentration can be modulated to control acoustic attenuation, the impact of graphite concentrationon phantom elasticity has not been characterized in these gelatin phantoms. This work investigates the impact of graphite concentration on phantom shear stiffness as characterized by shear-wave speed measurements using impulsive acoustic-radiation-force excitations. Phantom shear-wave speed increased by 0.83 (m/s)/(dB/(cm MHz)) when increasing the attenuation coefficient slope of the phantom material through increasing graphite concentration. Therefore, gelatin-phantom stiffness can be affected by the conventional ways that attenuation is modulated through graphite concentration in these phantoms. PMID:21710828

  18. Measurements of indoor radon concentration in Libyan cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elarabiy, S. F.; Khalifa, M.; Misrati, N.; Chahboune, N.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies confirm that the risk of exposure to indor radon is attributable to lung cancer worldwide. The relationship between radon exposure and cancer is a linear one which necessitates for need for measurements of indoor radon concentration. This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon in several libya cities using CR-39 plastic. The results showed that the average radon concentration in the cities of Tripoli, Al-harcha and Alrajaban were 48.8 Bg/m 3 , 51.4 Bg/m 3 and 55.5 Bg/m 3 respectively. The average indoor radon concentration in Libya is low comparing with other studies. (Author)

  19. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  20. Photoplethysmographic sensors for perfusion measurements in spinal cord tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A, E-mail: Justin.Phillips.1@city.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Sensors for recording photoplethysmographic signals from the nervous tissue of the spinal cord are described. The purpose of these sensors is to establish whether perfusion is compromised in various states of injury which occur in certain animal models of spinal cord injury, for example compression injury. Various measures of perfusion are applicable such as the amplitude of the photoplethysmograph signal and the oxygen saturation, measured using a dual wavelength configuration. Signals are usually compared to baseline measurements made in uninjured subjects. This paper describes two types of probe, one based on optical fibres, and one in which optotes are placed in direct contact with the tissue surface. Results from a study based on a compression model utilising a fibreoptic sensor are presented.

  1. Tissue concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, T G; Pretlow, T P; Yang, B; Kaetzel, C S; Delmoro, C M; Kamis, S M; Bodner, D R; Kursh, E; Resnick, M I; Bradley, E L

    1991-11-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as measured in peripheral blood, is currently the most widely used marker for the assessment of tumor burden in the longitudinal study of patients with carcinoma of the prostate (PCA). Studies from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that a given volume of PCA causes a much higher level of PSA in the peripheral circulation of patients than a similar volume of prostate without carcinoma. We have evaluated PSA in the resected tissues immunohistochemically and in extracts of PCA and of prostates resected because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical results were less quantitative than but consistent with the results of the ELISA of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemically, there was considerable heterogeneity in the expression of PSA by both PCA and BPH both within and among prostatic tissues from different patients. While the levels of expression of PSA in these tissues overlap broadly, PSA is expressed at a lower level in PCA than in BPH when PSA is expressed as a function of wet weight of tissue (p = 0.0095), wet weight of tissue/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001), protein extracted from the tissue (p = 0.0039), or protein extracted/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001).

  2. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  3. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  4. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  5. Intercomparison of different instruments that measure radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap technique, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting technique), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integrating radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in indoor air). The results obtained from these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling technique was about 52% of radon concentrations

  6. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  7. Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Apelin Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apelin is an adipokine which plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the link between increased adipose tissue mass and obesity related metabolic diseases. Here we investigate the role of omental and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue apelin and its receptor APJ mRNA expression in human obesity and test the hypothesis that changes in circulating apelin are associated with reduced fat mass in three weight loss intervention studies. Methods: Apelin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629 study including a subgroup (n = 161 for which omental and SC apelin mRNA expression has been analyzed and in three interventions: 12 weeks exercise (n = 60, 6 months calorie-restricted diet (n = 19, 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32. Results: Apelin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlates with circulating apelin, BMI, body fat, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction in omental and SC apelin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced apelin serum concentrations which significantly correlate with improved insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in BMI. Conclusions: Reduced apelin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity beyond significant weight loss.

  8. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  9. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  10. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  11. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  12. DNA Measurement of Overlapping Cell Nuclei in Thick Tissue Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an improved image analysis procedure for measuring the DNA content of cell nuclei in thick sections of liver tissue by absorption densitometry. Whereas previous methods only permitted the analysis of isolated nuclei, the new technique enables both isolated and overlapping nuclei to be measured. A 3D segmentation procedure determines whether each object is an isolated nucleus or a pair of overlapping nuclei; in the latter case the combined optical density is redistributed to the individual nuclei. A selection procedure ensures that only complete nuclei are measured.

  13. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  14. High-spatial-resolution mapping of the oxygen concentration in cortical tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Sakadžic, Sava

    2016-03-01

    Due to a lack of imaging tools for high-resolution imaging of cortical tissue oxygenation, the detailed maps of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) around arterioles, venules, and capillaries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that secure sufficient oxygen delivery in microvascular domains during brain activation, and provide some metabolic reserve capacity in diseases that affect either microvascular networks or the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this challenge, we applied a Two-Photon PO2 Microscopy to map PO2 at different depths in mice cortices. Measurements were performed through the cranial window in the anesthetized healthy mice as well as in the mouse models of microvascular dysfunctions. In addition, microvascular morphology was recorded by the two-photon microscopy at the end of each experiment and subsequently segmented. Co-registration of the PO2 measurements and exact microvascular morphology enabled quantification of the tissue PO2 dependence on distance from the arterioles, capillaries, and venules at various depths. Our measurements reveal significant spatial heterogeneity of the cortical tissue PO2 distribution that is dominated by the high oxygenation in periarteriolar spaces. In cases of impaired oxygen delivery due to microvascular dysfunction, significant reduction in tissue oxygenation away from the arterioles was observed. These tissue domains may be the initial sites of cortical injury that can further exacerbate the progression of the disease.

  15. Comparison of predicted and measured variations of indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.; Winqvist, K.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of the variations of indoor radon concentration were calculated using a model relating indoor radon concentration to radon entry rate, air infiltration and meteorological factors. These calculated variations have been compared with seasonal variations of 33 houses during 1-4 years, with winter-summer concentration ratios of 300 houses and the measured diurnal variation. In houses with a slab in ground contact the measured seasonal variations are quite often in agreement with variations predicted for nearly pure pressure difference driven flow. The contribution of a diffusion source is significant in houses with large porous concrete walls against the ground. Air flow due to seasonally variable thermal convection within eskers strongly affects the seasonal variations within houses located thereon. Measured and predicted winter-summer concentration ratios demonstrate that, on average, the ratio is a function of radon concentration. The ratio increases with increasing winter concentration. According to the model the diurnal maximum caused by a pressure difference driven flow occurs in the morning, a finding which is in agreement with the measurements. The model presented can be used for differentiating between factors affecting radon entry into houses. (author)

  16. An analytical model for nanoparticles concentration resulting from infusion into poroelastic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichelli, G; Di Michele, F; Sinibaldi, E

    2016-02-01

    We consider the infusion of a diluted suspension of nanoparticles (NPs) into poroelastic brain tissue, in view of relevant biomedical applications such as intratumoral thermotherapy. Indeed, the high impact of the related pathologies motivates the development of advanced therapeutic approaches, whose design also benefits from theoretical models. This study provides an analytical expression for the time-dependent NPs concentration during the infusion into poroelastic brain tissue, which also accounts for particle binding onto cells (by recalling relevant results from the colloid filtration theory). Our model is computationally inexpensive and, compared to fully numerical approaches, permits to explicitly elucidate the role of the involved physical aspects (tissue poroelasticity, infusion parameters, NPs physico-chemical properties, NP-tissue interactions underlying binding). We also present illustrative results based on parameters taken from the literature, by considering clinically relevant ranges for the infusion parameters. Moreover, we thoroughly assess the model working assumptions besides discussing its limitations. While not laying any claims of generality, our model can be used to support the development of more ambitious numerical approaches, towards the preliminary design of novel therapies based on NPs infusion into brain tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  18. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  19. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  20. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Ruth, J, E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 210 S. 33rd Street, Room 240, Skirkanich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 {+-} 0.91 {sup 0}C over a range of 28-48 {sup 0}C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  1. Measurement of {alpha} particle energy loss in biological tissue below 2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it; Bruschi, P.; Portella, C. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The energy loss of {alpha} particles crossing biological tissue at energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV has been measured. This energy range is very important for boron neutron capture therapy, based on the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, which emits {alpha} particles with energies of 1.78 and 1.47 MeV. One of the methods used for the measurement of the boron concentration in tissue is based on the deconvolution of the {alpha} spectra obtained from neutron irradiation of thin (70 {mu}m) tissue samples. For this technique, a knowledge of the behaviour of the energy loss of the particles in the irradiated tissue is of critical importance. In particular, the curve of the residual energy as a function of the distance travelled in the tissue must be known. In this paper, the results of an experiment carried out with an {sup 241}Am source and a series of cryostatic sections of rat-lung tissue are presented. The experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX code.

  2. Comparing predicted estrogen concentrations with measurements in US waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostich, Mitch; Flick, Robert; Martinson, John

    2013-01-01

    The range of exposure rates to the steroidal estrogens estrone (E1), beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the aquatic environment was investigated by modeling estrogen introduction via municipal wastewater from sewage plants across the US. Model predictions were compared to published measured concentrations. Predictions were congruent with most of the measurements, but a few measurements of E2 and EE2 exceed those that would be expected from the model, despite very conservative model assumptions of no degradation or in-stream dilution. Although some extreme measurements for EE2 may reflect analytical artifacts, remaining data suggest concentrations of E2 and EE2 may reach twice the 99th percentile predicted from the model. The model and bulk of the measurement data both suggest that cumulative exposure rates to humans are consistently low relative to effect levels, but also suggest that fish exposures to E1, E2, and EE2 sometimes substantially exceed chronic no-effect levels. -- Highlights: •Conservatively modeled steroidal estrogen concentrations in ambient water. •Found reasonable agreement between model and published measurements. •Model and measurements agree that risks to humans are remote. •Model and measurements agree significant questions remain about risk to fish. •Need better understanding of temporal variations and their impact on fish. -- Our model and published measurements for estrogens suggest aquatic exposure rates for humans are below potential effect levels, but fish exposure sometimes exceeds published no-effect levels

  3. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  4. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of tissue oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, A; Canpolat, M; Uyuklu, M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) is a useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to detect pathologic tissues, due to a lack of normal blood circulation, by measuring StO 2 . In this study, human blood samples with different levels of oxygen saturation have been prepared and spectra were acquired using an optical fiber probe to investigate the correlation between the oxygen saturation levels and the spectra. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation and ratio of the intensities (760 nm to 790 nm) of the spectra acquired from blood samples has been found. In a validation study, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with an error of 2.9%. It has also been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Spectra were acquired from the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers to estimate StO 2 prior to, at the beginning of, after 2 min, and at the release of total vascular occlusion. The average StO 2 of a forearm before and after the two minutes occlusion was significantly different. The results suggested that optical reflectance spectroscopy is a sensitive method to estimate the StO 2 levels of human tissue. The technique developed to measure StO 2 has potential to detect ischemia in real time. (paper)

  5. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  6. Continuous measurement of uranium concentrations with the laser spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Cremers, D.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to the continuous determination of uranium concentrations between 0.1 and 300 g/L in flowing solutions. The technique is rapid, noninvasive, and unaffected by radioactivity. A concentration of 10 g/L was measured with 0.8% precision in 3 min. Substances that absorb at the laser wavelength, suspended materials, and variations in the acidity of the solution have little or no effect on the results. High concentrations of zirconium, cadmium, aluminum, or stainless steel in solution do not interfere

  7. Measurements in Concentrated Sun using a Remote Controlled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Floroian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, using the concentrated sunlight is a big issue because the amount of energy is very high and the light is concentrated in a very small area. The main problem in this situation is the heating, and in order to make safe measurements a remote controlled robot is needed. After that, a remote controlled robot will assume the duty of protect the measured sample and to expose it for a precise time to the concentrated sun in order to reduce heating of the sample. For easy operating, and for automatize the process, all the duties, starting with initial conditions, continuing with triggering the measurements, and conditioning the signals and finalizing with data saving must be assured by the robot.

  8. Measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Gorjanacz, Z.; Nemeth, Cs.; Szabo, T.; Varhegyi, A.; Hakl, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces (the schools and kindergartens and the ventilated workplaces) are presented. t can be stated that the one month long measurements means very high variation (as it is obvious in the cases of the hospital cave and the uranium tailing pond). Consequently, in workplaces where the expectable changes of radon concentration considerable with the seasons should be measure for 12 months long. If it is not possible, the chosen six months period should contain summer and winter months as well. The average radon concentration during working hours can be differ considerable from the average of the whole time in the cases of frequent opening the doors and windows or using artificial ventilation. (authors)

  9. TXRF 'measurements' of concentration distribution below the detection limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Mrowczynski, S.; Pajek, M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that a shape of the concentration distribution of the element in a set of samples, as measured by the TXRF method, can be determined even for the concentrations below the detection limit (DL). This can be done, when the measurements reporting the concentration below DL level are included properly in the analysis of the results. The method developed for such correction is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that this correction is particularly important when the studied concentrations are close to the DL level of the method, which is a common case for TXRF. In the paper a precision of the developed correction is discussed in details, by using the results of numerical simulations of experiments for different concentration distributions and number of performed measurements. It is demonstrated that the factor, which limits the accuracy of the correction, is the number of measurements, not the correction procedure itself. The applicability and importance of the developed correction is demonstrated for routine TXRF analysis of different types of samples of bio-medical interest. (author)

  10. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  11. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  12. Changes in Lecithin Concentration in the Human Brain Tissue in Some Neurodegenerative Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, A.; Mihaljevic, M.; Hasanbasic, D.; Rukavina, D.; Sofic, E.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of a possible increase in oxidative stress or deterioration of nerve cells during aging, in some states neurodegeneration was demonstrated by multiple biochemical deficiency, especially deficiency of cholesterol and lecithin in brain regions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of lecithin in different regions of brain tissue (MC - motor cortex, NC - nucleus caudates, GT - temporal gyrus) dissected postmortem from people with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to people who died without these diseases (C). Spectrophotometric determination of lecithin in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions collected from of 12 persons with SDAT, in 11 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 persons with PD and in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 control persons, was performed by enzymatic method. The content of lecithin in MC: 14.4 mg/g fresh tissue (f.t.) and GT: 13.1 mg/g (f.t.) for SDAT was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by about 30 %, compared to control where there was: 21.6 mg/g (f.t.) in MC and 18.3 mg/g (f.t.) in the GT estimated. In all regions of the brain of PD patients, the content of lecithin was decreased by about 12 % compared to control, but without statistical significance. These results suggest that changes in the content of lecithin in these regions of brain tissue might affect the changes in the membrane potential and cell degeneration. (author)

  13. Allometric relationships to liver tissue concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nicholas A.; Nøst, Therese H.; Andrade, Hector; Christensen, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution and relationship of allometric measurements (length, weight and age) to liver concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclosiloxane (D6) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) collected near the community of Tromsø in Northern Norway were assessed. These congeners were benchmarked against known persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 153 and 180) to assess accumulation behavior of cVMS. D5 was the dominate cVMS detected in all fish livers with lipid normalized concentrations up to 10 times or greater than those observed for PCB 153 and 180. D4 and D6 concentration were negatively correlated with fish length and weight, indicating a greater elimination capacity compared to uptake processes with increasing fish size for these chemicals. These results indicate relationships between allometric measurements and cVMS concentrations may account for concentration variations observed within fish and should be assessed in future studies evaluating cVMS bioaccumulation potential. - Highlights: • cVMS spatial distribution investigated within cod surrounding an Arctic community. • Highest cVMS concentrations detected in biota collected near human settlements. • Cod liver concentrations of D5 were higher compared to PCBs. • D4 and D6 liver concentrations were negatively correlated with fish length/weight. - Liver concentrations of cVMS congeners decreased with increasing fish length and weight in Atlantic cod collected near emission sources of cVMS

  14. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-06

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body.

  15. Measurement of radon concentration in water with Lucas cell detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the measurement of radon concentration in water is presented based on flushing a water sample with air in a closed loop with the Lucas cell as alpha radiation detector. The main feature of the method is washing radon away from the larger sample of water (0.75 l) to a small volume of air, approximately 0.5 l, thanks to which a high radon concentration in air and a considerable sensitivity of measurement is achieved. Basic relations and results of measurements of a model of a gauge is given. The estimated measuring sensitivity (S) is 8.5 (cpm)/(Bq/l). The random error due to the statistical fluctuations of count rate at radon concentrations 1,10, 100, 1000, 10000 Bq/l is 11, 3.6, 1.1, 0.4, 0.1% correspondingly at a counting (measuring) time of 10 min. The minimum detectable radon concentration in water is 0.11 Bq/l. (author)

  16. A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shang; Larin, K V; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, S; Twa, M D; Manapuram, R K; Aglyamov, S; Emelianov, S

    2013-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive assessment of tissue elasticity in vivo is required for early diagnostics of many tissue abnormalities. We have developed a focused air-pulse system that produces a low-pressure and short-duration air stream, which can be used to excite transient surface waves (SWs) in soft tissues. System characteristics were studied using a high-resolution analog pressure transducer to describe the excitation pressure. Results indicate that the excitation pressure provided by the air-pulse system can be easily controlled by the air source pressure, the angle of delivery, and the distance between the tissue surface and the port of the air-pulse system. Furthermore, we integrated this focused air-pulse system with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) to make non-contact measurements of tissue elasticity. The PhS-OCT system is used to assess the group velocity of SW propagation, which can be used to determine Young’s modulus. Pilot experiments were performed on gelatin phantoms with different concentrations (10%, 12% and 14% w/w). The results demonstrate the feasibility of using this focused air-pulse system combined with PhS-OCT to estimate tissue elasticity. This easily controlled non-contact technique is potentially useful to study the biomechanical properties of ocular and other tissues in vivo. (letter)

  17. Effect-independent measures of tissue responses to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors measure the sparing that can be achieved from dose fractionation in the absence of proliferation. Four repair factors are analysed in these terms: Fsub(R),Fsub(rec), the ratio of linear-quadratic survival model parameters β/α and the half-time Tsub(1/2) for intracellular repair processes. Theoretically, Fsub(R) and Fsub(rec) are increasing functions of D 1 , and thus depend on level of effect. This is confirmed by analysis of skin reactions after multifractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow, tissues for which it is reasonable to assume that survival of identifiable target cells is the primary determinant of the endpoint. For a functional endpoint not clearly connected with the depletion of a specific target-cell population (late fibrotic reactions in the kidney), there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury, but this was statistically insignificant. Tsub(1/2) is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (Tsub(1/2) less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (Tsub(1/2) approx. 1.3 hours). (author)

  18. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F.; Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie; Villamil, Luisa; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Ahrens, Michael J.; Luna-Acosta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  19. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F. [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Villamil, Luisa [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Thomas-Guyon, Hélène [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Ahrens, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ahrens@utadeo.edu.co [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Luna-Acosta, Andrea [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  20. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  1. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro; Osoda, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [ 15 O]H 2 O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [ 11 C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [ 11 C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4±6.4 and 19.7±4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients

  3. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  4. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  5. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  6. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  7. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-12-15

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied.

  8. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-12-01

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  9. Effect of luminescence transport through adipose tissue on measurement of tissue temperature by using ZnCdS nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Elena K.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Sagaydachnaya, Elena; Konyukhova, Julia G.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2018-02-01

    The spectra of luminescence of ZnCdS nanoparticles (ZnCdS NPs) were measured and analyzed in a wide temperature range: from room to human body and further to a hyperthermic temperature resulting in tissue morphology change. The results show that the signal of luminescence of ZnCdS NPs placed within the tissue is reasonably good sensitive to temperature change and accompanied by phase transitions of lipid structures of adipose tissue. It is shown that the presence of a phase transition in adipose tissue upon its heating (polymorphic transformations of lipids) leads to a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the intensity of luminescence for the nanoparticles introduced into adipose tissue. This is due to a change in the light scattering by the tissue. The light scattering of adipose tissue greatly distorts the results of temperature measurements. The application of these nanoparticles is possible for temperature measurements in very thin or weakly scattering samples.

  10. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  11. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  12. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  13. Market power in electricity markets: Beyond concentration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.; Bushnell, J.; Knittel, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    The wave of electricity market restructuring both within the US and abroad has brought the issue of horizontal market power to the forefront of energy policy. Traditionally, estimation and prediction of market power has relied heavily on concentration measures. In this paper, the authors discuss the weaknesses of concentration measures as a viable measure of market power in the electricity industry, and they propose an alternative method based on market simulations that take advantage of existing plant level data. The authors discuss results from previous studies they have performed, and present new results that allow for the detection of threshold demand levels where market power is likely to be a problem. In addition, the authors analyze the impact of that recent divestitures in the California electricity market will have on estimated market power. They close with a discussion of the policy implications of the results

  14. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  15. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  16. Measurement of mean radon concentrations in the Tokai districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Ikebe, Yukimasa; Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an electrostatic integrating radon monitor designed for the environmental radon monitoring and longterm measurements of mean radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor air. The position of the collecting electrode within the monitor was determined based on the calculation of the internal electric field. The radon exchange rate between the monitor and the outside air through the filter was 0.75 h -1 . The exchange rate can make the radon concentration inside the monitor to follow thoroughly the outside concentration. Since the electrostatic collection of RaA + ( 218 Po + ) atoms depends on the humidity of the air, the inside of the monitor was dehumidified with a diphosphorus pentaoxide (P 2 O 5 ) drying agent which is powerful and dose not absorb radon gas. From the relationship between track density and radon exposure, the calibration factor was derived to be 0.52 ± 0.002 tracks cm -2 (Bq m -3 h) -1 . The detection limit of mean radon level is 1.2 Bq m -3 for an exposure time fo 2 months. The mean radon concentrations in various environments were measured through the year using the monitors this developed. The annual mean outdoor radon level in the Tokai districts was 7.0 Bq m -3 . The mean radon concentrations was found to vary from 3.5 to 11.7 Bq m -3 depending upon the geographical conditions even in this relatively small region. The annual indoor radon concentrations at Nagoya and Sapporo ranged from 6.4 to 11.9 Bq m -3 and from 15.5 to 121.1 Bq m -3 , respectively, with the type of building material and the ventilation rate. The mean radon concentrations in tightly built houses selected at Sapporo are about 10 times as high as those in drafty houses at Nagoya. (author)

  17. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  18. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting {alpha} particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 {approx} 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m{sup 3} and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor.

  19. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting α particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Pb and 214 Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 ∼ 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m 3 . With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m 3 and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m 3 suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor

  20. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  1. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  2. Measurement of the concentration of radon in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, J.B.Th.; Bierhuizen, H.W.J.; Hoek, L.P. van; Ros, D.; Weber, J.

    1975-01-01

    A simple transportable air monitoring apparatus was developed for controlling the radon contamination of air in laboratory rooms. It is not highly accurate but is sufficient to register the order of magnitude of the radon concentration. Air is pumped through a filter for one or two hours and an alpha decay curve of the dust on the filter is determined. Scintillation counting forty minutes after sampling indicates the radon activity. The calibration method of measuring the equilibrium of daughter product concentrations is discussed extensively

  3. Measurement of Alpha Emitters Concentration in Imported Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser Allah, Z.K.; Musa, W.A.; AL-Rawi, A.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aime of this study was to measured the alpha emitters concentration of (15) different kinds of imported cigarettes. the nuclear reaction used U-235(n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons from (Am B e)neutron source with thermal flux of(5*10 3 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The Results obtained showed the values of the Uranium concentration, and varies from (0.041 ppm) in five stares kind to (2.374ppm) in Machbeth (chocolate) 100's kind. All the result obtained are within the limit levels as given by UNSCAR data

  4. Monitoring and measurement of oxygen concentrations in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels of interest for LMFBR applications is reviewed. Additional data are presented to support the validity of the vanadium-equilibration method as a reference for determination of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels equal to or less than 15 ppM. Operating experience with electrochemical oxygen meters that have a thoria-yttria electrolyte and a Na--Na 2 O reference electrode is described. Meter lifetimes in excess of one year have generally been achieved for operating temperatures of 352 and 402 0 C, and fairly stable emfs have been observed for periods of several months. 7 fig, 21 references

  5. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  6. An example of the application of Mössbauer spectroscopy for determination of concentration of iron in lyophilized brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepecka Patrycja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy is not routinely used for the determination of the concentration of iron. However, as this method does not need any pre-treatment of samples before measurements, it may be of extreme importance for the assessment of iron in samples, which can then be used for further investigations. Biological samples are a good example, however, as the concentrations of iron are very low in these, it is important to exclude possible artefacts from the background spectrum related to iron present in the counter and cryostat windows. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of determination of the amounts of iron in investigated sample: one, in which the background spectrum was subtracted from the sample spectrum measured, and the other, in which the obtained non-elaborated spectrum was fitted with two doublets - a doublet for the measured sample and a doublet for the background spectrum. Three samples containing known amounts of natural iron (400, 800 and 1600 μg and a sample of lyophilized human brain tissue obtained from globus pallidus were assessed. Both methods led to the creation of a very good calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Although both methods gave similar results for the concentration of iron in the sample, the subtraction of the background spectrum had a significantly lower error of the final result.

  7. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  8. Method and device for measuring the smoke concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennemo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The patent deals with a method and a device for measuring the smoke concentration in air. In a smoke chamber are located two electrodes, connected to a voltage source for forming a circuit in which a DC current flows. A radioactive radiation source to ionize the air molecules is located in the vicinity of the smoke chamber, so that the number of ionized air molecules which are formed is dependent upon the radiation intensity of the ion source and the concentration of smoke particles in the smoke chamber. The charging voltage will further imply that a cloud of high ion concentration is built up close to the surface of the electrodes. The ion cloud will be discharged capacitively upon a plurality of short voltages pulses applied to the electrodes to thereby result in current pulses substantially greater than the DC current flowing through the chamber. 8 figs

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in bird tissues, their foods and feeding areas near Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1987-08-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about an apparent decline in the numbers of waterfowl, waders and gulls in the Ravenglass estuary, particularly of the black-headed gulls nesting on the Drigg dunes; it was suggested this might be due to the radionuclide concentrations in their diet and general environment. Oystercatchers and shelduck had some of the highest concentrations of Cs-137 in their tissues, yet their breeding and numbers remained unaffected. Calculations of the total dose equivalent to the whole body of gulls spending 4 months in the estuary before laying eggs, amounted to 2.8 mSv (≅ 2.4 m Gy), and to the gut lining 40.3 mSv. As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 m Gy d -1 has been found to be necessary to retard the growth of chicks or cause 50% mortality among gull chick embryos before full development, radionuclide concentrations at Ravenglass were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have any effect. 12 species of marine invertebrates were also analysed, but no evidence was found that radionuclides from Sellafield were being accumulated in any species to the point where concentrations were of potential importance to birds feeding on them. (author)

  10. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  11. Diagnostics of and measures against radon concentrations in a dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1994-02-01

    Results are presented of measurements in a test-dwelling in the period april 1993 - november 1993. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the possibilities of using a blower door (a fan in a wall of the dwelling) for specifying sources of radon in the dwelling, employing the diagnostic method developed at the KVI (Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen, Netherlands). Special attention is paid to the measurement of two input variables for the diagnostic method: transparency of the walls of the dwelling and the strength of static sources. Also measures aimed at reducing radon concentrations in the dwelling are discussed. The main conclusions are that (a) the pressure-variation method is a valid procedure to measure the transparency of walls and floors; (b) the blower door is a suitable technique for arriving at a correct diagnosis; and (c) over-pressurizing the crawl-space is the most effective measure in reducing the radon concentration of the crawl-space. More research on air flows in the soil is recommended. 21 figs., 28 tabs., 7 refs

  12. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  13. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  14. Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring the low concentrations of liquid water and ice in relatively dry soil samples. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquidwater and ice contents of Lunar and Martian soils, the apparatus could also be applied similarly to terrestrial desert soils and sands. The apparatus is a special-purpose impedance spectrometer: Its design is based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and, hence, the magnitude of impedance decreases) with increasing water content.

  15. Apparatus for measuring the concentration of a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manin, Ange.

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus described for measuring the concentration of a gas in an atmosphere is of the kind which has an ionization chamber with an internal radioactive source and associated electronics enabling the ionization current crossing the chamber to be measured. It includes at least one cylindrical metal grid forming an electrode brought to a high voltage in relation to a cylindrical collection electrode fitted to the axis of the grid coated with a radioactive deposit and, around this grid, a screen acting as a protective envelope. The radioactive deposit is tritiated titanium [fr

  16. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  17. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  18. Digital photography provides a fast, reliable, and noninvasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, José C; Gallardo-López, Antonio; Buide, Mª Luisa; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin pigments have become a model trait for evolutionary ecology as they often provide adaptive benefits for plants. Anthocyanins have been traditionally quantified biochemically or more recently using spectral reflectance. However, both methods require destructive sampling and can be labor intensive and challenging with small samples. Recent advances in digital photography and image processing make it the method of choice for measuring color in the wild. Here, we use digital images as a quick, noninvasive method to estimate relative anthocyanin concentrations in species exhibiting color variation. Using a consumer-level digital camera and a free image processing toolbox, we extracted RGB values from digital images to generate color indices. We tested petals, stems, pedicels, and calyces of six species, which contain different types of anthocyanin pigments and exhibit different pigmentation patterns. Color indices were assessed by their correlation to biochemically determined anthocyanin concentrations. For comparison, we also calculated color indices from spectral reflectance and tested the correlation with anthocyanin concentration. Indices perform differently depending on the nature of the color variation. For both digital images and spectral reflectance, the most accurate estimates of anthocyanin concentration emerge from anthocyanin content-chroma ratio, anthocyanin content-chroma basic, and strength of green indices. Color indices derived from both digital images and spectral reflectance strongly correlate with biochemically determined anthocyanin concentration; however, the estimates from digital images performed better than spectral reflectance in terms of r 2 and normalized root-mean-square error. This was particularly noticeable in a species with striped petals, but in the case of striped calyces, both methods showed a comparable relationship with anthocyanin concentration. Using digital images brings new opportunities to accurately quantify the

  19. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few.......Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  20. Exploration of two methods for quantitative Mitomycin C measurement in tumor tissue in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Vásquez, Juan Luis; Gehl, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Two methods of quantifying Mitomycin C in tumor tissue are explored. A method of ultraviolet-visible absorption microscopy is developed and applied to measure the concentration of Mitomycin C in preserved mouse tumor tissue, as well as in gelatin samples. Concentrations as low as 60 μM can...... be resolved using this technique in samples that do not strongly scatter light. A novel method for monitoring the Mitomycin C concentrations inside a tumor is developed, based on microdialysis and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. A pump is used to perfuse a microdialysis probe with Ringer’s solution, which...

  1. Relationship between biomarker responses and contaminant concentration in selected tissues of flounder (Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podolska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the Gulf of Gdańsk discussed the responses of selected enzymatic biomarkers to the contaminant gradient in fish and mussels. In the present study, flounder muscle and liver tissues were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, HCB and DDTs, and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr. An attempt was made to identify the relationship between the measured enzymatic biomarker responses (cholinesterases, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase and contaminant concentrations in selected flounder tissues. The observed differences in enzymatic biomarker levels suggest that chronic exposure to low-concentration mixtures of contaminants may be occurring in the studied area. However, no conclusive evidence was found of a clear link between the biomarker responses and contaminant concentrations in flounder tissues.

  2. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    The radon content of drinking water samples was determined with Alpha Guard Pro equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua Kit). The samples were collected from water taps in dwellings located at various cities in Greece and Cyprus. In addition, surface water samples from rivers, lakes and seas as well as potable underground and hot spring water samples from Greece and Cyprus were also collected. For a precise determination of radon concentration in water samples, special procedures were followed both for sampling and transportation, as well as for measurement. Intercomparison experiments were designed and implemented before and during the study. Radon concentrations in drinking water samples in Greece ranged between 1.1 ± 0.5 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in Cyprus ranged between 1.3 ± 0.8 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L. Three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidikis (Northern Greece) exhibited high concentrations of 120±20 Bq/L, 320±40 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. This city is identified as a high radon potential area. One water sample located in Lesvos Island (North-East part of Greece) exhibited radon concentration 140±20 Bq/L. Additional six samples displayed high concentrations in potable hot spring water samples. These samples which were collected from the city of Loutraki (Peloponnesus) ranged between 220-230 Bq/L. In addition, two samples characterized as 'medicinal drinking water' gave concentrations between 320 Bq/L and 340 Bq/L. For underground water samples the radon concentrations ranged between 1.2±0.7 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L, while for surface water samples the range was 2.7±0.8 Bq/L to 24±6 Bq/L. The observed concentrations of radon gas in potable water samples in Greece were found to be largely low. In Cyprus, they were all well below 15 Bq/L

  3. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  4. Radioisotopic method for the measurement of lipolysis in small samples of human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.; Berry, E.M.; Gruen, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the study of adrenoreceptor response in small needle biopsy samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue, we developed a dual radioisotopic technique for measuring lipolysis rate. Aliquots (20-75 mg) of adipose tissue fragments were incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In neutral glycerides synthesized in this system, [ 14 C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety and 3 H appears solely in the esterified fatty acid. Alpha-2 and beta-1 adrenoreceptor activation of tissue incubated in this system does not alter rates of 14 C-labeled glyceride accumulation, but does produce a respective increase or decrease in the specific activity of fatty acids esterified into newly synthesized glycerides. This alteration in esterified fatty acid specific activity is reflected in the ratio of 14 C: 3 H in newly synthesized triglycerides extracted from the incubated adipose tissue. There is a high correlation (r . 0.90) between the 14 C: 3 H ratio in triglycerides and the rate of lipolysis as reflected in glycerol release into the incubation medium. The degree of adrenoreceptor activation by various concentrations of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic substances can be assessed by comparing this ratio in stimulated tissue to that characterizing unstimulated tissue or the incubation medium. This technique permits the study of very small, unweighed tissue biopsy fragments, the only limitation on sensitivity being the specific activity of the medium glucose and palmitate. It is, therefore, useful for serial examinations of adipose tissue adrenoreceptor dose-response characteristics under a variety of clinical circumstances

  5. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  6. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life

  7. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  8. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  9. Integrating measurements of indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.H.; Iida, T.; Hashiguchi, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, indoor surveys in Europe and Asia revealed that the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny can equal or even exceed that of radon and its progeny. For measuring thoron and its progeny, several methods had been reported. However, convenient, low-cost and time-integrating measuring methods which are suitable for large-scale surveys are still unavailable. To solve this problem, three integrating measuring methods with allyl diglycol carbonate plastic (CR-39) as detectors have recently been. The results indicated that they are suitable for estimating the indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations when the public exposure to thoron and its progeny is taken into account. Cup monitor - Former types of passive integrating 222 Rn and 220 Rn cup monitors had been reported. Recently, in order to improve the sensitivity of thoron detection, the air exchange rate between the inner and outer cup was enhanced, and the radius of the hemisphere was reduced to 37.5 mm. Furthermore, the procedure of detector exchange was made to be more convenient. Equilibrium-equivalent 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations monitor (EEC monitor) - The measuring system is composed of a monitor head and a diaphragm pump. The total weight of the system is less than 1.5 kg, which makes it portable. The construction of the monitor head and the measuring principle were also reported by the authors. Thoron progeny deposition rate monitor - The monitor is simply constituted a piece of CR-39 covered with thin sheets of absorbers. The thickness of the absorbers are adjusted to let only the α particles emitted from 212 Pb impinge on the detector. The concentrations of thoron progeny are estimated from the deposition rates, assuming that the deposition velocities of thoron progeny are constant in general dwellings. The improved cup monitor has higher sensitivity than former monitors, with a calibration factor of 1.59x10 -3 tracks·cm -2 (Bq·m -3 ·h) -1 for thoron. The accuracy of the ECC

  10. Fluorescence lifetime measurement with confocal endomicroscopy for direct analysis of tissue biochemistry in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Won

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal endomicroscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo real-time imaging at cellular resolution inside a living body without tissue resection. Microscopic fluorescence lifetime measurement can provide information about localized biochemical conditions such as pH and the concentrations of oxygen and calcium. We hypothesized that combining these techniques could assist accurate cancer discrimination by providing both biochemical and morphological information. We designed a dual-mode experimental setup for confocal endomicroscopic imaging and fluorescence lifetime measurement and applied it to a mouse xenograft model of activated human pancreatic cancer generated by subcutaneous injection of AsPC-1 tumor cells. Using this method with pH-sensitive sodium fluorescein injection, we demonstrated discrimination between normal and cancerous tissues in a living mouse. With further development, this method may be useful for clinical cancer detection.

  11. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  12. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baduru, K.K.; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the phytoremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) show that vapor-phase transport into roots leads to VOC removal from the vadose zone and diffusion and volatilization out of plants is an important fate following uptake. Volatilization to the atmosphere constitutes one...... in numerous vegetation−VOC interactions, including the phytoremediation of soil vapors and dissolved aqueous-phase contaminants. The diffusion of VOCs through freshly excised tree tissue was directly measured for common groundwater contaminants, chlorinated compounds such as trichloroethylene, perchloroethene......, and tetrachloroethane and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and methyl tert-butyl ether. All compounds tested are currently being treated at full scale with tree-based phytoremediation. Diffusivities were determined by modeling the diffusive transport data with a one-dimensional diffusive flux model...

  13. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  14. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  15. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S., E-mail: ozolinst@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen’s University, Botterell Hall, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Weston, Andrea D. [Currently at Applied Biotechnology/Lead Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 5 Research Pkwy Wallingford, CT 06492-1996 (United States); Perretta, Anthony [Currently at Pfizer Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Thomson, Jason J. [Currently at Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208073, New Haven, CT 06520-8073 (United States); Brown, Nigel A. [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George’s University of London, UK SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  16. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S.; Weston, Andrea D.; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J.; Brown, Nigel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  17. Measurements of serum-free thyroid hormone concentrations by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Norimichi; Hagiwara, Kohji; Taguchi, Hideo; Murakami, Shigeki; Taguchi, Shizuko

    1987-01-01

    An ultrafiltration method (UF) for measuring free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) using the Diaflow YM membrane (Centricon-10) is described. The results are compared with those by equilibrium dialysis (ED) and also by mathematical calculations derived from T 4 , T 3 , and binding protein concentrations. The precision with the UF method was excellent. The normal ranges of FT 4 and FT 3 by the three methods are all comparable. There was a high degree of correlation of FT 4 or FT 3 results by UF with those by ED and by calculation (r = 0.940 - 0.974, n = 161, P 4 and FT 3 by all methods agreed well for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and for patients with low T 4 -binding globulin. The mean FT 3 in pregnancy was lower than the normal value for all methods, and FT 4 concentrations by UF and calculation also decreased in late pregnancy. The mean FT 4 by UF and ED in low T 3 syndrome were significantly higher than in the normal controls, while the calculated FT 4 was lower. The FT 3 in low T 3 syndrome distributed normal to subnormal in all methods. These results indicate that a) the UF method is a reliable reference method for measuring FT 4 and FT 3 concentrations; b) the UF results agree well with those by ED and also with theoretically derived values in subjects with thyroid diseases and TBG abnormalities; c) for patients with low T 3 syndrome, the FT 4 results obtained by UF and ED are similarly discrepant from the calculated results, implying the existence of binding inhibitor(s) which affect both UF and ED measurements. (author)

  18. A simple method for measuring glucose utilization of insulin-sensitive tissues by using the brain as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Iyo, Masaomi; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Irie, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A simple method, without measurement of the plasma input function, to obtain semiquantitative values of glucose utilization in tissues other than the brain with radioactive deoxyglucose is reported. The brain, in which glucose utilization is essentially insensitive to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, was used as an internal reference. The effects of graded doses of oral glucose loading (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/g body weight) on insulin-sensitive tissues (heart, muscle and fat tissue) were studied in the rat. By using the brain-reference method, dose-dependent increases in glucose utilization were clearly shown in all the insulin-sensitive tissues examined. The method seems to be of value for measurement of glucose utilization using radioactive deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography in the heart or other insulin-sensitive tissues, especially during glucose loading. (orig.)

  19. assessment of Seawater Intrusion in Concrete by Measuring Chlorine Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Osman, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The object of this work is to measure water intrusion in concrete using a new methodology based on neutron activation technique. The applied method depends on measuring the activated gamma energy lines emitted from 38 Cl using a gamma spectrometer with Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. Concrete samples with different percentages of silica fume (SF), up to 20 % submerged in seawater for different period of time were used to perform the investigation. Samples of concrete taken from different positions along the direction of water intrusion in concrete block were irradiated by thermal neutrons using the irradiation cell of 252 Cf neutron source and one of the vertical channels of search reactor at Delft University. The measured 38 Cl concentrations of the irradiated samples were used to plot groups of water profiles distribution in concrete samples with different SF % and submerged in seawater for different periods. These profiles were compared with the others which use here measured by neutron back emitted method where a satisfactory agreement was observed between the two. Further, the displayed measured results; show that the diffusivity for all water contents decreases with increasing the silica fume percentage up to 15 %. However, for concrete samples with silica fume 20 % the observed phenomenon is reversed due to the deterioration of concrete physical and mechanical properties

  20. Si-Traceable Scale for Measurements of Radiocarbon Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Long, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon (^{14}C) dating of organic materials is based on measuring the ^{14}C/^{12}C atomic fraction relative to the nascent value that existed when the material was formed by photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This field of measurement has numerous applications including source apportionment of anthropogenic and biogenic fuels and combustion emissions, carbon cycle dynamics, archaeology, and forensics. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most widely used method for radiocarbon detection because it can measure extremely small amounts of radiocarbon (background of nominally 1.2 parts-per-trillion) with high relative precision (0.4 %). AMS measurements of radiocarbon are typically calibrated by reference to standard oxalic-acid (C_2H_2O_4) samples of known radiocativity that are derived from plant matter. Specifically, the internationally accepted absolute dating reference for so-called "modern-equivalent" radiocarbon is 95 % of the specific radioactivity in AD 1950 of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oxalic acid standard reference material and normalized to δ^{13}C_{VPDB} = 19 per mil. With this definition, a "modern-equivalent" corresponds to 1.176(70) parts-per-trillion of ^{14}C relative to total carbon content. As an alternative radiocarbon scale, we propose an SI-traceable method to determine ^{14}C absolute concentration which is based on linear Beer-Lambert-law absorption measurements of selected ^{14}C^{16}O_2 ν_3-band line areas. This approach is attractive because line intensities of chosen radiocarbon dioxide transitions can be determined by ab initio calculations with relative uncertainties below 0.5 %. This assumption is justified by the excellent agreement between theoretical values of line intensities and measurements for stable isotopologues of CO_2. In the case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements of ^{14}C^{16}O_2 peak areas, we show that absolute, SI-traceable concentrations of

  1. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  2. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Braz, Delson; Jesus, Edgar Francisco de; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Pitassi, Gabriel; Leite, Carlos Barros; Cardoso, Katia

    2009-01-01

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222 Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  3. Correlation of tissue concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin with neurotoxicity in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Scollon, Edward J.; Starr, James M.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Wolansky, Marcelo J.; DeVito, Michael J.; Hughes, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for human exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has prompted pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research to better characterize risk. This work tested the hypothesis that blood and brain concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin are predictive of neurotoxic effects. Adult male Long Evans rats received a single oral dose of bifenthrin dissolved in corn oil. Using figure-eight mazes, motor activity was measured for 1 h at 4- and 7-h following exposure to bifenthrin (0–16 mg/kg or 0...

  4. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  5. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  6. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  7. Measurement limits to 134Cs concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.K.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.H.; Park, J.N.; Kang, Y.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, S.J.; Park, J.Y.; Ryu, S.Y.; Kim, H.-Ch.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori nuclear power plant in Korea, focusing on the measurement limits to the 134 Cs. In order to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs, we have used the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) precipitation method to get rid of the 40 K existing in natural radioactivity, which reduces the MDA activity about 10 times smaller than those without the AMP precipitation method. The MDA results for the 134 Cs were found to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044 Bq/kg-dry weight. In order to diminish the background, we also have measured a part of the soil samples in Yangyang, a small town in the east coast of Korea. However, it turns out that in order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight. - Highlights: → We study the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori NPT in Korea. → We use the AMP precipitation method to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs. → The results of the MDA for the 134 Cs turn out to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044. → In order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples, the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight.

  8. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  9. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  10. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  11. Tracking and shape errors measurement of concentrating heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquand, Mathieu; Caliot, Cyril; Hénault, François

    2017-09-01

    In solar tower power plants, factors such as tracking accuracy, facets misalignment and surface shape errors of concentrating heliostats are of prime importance on the efficiency of the system. At industrial scale, one critical issue is the time and effort required to adjust the different mirrors of the faceted heliostats, which could take several months using current techniques. Thus, methods enabling quick adjustment of a field with a huge number of heliostats are essential for the rise of solar tower technology. In this communication is described a new method for heliostat characterization that makes use of four cameras located near the solar receiver and simultaneously recording images of the sun reflected by the optical surfaces. From knowledge of a measured sun profile, data processing of the acquired images allows reconstructing the slope and shape errors of the heliostats, including tracking and canting errors. The mathematical basis of this shape reconstruction process is explained comprehensively. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the measurement accuracy of this "backward-gazing method" is compliant with the requirements of solar concentrating optics. Finally, we present our first experimental results obtained at the THEMIS experimental solar tower plant in Targasonne, France.

  12. First assessment of trace metal concentration in mangrove crab eggs and other tissues, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Vianna; Kütter, Vinicius Tavares; Marques, Eduardo Duarte; da Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-07-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is widespread in the Brazilian coast, which has an important role in nutrient cycling. This species reproduces in summer and females carry eggs about a month, when they maintain contact with water and sediments. It remains unclear if trace metals can be absorbed or adsorbed by the eggs during development. The present study aims to investigate, for the first time, trace metal concentrations in ovigerous female tissues and eggs of U. cordatus in two areas with different metal pollution levels in the Southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in two different mangroves, Guanabara Bay (GB) highly polluted environment and Paraíba do Sul River (PSR). In both populations, we observed significant increase of V, Cr, and Mn concentrations along eggs maturation. The higher metals averages were found in PSR population. This trend was reported since the 1990s and lower concentrations in GB marine organisms were attributed to reducing conditions, high organic load, and the presence of sulfide ions. These conditions restrict the bioavailability of metals in the bay, with exception of Mn. No significant differences were observed in gills and muscles. In both populations of the present study, V, Zn, As, and Pb were higher in eggs of initial stage, whereas Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were higher in hepatopancreas. Beside this, V, Cr, Mn, As, and Pb showed an increase concerning egg development. Thus, V, As, and Pb in eggs come from two sources previous discussed: females and environment. Zinc came mainly from females due to essential function. Those new information should be considered as one of the mechanisms of trace metal transfer to the trophic chain, between benthonic and pelagic environment.

  13. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Politécnica

    2017-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of {sup 137}Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  14. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D.; Silva, A.X.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of 40 K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of 137 Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  15. A Florescence Detection Module for Photodynamic Therapy Optimization by Measuring the Concentration of Photo sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Navarro, Joel; Stolik Isakina, Suren; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose M. de; Valor Reed, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a portable fluorescence detection system designed and built for dosimetry control applications in Photodynamic Therapy is presented. The system excites the used photo sensitizer drug with a modulated laser light source and subsequently measures the radiance of the emitted fluorescent light. Since the fluorescent radiance is directly related to the photosensitizers concentration, this measurement allows for real-time monitoring of the photo sensitizer concentration in the treated tissue. The system is thought to permit adjusting the therapeutic regime in order to optimize the expected therapy results. In the developed system, a synchronous detection technique is employed to recover the fluorescence signals embedded in noisy backgrounds and lit environments. A scanning probe with a 405 nm diode laser is used to excite the photo sensitizer, while a detection wavelength range from 590 nm to 700 nm has been implemented. (Author)

  16. Measurement of characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted from oxygen and carbon in tissue-equivalent samples during proton beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polf, Jerimy C; Panthi, Rajesh; Mackin, Dennis S; McCleskey, Matt; Saastamoinen, Antti; Roeder, Brian T; Beddar, Sam

    2013-09-07

    The purpose of this work was to characterize how prompt gamma (PG) emission from tissue changes as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration, and to assess the feasibility of determining elemental concentration in tissues irradiated with proton beams. For this study, four tissue-equivalent water-sucrose samples with differing densities and concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were irradiated with a 48 MeV proton pencil beam. The PG spectrum emitted from each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector, and the absolute detection efficiency of the detector, average beam current, and delivered dose distribution were also measured. Changes to the total PG emission from (12)C (4.44 MeV) and (16)O (6.13 MeV) per incident proton and per Gray of absorbed dose were characterized as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration in the sample. The intensity of the 4.44 MeV PG emission per incident proton was found to be nearly constant for all samples regardless of their carbon concentration. However, we found that the 6.13 MeV PG emission increased linearly with the total amount (in grams) of oxygen irradiated in the sample. From the measured PG data, we determined that 1.64 × 10(7) oxygen PGs were emitted per gram of oxygen irradiated per Gray of absorbed dose delivered with a 48 MeV proton beam. These results indicate that the 6.13 MeV PG emission from (16)O is proportional to the concentration of oxygen in tissue irradiated with proton beams, showing that it is possible to determine the concentration of oxygen within tissues irradiated with proton beams by measuring (16)O PG emission.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  18. Measurement of PCB concentrations in waters using a biomonitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The book describes a PCB biomonitoring programme which was developed for measuring instantaneous PCB concentrations and permits the compilation of PCB action cadastres for different types of waters and subsequent derivation of current trends. Six representative congeners were selected as a basis for the quantitative routine analysis. The fish species bream (abramis brama) and roach (rutilus rutilus) were used as indicators in the PCB biomonitoring programme on account of their distribution and ecological demands. The age and growth rate of each fish destined for analysis was determined so as to ensure that only healthy fish would be used. In both fish species the dorsal musulature with its low scatter of test results and consistent PCB pattern (internal quantification) proved a representative body region. (orig.) [de

  19. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected...... by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  20. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  1. Kinetic Behaviour of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in Different Tissues of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Exposed to Non-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Hisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd on the enzymatic activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD were investigated in the gill, liver and kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three test groups of fish were subjected to increasing concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/l of cadmium (Cd in vivo, respectively. The G6PD and 6PGD activities in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of each group of fish were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. G6PD and 6PGD enzyme activities, measured in gill, liver and kidney homogenates, were stimulated by various concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg/l of cadmium. Although the dose-response pattern of G6PD enzyme activities in liver and kidney tissue was very similar, that in gill was different from both other tissues. The enzyme activity of G6PD enzyme was significantly stimulated after three days (Day 3 in liver and kidney tissues at a dose of 1 mg/l Cd (p p p p p p < 0.05 in liver and kidney tissues at the doses of 3 and 1 mg/l Cd. The stimulation effect of cadmium on the three tissues studied was also calculated; for both of the enzymes (G6PD and 6PGD, the enzyme activity levels were stimulated by approximately 60% and 38% in gills, 68% and 44% in liver, and 67% and 41% in kidneys, respectively, over the base-line enzyme activity of the control groups during the sevenday experimental period. These findings indicate that tissue G6PD and 6PGD enzymes function to protect against cadmium toxicity.

  2. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  3. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years...... increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P increases the interstitial concentrations......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...

  4. Measurement and quantification of fluorescent changes in ocular tissue using a novel confocal instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschoen, Kim K.; Girkin, John M.; Daly, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    Our sight is a major contributor to our quality of life. The treatment of diseases like macular degeneration and glaucoma, however, presents a challenge as the delivery of medication to ocular tissue is not well understood. The instrument described here will help quantify targeted delivery by non-invasively and simultaneously measuring light reflected from and fluorescence excited in the eye, used as position marker and to track compounds respectively. The measurement concept has been proven by monitoring the diffusion of fluorescein and a pharmaceutical compound for treating open angle glaucoma in vitro in a cuvette and in ex vivo porcine eyes. To obtain a baseline of natural fluorescence we measured the change in corneal and crystalline lens autofluorescence in volunteers over a week. We furthermore present data on 3D ocular autofluorescence. Our results demonstrate the capability to measure the location and concentration of the compound of interest with high axial and temporal resolution of 178 μm and 0.6 s respectively. The current detection limit is 2 nM for fluorescein, and compounds with a quantum yield as low as 0.01 were measured to concentrations below 1 μM. The instrument has many applications in assessing the diffusion of fluorescent compounds through the eye and skin in vitro and in vivo, measuring autofluorescence of ocular tissues and reducing the number of animals needed for research. The instrument has the capability of being used both in the clinical and home care environment opening up the possibility of measuring controlled drug release in a patient friendly manner.

  5. Dioxin concentration in milk, faeces and tissues of cows related to feed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.J.; Kamphues, J. [Inst. of Animal Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Wiesmueller, T. [Federal State Office for Consumer Protection, Potsdam (Germany); Appuhn, H. [Agricultural Investigation and Research Inst., Hameln (Germany); Stehr, D. [District Government of Lueneburg (Germany); Severin, K. [Chamber for Agriculture, Hannover (Germany); Landmann, D. [Agricultural Teaching and Research Facility, Echem (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin contamination of feed and food is a frequently discussed problem, even in the press. The EU legislation sets maximum levels for dioxins in food and feeding stuffs. The dioxin concentration of milk, faeces and tissues of lactating cows grazing in an area of higher dioxin level in the soil and grass, has been tested in part 1 of this small scale field study. Soil intake of grazing cows can reach 1.5 kg soil/d under extreme meteorological conditions. Considering that, the dioxin load of soil and the degree of contamination of feedstuffs could play an important role regarding the exposition of grazing animals. Due to repeated flooding the area the experiment took place was known for a higher dioxin level in soil and grass. The area was separated in a depression and an elevation (in flooding areas depressions are known for their higher dioxin level). Grassland is not only used for grazing animals, but also to obtain hay or grass silage. In part 2 of the field study grass silage obtained on the same area, was fed to dry cows to test whether or not there a risk for milk quality after parturition. The primary aim of this field study was to investigate different matrices at different moments of the experiment. The secondary aim was to develop recommendations on how to prevent or at least how to minimize the dioxin load of feed and with it of food, if food producing animals graze on such areas.

  6. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  7. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  8. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dam, JS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Optics is the study of the optical properties of living biological material, especially its scattering and absorption characteristics, and their significance to light propagation within the material. Determination of tissue optical...

  10. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  11. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  12. Neutron measurements with a tissue-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    This Appendix 3E of the dosimetry experiment at the R-B reactor describes the apparatus used and presents the obtained results. The phantom used was a 1/4-inch thick polythene container, 60 cm high, of elliptical cross-section, with a major axis of 36 cm and a minor axis of 20 cm. This was filled with an approximately tissue-equivalent liquid. A light but rigid internal framework of Perspex supported a series of small detectors through the phantom. The detectors used in the first high-level run at Vinca, to measure flux above 0.5 MeV, were 0.5-cm wide track plates wrapped in cadmium foil. Each track plate was a sandwich of two Ilford El 50 - mu emulsions, with glass backing, separated by a 250-mu polythene radiator, and was oriented at an angle of 45 deg to the front surface of the phantom. Under these conditions the response is constant with neutron energy between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV at 1.26 X 10 sup - sup 3 tracks/neutron to within +- 15%. The detectors used in the second high-level run were gold foils (260 mg/cm sup 2 thick) for determination of the show neutron distribution. Previous experiments with 0.13 MeV, 2.5 MeV, 14 MeV and Po-Be neutrons have shown that the shape of the curve through a phantom obtained from these gold foils is the same as that given by either manganese foils or sodium samples despite the difference in resonance integrals. From the relaxation length of the neutron flux in the phantom, as measured by the track plates, the mean energy of the neutrons with energies greater than 0.5 MeV may be found by comparison with the relaxation lengths obtained by irradiation of the phantom with monoenergetic neutrons. The results of these experiments are given. Track plate results from the Vinca experiment are shown. It can be seen that the backscattered fast flux is about one-third of the incident fast flux and that the energy indicated by the shape of the curve is considerably lower than the energy of the direct neutrons. It seems possible that the high

  13. Neutron measurements with a tissue-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-01

    This Appendix 3E of the dosimetry experiment at the R-B reactor describes the apparatus used and presents the obtained results. The phantom used was a 1/4-inch thick polythene container, 60 cm high, of elliptical cross-section, with a major axis of 36 cm and a minor axis of 20 cm. This was filled with an approximately tissue-equivalent liquid. A light but rigid internal framework of Perspex supported a series of small detectors through the phantom. The detectors used in the first high-level run at Vinca, to measure flux above 0.5 MeV, were 0.5-cm wide track plates wrapped in cadmium foil. Each track plate was a sandwich of two Ilford El 50 - {mu} emulsions, with glass backing, separated by a 250-{mu} polythene radiator, and was oriented at an angle of 45 deg to the front surface of the phantom. Under these conditions the response is constant with neutron energy between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV at 1.26 X 10{sup -3} tracks/neutron to within {+-} 15%. The detectors used in the second high-level run were gold foils (260 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) for determination of the show neutron distribution. Previous experiments with 0.13 MeV, 2.5 MeV, 14 MeV and Po-Be neutrons have shown that the shape of the curve through a phantom obtained from these gold foils is the same as that given by either manganese foils or sodium samples despite the difference in resonance integrals. From the relaxation length of the neutron flux in the phantom, as measured by the track plates, the mean energy of the neutrons with energies greater than 0.5 MeV may be found by comparison with the relaxation lengths obtained by irradiation of the phantom with monoenergetic neutrons. The results of these experiments are given. Track plate results from the Vinca experiment are shown. It can be seen that the backscattered fast flux is about one-third of the incident fast flux and that the energy indicated by the shape of the curve is considerably lower than the energy of the direct neutrons. It seems possible that the

  14. Measurement of fluorescent probes concentration ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbater, Osnat; Gannot, Israel

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenic process of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, begins years before the clinical diagnosis. Here, we suggest a novel method which may detect AD up to nine years earlier than current exams, minimally invasive, with minimal risk, pain and side effects. The method is based on previous reports which relate the concentrations of biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) (Aβ and Tau proteins) to the future development of AD in mild cognitive impairment patients. Our method, which uses fluorescence measurements of the relative concentrations of the CSF biomarkers, replaces the lumbar puncture process required for CSF drawing. The process uses a miniature needle coupled trough an optical fiber to a laser source and a detector. The laser radiation excites fluorescent probes which were prior injected and bond to the CSF biomarkers. Using the ratio between the fluorescence intensities emitted from the two biomarkers, which is correlated to their concentration ratio, the patient's risk of developing AD is estimated. A theoretical model was developed and validated using Monte Carlo simulations, demonstrating the relation between fluorescence emission and biomarker concentration. The method was tested using multi-layered tissue phantoms simulating the epidural fat, the CSF in the sub-arachnoid space and the bone. These phantoms were prepared with different scattering and absorption coefficients, thicknesses and fluorescence concentrations in order to simulate variations in human anatomy and in the needle location. The theoretical and in-vitro results are compared and the method's accuracy is discussed.

  15. Modeling and optimization of tissue 10B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, W.S. III; Newton, T.H.; Palmer, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of 10 B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of 10 B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the 10 B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

  16. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  17. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  18. Toward new instruments for measurement of low concentration hydrogen sulfide in small-quantity aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao Chu; Wu, Dong Qing; Zhang, W J; Sammynaiken, R; Yang, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been found to play some important physiological roles in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as a neuromodulator and a vasorelaxant. These roles are in contrast to our common perception that H 2 S is toxic. However, whether H 2 S plays a positive or negative role is dependent on the H 2 S concentration levels in mammals. This further puts a high demand on the accurate measurement of H 2 S in mammals with a further desire to be real time, continuous and in vivo. Existing methods for H 2 S measurement require a large number of tissue samples with complex procedures, and these methods are extremely invasive. The development of new in vivo and real-time methods for measuring H 2 S is, however, a great challenge. In the present study, we proposed and examined five potential H 2 S measurement methods: (1) atomic force microscopy with coating materials, (2) Raman spectroscopy on the H 2 S solutions, (3) gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (with the static headspace technique) on the H 2 S solutions, (4) mass spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions and (5) Raman spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions. Our study concluded that method (5) is the most promising one for detecting low concentration H 2 S in small-quantity aqueous solutions in terms of measurement resolution and non-invasiveness, but the method is not very robust

  19. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  20. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen. PMID:24975958

  1. Description and measurement of concentration problems in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1985-05-01

    Depressed patients commonly complain of concentration problems, yet these have seldom been the focus of systematic investigation. A structured interview about concentration problems was administered to a group of relatively severely depressed patients. Problems in reading and watching television were the most common, and were highly correlated with each other. Direct report of the number of concentration lapses on a reading task was the most generally satisfactory task-performance correlate of complaints of reading/TV concentration problems. Evidence both from this task and from the interview suggests that depressive concentration problems may often be due to 'mind-wandering'. The correlations with concentration problems with the severity and endogeneity of depression and with state anxiety were generally similar.

  2. Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro--a weighted tissue proportion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Ville; Andersson, Britt M; Bergh, Anders; Ljungberg, Börje; Lindahl, Olof A

    2006-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the US. The methods to detect prostate cancer are still precarious and new techniques are needed. A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system is set to vibrate with its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various patho-physiological conditions. In this study the sensor's ability to measure the stiffness of prostate tissue, from two excised prostatectomy specimens in vitro, was analysed. The specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5-1.7 mm, the maximum R(2) > or = 0.60 (p sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed. Tissue sections deeper in the tissue were assigned a lower mathematical weighting than sections closer to the sensor probe. It is concluded that cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differ from cancer.

  3. A technique for measuring oxygen saturation in biological tissues based on diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnin, Mikhail; Orlova, Anna; Kirillin, Mikhail; Golubiatnikov, German; Turchin, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    A new approach to optical measuring blood oxygen saturation was developed and implemented. This technique is based on an original three-stage algorithm for reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (hemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the probing radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed technique on a biological phantom have shown the high reconstruction accuracy and the possibility of correct calculation of hemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noise and calibration errors. The obtained results of animal studies have agreed with the previously published results of other research groups and demonstrated the possibility to apply the developed technique to monitor oxygen saturation in tumor tissue.

  4. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue are important biomarkers that are useful in both research and clinical diagnostics of a wide variety of diseases such as cancer. The authors aim to develop simple ratiometric method based on the spectral filtering modulation (SFM) of fluorescence spectra to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum, which will eliminate the need of diffuse reflectance measurements and prolonged data processing as required by most current methods, thus enabling rapid clinical measurements. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the total hemoglobin concentration is determined by comparing a ratio of fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths to a calibration curve. The second step is to estimate oxygen saturation by comparing a double ratio that involves three emission wavelengths to another calibration curve that is a function of oxygen saturation for known total hemoglobin concentration. Theoretical derivation shows that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentrations and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation for the chosen fiber-optic probe geometry. Experiments on synthetic fluorescent tissue phantoms, which included hemoglobin with both constant and varying oxygenation as the absorber, polystyrene spheres as scatterers, and flavin adenine dinucleotide as the fluorophore, were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Tissue phantom experiments confirm that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentration and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin oxygenation. Furthermore, the relations between the two ratios and the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation are insensitive

  5. Measurement of tritium in tissue free water of pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaomin; Wu Zongmei

    1993-01-01

    Tissue Free Water (TFW) of pine needles is separated out through azeotropic distillation of pine needles and toluene. Recovery ratio of TFW is 90%. Tritium activity in the needles is 1.8 Bq/L(H 2 O), which is of the same level with tritiated water vapour (HTO) in atmosphere during the corresponding period

  6. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  7. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure {sup 10}B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadan, M.A. [National Commission for Atomic Energy (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Postuma, I. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C. [Department of Experimental Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-03-01

    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the {sup 10}B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in {sup 10}B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 {+-} 0.02) {mu}m/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 {mu}g/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 {+-} 0.169){center_dot}10{sup -3} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for liquids and (1.598 {+-} 0.097){center_dot}10{sup -2} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for tissues.

  8. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  9. Measurement of Gene Expression in Archival Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Maureen; Pho, Mylan; Dutta, Debjani; Stephans, James C.; Shak, Steven; Kiefer, Michael C.; Esteban, Jose M.; Baker, Joffre B.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last decade many laboratories have shown that mRNA levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue specimens can be quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques despite the extensive RNA fragmentation that occurs in tissues so preserved. We have developed RT-PCR methods that are sensitive, precise, and that have multianalyte capability for potential wide use in clinical research and diagnostic assays. Here it is shown that the extent of fragmentation of extracted FPE tissue RNA significantly increases with archive storage time. Probe and primer sets for RT-PCR assays based on amplicons that are both short and homogeneous in length enable effective reference gene-based data normalization for cross comparison of specimens that differ substantially in age. A 48-gene assay used to compare gene expression profiles from the same breast cancer tissue that had been either frozen or FPE showed very similar profiles after reference gene-based normalization. A 92-gene assay, using RNA extracted from three 10-μm FPE sections of archival breast cancer specimens (dating from 1985 to 2001) yielded analyzable data for these genes in all 62 tested specimens. The results were substantially concordant when estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor status determined by RT-PCR was compared with immunohistochemistry assays for these receptors. Furthermore, the results highlight the advantages of RT-PCR over immunohistochemistry with respect to quantitation and dynamic range. These findings support the development of RT-PCR analysis of FPE tissue RNA as a platform for multianalyte clinical diagnostic tests. PMID:14695316

  10. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  11. Concentrations of cadmium and selected essential elements in malignant large intestine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Adam; Kilanowicz, Anna; Sapota, Andrzej; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Daragó, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Incidence rates of large intestine cancer indicate a role of environmental and occupational factors. The role of essential elements and their interaction with toxic metals can contribute to the explanation of a complex mechanism by which large intestine cancer develops. Bearing this in mind, determining the levels of essential and toxic elements in tissues (organs), as well as in body fluids, seems to shed light on their role in the mode of action in malignant disease. Aim Determination of the levels of cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, magnesium, and iron in large intestine malignant tissue. Material and methods Two intraoperative intestine sections were investigated: one from the malignant tissue and the other one from the normal tissue, collected from each person with diagnosed large intestine cancer. Cadmium, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and iron levels were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry, and selenium levels by spectrofluorimetric method. Results The levels of copper, selenium, and magnesium were higher in the malignant than in normal tissues. In addition, the zinc/copper and calcium/magnesium relationship was altered in malignant tissue, where correlations were lower compared to non-malignant tissue. Conclusions The results seems to demonstrate disturbed homeostasis of some essential elements. However, it is hard to confirm their involvement in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110307

  12. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: → Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  13. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  14. Effect of laser wavelength and protein solder concentration on acute tissue repair using laser welding: initial results in a canine ureter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Poppas, D P

    1997-01-01

    Successful tissue approximation can be performed using low power laser energy combined with human albumin solder. In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the acute repair strengths achieved using different laser wavelengths. Furthermore, we evaluated the change in repair strength with that resulted from changes in protein solder concentration. Intraluminal bursting pressure following ureterotomy repair was measured for the following laser wavelengths: 532, 808, 1,320, 2,100, and 10,600 nm. The tissue absorption characteristics of the 808-nm diode and the KTP-532-nm lasers required the addition of the exogenous chromophores indocyanine green and fluorescein, respectively. A 40% human albumin solder was incorporated in the repair of a 1.0-cm longitudinal defect in the canine ureter. Following determination of an optimal welding wavelength, human albumin solder of varying concentrations (25%, 38%, 45%, and 50%) were prepared and tested. The 1,320-nm YAG laser achieved the highest acute bursting pressure and was the most effective in this model. Of the concentrations of albumin tested, 50% human albumin yielded the greatest bursting pressures. We conclude that of the laser wavelengths evaluated, the 1,320-nm YAG achieves the strongest tissue weld in the acute ex vivo dog ureter model. In addition, when this laser system is used, the acute strength of a photothermal weld appears to be directly proportional to the concentration of human albumin solder in the range of 25 to 50%.

  15. Measurement of local interfacial area concentration in boiling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoung, Ho Kang; Byong, Jo Yun; Goon, Cherl Park

    1995-01-01

    An accurate prediction of two-phase flow is essential to many energy systems, including nuclear reactors. To model the two-phase flow, detailed information on the internal flow structure is required. The void fraction and interfacial area concentration are important fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. The interfacial area concentration is defined as the available interfacial area per unit volume of the two-phase mixture in calculations of the interfacial transport of mass, momentum, and energy. Although a number of studies have been made in this area, the interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow has not been sufficiently investigated either experimentally or analytically. Most existing models for interfacial area concentration are limited to area-averaged interfacial area concentration in a flow channel. And the studies on local interfacial area concentration are limited to the case of air-water two-phase flow. However, the internal flow structure of steam-water two-phase flow having various bubble sizes could be quite different from that of air-water two-phase flow, the reliability of which weak in practical applications. In this study, the local interfacial area concentration steam-water two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally in a circular boiling tube having a heating rod in the center, and for the low flow with liquid superficial velocity <1 m/s

  16. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Saito, Laurel; Peacock, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15 N) and carbon (?δ 13 C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  17. 226Ra concentrations in crayfish tissues, water, and sediments from the Serpent River Basin in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhan, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Lower Serpent River, as well as Elliot, McCarthy and McCabe lakes had highest 226 Ra contamination, Chrisman, Quirke and Whiskey lakes a moderate one, Flack and Semiwhite lakes and the 'distant' control, Lake Wanapitei, the lowest. 226 Ra activity in Cambarus robustus tissues was directly related to their background levels. Thus, concentration coefficient (tissue/sediment concentrations) for 226 Ra ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 in highly contaminated Elliot and McCarthy lakes, 0.28 to 0.59 in moderately contaminated Quirke and Whiskey lakes, and from 0.27 to 3.44 in least contaminated Semiwhite and Flack lakes. Among various organs analysed, exoskeleton showed the highest (43.04 - 90.69%) and the tail muscles the lowest (2.95 -17.14%) 226 Ra activity. 226 Ra concentrations in the alimentary canal were considered a part of the ambient environment as they had not been absorbed

  18. Optical density measurements on the examination of colon cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touati, E.; Ajaal, T.; Hamassi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Automated quantitative image analysis can aid in cancer diagnosis and, in general, mange medical treatments managements and improve routine medical diagnosis. Early diagnosis can make big difference between life and death. Microscopic images from two tissue types forty-four normal and fifty-eight cancers, was evaluated based on their ability to identify abnormalities in colon images. Optical density approach is applied to extract parameters that exhibit cancer behavior on colon tissues images. Using statistical toolbox, a significant result of (p<0.0001) for the mean and the variance of the optical density parameter were detected, and only (p<0.001) for skewness optical density. based on linear discrimination method, the obtained result shows 905 accuracy for both sensitivity and specificity, and with an overall accuracy of 90% (author)

  19. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  20. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  1. Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Xuyang; Shi Xuetao; You Fusheng; Fu Feng; Liu Ruigang; Tang Chi; Dong Xiuzhen; Lu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes. (paper)

  2. Inter-species variations in metal concentration in the soft tissue of some molluscs from the coasts of Aden Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. A.; Baharoon, A. Ab.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly most of the molluscs are considered as good biomonitors for heavy metals pollution due to their mode of life, but there are differences in the bioavailability of heavy metals in their soft tissues. This research shows that Turbo coronatus and A canthopleura haddoni are the best to accumulate Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, As for Ni, P. perna and the latter two speciments show higher concentrations. Turbo coronatus and Ostrea cucullata are the best to accumulate Cu, and Zn. A canthopleura haddoni and Veneridae pitar sp. show higher availability of Fe, and Mn in their soft tissues. (author)

  3. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  4. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  5. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The

  6. Trace metal concentrations in edible muscle tissues of some locally marketed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.M.; Ichokitar, M.Y.; Ashraf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Edible muscle tissues of five fish species marketed in Multan, i.e., Rohu (Labeo rohita). (Labeo calhasu). Mori (cirrina inrigala). Ichagga (Rita rita) and Singliaree (mystus (osteobagrus) nor) have been analyzed quantitatively for trace elements, essential as well as toxic, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Dry ashing procedure has been employed to prepare sample solutions. Result indicate that edible muscle tissue of these fish, in general, contain higher amounts of potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium, moderate quantities of zinc and iron and lessor amounts of copper and manganese. However, cadmium and lead were found to be below the limit of detection. (author)

  7. Concentration Polarization to Measure Nano-pore Accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Olthuis, Wouter; Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Abelmann, Leon; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Nieuwelink, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the deactivation process in porous catalysts is of tremendous economic significance. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the concentration polarization method to obtain the pore accessibility distribution at single particle level for the first time. By using this technique we could

  8. Measurement of phthalates in small samples of mammalian tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acott, P.D.; Murphy, M.G.; Ogborn, M.R.; Crocker, J.F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a phthalic acid ester that is used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products, many of which have widespread medical application. DEHP has been shown to be leached from products used for storage and delivery of blood transfusions during procedures such as plasmaphoresis, hemodialysis and open heart surgery. Results of studies in this laboratory have suggested that there is an association between the absorption and deposition of DEHP (and/or related chemicals) in the kidney and the acquired renal cystic disease (ACD) frequently seen in patients who have undergone prolonged dialysis treatment. In order to determine the relationship between the two, it has been necessary to establish a method for extracting and accurately quantitating minute amounts of these chemicals in small tissue samples. The authors have now established such a method using kidneys from normal rats and from a rat model for ACD

  9. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Helvie, J.B.

    1976-06-01

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  10. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  11. Concentrations of transuranic elements in critical organs and tissues of goats (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Vaskovtsova, V.A.; Kuhtsevich, A.B.; Tagai, S.A.; Tsarenok, A.A.; Buzdalkin, K.N.; Gvozdik, A.F.; Makarovets, I.V.; Nilova, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of Am 241 and Pu 238, 239+240 transfer from the dietary soil-based component (mineral soil) to organs and tissues of goats during a grazing period of 80 and 160 days have been determined. The maximum specific activities of transuranic elements have been found in liver of goats. (authors)

  12. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  13. Measurement of the tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio at two p(66)Be neutron therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, K M; Binns, P J; Schreuder, A N; Lennox, A J; Deluca, P M Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The ICRU tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio is needed for neutron therapy dosimetry. The current ICRU protocol for neutron dosimetry recommends using a common conversion factor of 0.95 at all high-energy neutron therapy facilities. In an effort to determine facility specific ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios, an experimental approach was pursued. Four low pressure proportional counters that differed in wall materials (i.e. A-150, carbon, zirconium and zirconium-oxide) were used as dosimeters and integral kerma ratios were determined directly in the clinical beam. Measurements were performed at two p(66)Be facilities: iThemba LABS near Cape Town and Fermilab near Chicago. At the iThemba facility the clinical neutron beam is routinely filtered by a flattening and hardening filter combination. The influence of beam filtration on the kerma ratio was evaluated. Using two recent gas-to-wall dose conversion factor (r m,g value) evaluations a mean ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratio of 0.93 ± 0.05 was determined for the clinical beam at iThemba LABS. The respective value for the Fermilab beam is 0.95 ± 0.05. The experimentally determined ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios for the two clinical beams are in agreement with theoretical evaluations. Beam filtration reduces the kerma ratio by 3 ± 2%

  14. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  15. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  16. Real time monitoring of pulsatile change in hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral tissue by a portable tissue oximeter with a 10-Hz sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Toshikazu; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    A portable CW tissue oximeter of a 10-Hz sampling rate was developed for examination of pulsatile components of the output signals as a mean of checking the signal reliability during long-term monitoring. Feasible studies were performed on a healthy subject. Changes in Hb and HbO2 signals of cerebral tissue were continuously measured by placing a photoprobe on the forehead during 6-hour sleep. Pulsatile changes in Hb and HbO2 were steadily observed over a whole period of the recording. The phase relation of pulsation in Hb and HbO2 was almost inverse. Not only information for reliable monitoring but also physiological parameters with respect to cerebral circulation and metabolism could be obtained by measuring the pulsatile components.

  17. Postmortem Fluid and Tissue Concentrations of THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Sunday R; Lewis, Russell J; Angier, Mike K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases. However, the postmortem distribution of cannabinoids has not been well characterized. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the distribution of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and THC-COOH, in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens from 11 fatal aviation accident cases (2014-2015) previously found positive for cannabinoids. Specimens evaluated, when available, included: blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, muscle, brain, heart and bile. We developed and validated (following SWGTOX guidelines) a sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH in postmortem fluids and tissues. The method readily identified and quantified these cannabinoids in postmortem fluids and tissues below 1 ng/mL. Qualitative cannabinoid results within each case were comparable between blood and non-blood specimens. However, there was no consistent distribution of the cannabinoids between blood and any other fluids or tissues. Therefore, while quantitative interpretation of non-blood postmortem fluid and tissues samples is not prudent, a majority of the non-blood specimens tested could be suitable alternative/supplemental choices for qualitative cannabinoid detection. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US

  18. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  19. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  20. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko [Department of Veterinary Radiology and Radiation Biology, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizuka, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, Shoji [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC), Takizuka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  1. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko; Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  2. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.

  3. Age-related effect on the concentration of collagen crosslinks in human osteonal and interstitial bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Roy, Anuradha; Acuna, Rae L; Gayle, Heather J; Reyes, Michael J; Tyler, Jerrod H; Dean, David D; Wang, Xiaodu

    2006-12-01

    Collagen crosslinks are important to the quality of bone and may be contributors to the age-related increase in bone fracture. This study was performed to investigate whether age and gender effects on collagen crosslinks are similar in osteonal and interstitial bone tissues. Forty human cadaveric femurs were collected and divided into two age groups: middle-aged (42-63 years of age) and elderly (69-90 years of age) with ten males and ten females in each group (n = 10). Micro-cores of bone tissue from both secondary osteons and interstitial regions in the medial quadrant of the diaphysis were extracted using a custom-modified, computer-controlled milling machine. The bone specimens were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of age and gender on the concentration of mature, enzymatic crosslinks (hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline-HP and lysyl-pyridinoline-LP) and a non-enzymatic crosslink (pentosidine-PE) at these two microstructural sites. The results indicate that age has a significant effect on the concentration of LP and PE, while gender has a significant effect on HP and LP. In addition, the concentration of the crosslinks in the secondary osteons is significantly different from that in the interstitial bone regions. These results suggest that the amount of non-enzymatic crosslinking may increase while that of mature enzymatic crosslinking may decrease with age. Such changes could potentially reduce the inherent quality of the bone tissue in the elderly skeleton.

  4. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.; Adams, Douglas H.; Spaet, Julia L.; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L.

    2017-01-01

    mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two

  5. Determination of bone and tissue concentrations of teicoplanin mixed with hydroxyapatite cement to repair cortical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Zeipper, U; Schwendenwein, E; Hadju, S; Kaltenecker, G; Laslo, I; Lang, S; Roschger, P; Vecsei, V; Wintersteiger, R

    2002-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of the major component of teicoplanin in tissue is reported. Comparing fluorescamine and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as derivatizing agents, the derivative formed with the latter exhibits superior fluorescence intensity allowing detection of femtomole quantities. Pretreatment for tissue samples is by solid-phase extraction which uses Bakerbond PolarP C(18) cartridges and gives effective clean up from endogenous by-products. Linearity was given from 0.6 to 100 ng per injection. The coefficient of variation did not exceed 5.8% for both interday and intraday assays. It was found that when bone defects are repaired with a hydroxyapatite-teicoplanin mixture, the antibiotic does not degrade, even when it is in the cement for several months. The stability of teicoplanin in bone cement was determined fluorodensitometrically.

  6. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  7. Estimation of potassium concentration in coconut water by beta radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.J.; Narayani, K.; Bhade, S.P.D.; Anilkumar, S.; Kolekar, R.V.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium is widely distributed in soil, in all vegetable, fruits and animal tissues. Approximately half the radioactivity found in humans comes from 40 K. Potassium is an essential element in our diet since it is required for proper nerve and muscle function, as well as for maintaining the fluid balance of cells and heart rhythm. Potassium can enter the body mainly consuming fruits, vegetables and food. Tender coconut water is consumed widely as natural refreshing drink which is rich in potassium. The simple way to determine 40 K activity is by gamma ray spectrometry. However, the low abundance of this gamma photon makes the technique less sensitive compared to gross beta measurement. Many analytical methods are reported for potassium estimation which is time consuming and destructive in nature. A unique way to estimate 40 K by beta activity is by Cerenkov Counting technique using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer. Also much lower detection limit is achieved, allowing for greater precision. In this work, we have compared two methods to arrive at the potassium concentration in tender and matured coconut water by measuring 40 K. One is non-scintillator method based on measurement of the Cerenkov radiation generated from the high-energy β of 40 K. The second method is based on beta activity measurement using low background Gas flow counter

  8. A method for the determination of potassium concentration in organic tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.C.A.

    1976-12-01

    An original method has been developed to detect small variations of potassium in several samples of organic tissue. These variations are relative to elements that are biologically representative, such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. The samples are irradiated with a beam of protons from a Van de Graaff accelerator (4MV). Vacancies are created in the K-shell of potassium, and x-rays are emitted when these vacancies are filled with outer electrons. These X-rays and the protons elastically scattered by the nuclei of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are detected and their energy spectra are analysed by computer programs especially elaborated for this purpose. A technique for routine preparation of samples in the laboratory was developed including the production of aluminum support layers, and the preparation of organic tissue samples with a low temperature microtome. The unique features of this method are that it does not destroy the tissue, permitting further analysis with the microscope, and the normalization of the amount of potassium using other elements (C,O,N) instead of the total mass of the sample. (Author) [pt

  9. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (<0.05)=muscle (<0.05)tissue concentrations in the toothed cetaceans are suggested. Marked high concentrations of Ag and Cd found in Gg and Lh are highly related to their squid-eating and deep diving habits. The highest ever recorded concentrations of liver-Ag and kidney-Cd were found in two Lh. These Taiwanese cetaceans indicate marked Ag and Cd pollution in the recent two decades in the western Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  11. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, J.; Oelßner, W.; Decker, M.; Gerlach, G.; Guth, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO2. In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements.

  12. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zosel, J; Oelßner, W; Decker, M; Gerlach, G; Guth, U

    2011-01-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO 2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO 2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO 2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO 2 . In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements. (topical review)

  13. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  14. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration

  15. Prediction and measurement of thermally induced cambial tissue necrosis in tree stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua L. Jones; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Matthew B. Dickinson; Daniel Jimenez; James Reardon; Anthony S. Bova

    2006-01-01

    A model for fire-induced heating in tree stems is linked to a recently reported model for tissue necrosis. The combined model produces cambial tissue necrosis predictions in a tree stem as a function of heating rate, heating time, tree species, and stem diameter. Model accuracy is evaluated by comparison with experimental measurements in two hardwood and two softwood...

  16. Evaluation of impedance on biological Tissues using automatic control measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Sang Hyeong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seong Mo [Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seok; Kim, Sang Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun FDo; Lee, Jong Kyu [Pukyung National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Each biological tissue has endemic electrical characteristics owing to various differences such as those in cellular arrangement or organization form. The endemic electrical characteristics change when any biological change occurs. This work is a preliminary study surveying the changes in the electrical characteristics of biological tissue caused by radiation exposure. For protection against radiation hazards, therefore the electrical characteristics of living tissue were evaluated after development of the automatic control measurement system using LabVIEW. No alteration of biological tissues was observed before and after measurement of the electrical characteristics, and the biological tissues exhibited similar patterns. Through repeated measurements using the impedance/gain-phase analyzer, the coefficient of variation was determined as within 10%. The reproducibility impedance phase difference in electrical characteristics of the biological tissue did not change, and the tissue had resistance. The absolute value of impedance decreased constantly in proportion to the frequency. It has become possible to understand the electrical characteristics of biological tissues through the measurements made possible by the use of the developed.

  17. Evaluation of impedance on biological Tissues using automatic control measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil, Sang Hyeong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seong Mo; Lee, Moo Seok; Kim, Sang Sik; Kim, Gun FDo; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Each biological tissue has endemic electrical characteristics owing to various differences such as those in cellular arrangement or organization form. The endemic electrical characteristics change when any biological change occurs. This work is a preliminary study surveying the changes in the electrical characteristics of biological tissue caused by radiation exposure. For protection against radiation hazards, therefore the electrical characteristics of living tissue were evaluated after development of the automatic control measurement system using LabVIEW. No alteration of biological tissues was observed before and after measurement of the electrical characteristics, and the biological tissues exhibited similar patterns. Through repeated measurements using the impedance/gain-phase analyzer, the coefficient of variation was determined as within 10%. The reproducibility impedance phase difference in electrical characteristics of the biological tissue did not change, and the tissue had resistance. The absolute value of impedance decreased constantly in proportion to the frequency. It has become possible to understand the electrical characteristics of biological tissues through the measurements made possible by the use of the developed.

  18. Concentration of folate in colorectal tissue biopsies predicts prevalence of adenomatous polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: Folate has been implicated as a potential aetiological factor for colorectal cancer. Previous research has not adequately exploited concentrations of folate in normal colonic mucosal biopsies to examine the issue. Methods: Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs ...

  19. Heavy metal concentration in different tissues of fishes from coastal waters of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.

    Information on the concentration of trace metals in the environment is essential to assess the possible accumulation of these metals in the body of organisms and its transfer to man through the food chain. Muscles, alimentary canal and gills of 14...

  20. Regulating NH4+, N0-, and K+ concentration and proportions improves in vitro tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture-amount experiment that simultaneously varied both the ratios and total ionic concentration (from 20-100 mM) of NH4+, NO3+, and K+ was used to maximize sweet orange callus growth cv. ‘Hamlin.’ These experiments were free of ion confounding effects, i.e. ions added via pH adjustments and sa...

  1. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  2. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  3. Evaluation of Metal Ion Concentration in Hard Tissues of Teeth in Residents of Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wychowanski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was an assessment of the content of trace elements in enamel and dentin of teeth extracted in patients residing in urban and agricultural areas of Poland. Methods. The study included 30 generally healthy patients with retained third molars. 65 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in urban areas and 85 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in agricultural areas were prepared. The content of manganese, lead, cadmium, and chromium in the studied enamel and dentin samples from retained teeth was determined by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. In the process of statistical hypothesis testing, the level of significance was assumed at α=0.05. Results. A comparative analysis of the data showed that enamel and dentin of inhabitants of industrialized areas contain significantly higher amounts of lead and cadmium than hard tissues of teeth in residents of agricultural areas and comparable amounts of manganese and chromium. Significance. It appears that hard tissues of retained teeth may constitute valuable material for assessment of long-term environmental exposure to metal ions. The study confirms that the risk of exposure to heavy metals depends on the place of residence and environmental pollution.

  4. Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Eric G; Spur, Bernd W; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D

    2006-11-01

    The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for "survival" studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead- (II) nitrate was added to three aquaria attaining concentrations of 20-30 ppb (aquarium B), 100-140 ppb (aquarium C), and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about 4-fold higherthan in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5-25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness.

  5. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  6. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  7. Measurement of radon concentration in Taiz city dwellings-yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon gas considered being a high part of natural radiation background. Emitting alpha particles; radon daughters may be deposited into the lungs and cause health hazards. For this reason, estimation of radon levels in dwellings was done in many countries. In our country, Radon group in the Department of physics, University of Aden has been studied radon level in Aden dwelling. The present study is about the radon level in Taiz City - Yemen. Passive diffusion dosimeters containing (SSNTD s ) Cr - 39 detectors were used in the present work. 125 dosimeters were distributed into dwellings of ten regions in Taiz City. Results obtained show that Rn 222 levels vary between 4 Bq/m 3 and 99 Bq/m 3 . The average concentration in Al-Hasseb district is 23 Bq/m 3 and in Algumhuri hospital district is 53 Bq/m 3 . In other regions it varies between the two values. Whereas the general average in the Taiz City is 34 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  8. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A precision isotonic measuring system for isolated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, P M

    1984-12-01

    An isotonic measuring system is described which utilizes an angular position transducer of the linear differential voltage transformer type. Resistance to corrosion, protection against the ingress of solutions, and ease of mounting and setting up were the mechanical objectives. Accuracy, linearity, and freedom from drift were essential requirements of the electrical specification. A special housing was designed to accommodate the transducer to overcome these problems. A control unit incorporating a power supply and electronic filtering components was made to serve up to four such transducers. The transducer output voltage is sufficiently high to drive directly even low sensitivity chart recorders. Constructional details and a circuit diagram are included. Fifty such transducers have been in use for up to four years in these laboratories. Examples of some of the published work done using this transducer system are referenced.

  10. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Studies on antimicrobial concentrations of flomoxef in serum, pelvic dead space exudate, and pelvic organs/tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, T; Koishi, K; Sasaki, J; Eguchi, M; Yamamoto, Y

    1987-10-01

    To women undergoing radical and total hysterectomy, flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) in a dose of 2 g was administered by intravenous drip infusion over 1 hour and drug concentrations in serum and pelvic dead space exudate as well as pelvic organs/tissues were determined over time. The following results were obtained: 1. Serum concentrations of FMOX after intravenous infusion showed the peak value of 92.86 +/- 17.05 micrograms/ml at the end of infusion and then gradually decreased to 29.00 +/- 10.49 micrograms/ml in 1 hour and 1.16 +/- 1.08 micrograms/ml in 6 hours. 2. Concentrations in pelvic dead space exudate, which were 6.54 +/- 3.21 micrograms/ml at the end of intravenous infusion, gradually increased to 31.28 +/- 12.69 micrograms/ml in 30 minutes, and the peak of 35.21 +/- 13.29 micrograms/ml in 1 hour. Exudate concentrations gradually decreased to 11.10 +/- 6.64 micrograms/ml at 6 hours after infusion. 3. The serum concentration at the ligature of uterine artery was 103.21 +/- 51.69 micrograms/ml. Among concentrations in pelvic organ/tissues 37.17 +/- 18.20 micrograms/ml in uterine cervix was the highest, followed by 35.77 +/- 7.68 micrograms/g in portio vaginalis, 26.35 +/- 14.15 micrograms/g in tube, 21.62 +/- 12.15 micrograms/g in ovary, 20.56 +/- 9.82 micrograms/g in myometrium, and 16.45 +/- 8.10 micrograms/g in endometrium, in this order. 4. From an analysis of the two-compartment model, the maximum serum concentration was 92.81 micrograms/ml, which was very high. The time of 50% reduction of concentration in beta phase was 1.21 hours. In the pelvic dead space exudate, the maximum concentration was 32.38 micrograms/ml and the time of 50% reduction was 2.44 hours. The AUC was 147 micrograms.hr/ml in serum and 201 micrograms.hr/ml in the pelvic dead space. The shift to the pelvic dead space was 137% when AUC's were used as the basis of the comparison. 5. Clinically, FMOX was excellently effective against adnexitis caused by Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus

  12. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully...... explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between...... exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist...

  14. Concentration change of DA, DOPAC, Glu and GABA in brain tissues in schizophrenia developmental model rats induced by MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Tang, Yamei; Pu, Weidan; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-08-01

    To explore the related neurobiochemical mechanism by comparing the concentration change of dopamine (DA), dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues in schizophrenia (SZ) developmental model rats and chronic medication model rats. A total of 60 neonatal male Spragur-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups at the postnatal day 6: an SZ developmental rat model group (subcutaneous injection with MK-801 at the postnatal day 7-10, 0.1 mg/kg, Bid), a chronic medication model group (intraperitoneal injection at the postnatal day 47-60, 0.2 mg/kg,Qd), and a normal control group (injection with 0.9% normal saline during the corresponding periods). DA, DOPAC, Glu, and GABA of the tissue homogenate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus were examined with Coularray electrochemic detection by high performance liquid chromatogram technique. The utilization rate of DA and Glu was calculated. Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of DA and DOPAC in the mPFC and the hippocampus in the SZ developmental model group significantly decreased (PGABA concentration and Glu utilization rate in the mPFC also decreased (PGABA system decrease in the mPFC and the DA system function reduces in the hippocampus of SZ developmental rats.

  15. {sup 226}Ra concentrations in crayfish tissues, water, and sediments from the Serpent River Basin in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhan, M.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Lower Serpent River, as well as Elliot, McCarthy and McCabe lakes had highest {sup 226}Ra contamination, Chrisman, Quirke and Whiskey lakes a moderate one, Flack and Semiwhite lakes and the `distant` control, Lake Wanapitei, the lowest. {sup 226}Ra activity in Cambarus robustus tissues was directly related to their background levels. Thus, concentration coefficient (tissue/sediment concentrations) for {sup 226}Ra ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 in highly contaminated Elliot and McCarthy lakes, 0.28 to 0.59 in moderately contaminated Quirke and Whiskey lakes, and from 0.27 to 3.44 in least contaminated Semiwhite and Flack lakes. Among various organs analysed, exoskeleton showed the highest (43.04 - 90.69%) and the tail muscles the lowest (2.95 -17.14%) {sup 226}Ra activity. {sup 226}Ra concentrations in the alimentary canal were considered a part of the ambient environment as they had not been absorbed. 12 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  16. The measurement of radon concentration of soil in a civil construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Fan Guang

    2004-01-01

    Radon is one of radioactive resources which do harm to human body. Therefore, its concentration in the soil should be measured before the civil construction works. Code for Indoor Environmental Pollution Control of Civil Building Engineering (GB50325-2001) is the main norm used for soil radon concentration measurement. By using FD-3017 RaA radon measuring equipment, the soil radon concentration in a civil building engineering site has been measured, the result shows that the concentration is lower than the regional average value, radon protective measures should not be installed in that site. (authors)

  17. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  18. System for measuring of air concentration in air-steam mixture during the transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, Gennady A.; Gakal, Pavlo G.; Epifanov, Konstantin S.; Osokin, Gennady V.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Description of system for air concentration measuring in air-steam mixture during the transients is represented. Air concentration measuring is based on discrete sampling method. The measuring system consists of sampler, transport pipeline, distributor and six measuring vessels. From the sampler air-steam mixture comes to distributor through transport pipeline and fills consecutively the measuring vessels. The true air concentration in place of measurement was defined based on measured air concentration in samples taken from measuring vessels. For this purpose, the mathematical model of transients in measuring system was developed. Air concentration transient in air-steam mixture in place of measurement was described in mathematical model by air concentration time-dependent function. The function parameters were defined based on air concentration measured in samples taken from measuring vessels. Estimated error of air concentration identification was about 10%. Measuring system was used in experiments on EREC BKV-213 test facility intended for testing of VVER-440/V-213 reactor barbotage-vacuum system

  19. [Biocybernetic approach to the thermometric methods of blood supply measurements of periodontal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastusiak, J; Zakrzewski, J

    1988-11-01

    Specific biocybernetic approach to the problem of the blood supply determination of paradontium tissues by means of thermometric methods has been presented in the paper. The compartment models of the measuring procedure have been given. Dilutodynamic methology and classification has been applied. Such an approach enables to select appropriate biophysical parameters describing the state of blood supply of paradontium tissues and optimal design of transducers and measuring methods.

  20. Scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying corrected for differences in tissue attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, J.B.; Hoejgaard, L.; Uhrenholdt, A. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Hvidovre Hospital)

    1983-10-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of variations in tissue attenuation in scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying, both in vivo and in vitro measurements of count rates from an encapsulated sup(99m)Tc dose were performed in different parts of the stomach. The obtained individual tissue correction factors were applied in the calculation of gastric emptying rates by gamma camera in healthy volunteers. The results showed that the anterior gamma camera scan without correction for differences in tissue attenuation underestimated the gastric emptying rate by 11% if the results were expressed as percentage meal emptied over 60 minutes.

  1. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  2. Reconstruction of tissue dynamics in the compressed breast using multiplexed measurements and temporal basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, S. A.; Selb, J. J.; Boas, David A.

    2007-02-01

    In the course of our experiments imaging the compressed breast in conjunction with digital tomosynthesis, we have noted that significant changes in tissue optical properties, on the order of 5%, occur during our imaging protocol. These changes seem to consistent with changes both in total Hemoglobin concentration as well as in oxygen saturation, as was the case for our standalone breast compression study, which made use of reflectance measurements. Simulation experiments show the importance of taking into account the temporal dynamics in the image reconstruction, and demonstrate the possibility of imaging the spatio-temporal dynamics of oxygen saturation and total Hemoglobin in the breast. In the image reconstruction, we make use of spatio-temporal basis functions, specifically a voxel basis for spatial imaging, and a cubic spline basis in time, and we reconstruct the spatio-temporal images using the entire data set simultaneously, making use of both absolute and relative measurements in the cost function. We have modified the sequence of sources used in our imaging acquisition protocol to improve our temporal resolution, and preliminary results are shown for normal subjects.

  3. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue....... CONCLUSIONS: The microdialysis technique allowed measurements of histamine release from mast cells in intact lung ex vivo. The method may prove useful since a number of experiments can be performed in a few hours in intact lung tissue without any dispersion or enzymatic treatment....

  4. Oxygen gradients in tissue-engineered PEGT/PBT cartilaginous constructs: Measurement and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malda, J.; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Martens, D.E.; le Comte, EP; Kooy, F.K.; Tramper, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Riesle, J.U.

    2004-01-01

    The supply of oxygen within three-dimensional tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage polymer constructs is mainly by diffusion. Oxygen consumption by cells results in gradients in the oxygen concentration. The aims of this study were, firstly, to identify the gradients within TE cartilage polymer

  5. Oxygen gradients in tissue-engineered PEGT/PBT cartilaginous constructs: measurement and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malda, J.; Rouwkema, J.; Martens, D.E.; Paul le Comte, E.; Kooy, F.K.; Tramper, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Riesle, J.

    2004-01-01

    The supply of oxygen within three-dimensional tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage polymer constructs is mainly by diffusion. Oxygen consumption by cells results in gradients in the oxygen concentration. The aims of this study were, firstly, to identify the gradients within TE: cartilage polymer

  6. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  7. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  8. Evaluation of Perfusion and Thermal Parameters of Skin Tissue Using Cold Provocation and Thermographic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strąkowska Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.

  9. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  10. Adiposity measures and vitamin D concentrations in Northeast Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, A; Thuesen, B Heinsbaek; Friedrich, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD) concentrations are inversely related. As BMI contains only limited information regarding body fat distribution, we aimed to analyze the cross-sectional associations of abdominal visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue, next...

  11. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  12. Clinical usefulness of facial soft tissues thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Seong Ho; Kim, Chong Kwan; Park, Chang Seo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images. One cadaver that had sound facial soft tissues was chosen for the study. The cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT under following scanning protocols about slice thickness and table speed: 3 mm and 3 mm/sec, 5 mm and 5 mm/sec, 7 mm and 7 mm/sec. The acquired data were reconstructed 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mm reconstruction interval respectively and the images were transferred to a personal computer. Using a program developed to measure facial soft tissue thickness in 3D image, the facial soft tissue thickness was measured. After the ten-time repeation of the measurement for ten times, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements using the three scanning protocols. Comparison according to the areas was analysed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant intraobserver differences in the measurements of the facial soft tissue thickness using the three scanning protocols (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between measurements in the 3 mm slice thickness and those in the 5 mm, 7 mm slice thickness (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the 14 of the total 30 measured points in the 5 mm slice thickness and 22 in the 7 mm slice thickness. The facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D images of 7 mm slice thickness is acceptable clinically, but those of 5 mm slice thickness is recommended for the more accurate measurement

  13. Relationship between Concentrations of Lutein and StARD3 among Pediatric and Geriatric Human Brain Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirayu Tanprasertsuk

    Full Text Available Lutein, a dietary carotenoid, selectively accumulates in human retina and brain. While many epidemiological studies show evidence of a relationship between lutein status and cognitive health, lutein's selective uptake in human brain tissue and its potential function in early neural development and cognitive health have been poorly evaluated at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between concentrations of brain lutein and StARD3 (identified as its binding protein in retinal tissue among three age groups: infants (1-4 months, n = 10, older adults (55-86 years, n = 8, and centenarians (98-105 years, n = 10. Brain lutein concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and StARD3 levels were analyzed by Western Blot analysis. The strong relationship in infant brains (r = 0.75, P 0.05, seven of whom had mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. These exploratory findings suggest an age-related decrease or abnormality of StARD3 activity in human brain. Given that StARD3 is also involved in cholesterol transportation, a process that is aberrant in neurodegenerative diseases, the potential protective function of lutein against these diseases remains to be explored.

  14. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100...

  15. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  16. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  17. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  18. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  19. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C 11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C 02 of the Yeoh model, and C 11 and C 20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  20. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: asamani@uwo.ca

    2009-04-21

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C{sub 11} showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C{sub 02} of the Yeoh model, and C{sub 11} and C{sub 20} of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  1. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J.; Samani, Abbas

    2009-04-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C02 of the Yeoh model, and C11 and C20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  2. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method to measure tacrolimus in rat kidney and liver tissue and its application to human kidney biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Morris, Raymond G; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2013-10-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) has a narrow therapeutic index and high interindividual and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualize dosage. Recent evidence suggests that intragraft TAC concentrations may better predict transplant outcomes. This study aimed to develop a method for the quantification of TAC in small biopsy-sized samples of rat kidney and liver tissue, which could be applied to clinical biopsy samples from kidney transplant recipients. Kidneys and livers were harvested from Mrp2-deficient TR- Wistar rats administered TAC (4 mg·kg·d for 14 days, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 10). Tissue samples (0.20-1.00 mg of dry weight) were solubilized enzymatically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. TAC-free tissue was used in the calibrator and quality control samples. Analyte detection was accomplished using positive electrospray ionization (TAC: m/z 821.5 → 768.6; internal standard ascomycin m/z 809.3 → 756.4). Calibration curves (0.04-2.6 μg/L) were linear (R > 0.99, n = 10), with interday and intraday calibrator coefficients of variation and bias <17% at the lower limit of quantification and <15% at all other concentrations (n = 6-10). Extraction efficiencies for TAC and ascomycin were approximately 70%, and matrix effects were minimal. Rat kidney TAC concentrations were higher (range 109-190 pg/mg tissue) than those in the liver (range 22-53 pg/mg of tissue), with median tissue/blood concentrations ratios of 72.0 and 17.6, respectively. In 2 transplant patients, kidney TAC concentrations ranged from 119 to 285 pg/mg of tissue and were approximately 20 times higher than whole blood trough TAC concentrations. The method displayed precision and accuracy suitable for application to TAC measurement in human kidney biopsy tissue.

  3. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, M A; El-Fiki, M A; Eissa, H M; Abdel-Hafez, A; Naguib, S H [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs.

  4. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie; Siegrist, M. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B. [STEEL Technologies, Mazeres sur Salat (France); Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources; Petrov, V.M.; Bengin, V.; Koslova, S.B. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B.; Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs

  6. Automatic measuring device for atomic oxygen concentrations (1962); Dispositif de mesure automatique de concentrations d'oxygene atomique (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J; Deiss, M; Mercier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Within the framework of the activities of the Autonomous Reactor Electronics Section we have developed a device, which renders automatic one type of measurement carried out in the Physical Chemistry Department at the Saclay Research Centre. We define here: - the physico-chemical principle of the apparatus which is adapted to the measurement of atomic oxygen concentrations; - the physical principle of the automatic measurement; - the properties, performance, constitution, use and maintenance of the automatic measurement device. It is concluded that the principle of the automatic device, whose tests have confirmed the estimation of the theoretical performance, could usefully be adapted to other types of measurement. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des activites de la Section Autonome d'Electronique des Reacteurs, il a ete realise et mis au point un dispositif permettant de rendre automatique un type de mesures effectuees au Departement de Physico-Chimie du C.E.N. SACLAY. On definit ici: - le principe physico-chimique de l'appareillage, adapte a la mesure de concentrations de l'oxygene atomique; - le principe physique de la mesure automatique; - les qualites, performances, constitution, utilisation, et maintenance du dispositif de mesure automatique. Il est porte en conclusion, que le principe du dispositif automatique realise, dont les essais ont sensiblement confirme l'evaluation des performances theoriques, pourrait etre utilement adapte a d'autres types de mesures courantes. (auteurs)

  7. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.; Judy, P. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  9. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  10. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  12. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)

  13. Intraoperative radiotherapy in combination with misonidazole. In special reference to the drug concentration in tumors and normal tissues and to the initial effect of the treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masaji; Ono, Kouji; Hamanaka, Daizaburo; Dodo, Yoshihiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-03-01

    A hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, misonidazole, was applied to 28 patients with carcinoma who received intraoperative radiotherapy. A single dose of 2-3g/m/sup 2/ of the drug was given orally to each patient three hours prior to the start of general anesthesia. The levels of misonidazole and its metabolite, desmethylmisonidazole, in blood, tumors and normal tissues taken from excised materials were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the concentration levels of misonidazole and desmethylmisonidazole in blood correlated neither to oral doses of 2-3g/m/sup 2/ nor to the function of time after drug ingestion until eight hours. The mean value of blood levels was 77.1 +- 10.9..mu..g/ml. A wide range of 10-96% of the blood level was found in tumors. High levels were observed in gastric cancer and brain tumor (glioblastoma) but not in colorectal cancer and osteosarcoma. It was, however, likely that the concentrations in tumors depended on tumor sizes and/or necrotic areas rather than histologic types and/or sites of tumors. It was also noted that the concentration in normal tissues ranged widely from 11 to 87% of the blood level. Higher concentrations showing more than 75% were found in the ulnar nerve, the stomach and the skin. However, 3 of 4 materials for the stomach and 2 of 3 materials for the skin showed low levels of less than 30% and less than 22% respectively. In 27 of 28 cases different doses of 28-50 Gy with different energies of electrons were delivered intraoperatively. It is impossible so far to derive conclusive results of this study, really because of the short period of observation following the treatment.

  14. Enhanced trace element concentrations in tissues of the clam Ruditapes decussatus transplanted to areas influenced by human activities (Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Botelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which human activities near the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon influence the accumulation of trace elements (TE in Ruditapes decussatus, individuals were transplanted from a natural bank located in the lower lagoon to three sites located in clam growth grounds under the influence of a small city (Faro, a fish farming centre (Olhão and a site near the lagoon inlet (Lavajo. Concentrations were determined in substrate of the clam grounds and in the digestive gland, gills, mantle plus siphons, and remaining tissues of clams in four periods of the year. These measurements were accomplished with the monthly survey of the gametogenic stages, condition index, proteins, glycogen, total lipids, pH and osmolarity of hemolymph. Arsenic, Cu, Mn, V, Cr and Pb were preferentially linked to the digestive gland, while Cd was linked to the gills. TE concentrations in the digestive gland and remaining tissues were higher in winter, most likely reflecting additional inputs associated with rain. The lack of disruptions in biological parameters and the prolonged period of spawning and gonad recovery in clams suggest that the current TE availability in the lagoon has a minor influence on the reproductive cycle and hence on clam production.

  15. A near infrared instrument to monitor relative hemoglobin concentrations of human bone tissue in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Khambatta, Faram; Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Thomas, John C.; Clark, Jillian M.; Marshall, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A continuous wave near infrared instrument has been developed to monitor in vivo changes in the hemoglobin concentration of the trabecular compartment of human bone. The transmitter uses only two laser diodes of wavelengths 685 and 830 nm, and the receiver uses a single silicon photodiode operating in the photovoltaic mode. The functioning of the instrument and the depth of penetration of the near infrared signals was determined in vitro using tissue-equivalent phantoms. The instrument achieves a depth of penetration of approximately 2 cm for an optode separation of 4 cm and, therefore, has the capacity to interrogate the trabecular compartment of human bone. The functioning of the instrument was tested in vivo to evaluate the relative oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of the proximal tibial bone of apparently healthy, normal weight, adult subjects in response to a 3 min on, 5 min off, vascular occlusion protocol. The traces of the relative Hb and HbO2 concentrations obtained were reproducible in controlled conditions. The instrument is relatively simple and flexible, and offers an inexpensive platform for further studies to obtain normative data for healthy cohorts, and to evaluate disease-specific performance characteristics for cohorts with vasculopathies of bone.

  16. Study of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle tissue of cow and sheep marketed in Hamedan in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of heavy metals in food safety and detrimental effects of their high concentrations in food stuff is well documented. In this study, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in kidney, liver and muscle tissues of cow and sheep at Hamedan retails were evaluated. A total number of 180 samples was assessed for the amount of heavy metals as ppb in wet weight. For this, wet-digestion method was used to determine the concentration of given elements by ICP (Varian ES-710. Results showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals was determined in the liver and kidney samples, while the lowest concentration was found in muscle tissue. Among the heavy metals, Fe in cow’s liver had the highest concentration (25507±879 ppb and Cd in muscle tissue of sheep has the lowest concentration (192±54 ppb. In overall, accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of cows was higher than sheep. Statistical comparison of accumulated metals concentration in various tissues of these two animal groups showed significant difference (P

  17. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  18. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  19. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Rizzuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues’ spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation.

  20. Combining fibre optic Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance measurement for tissue characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candefjord, Stefan; Nyberg, Morgan; Ramser, Kerstin; Lindahl, Olof A; Jalkanen, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Tissue characterization is fundamental for identification of pathological conditions. Raman spectroscopy (RS) and tactile resonance measurement (TRM) are two promising techniques that measure biochemical content and stiffness, respectively. They have potential to complement the golden standard-–histological analysis. By combining RS and TRM, complementary information about tissue content can be obtained and specific drawbacks can be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate approach to compare RS and TRM information. The approach was evaluated on measurements at the same points on porcine abdominal tissue. The measurement points were divided into five groups by multivariate analysis of the RS data. A regression analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the RS and TRM data. TRM identified one group efficiently (area under ROC curve 0.99). The RS data showed that the proportion of saturated fat was high in this group. The regression analysis showed that stiffness was mainly determined by the amount of fat and its composition. We concluded that RS provided additional, important information for tissue identification that was not provided by TRM alone. The results are promising for development of a method combining RS and TRM for intraoperative tissue characterization

  1. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  2. Comparisons of Soft Tissue Thickness Measurements in Adult Patients With Various Vertical Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Seyhan Cezairli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate to study soft tissue facial profile among the different vertical patterns using the Holdaway analysis and the soft tissue thickness measurements. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 90 patients divided into 3 groups: low angle group (30 patients; mean age, 20.38±3.76 years, normal angle group (30 patients; mean age, 19.36±2.83 years and high angle group (30 patients; mean age, 19.44±2.14 years. The study sample, comprised a total of 90 patients (54 women and 36 men divided into low-angle, normal-angle and high angle groups based on vertical growth pattern using the SN/GoGn angle (high-angle group >37°; low-angle group <27°; and control group or normal angle group 27-37°. Facial soft-tissue thickness and Holdaway measurements were analyzed on each radiograph with Image J programme. One-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test (Tukey were used to compare Holdaway measurements and soft tissue thicknesses among the three groups. Results: Significant differences among vertical patterns were observed for the ‘gnathion’, ‘menton’, ‘stomion’ and ‘inferior sulcus to H line’ when both genders were combined. These measurements were thinner in the high-angle group. Significant differences among vertical patterns were observed for ‘gnathion’ and ‘lower lip to H line’ in women; for ‘stomion’ and ‘nose prominence’ in men when examined separately. Conclusion: Facial soft tissue measurements except some for in high angle group were thinner than in low angle group. All soft tissue measurements were greater except for gnathion in low angle group in men than in women.

  3. Ischiofemoral space on MRI in an asymptomatic population: Normative width measurements and soft tissue signal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maras Oezdemir, Zeynep; Goermeli, Cemile Ayse; Sagir Kahraman, Ayseguel; Aydingoez, Uestuen

    2015-01-01

    To make normative width measurements of the ischiofemoral (IF) space in an asymptomatic population and to record soft tissue MRI signal variations within the IF space in order to determine whether such variations are associated with IF space dimensions. Normative width measurements of the IF space were prospectively made in 418 hips on 1.5 T MR images of 209 asymptomatic volunteers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of the IF soft tissues including the quadratus femoris (QF) muscle were also made. The mean IF space width was 2.56 ± 0.75 cm (right, 2.60 ± 0.75 cm; left, 2.53 ± 0.75 cm). Soft tissue MRI signal abnormalities were present within the IF space in 19 (9.1 %) of 209 volunteers. Soft tissue abnormalities within the IF space included oedema (3/209, 1.4 %) of the QF and/or surrounding soft tissue, and only fatty infiltration (16/209, 7.7 %) of the QF. Bilateral IF spaces are asymmetrical in asymptomatic persons. There is ≥10 % of width difference between right and left IF spaces in approximately half of asymptomatic individuals. Fatty infiltration and oedema can be present at the IF space in a small portion of the asymptomatic population, who also have narrower IF spaces than those without soft tissue MRI signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  4. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.L.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40 K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  5. Phosphatidylcholine 36:1 concentration decreases along with demyelination in the cuprizone animal model and post-mortem of multiple sclerosis brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hildebrand, Kayla D; Nyamoya, Stella D; Amor, Sandra; Bazinet, Richard P; Kipp, Markus

    2018-03-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease. Myelin is enriched in lipids, and more specifically, oleic acid. The goal of this study was to evaluate the concentration of oleic acid following demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model, test if these changes occurred in specific lipid species, and whether differences in the cuprizone model correlate with changes observed in post-mortem human brains. Eight-week-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet for 5 weeks and some animals allowed to recover for 11 days. Demyelination, inflammation, and lipid concentrations were measured in the corpus callosum. Standard fatty acid techniques and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry were performed to measure concentrations of fatty acids in total brain lipids and a panel of lipid species within the phosphatidylcholine (PC). Similar measurements were conducted in post-mortem brain tissues of MS patients and were compared to healthy controls. Five weeks of cuprizone administration resulted in demyelination followed by significant remyelination after 11 days of recovery. Compared to control, oleic acid was decreased after 5 weeks of cuprizone treatment and increased during the recovery phase. This decrease in oleic acid was associated with a specific decrease in the PC 36:1 pool. Similar results were observed in human post-mortem brains. Decreases in myelin content in the cuprizone model was accompanied with decreases in oleic acid concentration and is associated with PC 36:1 suggesting that specific lipids could be a potential biomarker for myelin degeneration. The biological relevance of oleic acid for disease progression remains to be verified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  7. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  8. Real-time high-resolution measurement of collagen alignment in dynamically loaded soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Timothy; Kahan, Lindsey; Lake, Spencer P; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    A technique for creating maps of the direction and strength of fiber alignment in collagenous soft tissues is presented. The method uses a division of focal plane polarimeter to measure circularly polarized light transmitted through the tissue. The architecture of the sensor allows measurement of the retardance and fiber alignment at the full frame rate of the sensor without any moving optics. The technique compares favorably to the standard method of using a rotating polarizer. How the new technique enables real-time capture of the full angular spread of fiber alignment and retardance under various cyclic loading conditions is illustrated.

  9. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meador, James P.; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. - Highlights: • Fish Plasma Model (FPM) to assess risk based on water and fish tissue concentrations. • Plasma levels predicted with receiving water concentrations underestimate exposure for feral fish.

  10. A principle for the noninvasive measurement of steady-state heat transfer parameters in living tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the parameters of biological tissues (include in vivo is of great importance for medical diagnostics. For example, the value of the blood perfusion parameter is associated with the state of the blood microcirculation system and its functioning affects the state of the tissues of almost all organs. This work describes a previously proposed principle [1] in generalized terms. The principle is intended for noninvasive measuring the parameters of stationary heat transfer in biological tissues. The results of some experiments (natural and numeric are also presented in the research.For noninvasive measurement of thermophysical parameters a number of techniques have been developed using non-stationary thermal process in biological tissue [2][3]. But these techniques require the collecting a lot of data to represent the time-dependent thermal signal. In addition, subsequent processing with specialized algorithms is required for optimal selecting the parameters. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative approach using stationary thermal process for non-invasive measuring the parameters of stationary heat transfer in living tissues.A general principle can be formulated for the measurement methods based on this approach. Namely, the variations (changes of two physical values are measured in the experiment at the transition from one thermal stationary state to another. One of these two physical values unambiguously determines the stationary thermal field into the biological tissue under specified experimental conditions while the other one is unambiguously determined through the thermal field. Then, the parameters can be found from the numerical (or analytical functional dependencies linking the measured variations because the dependencies contain unknown parameters.The dependencies are expressed in terms of the formula:dqi = fi({pj},Ui dUi,Here dqi is a variation of a physical value q which is unambiguously determined from the

  11. A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhao, F J; Sun, B; Davison, W; McGrath, S P

    2001-06-15

    Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion activities, or operationally defined fractions of metals. Here we introduce the new concept of effective concentration, CE, which includes both the soil solution concentration and an additional term, expressed as a concentration, that represents metal supplied from the solid phase. CE was measured using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) which, like a plant, locally lowers soil solution concentrations, inducing metal supply from the solid phase, as shown by a dynamic model of the DGT-soil system. Measurements of Cu as CE, soil solution concentration, by EDTA extraction and as free Cu2+ activity in soil solution were made on 29 different soils covering a large range of copper concentrations. Theywere compared to Cu concentrations in the plant material of Lepidium heterophyllum grown on the same soils. Plant concentrations were linearly related and highly correlated with CE but were more scattered and nonlinear with respect to free Cu2+ activity, EDTA extraction, or soil solution concentrations. These results demonstrate that the dominant supply processes in these soils are diffusion and labile metal release, which the DGT-soil system mimics. The quantity CE is shown to have promise as a quantitative measure of the bioavailable metal in soils.

  12. Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K.

    1992-10-01

    A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision

  13. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  14. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to measure oxygen partial pressure (pO2) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO2 measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here, we report the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO2 measurements in small rodents’ cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 µm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. Most importantly, the properties of the probe allowed for the first direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO2, opening numerous possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies. PMID:20693997

  15. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadzić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Mandeville, Emiri T; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Boas, David A

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO(2) measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here we report to our knowledge the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO(2) measurements in small rodents' cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 microm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. The properties of the probe allowed for direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO(2), opening many possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies.

  16. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  17. Measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Veena; Bijalwan, Pramesh; Rawat, Jasbir; Yadav, Manjulata; Ramola, R.C.; Mishra, Rosaline

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contribute more than 50% of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector based single entry Pin-Hole dosimeter while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition based DTPS/DRPS technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. (author)

  18. Lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. Interim report No. 1, June-July 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, M.B.; Brun, P.; Gal, J.Y.; Reza, A.

    1987-07-01

    The objective of this phase of Toxicological Research on Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms is to improve both ecotoxicological tests in a chemically defined medium and a procedure of bioavailability study in field. In this first period the authors worked on breeding stock of earthworms (species Eisenia fetida andrei) in decomposing manure heaps to increase them and make them grow. They also installed two chambers with thermostats fixed at 20 C to do toxicity tests and chose chemical species of heavy-metal contaminants. For field procedure, they improved a practical way to sample both earthworms and soil in very close connections, avoiding artifacts. For both field procedure and laboratory tests, they tried to standardize a method to dissolve earthworms in acids and to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals inside. A preliminary set of samples in calcareous soils was started and analysis of them are in progress. For lab tests, the first part of the test (preliminary test) was started with the different contaminants (cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury) in an artificial medium named Artisol.

  19. A Tissue Propagation Model for Validating Close-Proximity Biomedical Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Q.; Herzig, P.; Weller, T.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of thermally-generated electromagnetic emissions through stratified human tissue is studied herein using a non-coherent mathematical model. The model is developed to complement subsurface body temperature measurements performed using a close proximity microwave radiometer. The model takes into account losses and reflections as thermal emissions propagate through the body, before being emitted at the skin surface. The derivation is presented in four stages and applied to the human core phantom, a physical representation of a stomach volume of skin, muscle, and blood-fatty tissue. A drop in core body temperature is simulated via the human core phantom and the response of the propagation model is correlated to the radiometric measurement. The results are comparable, with differences on the order of 1.5 - 3%. Hence the plausibility of core body temperature extraction via close proximity radiometry is demonstrated, given that the electromagnetic characteristics of the stratified tissue layers are known.

  20. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  1. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  2. Measurement of lung tissue dynamics in artificially ventilated rats with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Christian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of lung tissue and the airways become a major task for medical care and health care systems in modern industrial countries in the future. Suitable treatment methods and strategies for lung support and artificial ventilation are of dare need. Besides the obvious importance as life-saving intervention, the effects of usually used over-pressure ventilation onto the sensitive alveolar tissue are insufficiently understood. Therefore, it is of great interest to characterize lung tissue during artificial ventilation at the alveolar level. Those measurements can be used to link micromechanics of alveolar structures to mechanical properties of the whole lung like compliance and resistance measured at the ventilator device. This can be done only in animal experiments due to the fact that imaging techniques used in human diagnostics like CT or MRT fail to resolve alveolar tissue structures. The disadvantage of high-resolution techniques like optical coherence tomography (OCT or intravital microscopy (IVM is the need of a surgical access to the lung due to the limitation in penetration depth of these techniques. Furthermore, imaging dynamic processes with high-resolution imaging techniques during uninterrupted artificial ventilation is a challenging task. In this study, we present a measurement setup for combined imaging of conventional pressure-controlled ventilated rats and the visualization of volume changes of alveolar structures during one cycle of breath. A custom-made OCT system in combination with a triggered scanning algorithm was used to acquire time-resolved 3D OCT image data. Furthermore, this system was combined with a self-adapting autofocus function for intravital microscopy to track the lung surface keeping the tissue in focal plane. The combination of new dynamic measurement modes for OCT and IVM allows new insights into alveolar tissue and will promote the understanding of mechanical behavior during artificial ventilation.

  3. Adipose tissue concentrations of PCB, HCB, chlordane, PBDE and P,P'-DDE and the risk for endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G.; Bavel, B. van; Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Oerebro Univ., Oerebro (Sweden); Hardell, L. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    adipose tissue concentrations of certain POPs, parity and hormone replacement as potential risk factors in women in relation to development of endometrial cancer.

  4. 3D non-affine finite strains measured in isolated bovine annulus fibrosus tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Talen-Jongeneelen, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of disc tissue calls for measurement of strains in physiological conditions. Because the intervertebral disc is gripped between two vertebrae, the swelling is constrained in vivo, resulting in a intradiscal pressure of 0.1–0.2 MPa in supine position. The excision of

  5. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP and ENSCI (EN, and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 % in the stratosphere (troposphere. Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1 differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2 differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3 the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures

  6. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  7. Predicting and measurement of pH of seawater reverse osmosis concentrates

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The pH of seawater reverse osmosis plants (SWRO) is the most influential parameter in determining the degree of supersaturation of CaCO3 in the concentrate stream. For this, the results of pH measurements of the concentrate of a seawater reverse

  8. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and

  9. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  10. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  11. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  12. Exposition by inhalation to the formaldehyde in the air. Source, measures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the formaldehyde concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  13. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  14. Absorbed dose measurement by using tissue equivalent ionization chamber (pair ionization chamber) in the Yayoi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, N.; Okamura, K.; Terakado, T.; Mabuchi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Sukegawa, Toshio; Aizawa, C.; Saito, I.; Oka, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Each dose rate of neutron and gamma ray in the thermal column of the Yayoi reactor, in which an epithermal neutron field will be used for the boron neutron capture therapy, was measured by using a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a graphite chamber. The tissue equivalent ionization chamber has some response to both neutron and gamma ray, but the graphite chamber has a few response to the neutron, so called pair ionization chamber method. The epithermal neutron fluxes of the thermal column were calculated by ANISN (one dimensional neutron-gamma transport code). A measured value for gamma dose rate by the pair ionization chamber agrees relevantly with a calculated result. For neutron dose rate, however, the measured value was too much small in comparison with the calculated result. The discrepancy between the measured value and the calculated result for neutron dose rate is discussed in detail in the report. (M. Suetake)

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  16. Optimisation of elevated radon concentration measurement by using electro-chemical etching of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Fujimoto, K.; Tommasino, L.; Demajo, A.; Zunic, Z.; Celikovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, two methods for adjusting of passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeters (UFO detector) for enhanced radon concentration measurement are presented. Achieved upper limit of detection is 5.94 MBq m-3 d [sr

  17. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  18. Development of automatic high-concentration boron measurement technique; Konodo hoso jido sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Honda, S.; Ito, A. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The technology that can automatically measure the boron concentration in boric acid water was developed. A high-concentration boric acid solution must be held at a high temperature to prevent the deposition. Skill and precision ({plus_minus}0.2 to 0.3% for 10 to 2500 ppm as boron concentration, and {plus_minus}2 to 3% for 2500 to 25,000 ppm) are required to analyze the boric acid solution manually. In theory, the boron concentration in a wide range can be measured, and boron has a constant-temperature function. A density hydrometer method that facilitates the treatment and calibration in high precision and at low cost was chosen. The vibration period generated when vibration is given to the solution specimen put in a U-tube is higher as the density is lower. On the basis of this theory, the density of a specimen can be obtained according to the relation with the same data of the known-concentration boric acid water. The high-concentration boric acid water that cannot be measured by the existing boron densitometer can be measured directly. It can also be measured in a low-concentration area. The technique can be used in a laboratory as the simplified method that is replaced by the current manual analysis. The reduction effect of analytical chemical`s waste liquid can also be expected. In the electric power industry, automated equipment is required for high efficiency and labor saving. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-11-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  1. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  2. Estimation of release of tritium from measurements of air concentrations in reactor building of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate the releases from measured air concentrations of tritium at various locations in Reactor Building (RB). Design data of Kaiga Generating Station and sample measurements of tritium concentrations at various locations in RB and discharges for a period of fortnight were used. A comparison has also been made with actual measurements. It has been observed that there is good matching in estimated and actual measurements of tritium release on some days while on some days there is high difference

  3. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  4. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H

    2007-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb total ) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO 2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb total ]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm -1 mM -1 ) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hb total ] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO 2 ] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ] from in vivo tissue measurements

  5. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  6. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H [Joint Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington/University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2007-10-21

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb{sub total}) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO{sub 2} and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb{sub total}]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm{sup -1} mM{sup -1}) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}]. We have also observed that the error of {delta}[Hb{sub total}] is not always larger than those of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}] and {delta}[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  7. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  8. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  9. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Chromatographic method of measurement of helium concentration in underground waters for dating in hydrological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Research methods which use natural environmental indicators are widely applied in hydrology. Different concentrations of indicators and their isotopic components in ground waters allow to determine the genesis of waters and are valuable source of information about the water flow dynamics. One of the significant indicator is helium. The concentration of 4 He (helium) in ground water is a fine indicator in water dating in a range from a hundreds to millions of years (Aeschbach-Hertig i in., 1999; Andrews i in., 1989; Castro i in., 2000; Zuber i in., 2007). 4 He is also used for dating young waters of age about 10 years (Solomon i in., 1996). Thesis consist the description of elaborated in IFJ PAN in Krakow chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground waters in aim of dating. Chapter 1 contain short introduction about ground water dating and chapter 2 description of helium property and chosen applications of helium for example in technology and earthquake predictions. Helium sources in ground waters are described in chapter 3. Helium concentration in water after infiltration (originated from atmosphere) to the ground water system depends mainly on the helium concentration coming from the equilibration with the atmosphere increased by additional concentration from '' excess air ''. With the increasing resistance time of ground water during the flow, radiogenic, non-atmospheric component of helium dissolves also in water. In chapter 4 two measurement methods of helium concentration in ground waters were introduced: mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic method. Detailed description of elaborated chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground water contain chapter 5. To verify developed method the concentration of helium in ground waters from the regions of Krakow and Busko Zdroj were measured. For this waters the concentrations of helium are known from the earlier mass spectrometric measurements. The results of

  11. Development of concentration measurement system in a mini-channel using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    A local NMR sensor to measure methanol concentration of fluid flowing in a mini-channel was developed. The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 0.60 mm inside diameter. Using the sensors, local methanol concentration of water-methanol mixture in the mini-channel of 3.0 mm width and 1.5 mm depth was measured. The effects of flow velocity in the channel and the gravity direction on the methanol concentration distribution in the channel were investigated experimentally. (author)

  12. ESR measurement of the concentration of vibrationally excited hydrogen and deuterium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, Yu.M.; Ivanov, A.V.; Il'in, S.D.; Kucheryavyi, S.I.; Rozenshtein, V.B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of vibrationally excited H 2 and D 2 molecules using an ESR microwave spectrometer. The essence of the method is the titration of H 2 (v = 1) and D 2 (v = 1) with D and H atoms and measurement of the concentrations of the titration products H and D, respectively. Stoichiometric titration coefficients were determined in the form of proportionality coefficients between the titration signals Δ[H], Δ[D] and the concentrations of H 2 (v = 1), D 2 (v = 1)

  13. Measurement of Radon concentration in groundwater by technique of nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Nguyen Manh Hung; Dang Duc Nhan

    2000-01-01

    A method for measuring radon concentration in groundwater using nuclear track detector LR-115 stripping is reported. The radon-monitoring device in groundwater is a small box with two pieces of nuclear track detector and all these materials is placed in a plastic bag made by polyethylene. It is very suitable to measure radon concentration in groundwater well in long term. Alpha tracks produced by radon and it daughter on nuclear track detector is counted automatically by spark counting method. The paper also presents some results of radon concentration in some groundwater well and mineral water sources. (author)

  14. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  15. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  16. Study of carrier concentration in single InP nanowires by luminescence and Hall measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Hultin, Olof; Heurlin, Magnus; Storm, Kristian; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The free electron carrier concentrations in single InP core–shell nanowires are determined by micro-photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence (CL) and Hall effect measurements. The results from luminescence measurements were obtained by solving the Fermi–Dirac integral, as well as by analyzing the peak full width at half maximum (FWHM). Furthermore, the platform used for Hall effect measurements, combined with spot mode CL spectroscopy, is used to determine the carrier concentrations at specific positions along single nanowires. The results obtained via luminescence measurements provide an accurate and rapid feedback technique for the epitaxial development of doping incorporation in nanowires. The technique has been employed on several series of samples in which growth parameters, such as V/III-ratio, temperature and dopant flows, were investigated in an optimization procedure. The correlation between the Hall effect and luminescence measurements for extracting the carrier concentration of different samples were in excellent agreement. (paper)

  17. Evaluation of an optical fiber probe for in vivo measurement of the photoacoustic response of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Paul C.; Mills, Timothy N.

    1995-05-01

    A miniature (1 mm diameter) all-optical photoacoustic probe for generating and detecting ultrasonic thermoelastic waves in biological media at the tip of an optical fiber has been developed. The probe provides a compact and convenient means of performing pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for the characterization of biological tissue. The device is based upon a transparent Fabry Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor mounted directly over the end of a multimode optical fiber. The optical fiber is used to deliver nanosecond laser pulses to the tissue producing thermoelastic waves which are then detected by the sensor. Detection sensitivities of 53 mv/MPa and a 10 kPa acoustic noise floor have been demonstrated giving excellent signal to noise ratios in a strong liquid absorber. Lower, but clearly detectable, signals in post mortem human aorta have also been observed. The performance and small physical size of the device suggest that it has the potential to perform remote in situ photoacoustic measurements in tissue.

  18. Magneto-acousto-electrical Measurement Based Electrical Conductivity Reconstruction for Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magnetoelectrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall effect, and magnetoelectrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a three-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for nondispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for nondestructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  19. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management.

  20. Correction factors to convert microdosimetry measurements in silicon to tissue in 12C ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolst, David; Guatelli, Susanna; Tran, Linh T; Chartier, Lachlan; Lerch, Michael L F; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2017-03-21

    Silicon microdosimetry is a promising technology for heavy ion therapy (HIT) quality assurance, because of its sub-mm spatial resolution and capability to determine radiation effects at a cellular level in a mixed radiation field. A drawback of silicon is not being tissue-equivalent, thus the need to convert the detector response obtained in silicon to tissue. This paper presents a method for converting silicon microdosimetric spectra to tissue for a therapeutic 12 C beam, based on Monte Carlo simulations. The energy deposition spectra in a 10 μm sized silicon cylindrical sensitive volume (SV) were found to be equivalent to those measured in a tissue SV, with the same shape, but with dimensions scaled by a factor κ equal to 0.57 and 0.54 for muscle and water, respectively. A low energy correction factor was determined to account for the enhanced response in silicon at low energy depositions, produced by electrons. The concept of the mean path length [Formula: see text] to calculate the lineal energy was introduced as an alternative to the mean chord length [Formula: see text] because it was found that adopting Cauchy's formula for the [Formula: see text] was not appropriate for the radiation field typical of HIT as it is very directional. [Formula: see text] can be determined based on the peak of the lineal energy distribution produced by the incident carbon beam. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the thickness of the SV along the direction of the incident 12 C ion beam can be adopted as [Formula: see text]. The tissue equivalence conversion method and [Formula: see text] were adopted to determine the RBE 10 , calculated using a modified microdosimetric kinetic model, applied to the microdosimetric spectra resulting from the simulation study. Comparison of the RBE 10 along the Bragg peak to experimental TEPC measurements at HIMAC, NIRS, showed good agreement. Such agreement demonstrates the validity of the developed tissue equivalence correction factors and of

  1. Drilling electrode for real-time measurement of electrical impedance in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Xue, Yuan; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In order to prevent possible damages to soft tissues, reliable monitoring methods are required to provide valuable information on the condition of the bone being cut. This paper describes the design of an electrical impedance sensing drill developed to estimate the relative position between the drill and the bone being drilled. The two-electrode method is applied to continuously measure the electrical impedance during a drill feeding movement: two copper wire brushes are used to conduct electricity in the rotating drill and then the drill is one electrode; a needle is inserted into the soft tissues adjacent to the bone being drilled and acts as another electrode. Considering that the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the insertion depth of the drill, we theoretically calculate the electrode-tissue contact impedance and prove that the rate of impedance change varies considerably when the drill bit crosses the boundary between two different bone tissues. Therefore, the rate of impedance change is used to determine whether the tip of the drill is located in one of cortical bone, cancellous bone, and cortical bone near a boundary with soft tissue. In vitro experiments in porcine thoracic spines were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the impedance sensing drill. The experimental results indicate that the drill, used with the proposed data-processing method, can provide accurate and reliable breakthrough detection in the bone-drilling process.

  2. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximize anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167–404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g−1, respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all −1.

  3. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J R; Porcher, S T; Smerud, J R; Gaikowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximise anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167-404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g(-1), respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all < 39 µg g(-1).

  4. High accuracy thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous cryoprotective agents and semi-rigid biological tissues using a microfabricated thermal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin M.; Sekar, Praveen K.; Zhao, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Huang, Zhongping; Ding, Weiping; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    An improved thermal-needle approach for accurate and fast measurement of thermal conductivity of aqueous and soft biomaterials was developed using microfabricated thermal conductivity sensors. This microscopic measuring device was comprehensively characterized at temperatures from 0 °C to 40 °C. Despite the previous belief, system calibration constant was observed to be highly temperature-dependent. Dynamic thermal conductivity response during cooling (40 °C to –40 °C) was observed using the miniaturized single tip sensor for various concentrations of CPAs, i.e., glycerol, ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Chicken breast, chicken skin, porcine limb, and bovine liver were assayed to investigate the effect of anatomical heterogeneity on thermal conductivity using the arrayed multi-tip sensor at 20 °C. Experimental results revealed distinctive differences in localized thermal conductivity, which suggests the use of approximated or constant property values is expected to bring about results with largely inflated uncertainties when investigating bio-heat transfer mechanisms and/or performing sophisticated thermal modeling with complex biological tissues. Overall, the presented micro thermal sensor with automated data analysis algorithm is a promising approach for direct thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous solutions and soft biomaterials and is of great value to cryopreservation of tissues, hyperthermia or cryogenic, and other thermal-based clinical diagnostics and treatments. PMID:25993037

  5. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  6. The measurement of thoron concentrations in Australia using the Japanese passive R-T dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.; Tokonami, S.; Doi, M.; Solomon, S.B.; Peggie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown higher gamma radiation levels and higher soil thorium concentrations in the Darling Scarp area to the east of the city of Perth in Western Australia. It was considered desirable to measure the concentrations of the 220 Rn (thoron) in houses built near such areas and compare these measurements with similar measurements at other sites within Australia. A monitor developed for surveying 220 Rn and 222 Rn levels in Japan was considered most suitable for this purpose. The monitor used for the survey was a passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter, similar in type to that used to measure thoron concentrations in traditional Japanese houses. Houses for this study were selected from areas in the Darling Scarp. To provide data on what might be considered typical thoron concentrations associated with other soil types within Australia, a small number of houses in areas on the coastal plain of Western Australia and from the coastal areas of Victoria were also monitored. The mean thoron concentration in homes on the Darling Scarp of 14.0 Bq.m -3 was higher than that in the coastal plain in Western Australia (3.0 Bq.m -3 ) but comparable to the measurements in Victoria (11.3 Bq.m -3 ). For the radon measurements in homes, the mean Scarp concentration was typically 49.2 Bq.m -3 while the WA coastal plain and in Victoria mean concentrations were 11.6 Bq.m -3 and 15.4 Bq.m -3 respectively. For outdoors in the Darling Scarp, the thoron mean was 76.3 Bq.m -3 while the radon level was 18.2 Bq.m -3 . These measurements would suggest that the source of the thoron in homes on the Scarp is from the underlying soil rather than from the building materials. (author)

  7. Studies on measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete structures with long-period grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Chiang, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Hsiang-Ping; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2006-03-01

    We report the development and demonstration of a simple and low-cost long-period grating (LPG) sensor for chloride ion concentration measurement in concrete structures. The LPG sensor is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We have measured chloride ion levels in a concrete sample immersed in salt water solution with different weight concentration ranging from 0 % to 20 %, and results showed that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6 % and the limit of detection for chloride ion is about 0.04 %. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we have coated gold nanoparticles on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled Au colloids on the grating portion of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increases in sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantage of this type of the sensor is relatively simple of construction and ease of use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo, and remote sensing, and has the potential use for disposable sensors.

  8. Cellular Force Microscopy for in Vivo Measurements of Plant Tissue Mechanics1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Weber, Alain; Kochova, Petra; Felekis, Dimitris; Nelson, Bradley J.; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Smith, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Although growth and morphogenesis are controlled by genetics, physical shape change in plant tissue results from a balance between cell wall loosening and intracellular pressure. Despite recent work demonstrating a role for mechanical signals in morphogenesis, precise measurement of mechanical properties at the individual cell level remains a technical challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed cellular force microscopy (CFM), which combines the versatility of classical microindentation techniques with the high automation and resolution approaching that of atomic force microscopy. CFM’s large range of forces provides the possibility to map the apparent stiffness of both plasmolyzed and turgid tissue as well as to perform micropuncture of cells using very high stresses. CFM experiments reveal that, within a tissue, local stiffness measurements can vary with the level of turgor pressure in an unexpected way. Altogether, our results highlight the importance of detailed physically based simulations for the interpretation of microindentation results. CFM’s ability to be used both to assess and manipulate tissue mechanics makes it a method of choice to unravel the feedbacks between mechanics, genetics, and morphogenesis. PMID:22353572

  9. Imaging-guided two-photon excitation-emission-matrix measurements of human skin tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingqiu; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Wang, Hequn; Tang, Shuo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-07-01

    There are increased interests on using multiphoton imaging and spectroscopy for skin tissue characterization and diagnosis. However, most studies have been done with just a few excitation wavelengths. Our objective is to perform a systematic study of the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) properties of skin fluorophores, normal skin, and diseased skin tissues. A nonlinear excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectroscopy system with multiphoton imaging guidance was constructed. A tunable femtosecond laser was used to vary excitation wavelengths from 730 to 920 nm for EEM data acquisition. EEM measurements were performed on excised fresh normal skin tissues, seborrheic keratosis tissue samples, and skin fluorophores including: NADH, FAD, keratin, melanin, collagen, and elastin. We found that in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis of normal skin, the cells have large sizes and the TPF originates from keratin. In the lower epidermis, cells are smaller and TPF is dominated by NADH contributions. In the dermis, TPF is dominated by elastin components. The depth resolved EEM measurements also demonstrated that keratin structure has intruded into the middle sublayers of the epidermal part of the seborrheic keratosis lesion. These results suggest that the imaging guided TPF EEM spectroscopy provides useful information for the development of multiphoton clinical devices for skin disease diagnosis.

  10. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruin, S. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); Sioutas, C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Fine, P.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction ({approx}6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  11. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruin, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  12. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway