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Sample records for measured significant growth

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor II and adrenomedulion levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were measured in 62 cases of hypertension and 40 controls with RIA. Results: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were significantly bigger in hypertensive patients than those in the controls (t = 4.454, p < 0.01; t = 3.992, p < 0.01). The serum IGF II level was significantly positively correlated to the serum ADM levels (r = 0.379, p < 0.05) and both were significantly positively correlated to the mean arterial pressure (r = 0.346, r = 0.353, p < 0.05) but not with BMI. Serum ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressed from stage I to stage III (p < 0.05) with levels in stage III markedly higher than those in stage I (p < 0.01). In EH patients with heart and/or brain and/or renal complications the serum ADM levels were significantly higher than those in EH patients without complications (t = 2.050, p < 0.05). Such differences did not exist in the case of IGF II. Conclusion: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were increased markedly in hypertensive patients. These two factors were mutually positively correlated and both were positively correlated to mean arterial pressure. ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressing but IGF II levels remained stable

  2. Diagnostic Significance of Measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for the Differentiation between Malignant and Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Park, Rae-Kil; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Hwang, Ki-Eun

    2017-06-01

    Malignancy and tuberculosis are common causes of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion. However, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate malignant pleural effusion from tuberculous pleural effusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion. Endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is secreted by endothelial cells. Importantly, endocan mediates the vascular growth-promoting action of VEGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of VEGF and endocan in pleural effusion. We thus measured the levels of VEGF and endocan in the pleural effusion and serum samples of patients with lung cancer (n = 59) and those with tuberculosis (n = 32) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung cancer included 40 cases of adenocarcinoma, 13 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 of small cell carcinoma. Pleural effusion VEGF levels were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the tuberculosis group (2,091.47 ± 1,624.80 pg/mL vs. 1,291.05 ± 1,100.53 pg/mL, P pleural effusion endocan levels were similar between the two groups (1.22 ± 0.74 ng/mL vs. 0.87 ± 0.53 ng/mL). The areas under the curve of VEGF and endocan were 0.73 and 0.52, respectively. Notably, the VEGF levels were similar in malignant pleural effusion, irrespective of the histological type of lung cancer. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the serum VEGF and endocan levels between patients with lung cancer and those with tuberculosis. In conclusion, high VEGF levels in pleural effusion are suggestive of malignant pleural effusion.

  3. [The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin as a growth factor. II. The changes in various endocrine status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M; Odagaki, E; Morioka, T; Nakagawa, K

    1987-05-20

    The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin (Tf) in patients with hypophysial disorders was reported in our previous papers. In the present study, we determined plasma Tf levels in 55 patients with various endocrine states and considered their clinical significance compared with plasma somatomedin-C (SM-C) levels. Plasma Tf levels decreased significantly in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.02), hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.05), primary hypothyroidism (p less than 0.05) and Cushing's syndrome (p less than 0.05), while they were elevated significantly in pregnancy (p less than 0.01) or females using estrogens (p less than 0.05). The former two declines were considered a reflection of the malnutritional state of the patients since a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma Tf levels and the percentile deficit from the ideal body weight in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.01), or between plasma Tf levels and elevated T3 levels which induce hypermetabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the SM-C and Tf levels in these subjects (including normal controls and patients with hypophysial disorders) as a whole (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001). These data indicate that plasma Tf is changeable according to the endocrinological and nutritional conditions with good correlation to the SM-C, and it is suggested that Tf also operates as a growth factor in vivo.

  4. Primary study on the clinical significance of measurement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NPY concentrations in human semen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyun; Ning Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 10 6 /ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 10 6 /ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)

  5. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  6. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  7. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  8. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  9. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Kramer

    Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  10. Significance of the measurement of serum transforming growth factor-α ad laminin in patients with three kinds of gastrointestinal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Ma Yunbao

    2001-01-01

    The authors study the relationship between the levels of serum TGF-α and LN in gastrointestinal malignant tumor and the tumor formation and metastasis. Adopting radioimmunoassay measured serum TGF-α and LN levels in 40 cases of carcinoma of stomach, 24 cases of carcinoma of esophagus and 32 cases of liver cancer. The level of serum TGF-α in the patients with the three kinds of tumors was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); except for the group of carcinoma of esophagus, the level of LN was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the two markers of the metastasis group were significantly higher than that of the group without metastasis (P < 0.05). Elevation of the level of serum TGF-α and LN is closely related to the invasion and metastasis of the three kinds of malignant tumors, and is valuable for tumor diagnosis and prognosis evaluation

  11. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  12. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  13. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Ot?rola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger s...

  14. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  15. MEASURING ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM OUTER SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David N.

    2013-01-01

    GDP growth is often measured poorly for countries and rarely measured at all for cities or subnational regions. We propose a readily available proxy: satellite data on lights at night. We develop a statistical framework that uses lights growth to augment existing income growth measures, under the assumption that measurement error in using observed light as an indicator of income is uncorrelated with measurement error in national income accounts. For countries with good national income accounts data, information on growth of lights is of marginal value in estimating the true growth rate of income, while for countries with the worst national income accounts, the optimal estimate of true income growth is a composite with roughly equal weights. Among poor-data countries, our new estimate of average annual growth differs by as much as 3 percentage points from official data. Lights data also allow for measurement of income growth in sub- and supranational regions. As an application, we examine growth in Sub Saharan African regions over the last 17 years. We find that real incomes in non-coastal areas have grown faster by 1/3 of an annual percentage point than coastal areas; non-malarial areas have grown faster than malarial ones by 1/3 to 2/3 annual percent points; and primate city regions have grown no faster than hinterland areas. Such applications point toward a research program in which “empirical growth” need no longer be synonymous with “national income accounts.” PMID:25067841

  16. Measuring Economic Growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mawson

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand’s ranking in the OECD based on real GDP per capita. The fall in ranking experienced by New Zealand implies that real GDP per capita growth in New Zealand has been relatively poor in comparison to other OECD countries. The paper examines the history of New Zealand’s growth rate and explores the differences between various techniques for measuring average growth rates. The approaches are all shown to be variants of the average annual growth rate but differ in ter...

  17. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  19. Hygienic significance of radiostability as measures of adaptive feasibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to substantiate hygienic significance of radiostability analysis as measures of adaptive feasibilities variation under the low dose ionizing radiation effect (IR). Examples of this substantiation are presented. Not only biological radiation effects but social adaptivity problems may be analysed. With more information adaptive feasibilities of human body to radiation factor are extended, its radiostability increases. Analysis of the state of adaptive feasibilities and their development estimation are vital problems of radiation hygiene, the basis for regulation and normalization of radiation factor

  20. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  1. Graphene oxide significantly inhibits cell growth at sublethal concentrations by causing extracellular iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Du, Tingting; Yi, Xiao; Li, Mingchun; Chen, Wei; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based materials are increasingly being used in medical materials and consumer products. However, their sublethal effects on biological systems are poorly understood. Here, we report that GO (at 10 to 160 mg/L) induced significant inhibitory effects on the growth of different unicellular organisms, including eukaryotes (i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Komagataella pastoris) and prokaryotes (Pseudomonas fluorescens). Growth inhibition could not be explained by commonly reported cytotoxicity mechanisms such as plasma membrane damage or oxidative stress. Based on transcriptomic analysis and measurement of extra- and intracellular iron concentrations, we show that the inhibitory effect of GO was mainly attributable to iron deficiency caused by binding to the O-functional groups of GO, which sequestered iron and disrupted iron-related physiological and metabolic processes. This inhibitory mechanism was corroborated with supplementary experiments, where adding bathophenanthroline disulfonate-an iron chelating agent-to the culture medium exerted similar inhibition, whereas removing surface O-functional groups of GO decreased iron sequestration and significantly alleviated the inhibitory effect. These findings highlight a potential indirect detrimental effect of nanomaterials (i.e. scavenging of critical nutrients), and encourage research on potential biomedical applications of GO-based materials to sequester iron and enhance treatment of iron-dependent diseases such as cancer and some pathogenic infections.

  2. Measurement Error in Education and Growth Regressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portela, Miguel; Alessie, Rob; Teulings, Coen

    2010-01-01

    The use of the perpetual inventory method for the construction of education data per country leads to systematic measurement error. This paper analyzes its effect on growth regressions. We suggest a methodology for correcting this error. The standard attenuation bias suggests that using these

  3. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, ‘automaticity’ refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: a functional significance of automaticity; b neurophysiology of automaticity; c measurement of automaticity; d mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and e strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity.

  4. The Significance Ultrasonography on the Evaluation of Ovarian Follicular Maturity and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kab Tae; Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Seok Hong; Kim, Tae Seon; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Ovarian follicular diameter was measured using real time ultrasound in 21 hyperstimulated patients from April to September 1986. And we analyzed the relation between the size measured with ultrasonography and maturity observed under the phased microscopy, the correlation between aspirated dominant follicular volume and the dominant follicular volume calculated by the size measured with ultrasonography. Also we experienced the conditions which showed the ultrasonographic finding similar to that of follicle. The results were as follows: 1. The mean follicular diameter increased in a linear fashion from 7 days after LMP (9.4mm+2.8)to the one day before ovum pick up(18.2+2.8). 2. The mean diameter of the most appropriate dominant follicle was 19.08+1.23mm 3. The correlation between the dominant follicular volume measured with ultrasonography and aspirated follicular volume during ovum pick up was highly significant(r=0.94;0<0.001). 4. during follicular growth and maturity monitoring the conditions which misdiagnosed of follicle were simple ovarian cyst(1 case), hydrosalpinx (1 case), endometriosis(1 case), tubo-ovarian abscess(1 case), Hydatid of Morgagni(1 case)

  5. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  6. A healthy lifestyle composite measure: Significance and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary L; Katz, David L; Shenson, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to create and explore potential uses of a composite "Healthy Lifestyle" measure based on Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) Objectives for behaviors shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=412,942) on five modifiable behaviors with HP2020 Objectives (leisure time exercise, eating fruits and vegetables 5 or more times/day, getting ≥7h of sleep/24h, not smoking and not drinking excessively). These indicators were combined to form an all-or-none composite Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) measure. Associations between the HLS measure and demographic and other measures, plus details of component measures, were reported. Results indicated that only 7.7% of adults reported a HLS with wide variation among states and demographic groups. Both unadjusted and logistic regression results found associations between a HLS and better health, lower rates of chronic disease and better access to health care. Over one fourth of all respondents (28.0%) needed to only improve fruit and vegetable consumption to be practicing a HLS. In conclusion, few adults were practicing five behaviors that are generally recognized as healthy. All-or-none metrics like this HLS measure offer a fresh perspective on modifiable behaviors and the need for improvement. Examination of measure components can help explain demographic differences and identify strategies for improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Segmentation of images for gingival growth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Il; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-12-01

    The ability to measure gingival volume growth from dental casts would provide a valuable resource for periodontists. This problem is attractive from a computer vision standpoint due to the complexities of data acquisition, segmentation of gingival and tooth surfaces and boundaries, and extraction of features (such as tooth axes) to help solve the correspondence problem for multiple casts. In this paper, a structured light 3-D range finder is used to collect raw data. The most complicated subtask is that of detecting discontinuities such as the gingival margin. Discontinuity detection is hindered both by cast anomalies (such as bubbles and holes generated during the process of dental impression) and by the subtle nature of the discontinuities themselves. First, we discuss an approach to segmenting a dental cast into tooth and gingival units using depth and orientation discontinuities. The visible cast surface is reconstructed by obtaining the minimum of a parameterized functional. The first derivative of the energy functional (which corresponds to the Euler-Lagrange equation) is solved using the multigrid methods. both orientation and depth discontinuities are detected by adding a discrete discontinuity functional to the energy functional. The principal axes and boundaries of the teeth provide the information necessary to determine the region to be measured in estimating gingival growth. Finally, voxels corresponding to growth regions are counted to measure the target volume.

  9. Growth of AlGaN under the conditions of significant gallium evaporation: phase separation and enhanced lateral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mayboroda, I. O.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Ezubchenko, I. S.; Zanaveskin, Maxim L.; Presniakov, M. Yu.; Potapkin, B. V.; Ilyin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth kinetics of AlGaN in NH3 MBE under significant Ga desorption was studied. It was found that the addition of gallium stimulates 2D growth and provides better morphology of films compared to pure AlN. The effect was experimentally observed at up to 98% desorption of the impinging gallium. We found that, under the conditions of significant thermal desorption, larger amounts of gallium were retained at lateral boundaries of 3D surface features than at flat terraces because of the higher bi...

  10. Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatersleben, B.C.M.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Measures of proenvironmental behavior in psychological studies do not always reflect the actual environmental impact of a person or household. Therefore, the results of these studies provide little insight into variables that could be helpful in reducing household environmental impact. In this

  11. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  13. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  14. The significant relationships between hormonal growth pattern parameters in children with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the disturbance in GH. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 axis by evaluating their levels in serum of children with chronic liver disease. twenty-two under normal growth children suffering from cholestasis and chronic viral hepatitis B or C (3-7 years) with mean value (5.05± 1.18 years) compared with twenty healthy children with mean age value (5.07+ 1.37 years) served as control. the malnourished children were classified into 2 groups (l) included 8 cholestatic children and ll: included 14 children with chronic viral hepatitis (HBV or HCV).the biochemical analysis for lover disease as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (ASTt), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase ( γ-GT), total bilirubin, total protein (P), total albumin (A), and prothrombin concentration were performed by colorimetric technique. serum growth hormone (GH), insulin -like growth factor-l (IGF-l) and insulin -like growth factor binding protein- 3 (IGFBP-3) were estimated by radioisotope technique as marker for growth. the biochemical results showed highly significant increases (P< 0.01) in ALT, AST, ALP, γ-GT and total bilirubin respectively in both malnourished groups with chronic liver disease when matched to that of control . total protein , total albumin and prothrombin concentration recorded highly significant decreases (P<0.001) particularly in GR.ll when compared with healthy children . total protein showed non-significant difference in gr.l when compared to control. GH level showed highly significant increases (P<0.01), while IGF-l and IGFBP-3 reported highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in both manourished groups when compared to the normal growth children . the elevation of GH level and reduction of both IGF-l and IGFBP-3 levels were more prominent in children with chronic viral hepatitis than cholestatic children

  15. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  16. Productivity measurement and growth in Nigeria: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze C. IKEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity (growth measurements (describing the assessment of an economy’s rate of change in the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use and related analysis are regular undertakings by staff of economic development of most nations and development institutions such as the OECD. Although they strive to accomplish objectives related to studying efficiency or the achievement of maximum output physically achievable under the use of current technology and given inputs, accounting for the contribution of real costs savings; introduction of benchmarks for production processes and to highlight living standards obtaining at points in time, its emphasis has been at the expense of examination of issues related to society (institutions, history, innovation and productivity change, which are concerned with promoting growth beyond mere productivity accounting. This paper has attempted to address all these issues as they pertain to Nigeria’s rather stagnant or declining economy. This slight modification was prompted by changes from philosophers concerned with the wider area of productivity measurement and change. The literature agrees that productivity measurement (growth accounting only “identified the significance of different proximate sources of growth” but fails to employ institutional, historical case studies to investigate the underlying causes of the growth, innovation and productivity change. Details of deficiencies related to the foregoing issues are examined and policy recommendations drafted and presented to assist practitioners, policy and decision makers and other stakeholders.

  17. Nonlinear Growth Models as Measurement Models: A Second-Order Growth Curve Model for Measuring Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Recent methodological work has highlighted the promise of nonlinear growth models for addressing substantive questions in the behavioral sciences. In this article, we outline a second-order nonlinear growth model in order to measure a critical notion in development and education: potential. Here, potential is conceptualized as having three components-ability, capacity, and availability-where ability is the amount of skill a student is estimated to have at a given timepoint, capacity is the maximum amount of ability a student is predicted to be able to develop asymptotically, and availability is the difference between capacity and ability at any particular timepoint. We argue that single timepoint measures are typically insufficient for discerning information about potential, and we therefore describe a general framework that incorporates a growth model into the measurement model to capture these three components. Then, we provide an illustrative example using the public-use Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data set using a Michaelis-Menten growth function (reparameterized from its common application in biochemistry) to demonstrate our proposed model as applied to measuring potential within an educational context. The advantage of this approach compared to currently utilized methods is discussed as are future directions and limitations.

  18. New foliage growth is a significant, unaccounted source for volatiles in boreal evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Bäck, J.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests are based on the assumption that foliage has a steady emission potential over its lifetime, and that emissions are mainly modified by short-term variations in light and temperature. However, in many field studies this has been challenged, and high emissions and atmospheric concentrations have been measured during periods of low biological activity, such as in springtime. We conducted measurements during three years, using an online gas-exchange monitoring system to observe volatile organic emissions from a mature (1 year-old) and a growing Scots pine shoot. The emission rates of organic vapors from vegetative buds of Scots pine during the dehardening and rapid shoot growth stages were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from mature foliage; this difference decreased and finally disappeared when the new shoot was maturing in late summer. On average, the springtime monoterpene emission rate of the bud was about 500 times higher than that of the mature needles; during the most intensive needle elongation period, the monoterpene emission rate of the growing needles was 3.5 higher than that of the mature needles, and in September the monoterpene emission rate of the same years' needles was even lower (50%) than that of the previous years' needles. For other measured compounds (methanol, acetone and methylbutenol) the values were of the same order of magnitude, except before bud break in spring, when the emission rates of buds for those compounds were on average about 20-30 times higher than that of mature needles. During spring and early summer the buds and growing shoots are a strong source of several VOCs, and if they are not accounted for in emission modeling a significant proportion of the emissions - from a few percent to even half of the annual cumulative emissions - will remain concealed. The diurnal emission pattern of growing shoots differed from the diurnal cycle in temperature as

  19. Assessing the Significance of Telecommunication Deregulation on the Growth of Japan's Mobile Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqing Xing

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of Japan's mobile phone market. Specifically, it focuses on the regulatory reforms of Japan's mobile communication sector and their impact on the growth of the market. The analysis based on a monopolistic competition model shows that the deregulation policies perform an essential role in fostering the rapid expansion of Japan's mobile phone market. Using quarterly data from 1991 to 1999, the paper tests the significance of the telecommunication deregulation...

  20. Flow cytometric detection of growth factor receptors in autografts and analysis of growth factor concentrations in autologous stem cell transplantation: possible significance for platelet recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, I; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Kjaersgaard, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve prediction of hematopoietic recovery, we conducted a pilot study, analyzing the significance of growth factor receptor expression in autografts as well as endogenous growth factor levels in blood before, during and after stem cell transplantation. Three early acting (stem cell......-CSF receptor positive, CD34+ progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in the leukapheresis product used for transplantation in a subgroup of 15 patients (NHL, n = 8, MM, n = 7). Three factors were identified as having a significant impact on platelet recovery. First, the level of Tpo in blood...... at the time of the nadir (day +7). Second, the percentage of re-infused thrombopoietin receptor positive progenitors and finally, the percentage of Flt3 receptor positive progenitors. On the other hand, none of the analyzed factors significantly predicted myeloid or erythroid recovery. These findings need...

  1. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  2. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  3. Two Novel SNPs of PPARγ Significantly Affect Weaning Growth Traits of Nanyang Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Chen, Ningbo; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Zhao, Minghui; Sun, Taihong; Hao, Ruijie; Ma, Yun

    2018-01-02

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key transcription factor that controls adipocyte differentiation and energy in mammals. Therefore, PPARγ is a potential factor influencing animal growth traits. This study primarily evaluates PPARγ as candidate gene for growth traits of cattle and identifies potential molecular marker for cattle breeding. Per previous studies, PPARγ mRNA was mainly expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissues as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Three novel SNPs of the bovine PPARγ gene were identified in 514 individuals from six Chinese cattle breeds: SNP1 (AC_000179.1 g.57386668 C > G) in intron 2 and SNP2 (AC_000179.1 g.57431964 C > T) and SNP3 (AC_000179.1 g.57431994 T > C) in exon 7. The present study also investigated genetic characteristics of these SNP loci in six populations. Association analysis showed that SNP1 and SNP3 loci significantly affect weaning growth traits, especially body weight of Nanyang cattle. These results revealed that SNP1 and SNP3 are potential molecular markers for cattle breeding.

  4. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over expression in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Irfan, Muhammad; Khan, Erum Yousuf; Faridi, Naveen; Naqvi, Hanna; Khan, Amir; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil

    2018-06-07

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to have abnormal expression in many human cancers and is considered as a marker of poor prognosis. Frequency of over expression in bladder cancer has not been studied in our population; therefore we aimed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic significance of EGFR immunohistochemical expression in locoregional population. We performed EGFR immunohistochemistry on 126 cases of bladder cancer and association of EGFR expression with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence of disease was evaluated. High EGFR expression was noted in 26.2% (33 cases), 15.1% (19 cases) and 58.7% (74 cases) revealed low and no EGFR expression respectively. Significant association of EGFR expression was noted with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence status while no significant association was seen with age, gender and overall survival. Kaplan- Meier curves revealed significant association of EGFR expression with recurrence while no significant association was seen with overall survival. Significant association of EGFR overexpression with tumor grade, muscularis propria invasion and recurrence signifies its prognostic value; therefore EGFR can be used as a prognostic biomarker in Urothelial bladder carcinoma.

  5. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Determination of serum insulinlike growth factor II levels in coronary heart disease patient and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Zhao Junfei; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Li Jiangao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF II) levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: The serum IGF II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 30 controls with only mild non-cardiac diseases. Results: Compared with the controls, the serum IGF II level in CHD patients were increased significantly (0.66 ± 0.13 μg/L vs 0.51 ± 0.11 μg/L; t = 5.506, p 0.05). Level in patients dies in hospital (n = 9) were much higher than those in patients recovered (n = 59) (t = 2.402, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF II levels seems to be related to the seriousness of CHD; the actual mechanism remains to be defined

  7. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  8. Significant plant growth stimulation by composted as opposed to untreated Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Müller, Christoph; Steffens, Diedrich; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2013-04-01

    The application of production-fresh, untreated biochar does not always result in yield improvements, in particular in temperate or boreal soils. Therefore the use of biochar for soil C sequestration, although desirable from a global change mitigation point of view, may never be implemented without proven and economically feasible pathways for biochar effects in agriculture. To investigate earlier reports of the beneficial effects of composting biochar (e.g. Fischer & Glaser, 2012) we conducted a fully replicated (n=3, +/- biochar) large-scale composting study at the Delinat Institute in Arbaz, Switzerland. The materials were manures (bovine, horse and chicken), straw, stone meal and composting was performed with our without +20 vol.% of a woody biochar (German Charcoal GmbH). Interestingly, the rotting temperature was significantly higher in the biochar-compost while C and N were retained to a certain extent. To investigate the effect of composting ("ageing") on biochar effects, a completely randomized full-factorial pot study was carried out in the greenhouse using the pseudo-cereal Chenopodium quinoa. The three factors used in the study were (I) type of biochar addition ("aged", "fresh", or zero BC), (II) addition of compost and (III) low and high application rates of a full NPK-fertilizer (equivalent to 28 and 140 kg N ha-1, NPK + micronutrients) in several doses. The growth medium was a poor loamy sand. Biochars and compost were all added at a rate of 2% (w/w) to the soil. From the start there was a considerable difference between the growth of Quinoa with the fresh compared to the aged biochar. The fresh biochar produced the well-known reduction in plant growth compared to the unamended control. This reduction was alleviated to a certain extent by the addition of either compost and/or increased fertilization. In contrast the co-composted biochar always resulted in a highly significant stimulation of the Quinoa yield (roots, shoots, inflorescences). This

  9. The significance of secondary organic aerosol formation and growth in buildings: experimental and computational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, G.; Corsi, R.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    -pinene, and subsequent gas-to-particle partitioning of the products. A new indoor air quality model was used to predict dynamic particle mass concentrations based on detailed homogeneous chemical mechanisms and partitioning of semi-volatile products to particles. Chamber particle mass concentrations were estimated from......Experiments were conducted in an 11 m3 environmental chamber to investigate secondaryparticles resulting from homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha-pinene. Experimental results indicate that rapid fine particle growth occurs due to homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha...... measured particle size distributions and were in reasonable agreement with results predicted from the model. Both experimental and model results indicate that secondary particle mass concentrations incfrease substantially with lower air exchange rates. This is an interesting results, given a continuing...

  10. Qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. Aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. In this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of A. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with immuno-affinity enrichment of the ubiquitinated peptides. The 4816 ubiquitination sites were identified in 1913 ubiquitinated proteins, accounting for 18.1% of total proteins in A. nidulans. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the ubiquitinated proteins associated with a number of biological functions and displayed various sub-cellular localisations. Meanwhile, seven motifs were revealed from the ubiquitinated peptides, and significantly over-presented in the different pathways. Comparison of the enriched functional catalogues indicated that the ubiquitination functions divergently during growth of A. nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, the proteins in A. nidulans-specific sub-category (cell growth/morphogenesis) were subjected to the protein interaction analysis which demonstrated that ubiquitination is involved in the comprehensive protein interactions. This study presents a first proteomic view of ubiquitination in the filamentous fungus, and provides an initial framework for exploring the physiological roles of ubiquitination in A. nidulans.

  11. Significance of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on phytoextraction of Pband Zn by Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Park, Sung-Hee; Cho, Min; Lee, Kui-Jae; Ko, Jeong-Ae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on growth and lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in Zea mays L. The strain GW103 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase. Treatment of Z. mays L. plants with GW103 significantly increased 19, 31, and 52% of plant biomass and 10, 50, and 126% of chlorophyll a contents in Pb, Zn, and Pb + Zn-amended soils, respectively. Similarly, the strain GW103 significantly increased Pb and Zn accumulation in shoots and roots of Z. mays L., which were 77 and 25% in Pb-amended soil, 42 and 73% in Zn-amended soil, and 27 and 84% in Pb + Zn-amended soil. Furthermore, addition of GW103 increased 8, 12, and 7% of total protein content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels, respectively, in Z. mays L. plants. The results pointed out that isolate GW103 could potentially reduce the phytotoxicity of metals and increase Pb and Zn accumulation in Z. mays L. plant.

  12. Growth of sphagnum: methods of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clymo, R S

    1970-01-01

    The results presented here show that the growth of sphagnum is at least comparable with other communities from the same area. It seems desirable to know more about the field microenvironment and about the response of the plants. It is not possible, for example, to account satisfactorily for such obvious features of bog topography as hummocks and pools.

  13. Continuous delivery of propranolol from liposomes-in-microspheres significantly inhibits infantile hemangioma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo XN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaonan Guo,1,* Xiaoshuang Zhu,1,* Dakan Liu,1 Yubin Gong,1 Jing Sun,2 Changxian Dong1 1Department of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To reduce the adverse effects and high frequency of administration of propranolol to treat infantile hemangioma, we first utilized propranolol-loaded liposomes-in-microsphere (PLIM as a novel topical release system to realize sustained release of propranolol.Methods: PLIM was developed from encapsulating propranolol-loaded liposomes (PLs in microspheres made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-b-poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymers (PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The release profile of propranolol from PLIM was evaluated, and its biological activity was investigated in vitro using proliferation assays on hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs. Tumor inhibition was studied in nude mice bearing human subcutaneous infantile hemangioma.Results: The microspheres were of desired particle size (~77.8 µm and drug encapsulation efficiency (~23.9% and achieved sustained drug release for 40 days. PLIM exerted efficient inhibition of the proliferation of HemSCs and significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A [VEGF-A] and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] in HemSCs. Notably, the therapeutic effect of PLIM in hemangioma was superior to that of propranolol and PL in vivo, as reflected by significantly reduced hemangioma volume, weight, and microvessel density. The mean hemangioma weight of the PLIM-treated group was significantly lower than that of other groups (saline =0.28 g, propranolol =0.21 g, PL =0.13 g, PLIM =0.03 g; PLIM vs saline: P<0.001, PLIM vs propranolol: P<0.001, PLIM vs PL: P<0.001. The mean microvessel density of

  14. Resistive Wall Growth Rate Measurements in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity beams in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this,studies have been performed measuring the growth rate of presumably the resistive wall instability. The growth rates at varying intensities and chromaticities are shown. The measured growth rates are compared to ones calculated with the resistive wall impedance.

  15. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guimin; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Peisong; Lin, Shan; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Chen, Guang

    2013-08-01

    To examine expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene in human thyroid cancer and establish whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinicopathological parameters of the disease. CTGF protein expression was investigated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of CTGF protein levels in thyroid tumour tissue. Associations between immunohistochemical score and several clinicopathological parameters were examined. In total, 131 thyroid tissue specimens were included. High levels of CTGF protein were observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue; benign thyroid tumour tissue scored negatively for CTGF protein. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, there was a significant relationship between high CTGF protein levels and Union for International Cancer Control disease stage III-IV, and presence of lymph node metastasis. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, CTGF protein levels were not significantly associated with sex or age. These findings suggest that the CTGF protein level is increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells compared with benign thyroid tumours. CTGF expression might play a role in the development of malignant tumours in the thyroid.

  16. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurent-Olivier; Poirier, Marie-Belle; Fortin, David

    2018-04-08

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β₁ and -β₂ expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS). In GBM, TGF-β₁ and -β₂ levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β₁ significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β₁ is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β₂. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β₁ expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β₁ could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  17. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Olivier Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β1 and -β2 expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS. In GBM, TGF-β1 and -β2 levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β1 significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β2. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β1 expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  18. Measurement Error in Education and Growth Regressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portela, M.; Teulings, C.N.; Alessie, R.

    The perpetual inventory method used for the construction of education data per country leads to systematic measurement error. This paper analyses the effect of this measurement error on GDP regressions. There is a systematic difference in the education level between census data and observations

  19. Measurement error in education and growth regressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portela, Miguel; Teulings, Coen; Alessie, R.

    2004-01-01

    The perpetual inventory method used for the construction of education data per country leads to systematic measurement error. This paper analyses the effect of this measurement error on GDP regressions. There is a systematic difference in the education level between census data and observations

  20. CT measurements of cranial growth: microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Torkelson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) head scans were measured to determine the cranial dimensions of four children with microcephaly. These measurements were compared with cranial dimensions of normal children. CT proved to be useful in determining the developmental status of children with neurologic problems relative to their normal counterparts on the basis on cranial dimensions

  1. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  2. Feeding enhances skeletal growth and energetic stores of an Atlantic coral under significantly elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, L.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; dePutron, S.; Zicht, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many corals living under the relatively acidic conditions of naturally high-CO2 reefs are calcifying as fast or faster than their conspecifics on naturally low CO2 reefs. These observations are inconsistent with most experimental work that shows a negative impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification. We investigated the link between coral nutritional (energetic) status and the calcification response to significantly elevated CO2. Juveniles of the Atlantic brooding coral, Favia fragum were reared for three weeks under fully crossed CO2 and feeding conditions: ambient (μar =1.6+-0.2) and high CO2 (μar =3.7+-0.3); fed and unfed. In most measured parameters, the effect of feeding is much stronger than the effect of CO2. Nutritionally enhanced (fed) corals, regardless of CO2 condition, have higher concentrations of total lipid and their skeletons are both significantly larger and more developmentally advanced than those of corals relying solely on autotrophy. In measurements of corallite weight, where the impact of CO2 is most apparent, no statistical difference is observed between unfed corals under ambient CO2 conditions and fed corals reared under 1600 ppm CO2. Our results suggest that coral energetic status, which can be enhanced by heterotrophic feeding but depleted by stressors such as bleaching, will play a key role in the coral response to ocean acidification and thus, in the resilience of reef ecosystems under climate change.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Ultraearly Hematoma Growth in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients Receiving Hematoma Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; You, Chao; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) and clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) receiving hematoma evacuation. Supratentorial sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation within 24 hours after ictus were enrolled in this study. uHG was defined as baseline hematoma volume/onset-to-computed tomography (CT) time (mL/h). The outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS >2. A total of 93 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean uHG was 10.3 ± 5.5 mL/h. In 69 (74.2%) of patients, the outcome was unfavorable at 3 months. The uHG in patients with unfavorable outcome were significantly higher than in those with favorable outcome (11.0 ± 6.1 mL/h vs. 8.3 ± 2.5 mL/h, P = 0.003). The optimal cutoff of uHG for predicting unfavorable outcome was 8.7 mL/h. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of uHG >8.7 mL/h for predicting unfavorable outcome were 56.5%, 75.0%, 86.7%, and 37.5%, respectively. uHG is a helpful predictor of unfavorable outcome in sICH patients treated with hematoma evacuation. The optimal cutoff of uHG to assist in predicting unfavorable outcome in sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation is 8.7mL/h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Placental gene activity of significant angiogenetic factors in the background of intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Rab, Attila; Szentpéteri, Imre; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia. It is chronic hypoxia that turns on VEGF-A as a compensatory mechanism to improve fetal vascular blood supply by promoting placental blood vessel formation. Although the maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is a potential predictor for both IUGR and praeeclampsia, placental PlGF gene activity may be less of an active in the regulation of placental circulation in IUGR pregnancies during the later stages of gestation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 612-617.

  5. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  6. Isotopic Resonance Hypothesis: Experimental Verification by Escherichia coli Growth Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xueshu; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-03-01

    Isotopic composition of reactants affects the rates of chemical and biochemical reactions. As a rule, enrichment of heavy stable isotopes leads to progressively slower reactions. But the recent isotopic resonance hypothesis suggests that the dependence of the reaction rate upon the enrichment degree is not monotonous. Instead, at some ``resonance'' isotopic compositions, the kinetics increases, while at ``off-resonance'' compositions the same reactions progress slower. To test the predictions of this hypothesis for the elements C, H, N and O, we designed a precise (standard error +/-0.05%) experiment that measures the parameters of bacterial growth in minimal media with varying isotopic composition. A number of predicted resonance conditions were tested, with significant enhancements in kinetics discovered at these conditions. The combined statistics extremely strongly supports the validity of the isotopic resonance phenomenon (p biotechnology, medicine, chemistry and other areas.

  7. Clinical significance of changes of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level before and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingping; Sun Zhiqiang; Ni Xinchu; Wang Jian; Li Yi; Hu Lijun; Li Dongqing; Sun Suping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes and clinical value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level before, during and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods: The sera of 67 esophageal carcinoma patients and 30 healthy control cases were collected. The VEGF level in serum samples were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The relations among VEGF level changes,clinical stages and radiotherapy effect were analyzed. Results: The VEGF levels of patients with esophagus cancer before, during and after radiotherapy were significantly higher than those in control group (F=11.65, P<0.01). The VEGF level after radiotherapy was significant lower than that before radiotherapy (F=10.72, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with T 3 and T 4 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=14.10, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with N 1 and N 2 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=8.64, P<0.01). In 62 patients,the serum VEGF level increased in 21 cases but decreased in 41 cases after radiotherapy. With difference in radiotherapy efficiency of 61.90% and 90.24%, respectively (χ 2 =6.08, P<0.05). The average VEGF level during and after radiotherapy for 50 cases of CR + PR were significantly lower than that before radiotherapy (F=7.98, P<0.01). Conclusions: Monitoring the serum VEGF level of patients with esophagus cancer can help evaluate the radiosensitivity, which has a significance in predicting the prognosis of radiotherapy. (authors)

  8. [The significance of vaginal fluid substances as growth media in genital mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Gartzke, J; Böhme, H; Spitzbart, H

    1984-01-01

    By means of thin layer chromatography amino acids, lipids and phospholipids were detected in the vaginal fluids of pregnant and nonpregnant women with and without vaginal yeast colonization. Though pregnancy and/or yeast colonization do not seem to alter qualitatively the spectrum of amino acids and lipids of the vaginal fluid, an influence is supposed of these substances - like that of glucose - on growth and metabolism of the yeasts and on the clinical manifestation of vaginal candidosis.

  9. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  10. Methods for measuring arctic and alpine shrub growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers-Smith, Isla; Hallinger, Martin; Blok, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs have increased in abundance and dominance in arctic and alpine regions in recent decades. This often dramatic change, likely due to climate warming, has the potential to alter both the structure and function of tundra ecosystems. The analysis of shrub growth is improving our understanding...... of tundra vegetation dynamics and environmental changes. However, dendrochronological methods developed for trees, need to be adapted for the morphology and growth eccentricity of shrubs. Here, we review current and developing methods to measure radial and axial growth, estimate age, and assess growth...... dynamics in relation to environmental variables. Recent advances in sampling methods, analysis and applications have improved our ability to investigate growth and recruitment dynamics of shrubs. However, to extrapolate findings to the biome scale, future dendroecologicalwork will require improved...

  11. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

  12. [The changes of ghrelin, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone and their clinical significances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-song; Bao, Zi-yu; Wang, Zhi-ying; Yang, Guo-jun; Zhu, Dong-fang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Rong-mei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and gastric ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore their clinical significances. Plasma ghrelin, GH, GHRH, TNFα, IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 40 COPD patients and 20 controls with chronic bronchitis. Correlated factors of plasma ghrelin, TNFα, IL-6, CRP were analyzed. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. The expression of gastric ghrelin in patients with COPD was detected. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(1.78 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.39 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.36 ± 0.39) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma GH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(4.12 ± 0.83) µg/L, (5.17 ± 0.72)µg/L, (6.49 ± 1.13) µg/L, respectively]. Plasma GHRH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(20.43 ± 4.41) ng/L, (23.47 ± 3.97) ng/L, (27.48 ± 10.06) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the controls (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was positively correlated with TNFα and IL-6 in the underweight patients. The gastric expression of ghrelin showed no evident difference between the patients with COPD and the controls. The plasma GH in COPD patients may not be correlated with ghrelin. The plasma ghrelin level may be a useful indicator for malnutrition in COPD patients. Plasma ghrelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CODP by affecting the body energy metabolism.

  13. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2012-03-22

    Background: Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis.Results: Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC)--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance.Conclusions: As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions. 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Codon Deviation Coefficient: a novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB. Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis. Results Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance. Conclusions As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions.

  15. Fatigue crack growth thresholds measurements in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, R.; Lidar, P.; Rosborg, B.

    1999-05-01

    Fatigue crack growth thresholds and da/dN-data at low Δk I -values ( 1/2 ) have been determined for type 304 stainless steel, nickel-base weld metal Alloy 182, nickel-base metal Alloy 600, and low-alloy steel in air at ambient temperature and in high-temperature water and steam. The stainless alloys have been tested in water with 0.2 ppm O 2 at 288 deg C and the low-alloy steel in steam at 286 deg C. The fatigue crack growth threshold was defined as the ΔK I -value resulting in a crack growth rate of 10 -7 mm per cycle. The measured fatigue crack growth thresholds (at frequencies from 0.5 to 20 Hz) are quite similar independent of the material and the environment. A relatively inexpensive and time-saving method for measuring fatigue crack growth thresholds, and fatigue crack growth rates at low ΔK I -values, has been used in the tests. The method is a ΔK I -decreasing test with constant K I Max

  16. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BREASTFEEDING FOR THE INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the literature, the review shows the real value of breast milk as the most optimal type of postnatal feeding of infants. We describe biological mechanisms that are supposed to mediate  the influence of breastfeeding on maturation of  immune response, regulation of intestinal functions, trophic effect on small and large intestinal  mucosa, its microflora and somatic growth of an  infant. In infancy, the protective properties of  breast milk against intestinal infections are largely related to its prebiotic effect. According to the  results of the studies on the structure of the milk  fat mycella envelope, their protein not only participate in bacterial adhesion, but also exert substantial anti-microbial activity due to presence of  antimicrobial components. We discuss the role  of protective nutrients, such as zinc, iron, iodine,  selenium and vitamin A and review the results of studies performed in various countries and aimed at evaluation of an association between the type of feeding of an infant in the 1  year of life and the risk of development of somatic abnormalities. A strong influence of micronutrient deficiencies in the pregnant and breastfeeding woman on delay of in utero development has been shown, as well as its contribution to formation of congenital ab- st normalities of any organ or system, connective  tissue dysplasia, initiation and development of alimentary-related conditions in infants.

  18. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  19. Automatic measurement for monitoring crack growth with electric potential technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Masaaki; Shima, Seishi

    1981-10-01

    In the study of fracture mechanics, it is one of the most important problems to monitor the crack growth phenomena. Recently, many experimental methods have been developed. In this report, the Direct Current (DC) potential method is employed for measuring the crack growth length in the pressuried high temperature water. The objective of the current investigation is to develop an experimental method to quantify the sensitivity of this method in the air environment using the Compact Tension (CT) specimen. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) It is ignored that the electrical potential changes with plastic deformation at the crack tip of the specimen. 2) Using the Reversible Direct Current (RDC) Method, the measurement system gives no effect on the electrical stability for a long time. 3) For the fatigue and statical crack growth length, good relation is observed between the crack length-to-specimen width ratio (a/W) and potential ratio (Va/Vo). (author)

  20. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung A; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Han, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Goh, Ri Young; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Ki Jae

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process in which many growth factors and cytokines have an essential role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic agent that acts as a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells through specific cell surface receptors. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is another mechanism linking angiogenesis to malignancy. C-reactive protein (CRP), a representative marker for inflammation, is known for its association with disease progression in many cancer types. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative serum levels of VEGF, IL-6, and CRP in colorectal carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis. A 132 of 143 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. 11 patients with resection margin positive were excluded. Factors considered in analysis of the relationship between VEGF, IL-6, and CRP and histological findings. Patient prognosis was investigated. Serum levels of VEGF and IL-6 were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured using immunoturbidimetry. Median follow-up duration was 18.53 months (range 0.73-43.17 months) and median age of the patients was 62 years (range, 26-83 years). Mean and median levels of VEGF and CRP in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in the normal control group; 608 vs. 334 pg/mL and 528 (range 122-3242) vs. 312 (range 16-1121) (p < 0.001); 1.05 mg/dL vs. 0.43 mg/dL and 0.22 (range 0.00-18.40) vs. 0.07 (range 0.02-6.94) (p = 0.002), respectively. However mean and median level of IL-6 in patients were not significantly higher than in control; 14.33 pg/mL vs. 5.65 pg/mL and 6.00 (range 1.02-139.17) vs. 5.30 (4.50-13.78) (p = 0.327). Although IL-6 and CRP levels were not correlated with other pathological findings, VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.012) and CEA (p = 0.038). When we established the cutoff value for VEGF (825 pg/mL), IL-6 (8

  1. How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with

  2. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  3. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  4. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, and Dept. of General and Vascular Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-02-15

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  5. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  6. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  7. IGF-1 levels are significantly correlated with patient-reported measures of sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, A W; Liu, J S; Vij, A; Mohamed, O; Sathyamoorthy, K; Lipshultz, L I; Khera, M

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation may help to preserve erectile function. We assessed whether serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, a surrogate for GH levels, correlate with sexual function scores in 65 men who completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires, and had serum IGF-1 and testosterone levels determined. Median±s.d. IGF-1 level, SHIM and EPIC scores were 235.0±86.4, 19.5±8.7 and 56.4±28.3 mg ml(-1), respectively. IGF-1 levels and total SHIM score correlate significantly (r=0.31, P=0.02), as do IGF-1 levels and all individual SHIM question scores, and IGF-1 levels and the sexual domain of the EPIC questionnaire (r=0.30, P=0.02). No correlation was observed between IGF-1 levels and Gleason score, IGF-1 and testosterone level or SHIM score and testosterone level. These data support a potential role for the GH axis in erectile function.

  8. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm 3 dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  10. Significancy in atomic mass measurements and the topography of the mass-surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is discussed how to explore new regions of the chart of the nuclides through masses, and what has to be understood under significant mass measurements. In the exploratory phase of a new region of the chart, a result with almost any accuracy is appropriate. The higher the accuracy is, the better the possibility is to see finer structures. (G.P.) 24 refs.; 10 figs

  11. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  12. Vector-based RNA interference against vascular endothelial growth factor-A significantly limits vascularization and growth of prostate cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenes, Francesca; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Frajese, Gaetano; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2005-12-01

    RNA interference technology is emerging as a very potent tool to obtain a cellular knockdown of a desired gene. In this work we used vector-based RNA interference to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that transduction with a plasmid carrying a small interfering RNA targeting all isoforms of VEGF, dramatically impairs the expression of this growth factor in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. As a consequence, PC3 cells loose their ability to induce one of the fundamental steps of angiogenesis, namely the formation of a tube-like network in vitro. Most importantly, our "therapeutic" vector is able to impair tumor growth rate and vascularization in vivo. We show that a single injection of naked plasmid in developing neoplastic mass significantly decreases microvessel density in an androgen-refractory prostate xenograft and is able to sustain a long-term slowing down of tumor growth. In conclusion, our results confirm the basic role of VEGF in the angiogenic development of prostate carcinoma, and suggest that the use of our vector-based RNA interference approach to inhibit angiogenesis could be an effective tool in view of future gene therapy applications for prostate cancer.

  13. Growth in the measurement-while-drilling sector continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports that the measurement while drilling (MWD) market is showing some of the most impressive growth in the oil field. Tremendous improvements in the reliability and capability of MWD tools have spurred the expansion of this market. During 1990, the worldwide MWD market expanded by 48%, rising from $250 million in 1989 to $370 million in 1990. The MWD market should expand 15-20% to exceed $430 million in 1991. Although an expansion of 15-20% is considered good, further growth will be impeded by the slowdown of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Total market growth should return to greater than 20% per year in 1992 and 1993. MWD technology is in the midst of a rapid adaptation phase, led by expansion of formation evaluation and other logs and by international expansion in long-reach directional and horizontal drilling. The formation evaluation-while- drilling market will have minimal impact on the size and growth of the wire line market. Customers will increasingly employ teams which include drilling and petrophysics personnel to make MWD purchase decisions. Integration of performance drilling systems including all bottom hole components will accelerate because of increases in automation and the need for cost reduction

  14. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z

    2018-01-01

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).

  15. In-process hold-up as a measure of safeguards significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the use of the in-process hold-up itself, as a measure of safeguards significance. It is argued that for any process plant it is possible to define design limits for in-process hold-up, outside which the plant will not operate, or will operate in a detectably abnormal manner. It follows, therefore, that if the in-process hold-up can be derived at frequent intervals by input/output analysis from the start of the campaign, the only diversion that can be made from it during that campaign is limited to the quantity necessary to move the apparent in-process hold-up from its normal operating condition to the upper limiting condition. It also follows that detection of this diversion is as positive for protracted diversion as for abrupt diversion. If that part of the in-process inventory that is only measurable by input/output analysis has an upper operating limit that differs from its normal operating limit by less than a significant safeguards quantity of the material in question, the IAEA's criteria for both quantity and timeliness can be met by a combination of input/output analysis to determine in-process hold-up during the campaign, together with a material balance over the campaign. The paper examines the possibility of applying this measure to process plants in general, discusses means of minimizing the in-process inventory that must be determined by input/output analysis, and the performance required of the input and output analysis. It concludes that with current precision of measurement and with one input and one output batch per day, each measured, the method would be satisfactory for a campaign lasting nearly a year and involving 6 tonnes of plutonium. The paper examines the considerable advantages in verification that would arise from limiting safeguards analyses to the two points of input and output. (author)

  16. Combination treatment with ionising radiation and gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839), an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, AJ; Mchugh, LA; Tulchinsky, E.; Kriajevska, M.; Mellon, JK

    2007-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the principal bladder-preserving monotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Seventy percent of muscle-invasive bladder cancers express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is associated with poor prognosis. Ionising radiation (IR) stimulates EGFR causing activation of cytoprotective signalling cascades and thus may be an underlying cause of radioresistance in bladder tumours. We assessed the ability of IR to activate EGFR in bladder cancer cells and the effect of the anti-EGFR therapy, gefitinib on potential radiation-induced activation. Subsequently we assessed the effect of IR on signalling pathways downstream of EGFR. Finally we assessed the activity of gefitinib as a monotherapy, and in combination with IR, using clonogenic assay in vitro, and a murine model in vivo. IR activated EGFR and gefitinib partially inhibited this activation. Radiation-induced activation of EGFR activated the MAPK and Akt pathways. Gefitinib partially inhibited activation of the MAPK pathway but not the Akt pathway. Treatment with combined gefitinib and IR significantly inhibited bladder cancer cell colony formation more than treatment with gefitinib alone (p=0.001-0.03). J82 xenograft tumours treated with combined gefitinib and IR showed significantly greater growth inhibition than tumours treated with IR alone (p=0.04). Combining gefitinib and IR results in significantly greater inhibition of invasive bladder cancer cell colony formation in vitro and significantly greater tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Given the high frequency of EGFR expression by bladder tumours and the low toxicity of gefitinib there is justification to translate this work into a clinical trial. (author)

  17. New CNB measures to stimulate credit growth: problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vidakovic, Neven; Zbašnik, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the new measure implemented by Croatian national bank (CNB). The measure is a decrease in the reserve requirement, but the actual release of funds is contingent on increase in lending to firms. This new measure is significant because for the first time in Croatia there is a measure whose purpose is to affect specifically credit policy of the banks. Although this new measure has good intentions it does not solve the problem of why highly liquid banking system in Croatia is n...

  18. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  19. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  20. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring growth and obesity across childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, H David

    2014-05-01

    The dramatic rise in childhood obesity has driven the demand for tools better able to assess and define obesity and risk for related co-morbidities. In addition, the early life origins of non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with subtle alterations in growth and body composition, including total and regional body fatness, limb/trunk length and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Consequently improved tools based on national reference data, which capture these body components must be developed as the limitations of BMI as a measure of overweight and obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk are now recognised. Furthermore, waist circumference as a measure of abdominal fatness in children is now endorsed by the International Diabetes Federation and National Institute for Clinical and Health Excellence for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. The present paper aims to review the research on growth-related variations in body composition and proportions, together with how national references for percentage body fat, SMM and leg/trunk length have been developed. Where collection of these measures is not possible, alternative proxy measures including thigh and hip circumferences are suggested. Finally, body ratios including the waist:height and muscle:fat ratios are highlighted as potential measures of cardiometabolic disease risk. In conclusion, a collection of national references for individual body measures have been produced against which children and youths can be assessed. Collectively, they have the capacity to build a better picture of an individual's phenotype, which represents their risk for cardiometabolic disease beyond that of the capability of BMI.

  2. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  3. The significance of CBF measurements for precise management of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Usui, Reiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Hirohiko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Severe hemodynamic cerebral ischemia associated with carotid stenosis could be one of the difining characteristics of the high-risk group for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity in patients treated with CEA were analyzed to clarify the significance of preoperative evaluation of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia using CBF-SPECT. Both the resting and acetazolamide-activated rCBF, and the severity of the hemodynamic cerebral ischemia (Stage 0-II) were quantified using the {sup 123}I-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics were compared in both symptomatic patients (n=30) and asymptomatic patients (n=24). Postoperative improvement of resting rCBF was estimated in both groups. Stage II ischemia was quantitatively defined as both a resting rCBF of less than 80% of normal mean CBF and a vascular reserve (VR: (acetazolamide-activated rCBF/Resting rCBF-1) x 100%) of less than 10%. In the other 31 patients treated with CEA, postoperative hyperperfusion was investigated using CBF-SPECT within 24 hours after CEA. Preoperatively, Stage II ischemia (hemodynamically compromised state) was observed in 20% of symptomatic patients and 8% of asymptomatic patients. A significant difference in resting rCBF was indicated between symptomatic patients (31.8{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min) and asymptomatic patients (37.6{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min)(p<0.002, t-test). Severity of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia was generally moderate in symptomatic patients. Postoperatively, a significant increase of resting CBF was observed in symptomatic patients but not in asymptomatic patients. In the other 31 patients treated by CEA, symptomatic hyperperfusion was observed in 3 of 4 patients with Stage II ischemia and asymptomatic hyperperfusion was indicated in 3 of 4 patients with Stage I ischemia with a VR of less than 10%. Preoperative CBF measurements in patients treated with CEA were significant to define severe hemodynamic

  4. Optimized Clustering Estimators for BAO Measurements Accounting for Significant Redshift Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ashley J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Banik, Nilanjan [Fermilab; Avila, Santiago [Madrid, IFT; Percival, Will J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab; Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Madrid, IFT; Crocce, Martin [ICE, Bellaterra; Elvin-Poole, Jack [Jodrell Bank; Giannantonio, Tommaso [Cambridge U., KICC; Manera, Marc [Cambridge U., DAMTP; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT

    2017-05-15

    We determine an optimized clustering statistic to be used for galaxy samples with significant redshift uncertainty, such as those that rely on photometric redshifts. To do so, we study the BAO information content as a function of the orientation of galaxy clustering modes with respect to their angle to the line-of-sight (LOS). The clustering along the LOS, as observed in a redshift-space with significant redshift uncertainty, has contributions from clustering modes with a range of orientations with respect to the true LOS. For redshift uncertainty $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$ we find that while the BAO information is confined to transverse clustering modes in the true space, it is spread nearly evenly in the observed space. Thus, measuring clustering in terms of the projected separation (regardless of the LOS) is an efficient and nearly lossless compression of the signal for $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$. For reduced redshift uncertainty, a more careful consideration is required. We then use more than 1700 realizations of galaxy simulations mimicking the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample to validate our analytic results and optimized analysis procedure. We find that using the correlation function binned in projected separation, we can achieve uncertainties that are within 10 per cent of of those predicted by Fisher matrix forecasts. We predict that DES Y1 should achieve a 5 per cent distance measurement using our optimized methods. We expect the results presented here to be important for any future BAO measurements made using photometric redshift data.

  5. Noise in NC-AFM measurements with significant tip–sample interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Lübbe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency shift noise in non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM imaging and spectroscopy consists of thermal noise and detection system noise with an additional contribution from amplitude noise if there are significant tip–sample interactions. The total noise power spectral density DΔf(fm is, however, not just the sum of these noise contributions. Instead its magnitude and spectral characteristics are determined by the strongly non-linear tip–sample interaction, by the coupling between the amplitude and tip–sample distance control loops of the NC-AFM system as well as by the characteristics of the phase locked loop (PLL detector used for frequency demodulation. Here, we measure DΔf(fm for various NC-AFM parameter settings representing realistic measurement conditions and compare experimental data to simulations based on a model of the NC-AFM system that includes the tip–sample interaction. The good agreement between predicted and measured noise spectra confirms that the model covers the relevant noise contributions and interactions. Results yield a general understanding of noise generation and propagation in the NC-AFM and provide a quantitative prediction of noise for given experimental parameters. We derive strategies for noise-optimised imaging and spectroscopy and outline a full optimisation procedure for the instrumentation and control loops.

  6. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Her-2 Protein in the Genesis of Cervical Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Babiker, Ali Yousif; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Almatroodi, Saleh A; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika O S

    2018-02-15

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of tumours through the formation of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a chief factor responsible for inducing and regulating angiogenesis. Additionally, the human epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptors also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tumours. This study aimed to examine the association between VEGF and Her-2 protein expression and its correlation with clinic-pathological characteristics; in particular, prognosis. A total of 65 cases of cervical carcinoma and 10 samples of inflammatory lesions were evaluated for VEGF and Her-2 protein expression. Expression of VEGF and Her-2 was detected in 63.07% and 43.07% in cervical carcinoma cases respectively whereas control cases did not show any expression. The difference in the expression pattern of both markers comparing cancer and control cases was statistically significant (p 0.05). Comparing different grades of a tumour, expression of Her-2 was detected in 31.8% of well-differentiated tumours, 36.0 % in moderately differentiated tumours and 66.66 % in poorly differentiated cancers. The expression of Her-2 was increased in high-grade tumours, and the difference of expression level between tumour grades was statistically significant (p 0.05). The present study supports earlier findings that over-expression / up-regulation of VEGF and Her - 2 is linked with poor prognosis and may play a vital role in the development and progression of cervical cancer.

  7. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  9. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10 -3 to 25 . 10 -3 ) mol . kg -1 . The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

  10. Linking Tree Growth Response to Measured Microclimate - A Field Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    The general relationship between climate and tree growth is a well established and important tenet shaping both paleo and future perspectives of forest ecosystem growth dynamics. Across much of the American west, water limits growth via physiological mechanisms that tie regional and local climatic conditions to forest productivity in a relatively predictable way, and these growth responses are clearly evident in tree ring records. However, within the annual cycle of a forest landscape, water availability varies across both time and space, and interacts with other potentially growth limiting factors such as temperature, light, and nutrients. In addition, tree growth responses may lag climate drivers and may vary in terms of where in a tree carbon is allocated. As such, determining when and where water actually limits forest growth in real time can be a significant challenge. Despite these challenges, we present data suggestive of real-time growth limitation driven by soil moisture supply and atmospheric water demand reflected in high frequency field measurements of stem radii and cell structure across ecological gradients. The experiment was conducted at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana where, over two years, we observed intra-annual growth rates of four dominant conifer species: Douglas fir, Ponderosa Pine, Engelmann Spruce and Western Larch using point dendrometers and microcores. In all four species studied, compensatory use of stored water (inferred from stem water deficit) appears to exhibit a threshold relationship with a critical balance point between water supply and demand. The occurrence of this point in time coincided with a decrease in stem growth rates, and the while the timing varied up to one month across topographic and elevational gradients, the onset date of growth limitation was a reliable predictor of overall annual growth. Our findings support previous model-based observations of nonlinearity in the relationship between

  11. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  12. Significance of Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Resistance of Pharyngeal Cancer to Irradiation and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Chen, W.-C.; Lu, C.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, K.-D.; Chen, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor eradication by chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer has not been particularly successful. Targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be a potential treatment strategy providing additional benefits, but only a subset of these tumors gives a clinically significant response to EGFR inhibitors. The aim has been to identify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and its predictive power in the treatment response of pharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Human pharyngeal cancer cell lines, including the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line FaDu and its derived cell line FaDu-C225-R, were selected. Changes in tumor growth, response to treatment, and responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, 95 pharyngeal cancer tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlations were made between levels of IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), p-AKT, and p-STAT3 expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Results: In vitro, either extrinsic IL-6 stimulation of cancer cells or intrinsically activated IL-6 signaling detected in FADu-C225-R cells results in resistance to irradiation and EGFR inhibitor. Blocking IL-6 signaling attenuated aggressive tumor behavior and sensitized the cells to treatments. The responsible mechanisms included decreased p-STAT3, less nuclear translocation of EGFR, and subsequently attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Regarding clinical data, staining of p-STAT3 and IL-6 was significantly linked with lower response rates to treatments and shorter survival in pharyngeal cancer patients. Conclusions: IL-6 and p-STAT3 may be significant predictors of pharyngeal carcinoma, and regulating IL-6 signaling can be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

  13. Measure of significance of holotropic breathwork in the development of self-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a re......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design...... MEASURES: The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly.......864; pre-during-test p = 0.0215, pre-post-test p = 0.021, pre-post-test d = 0.5). Pre-test hostility mean (50.50 ± 10.395) decreased at post-test (47.20 ± 9.001; p = 0.0185; d = 0.3). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems total pre-test mean (59.05 ± 17.139) was decreased at post-test (54.8 ± 12.408; p...

  14. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  15. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  16. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 1: temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as "field" or "global" significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the

  17. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hitoshi; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Imoto, Issei; Tamai, Seiichi; Shiotani, Akihiro; Iwaya, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Masaru; Sekiya, Takao; Matsubara, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of several human malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate CTGF protein expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Surgical specimens from 76 primary HNSCC were obtained with written informed consents and the expression level of CTGF was immunohistochemically evaluated. The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of CTGF in cancer cells was semiquantitatively classified into low and high expression. Among all 76 cases with or without neoadjuvant therapy, low CTGF showed significantly longer (P = 0.0282) overall survival (OS), but not disease-free survival (DFS) than high CTGF. Although low CTGF in patients with stage I, II and III did not result in any significant difference of the OS and DFS, stage IV HNSCC patients with low CTGF showed significantly longer OS (P = 0.032) and DFS (P = 0.0107) than those with high CTGF. These differences in stage IV cases were also confirmed using multivariate analyses. These results suggest that low CTGF in stage IV HNSCC is an independent prognostic factor, despite with or without neoadjuvant therapy.

  18. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  19. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.; Bonchev, Ts.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kyrdzhilov, N.

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio η i of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that η i has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. η i = 2.10 -4 for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm; η i = 5 for 89 Sr, 91 Y; 93 Nb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs; η i = 50 for 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 140 Ba, 140 La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity η iexp , derived from surface contamination data. The ratio η iexp /η i is plotted against log η i . The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  1. Measurement and Clinical Significance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Marrocco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is the result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and of the health-enhancing effects of antioxidants. We aim to discuss the major methodological bias of methods used for the evaluation of oxidative stress in humans. There is a lack of consensus concerning the validation, standardization, and reproducibility of methods for the measurement of the following: (1 ROS in leukocytes and platelets by flow cytometry, (2 markers based on ROS-induced modifications of lipids, DNA, and proteins, (3 enzymatic players of redox status, and (4 total antioxidant capacity of human body fluids. It has been suggested that the bias of each method could be overcome by using indexes of oxidative stress that include more than one marker. However, the choice of the markers considered in the global index should be dictated by the aim of the study and its design, as well as by the clinical relevance in the selected subjects. In conclusion, the clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans must come from a critical analysis of the markers that should give an overall index of redox status in particular conditions.

  2. Measurement of serum leptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenemia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yande; Zhang Zhiping; Lu Gen; Luo Beilei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with hyperandrogenemia (HA) and its relationship with testosterone (T) level and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 53 patients with PCOS, in which 36 cases were of the in non-obesity group and 17 cases in obese group. 30 non-obese cases and 20 obese cases without PCOS served as controls. Results: The levels of leptin in PCOS with HA in obese and non-obese group were significantly higher than those in control group (all p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and testosterone levels in both groups (r = 0.51, p < 0.01 and r = 0.58, p < 0.01). No correlation existed between serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS patients of non-obese group but there was positive correlation in obesity group (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Conclusion: High serum leptin levels is one of the characteristic in PCOS patients. The HA in PCOS patients is related to serum leptin levels and heavyweight or obese patients have the phenomenon of leptin resistance

  3. Growth/differentiation factor-5 significantly enhances periodontal wound healing/regeneration compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Rak; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Young-Taek; Bastone, Patrizia; Pippig, Susanne D; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2010-08-01

    Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) in a particulate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) carrier is being evaluated to support periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal wound healing/regeneration following an established clinical (benchmark) protocol including surgical implantation of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP in comparison with that following implantation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF) combined with a particulate beta-TCP biomaterial using an established canine defect model. Bilateral, 4 x 5 mm (width x depth), one-wall, critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth pre-molar teeth in five adult Beagle dogs. Defect sites were randomized to receive rhGDF-5/beta-TCP or the rhPDGF construct followed by wound closure for primary intention healing. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for histological and histometric examination. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. Sites receiving rhGDF-5/beta-TCP exhibited a significantly enhanced cementum formation compared with sites receiving the rhPDGF construct, averaging (+/-SD) 4.49+/-0.48 versus 2.72+/-0.91 mm (palveolar bone. Both protocols displayed beta-TCP residues apparently undergoing resorption. Application of both materials appears safe, as they were associated with limited, if any, adverse events. rhGDF-5/beta-TCP shows a significant potential to support/accelerate periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Application of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP appears safe and should be further evaluated in human clinical trials.

  4. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang; Li, Jun; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Li, Ang; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have

  5. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  6. Clinical significance of transforming growth factor β1 in the diagnosis of the severity of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Викторович Клименко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the clinical-diagnostic and prognostic value of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 at different degrees of severity of acute pancreatitis (AP on the basis of studying the characteristics of content of anti-inflammatory cytokine in serum to create a diagnostic algorithm severity and course of AP.Methods. It is analyzed the data for the study of nature of the transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 content in the serum of 94 patients with AP varying severity (mild case of AP-20 patients, average case - 12, severe case -62 in the first 24-48 hours and 7-10 days of hospitalization.Results. Analysis of the data can reliably assert that the value of TGF-ß1 in the first 48 hours of admission to correlate with AP severity. It is proposed the use of TGF-ß1 level in clinical and diagnostic complex of diagnostic of AP severity in the first 48 hours of hospitalization. If the patient has TGF-β1≤70.0 ng / ml it is mild AP. If the level of cytokine ≥70.1 ng / ml produce differentiation between moderate and severe AP. At the level of cytokine ≥120.1 ng / ml it is severe AP and diagnosis is completed. In the case of the definition of TGF-β1 in the range of> 80.1 - <120.0 ng / ml AP degree uncertain and requires further observation and examination.Conclusions. Diagnostic thresholds of AP severity are determined. It is allowed use of TGF-β1 in a modern complex AP diagnostics. It is proven a diagnostic and prognostic significance level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß1

  7. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonchev, Ts; Mavrodiev, V; Kyrdzhilov, N [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio {eta}{sub i} of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that {eta}{sub i} has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. {eta}{sub i} = 2.10{sup -4} for {sup 238} Pu, {sup 239} Pu, {sup 240} Pu, {sup 241} Am, {sup 244} Cm; {eta}{sub i} = 5 for {sup 89} Sr, {sup 91} Y; {sup 93} Nb, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 137} Cs; {eta}{sub i} = 50 for {sup 55} Fe, {sup 63} Ni, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb, {sup 140} Ba, {sup 140} La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity {eta}{sub iexp}, derived from surface contamination data. The ratio {eta}{sub iexp}/{eta}{sub i} is plotted against log {eta}{sub i}. The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  9. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  10. The Significance of Serum beta2-Microglobulin Measurement in Various Renal Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Oh, Ha Yong; Han, Jin Suk; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-03-15

    To evaluate change of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin concentration (sbeta{sub 2}-MG) and the usefulness of sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sbeta{sub 2}-MG/serum creatinine concentration (sCr) ratio in various renal diseases, sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr were measured in 25 normal controls and 90 patients of various renal diseases (16 cases of glomerulonephritis, 12 cases of acute renal failure, 8 cases of chronic renal failure, 24 cases of nephrotic syndrome, 15 cases of tubulointerstitial diseases and 15 cases of lupus nephritis) using Phadebas beta{sub 2}-Micro Test kits. The results were as follows; 1) In normal control, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 1.65+-0.41 mg/l and the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.14+-0.05. 2) In various renal diseases, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 6.74+-5.47 mg/l. The mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.24+-0.11 and significantly elevated than that of normal contro1. (P<0.05). 3) The correlation between sbeta-2-MG and sCr in glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.90 log sCr-0.48 and its correlation coefficient was 0.78 (P<0.05). 4) In glomerular disease, the correlation between sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.89 log sCr-0.46 (r-0.76) and in tubulointerstitial disease, it was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.95 1og sCr-0.59 (r-0.87). There was no significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). 5) Among 32 cases of glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease patients, whose sCr was within normal range, 17 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG. The mean values of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio in these patients was 0.30+-0.14 and significantly elevated than that of normal control (p<0.05). 6) In 15 cases of lupus nephritis, 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG with normal sCr and 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio. With above results, It was found that the sbeta{sub 2}-MG can be used as an index of glomerular filtration rate as in the case of sCr and thats

  11. Expression and Prognostic Significance of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors 1, 2 and 3 in Periampullary Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Elebro

    Full Text Available Periampullary adenocarcinoma, including pancreatic cancer, is a heterogeneous group of tumours with dismal prognosis, for which there is an urgent need to identify novel treatment strategies. The human epithelial growth factor receptors EGFR, HER2 and HER3 have been studied in several tumour types, and HER-targeting drugs have a beneficial effect on survival in selected types of cancer. However, these effects have not been evident in pancreatic cancer, and remain unexplored in other types of periampullary cancer. The prognostic impact of HER-expression in these cancers also remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the expression and prognostic value of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 in periampullary cancer, with particular reference to histological subtype. To this end, protein expression of EGFR, HER2 and HER3, and HER2 gene amplification was assessed by immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridization, respectively, on tissue microarrays with tumours from 175 periampullary adenocarcinomas, with follow-up data on recurrence-free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS for up to 5 years. EGFR expression was similar in pancreatobiliary (PB and intestinal (I type tumours, but high HER2 and HER3 expression was significantly more common in I-type tumours. In PB-type cases receiving adjuvant gemcitabine, but not in untreated cases, high EGFR expression was significantly associated with a shorter OS and RFS, with a significant treatment interaction in relation to OS (pinteraction = 0.042. In I-type cases, high EGFR expression was associated with a shorter OS and RFS in univariable, but not in multivariable, analysis. High HER3 expression was associated with a prolonged RFS in univariable, but not in multivariable, analysis. Neither HER2 protein expression nor gene amplification was prognostic. The finding of a potential interaction between the expression of EGFR and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in PB-type tumours needs validation

  12. Clinical significance of serum circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, S; Duranyıldız, D; Tas, F; Gezer, U; Akyüz, F; Serilmez, M; Ozgür, E; Yasasever, C T; Vatansever, S; Aykan, N F

    2014-03-01

    The principal aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of serum protein and circulating mRNA of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-four HCC patients and age- and sex-matched 20 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA were determined by the solid-phase sandwich ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR method, respectively. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years, range 36-77 years; where majority of group were male (n = 48, 88.8%). All patients had cirrhotic history. Forty-six percent (n = 25) of patients had Child-Pugh score A, 30% (n = 16) had score B or C. All of the patients were treated with local therapies and none of them received sorafenib. The baseline serum IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in HCC patients than in the control group (p = 0.04), whereas no significant difference was observed for IGF-1 protein levels between the two group (p = 0.18). Patients with history of HBV infection, who were not treated, and who received multiple palliative treatment for HCC had higher serum IGF-1 mRNA levels (p = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.05, respectively). Poor performance status (p IGF-1 nor serum IGF-1 mRNA had significantly adverse effect on survival (p = 0.53 and 0.42, respectively).

  13. Significance of determination of the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Haijiang; Wang Yaling; Wang Lin; Xia Weiren; Shi Min; Lu Yaling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor H (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The serum Hcy (with CLIA) and IGF-II (with RIA) levels were measured in 123 patients with CVD (cerebral infarction 69 and cerebral hemorrhage 54) and 43 controls. Results: The levels of Hcy and IGF-II in patients with CVD were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum Hcy and IGF-II levels in patients with CVD are elevated, Hcy and IGF-II may be involved in the development and pathogenesis of CVD. (authors)

  14. Airborne measurements of nucleation mode particles I: coastal nucleation and growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. O'Dowd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A light aircraft was equipped with a bank of Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs (50% cut from 3–5.4–9.6 nm and a nano-Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (nSMPS and deployed along the west coast of Ireland, in the vicinity of Mace Head. The objective of the exercise was to provide high resolution micro-physical measurements of the coastal nucleation mode in order to map the spatial extent of new particle production regions and to evaluate the evolution, and associated growth rates of the coastal nucleation-mode aerosol plume. Results indicate that coastal new particle production is occurring over most areas along the land-sea interface with peak concentrations at the coastal plume-head in excess of 106 cm−3. Pseudo-Lagrangian studies of the coastal plume evolution illustrated significant growth of new particles to sizes in excess of 8 nm approximately 10 km downwind of the source region. Close to the plume head (<1 km growth rates can be as high as 123–171 nm h−1, decreasing gradually to 53–72 nm h−1 at 3 km. Further along the plume, at distances up to 10 km, the growth rates are calculated to be 17–32 nm h−1. Growth rates of this magnitude suggest that after a couple of hours, coastal nucleation mode particles can reach significant sizes where they can contribution to the regional aerosol loading.

  15. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  16. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  17. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-01-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed

  18. 210Po measurement of borehole core and its significance for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    210 Po survey is a tradition method in uranium exploration and has been widely applied to ground reconnaissance survey and detailed survey of uranium. However, it is seldom applied to drilling work. 210 Po measurements of borehole core for granite-type uranium deposit in Miaoershan area indicate that there are high and large range anomaly which greatly exceeds uranium orebody in uranium mineralization area. The investigation suggests that 210 Po measurements of borehole core can judge whether or not exist buried uranium orebody under the borehole depth and its surrounding in the final exploration stage. The method may be used to the exploration of granite-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of computed tomography in the measurement of thyroid volume after operation for Basedow's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Yoshio; Miyakawa, Makoto; Sugenoya, Akira

    1986-01-01

    The postoperative volume of the thyroid glands was measured using computed tomography (CT) in 16 patients with Basedow's disease. In the group which had normal postoperative thyroid function and did not need to receive T 4 , CT showed increase of thyroid volume. In three of the four patients who needed to receive it, CT showed decreased thyroid volume, as compared with that immediately after operation. CT has proved to serve as a tool for measuring postoperative thyroid volume for Basedow's disease in relation to postoperative prognosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Estimation of individual growth trajectories when repeated measures are missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Clements, Christopher; Pemberton, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Individuals in a population vary in their growth due to hidden and observed factors such as age, genetics, environment, disease, and carryover effects from past environments. Because size affects fitness, growth trajectories scale up to affect population dynamics. However, it can be difficult to ...

  1. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...

  2. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  3. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  4. Clinical significance of measurements of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Cuihua; Luo Nanping; Zhang Daojie; Wei Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 35 patients with coronary heart disease, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 28 patients with cerebral infarction and 30 controls. Results: Serum IL-6 levels in patients with coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IL-6 levels changes could reflect the severity of the inflammatory process and would be helpful in clinical assessment. (authors)

  5. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

    2017-05-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

  6. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  7. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.; Abdel Hady, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

  8. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  9. Modeling, measuring, and mitigating instability growth in liner implosions on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. In this talk, we will discuss the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. We present simulations that show electro-thermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability growth. We discuss measurement results from experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electro-thermal instability growth on well-characterized initially solid aluminum or beryllium rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These measurements show good agreement with electro-thermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone. Recent experiments have confirmed simulation predictions of dramatically reduced instability growth in solid metallic rods when thick dielectric coatings are used to mitigate density perturbations arising from the electro-thermal instability. These results provide further evidence that the inherent surface roughness of the target is not the dominant seed for the MRT instability, in contrast with most inertial confinement fusion approaches. These results suggest a new technique for substantially reducing the integral MRT growth in magnetically driven implosions. Indeed, recent results on the Z facility with 100 km/s Al and Be liner implosions show substantially reduced growth. These new results include axially magnetized, CH-coated beryllium liner radiographs in which the inner liner surface is observed to be remarkably straight and uniform at a radius of about 120 microns (convergence ratio ~20). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under

  10. Measurements of recent microchannel-plate photomultipliers with significantly increased lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Fred; Eyrich, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Albert; Britting, Alexander [Universitaet Erlangen, Physikal. Institut IV (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs) are the favored sensors for the DIRC detectors (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light) of the PANDA experiment. They are usable in high magnetic fields of up to 2T and reach a time resolution of better than 50 ps (σ). The anticipated average luminosity of 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the detector requires a rate capability high enough to withstand a detected photon rate of about 200 kHz cm{sup -2} at the MCP-PMT surfaces. The major drawback until recently was the limited lifetime of MCP-PMTs, which appears to be solved for the latest generation of MCP-PMT prototype devices. The aging parameter is the quantum efficiency as a function of the integrated anode charge, which will be in the region of 5 C/cm{sup 2} for the Barrel- and the Disc-DIRC. We simultaneously measured the aging of several MCP-PMTs, which were treated with different methods to enhance the lifetime. Results of these measurements are presented.

  11. The significance of the glucocorticoid receptor measurement in the treatment of acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haodan

    1992-01-01

    We studied the method of measuring the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) using whole peripheral leukocytes, and measured the GCR level of 20 healthy and 50 cases of acute leukemia. The Kd values were 5.51 ± 2.01 nmol/L and 5.38 ± 1.21 nmol/L. The normal R 0 value (x-bar ± s) was 6878 ±1563 sites/cell, and had no co-relationship with the serum level of total cortisol. The relationship between the GCR level and the effect of chemotherapy and short-term prognosis was also studied. The low affinitive binding sites of glucocorticoid hormone were for the first time observed in 9 normal persons and 5 cases of acute leukemia in the normal subjects, the Kd values were 0.8224±0.241 μmol/L and the R 0 values were 3614.43±1233.33 f mole/10 7 cells. In the leukemic patients, the Kd values were 1.067±0.456 μmol/L and the R 0 values were 3488.94 ± 2272.56 f mole/10 7 cells. The Scatchard curves were obviously of the concave

  12. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian phosphate mines and their significance in the occupational exposure of mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny) and thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny, as well as γ-radiation from mine walls, ceilings and floors. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the Maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60. A number of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines

  13. Assessing clinical significance in measuring oncology patient quality of life: Introduction to the symposium, content overview, and definition of terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloan, Jeff A.; Cella, David; Frost, Marlene; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Sprangers, Mirjam; Symonds, Tara

    2002-01-01

    The Clinical Significance Consensus Meeting Group of the Symposium on the Clinical Significance of Quality-of-Life Measures in Cancer Patients produced 6 articles regarding the clinical significance of quality of life (QOL) assessments in oncology. The 6 articles deal with the methods used to date:

  14. Corrections for the effects of significant wave height and attitude on Geosat radar altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1990-01-01

    Range estimates from a radar altimeter have biases which are a function of the significant wave height (SWH) and the satellite attitude angle (AA). Based on results of prelaunch Geosat modeling and simulation, a correction for SWH and AA was already applied to the sea-surface height estimates from Geosat's production data processing. By fitting a detailed model radar return waveform to Geosat waveform sampler data, it is possible to provide independent estimates of the height bias, the SWH, and the AA. The waveform fitting has been carried out for 10-sec averages of Geosat waveform sampler data over a wide range of SWH and AA values. The results confirm that Geosat sea-surface-height correction is good to well within the original dm-level specification, but that an additional height correction can be made at the level of several cm.

  15. Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Finding significant growth in mice with craniofacial dysmorphology caused by the Crouzon mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterized by growth disturbances caused by premature fusion of the cranial growth zones. A mouse model with mutation Fgfr2C342Y, equivalent to the most common Crouzon syndrome mutation (henceforth called the Crouzon mouse model), has a phenotype showing many parallels to t...... used micro-CT scans of 4-week-old mice (N=5) and 6-week-old mice (N=10) with Crouzon syndrome (Fgfr2 C342Y/+) were compared to control groups of 4-week-old wild-type mice (N=5) and 6-week-old wild-type mice (N=10), respectively....

  16. Measurement of acetabular morphology under three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingying; Yang Qiwei; Lai Ying; Hao Shuang; Ma Hecheng; Xiao Chengshuang; Li Youqiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the acetabular morphology of Chinese on CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction image, and provide the evidence on the prevention and treatment of hip disease. Methods: 96 cases (192 sides) of adult hip CT scans were reconstructed, the acetabular index (AA), center-edge (CE), ACE angle, anteversion angle (AVA), abduction angle (ABA), and vertical diameter (SID) were measured. Results: The total acetabular index was (8.78±5.34)°, of which male was (7.84±5.55)° and female was (9.60±5.06)°. The total CE was (33.59±5.91)°, of which male was (34.55±6.03)° and female was (32.78±5.70)°. The total ACE angle was (29.01±5.65)°, of which male was (28.02±5.94)° and female was (29.80±5.30)°. The total AVA was (20.92±5.55)°, of which male was (20.48±5.08)° and female was (21.25±5.89)°. The total ABA was (51.27±4.16)°, of which male was (51.71±4.37)° and female was (50.89±3.96)°. The total SID was (53.79±3.92) mm, of which male was (56.55±2.64) mm and female was (51.46±3.25) mm. Of the above data, there were statistical differences in the acetabular index, CE angle, ACE angle and acetabular diameter between men and women (P<0.05), Chinese and foreigners (P<0.05). While there was no statistical difference between the left and right sides (P>0.05). Conclusion: There are differences in acetabular morphology between men and women, Chinese and foreigners. Compared with simply using overseas data, it is better to study morphological parameters of native acetabula to instruct the preoperative preparation and operation of national total hip arthroplasty surgery. And it is meaningful to design national parameters. (authors)

  17. Study on the measurement of serum thymidine kinase and its clinical significance in hematological neoplastic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Yamada, Ryusaku; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tsujimoto, Masato; Tsuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1988-06-01

    A 'Prolifigen TK-REA' kit for measuring serum thymidine kinase (TK) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. Laboratory findings for recovery, dilution, and reproducibility were satisfactory. There was no correlation between serum TK activity and serum lactic dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The serum concentration of TK in normal volunteers ranged from 1.6 to 6.5 U/L. It was extremely high for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as compared to the normal value. In the AML group, higher incidence of blasts in peripheral blood tended to be associated with higher serum concentration of TK. A similar tendency was seen in the case of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS). A positive correlation between serum TK activity and the absolute counts of myeloblasts in peripheral blood existed in CML and AML patients. Since patients with hematological neoplastic disorders, who have abnormality in DNA metabolism, tended to have higher serum TK activity than did normal volunteers, serum TK activity may have a potential marker for abnormal DNA metabolism. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Huaijun

    2009-01-01

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  20. Growth measurement of some amylolytic bacillus species in three media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the growth pattern of some Bacillus species on starchy substrates showed that the metabolic activity affected the enzymatic activity. B. subtilis (WBS), B. licheniformis (WBL) and B. coagulans (MBC) generally had higher growth rate. B. circulans (SBC) and B. coagulans (WBC) had higher growth on cornstarch medium with corresponding higher beta-amylase production as compared to other strains such as B. polymyxa. Ten of the 13 Bacillus species studied had better performance on cornstarch than on soluble starch except B. macerans (MBM), B. macerans (SMB2) and B. subtilis (WBS). The enzyme production ranged from 0.022 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.912 unit/cfu x 102 on cornstarch and 0.01 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.693 unit/cfu x 102 on soluble starch. Relatively higher a-amylase activity was observed in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. macerans and B. circulans (WBC1). (author)

  1. Some Limits Using Random Slope Models to Measure Academic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Wright

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic growth is often estimated using a random slope multilevel model with several years of data. However, if there are few time points, the estimates can be unreliable. While using random slope multilevel models can lower the variance of the estimates, these procedures can produce more highly erroneous estimates—zero and negative correlations with the true underlying growth—than using ordinary least squares estimates calculated for each student or school individually. An example is provided where schools with increasing graduation rates are estimated to have negative growth and vice versa. The estimation is worse when the underlying data are skewed. It is recommended that there are at least six time points for estimating growth if using a random slope model. A combination of methods can be used to avoid some of the aberrant results if it is not possible to have six or more time points.

  2. Significance of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling for acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence in mammalian oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2017), s. 537-549 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : amphiregulin * cumulus cells * epidermal growth factor receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Reproductive biology (medical aspects to be 3) Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2016

  3. Using wood quality measures to evaluate second-growth redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen L. Quarles; Yana. Vlachovic

    2012-01-01

    Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) a valued species for use in appearance grade applications, such as decking, exterior siding and interior paneling, because of its dimensional stability. It is also valued for certain exterior-use applications because of its natural decay resistance. Studies have found that young-growth redwood is less resistant to...

  4. Methods for measuring arctic and alpine shrub growth: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myers-Smith, I.H.; Hallinger, M.; Blok, D.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.; Rayback, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs have increased in abundance and dominance in arctic and alpine regions in recent decades. This often dramatic change, likely due to climate warming, has the potential to alter both the structure and function of tundra ecosystems. The analysis of shrub growth is improving our understanding of

  5. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  6. The significance of fibroblast growth factors 8, 17, and 18 and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 for malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglhofer, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and is the fifth most common cancer type worldwide. Effective therapeutic options are still limited to early cancer stages, resulting in a high mortality. Etiological factors for this disease are well known and it is widely accepted that most of the HCCs develop on the base of a chronic inflammatory liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely understood. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signaling plays an important part in growth autonomy and tumor progression in a wide variety of cancer types. Thus far, the role of FGFs in HCC has only been studied in part. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the members of the FGF8-subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) and the FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) to the malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this study one or more FGF8-subfamily members were found to be upregulated in the tissue of the majority (20/34) of human HCC cases studied. Endogenous mRNA levels of FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines were increased further when cells had been subjected to serum withdrawal or hypoxia. Furthermore, addition of recombinant FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 suppressed the elevated apoptotic activity of starved cells and activated the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that FGF8-family members may act as survival factors in liver tumors suffering from insufficient blood supply due to rapid growth. Accordingly, knock-down of endogenous FGF18 expression reduced the viability and the clone formation capacity of the cell lines. In addition, FGF8, FGF17, and/or FGF18 enhanced growth in tumor-associated myofibroblasts and induced DNA replication of hepatic endothelial cells. This points towards a role of FGF8-family members in the epithelial-mesenchymal interplay between the various cell types of HCC. FGFR4, which is expressed

  7. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  8. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  9. Measurement of orbital volume by computed tomography. Especially on the growth of orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Minoru [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Using reconstructed X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of serial coronal sections, we measured the orbital volume and studied its changes with age. The subjects consisted of 109 patients (74 males, 35 females) who had undergone X-ray CT. After the reproducibility of orbital volume measurements and laterality in individuals were confirmed, the relation between the orbital volume and the age, sex, weight, and interlateral orbital rim distance were examined. The difference between two measurements in the same patients was 0.4% for measured volume, which showed the reproducibility of this measurement to be good. The laterality in individuals was 0.06 cm{sup 3}: this difference was very small and not significant. The orbital volume showed no unbalance between the right and left at any stage of growth. Both the height and the interlateral orbital rim distance had a strong correlation with the orbital volume. Referring to the relation between age and orbital volume, a strong correlation with an almost identical approximate equation was obtained for both sexes under 12 years of age. Presumably, the rapid growth of the orbit comes to an end by 15 years of age in males and 11 years in females. This means that more than 95% growth of adults has already been completed in the first half of the teens. The mean orbital volume in adult Japanese is 23.6{+-}2.0 (mean{+-}standard deviation) cm{sup 3} in males and 20.9{+-}1.3 cm{sup 3} in females. (author)

  10. Measurement of orbital volume by computed tomography. Especially on the growth of orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    Using reconstructed X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of serial coronal sections, we measured the orbital volume and studied its changes with age. The subjects consisted of 109 patients (74 males, 35 females) who had undergone X-ray CT. After the reproducibility of orbital volume measurements and laterality in individuals were confirmed, the relation between the orbital volume and the age, sex, weight, and interlateral orbital rim distance were examined. The difference between two measurements in the same patients was 0.4% for measured volume, which showed the reproducibility of this measurement to be good. The laterality in individuals was 0.06 cm 3 : this difference was very small and not significant. The orbital volume showed no unbalance between the right and left at any stage of growth. Both the height and the interlateral orbital rim distance had a strong correlation with the orbital volume. Referring to the relation between age and orbital volume, a strong correlation with an almost identical approximate equation was obtained for both sexes under 12 years of age. Presumably, the rapid growth of the orbit comes to an end by 15 years of age in males and 11 years in females. This means that more than 95% growth of adults has already been completed in the first half of the teens. The mean orbital volume in adult Japanese is 23.6±2.0 (mean±standard deviation) cm 3 in males and 20.9±1.3 cm 3 in females. (author)

  11. On the measurement and use of equality weighted growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongongo, P.D.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available If developing economies keep growing between 4 and 8 %, their current GDP will double between 2025 and 2034. By 2030, they will have already reached incomes above all reasonable poverty thresholds. Does this predict the end of poverty by 2030? By correcting mean income from inequality and comparing its growth to that of the overall GDP, this paper analytically shows that it depends on how such new wealth will be shared. It confirms that it will be the case if growth patterns will be creating jobs and opportunities for the less-well off and hence pull up their revenues. Applying this to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, empirical results underpin that since 2000 SSA meets such a shared prosperity pattern. However, although forecasted to last and eradicate poverty by 2030, this pattern is not robust to crisis periods because it seems that people with lower incomes bear most of the burdens of recession.

  12. Growth-differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8 in the uterus: its identification and functional significance in the golden hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Wai Sum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transforming growth factor-beta superfamily regulates many aspects of reproduction in the female. We identified a novel member of this family, growth-differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8 in the 72 h post coital uterine fluid of the golden hamster by proteomic techniques. Uterine GDF-8 mRNA decreased as pregnancy progressed while its active protein peaked at 72 h post coitus (hpc and thereafter stayed at a lower level. At 72 hpc, the GDF-8 transcript was localized to the endometrial epithelium while its protein accumulated in the stroma. Exogenous GDF-8 slowed down proliferation of primary cultures of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMC and endometrial epithelial cells (EEC. In addition, GDF-8 attenuated the release of LIF (leukaemia inhibiting factor by EEC. As for the embryo in culture, GDF-8 promoted proliferation of the trophotoderm (TM and hatching but discouraged attachment. Our study suggests that GDF-8 could regulate the behavior of preimplantation embryos and fine-tune the physiology of uterine environment during pregnancy.

  13. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  14. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-09-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  15. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  16. The significance of fibroblast growth factors 8, 17, and 18 and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 for malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglhofer, C L

    2010-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and is the fifth most common cancer type worldwide. Effective therapeutic options are still limited to early cancer stages, resulting in a high mortality. Etiological factors for this disease are well known and it is widely accepted that most of the HCCs develop on the base of a chronic inflammatory liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely understood. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signaling plays an important part in growth autonomy and tumor progression in a wide variety of cancer types. Thus far, the role of FGFs in HCC has only been studied in part. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the members of the FGF8-subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) and the FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) to the malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this study one or more FGF8-subfamily members were found to be upregulated in the tissue of the majority (20/34) of human HCC cases studied. Endogenous mRNA levels of FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines were increased further when cells had been subjected to serum withdrawal or hypoxia. Furthermore, addition of recombinant FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 suppressed the elevated apoptotic activity of starved cells and activated the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that FGF8-family members may act as survival factors in liver tumors suffering from insufficient blood supply due to rapid growth. Accordingly, knock-down of endogenous FGF18 expression reduced the viability and the clone formation capacity of the cell lines. In addition, FGF8, FGF17, and/or FGF18 enhanced growth in tumor-associated myofibroblasts and induced DNA replication of hepatic endothelial cells. This points towards a role of FGF8-family members in the epithelial-mesenchymal interplay between the various cell types of HCC. FGFR4, which is expressed

  17. Measurement of fatigue crack growth rate of reactor structural material in air based on DCPD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Donghai; Chen Kai; Yu Lun; Zhang Lefu; Shi Xiuqiang; Xu Xuelian

    2014-01-01

    The principles and details of direct current potential drop (DCPD) in monitoring the crack growth of reactor structural materials was introduced in this paper. Based on this method, the fatigue crack growth rate (CGR) of typical structural materials in nuclear power systems was measured. The effects of applied load, load ratio and loading frequency on the fatigue crack growth rate of reactor structural materials were discussed. The result shows that the fatigue crack growth rate of reactor structural materials depends on the hardness of materials, and the harder the material is, the higher the rate of crack growth is. (authors)

  18. Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

  19. PDE7B is a novel, prognostically significant mediator of glioblastoma growth whose expression is regulated by endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Brooks

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interactions between tumor cells and constituents of their microenvironment are critical determinants of tumor tissue biology and therapeutic responses. Interactions between glioblastoma (GBM cells and endothelial cells (ECs establish a purported cancer stem cell niche. We hypothesized that genes regulated by these interactions would be important, particularly as therapeutic targets. Using a computational approach, we deconvoluted expression data from a mixed physical co-culture of GBM cells and ECs and identified a previously undescribed upregulation of the cAMP specific phosphodiesterase PDE7B in GBM cells in response to direct contact with ECs. We further found that elevated PDE7B expression occurs in most GBM cases and has a negative effect on survival. PDE7B overexpression resulted in the expansion of a stem-like cell subpopulation in vitro and increased tumor growth and aggressiveness in an in vivo intracranial GBM model. Collectively these studies illustrate a novel approach for studying cell-cell interactions and identifying new therapeutic targets like PDE7B in GBM.

  20. [Expression and clinical significance of kisspeptin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in tissue of colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Xu, Qian; Ren, Haipeng

    2016-03-01

    To detect the expression of kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissue of colon cancer, and analyze the relativity between KISS-1, MMP-2, VEGF and pathological characteristics of colon cancer. A total of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 patients with benign colorectal disease who received surgical treatment in our hospital from January 2009 to June 2010 were selected as observation group and control group respectively. The cancer tissue samples and excision samples collected from them were used to detect KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF with immunohistochemistry. The positive rates of KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF were 31.7%, 58.3% and 78.3% in observation group, and 73.3%, 16.7% and 33.3% in control group. The positive rate of KISS-1 in observation group was lower than that in control group (χ(2)=23.489, Pcolon cancer (χ(2)=8.997, P=0.011; χ(2)=6.163, P=0.013; χ(2)=8.519, P=0.014; χ(2)=9.160, P=0.002; χ(2)=16.577, Pclinical stage of colon cancer and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction by detecting KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF.

  1. Clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factors contents in patients with cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiqiang; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Li Xiaohong; Gao Wenjin; Wang Mingtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the serum contents of IGF-I, IGF-II and liver dysfunction (as classified with Child-Pugh grades). Methods: Liver function test profiles as well as serum IGF-I, IGF-II contents ( with IRMA) were studied in 46 patients with liver cirrhosis and 32 controls. Results: According to the degree of liver dysfunction, these 46 patients with cirrhosis could be classified as: Child Grade A, n=17; Child B, n=20; and Child C, n=9. The serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents in the cirrhotic patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.001). The levels dropped along with the progression of child classification grades. Changes of IGF-II were more sensitive than those of IGF-I. Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents were closely associated with degree of liver dysfunction and might be of prognostic significance. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α contents in patients receiving kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Cuihua; Xu Jun; Zhang Daojie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α contents in patients following kidney transplantation. Methods: Serum and urinary TNF-α contents were measured with RIA in 45 patients receiving kidney transplantation (both before and 2 day after operation) and 45 controls. In the group of 33 patients without rejection, serial dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α content were repeatedly performed on d7, d14, d21 and d28 postoperatively. Results: Serum TNF-α levels in all the patients groups were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Urinary TNF-α levels dropped even faster and approached control values by d7. Conclusion: Continuous monitoring of post-operative serum and urinary TNF-α contents serves as an important indicator of the function of the transplanted kidney

  3. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael; Romero, Sara; Díez, Juan J

    2012-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions. It acts through the interaction with specific FGF receptors and a cofactor called β-Klotho, whose expression is predominantly detected in metabolically active organs. FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter-1. This action is additive and independent of insulin. β-Cell function and survival are preserved, and glucagon secretion is reduced by this protein, thus decreasing hepatic glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity. Lipid profile has been shown to be improved by FGF21 in several animal models. FGF21 increases energy expenditure in rodents and induces weight loss in diabetic nonhuman primates. It also exerts favorable effects on hepatic steatosis and reduces tissue lipid content in rodents. Adaptive metabolic responses to fasting, including stimulation of ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, seem to be partially mediated by FGF21. In humans, serum FGF21 concentrations have been found elevated in insulin-resistant states, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 levels are correlated with hepatic insulin resistance index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. A relationship between FGF21 levels and long-term diabetic complications, such as nephropathy and carotid atheromatosis, has been reported. FGF21 levels decreased in diabetic patients after starting therapy with insulin or oral agents. Increased FGF21 serum levels have also been found to be associated with obesity. In children, it is correlated with BMI and leptin levels, whereas in adults, FGF21 levels are mainly related to several components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum FGF21 levels have been found to be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease. In patients with renal disease, FGF21 levels exhibited a progressive increase as

  4. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  5. Measurement of fatigue crack growth using low-profile eddy-current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchburn, R.J.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Burke, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Conformable spiral coils show promise as permanently mounted eddy-current sensors for the detection and monitoring of surface-breaking cracks in electrically conductive structures. Flexibility and a low profile (typically less than 0.5 mm) are key advantages that allow the sensors to be unobtrusively mounted on curved surfaces and beneath surface coatings. Furthermore, these sensors can be permanently mounted in areas that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach without significant disassembly. The sensors can be activated and interrogated using the same well-established electromagnetic measurement principles in eddy-current nondestructive inspection. A material test machine was used to grow through-thickness fatigue crack in a compact-tension specimen made from the aerospace-grade aluminium alloy AA2014. The growth of the crack was examined by measuring the small impedance changes of planar spiral-coil sensors attached to the specimen. The results indicate that permanently attached conformable spiral coils can be used to detect a deep crack once it has grown beneath the sensor, and then to monitor subsequent crack growth.

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianquan; Zhou Minglian; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male patients with infertility. Methods: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL (with RIA) were measured in 36 male patients with infertility and 35 male controls. Results: Serum T level was significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α, FSH and PRL levels were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.01). Serum TNF-α level was negatively correlated with T level in the patients (r=-0.5184, P<0.01) and positively correlated with FSH, PRL levels (r=0.6184, 0.5925, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels were significantly changed in male with infertility and determination of which might useful for prognosis and treatment clinically. (authors)

  7. Developing a General Outcome Measure Off Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  8. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Movement for Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Luze, Gayle J.; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan; Leitschuh, Carol

    2002-01-01

    The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in movement in children (ages birth-3) is described. Results from the use of the Movement General Outcome Measurement with 29 infants and toddlers demonstrated the feasibility of the measure. The 6-minute assessment was found reliable in terms of inter-observer agreement. (Contains…

  9. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  10. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy....

  11. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  12. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  13. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum insulin-like growth factor II levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic obstruive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum IGF-II levels was determined with radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with COPD and 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-II levels in patients with COPD were significantly higher than those in controls (0.65 ± 0.22μg/L vs 0.51±0.18μg/L, P<0.01). There were no significant differences among the levels in patients of different stages (stages I, II, III). Levels of IGF-II were significantly higher in patients succumbed to the dis- ease than those in patients recoverd (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD, especially in those succumbed. (authors)

  15. Computation of complexity measures of morphologically significant zones decomposed from binary fractal sets via multiscale convexity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sin Liang; Koo, Voon Chet; Daya Sagar, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Multiscale convexity analysis of certain fractal binary objects-like 8-segment Koch quadric, Koch triadic, and random Koch quadric and triadic islands-is performed via (i) morphologic openings with respect to recursively changing the size of a template, and (ii) construction of convex hulls through half-plane closings. Based on scale vs convexity measure relationship, transition levels between the morphologic regimes are determined as crossover scales. These crossover scales are taken as the basis to segment binary fractal objects into various morphologically prominent zones. Each segmented zone is characterized through normalized morphologic complexity measures. Despite the fact that there is no notably significant relationship between the zone-wise complexity measures and fractal dimensions computed by conventional box counting method, fractal objects-whether they are generated deterministically or by introducing randomness-possess morphologically significant sub-zones with varied degrees of spatial complexities. Classification of realistic fractal sets and/or fields according to sub-zones possessing varied degrees of spatial complexities provides insight to explore links with the physical processes involved in the formation of fractal-like phenomena.

  16. The Gut-Brain Axis in Healthy Females: Lack of Significant Association between Microbial Composition and Diversity with Psychiatric Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C Kleiman

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females.Female participants (n = 91 ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv Perceived Stress Scale; and (v Mini International Personality Item Pool. Bacterial composition and diversity were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and associations were examined using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient, in conjunction with Benjamini and Hochberg's False Discovery Rate procedure.We found no significant associations between microbial markers of gut composition and diversity and scores on psychiatric measures of anxiety, depression, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, stress, or personality in a large cohort of healthy adult females.This study was the first specifically to examine associations between the intestinal microbiota and psychiatric measures in healthy females, and based on 16S rRNA taxonomic abundances and diversity measures, our results do not suggest a strong role for the enteric microbe-gut-brain axis in normal variation on responses to psychiatric measures in this population. However, the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness may be limited to more severe psychopathology.

  17. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  18. Measurement of serum FT3 and FT4 in patients with chronic renal failure and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qingling; Zhang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and it's clinical significance. Methods: FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay for 42 CRF patients (42 CRF patients were subdivided into uremia and azotemia) and 18 cases of renal disease patients with a normal renal function. Results: Levels of FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group and azotemia group were significantly lower than that of normal renal function group (P 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group were remarkably lower than azotemia group (P 3 , FT 4 in patients with CRF can reflect the severity of renal function damage, and can also be an important prognosis index

  19. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  20. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  1. Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell-Jones David L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between

  2. Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Nicolas; El Tayeb El Obied, Khalid; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the

  3. Assessing the Reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Application of Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Kim, Dong-Il; Branum-Martin, Lee; Wayman, Miya Miura; Espin, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) as a method for estimating reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) progress-monitoring data. The LGM approach permits the error associated with each measure to differ at each time point, thus providing an alternative method for examining of the…

  4. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Expressive Communication of Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luze, Gayle J.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Walker, Dale; Leitschuh, Carol; Atwater, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in expressive communication in children from birth to 3 years of age Results from a sample of 50 infants and toddlers assessed monthly for 9 months in indicated that the measure displayed adequate psychometric properties of reliability and validity and was sensitive to…

  5. An inverse modeling procedure to determine particle growth and nucleation rates from measured aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Verheggen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical nucleation theory is unable to explain the ubiquity of nucleation events observed in the atmosphere. This shows a need for an empirical determination of the nucleation rate. Here we present a novel inverse modeling procedure to determine particle nucleation and growth rates based on consecutive measurements of the aerosol size distribution. The particle growth rate is determined by regression analysis of the measured change in the aerosol size distribution over time, taking into account the effects of processes such as coagulation, deposition and/or dilution. This allows the growth rate to be determined with a higher time-resolution than can be deduced from inspecting contour plots ('banana-plots''. Knowing the growth rate as a function of time enables the evaluation of the time of nucleation of measured particles of a certain size. The nucleation rate is then obtained by integrating the particle losses from time of measurement to time of nucleation. The regression analysis can also be used to determine or verify the optimum value of other parameters of interest, such as the wall loss or coagulation rate constants. As an example, the method is applied to smog chamber measurements. This program offers a powerful interpretive tool to study empirical aerosol population dynamics in general, and nucleation and growth in particular.

  6. Measuring the Effects of Human Capital on Growth in the Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia NEAGU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that human capital is critical for economic growth. The exploration of the impact of human capital on growth could bring valuable information for policy makers to substantiate their development strategies and to stimulate factors leading to economic growth. The paper aims to investigate the relationships between human capital and economic growth in the romanian economy by analyzing the correlations between statistical variables measuring human capital and economic growth. Using a regression model, it is analyzed the impact of the educational and health capital on the economic output. In the paper, a linear regression model of the relation of human capital to economic growth is subjet of an empirical analysis, firstly, taking into consideration only education as human capital and secondly, incorporating in the model the both components: health and education. A strong correlation between educational variables and GDP, for 1990-2010, was found. The quality of the educational capital has a determinant role in the economic growth, the highly educated people are influencing more the economic output than the secondary educated ones. GDP per capita is negatively correlated with the number of worked hours and positively influenced by the life expectancy. The most important contribution contained by this article refers to the incorporation of the two components of human capital in the same econometric model explaining the economic growth. The added value of paper consists in offering suggestions and orientation for national educational policies.

  7. Diurnally resolved particulate and VOC measurements at a rural site: indication of significant biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, S. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J. R.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Mihele, C.; Stroud, C. A.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-06-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios including C6 to C8 aromatics, isoprene, monoterpenes, acetone and organic aerosol mass loadings at a rural location in southwestern Ontario, Canada by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. During the three-week-long Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study in June-July 2007, air was sampled from a range of sources, including aged air from the polluted US Midwest, direct outflow from Detroit 50 km away, and clean air with higher biogenic input. After normalization to the diurnal profile of CO, a long-lived tracer, diurnal analyses show clear photochemical loss of reactive aromatics and production of oxygenated VOCs and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during the daytime. Biogenic VOC mixing ratios increase during the daytime in accord with their light- and temperature-dependent sources. Long-lived species, such as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol and benzene show little to no photochemical reactivity on this timescale. From the normalized diurnal profiles of VOCs, an estimate of OH concentrations during the daytime, measured O3 concentrations, and laboratory SOA yields, we calculate integrated local organic aerosol production amounts associated with each measured SOA precursor. Under the assumption that biogenic precursors are uniformly distributed across the southwestern Ontario location, we conclude that such precursors contribute significantly to the total amount of SOA formation, even during the period of Detroit outflow. The importance of aromatic precursors is more difficult to assess given that their sources are likely to be localized and thus of variable impact at the sampling location.

  8. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  9. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Addison, Graeme E., E-mail: hincks@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: gaddison@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  10. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism which enables a population of bacteria to coordinate cooperative behaviors in response to the accumulation of self-produced autoinducer signals in their local environment. An emerging framework is that the adaptive significance of QS in the regulation of production of costly extracellular metabolites ("public goods") is to maintain the homeostasis of cooperation. We investigated this model using the phytopathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae, which we have previously demonstrated uses QS to regulate the production of rhamnolipids, extracellular surface-active glycolipids promoting the social behavior called "swarming motility." Using mass spectrometric quantification and chromosomal lux-based gene expression, we made the unexpected finding that when unrestricted nutrient resources are provided, production of rhamnolipids is carried out completely independently of QS regulation. This is a unique observation among known QS-controlled factors in bacteria. On the other hand, under nutrient-limited conditions, QS then becomes the main regulating mechanism, significantly enhancing the specific rhamnolipids yield. Accordingly, decreasing nutrient concentrations amplifies rhamnolipid biosynthesis gene expression, revealing a system where QS-dependent regulation is specifically triggered by the growth rate of the population, rather than by its cell density. Furthermore, a gradual increase in QS signal specific concentration upon decrease of specific growth rate suggests a reduction in quorum threshold, which reflects an increase in cellular demand for production of QS-dependent target gene product at low density populations. Integration of growth rate with QS as a decision-making mechanism for biosynthesis of costly metabolites, such as rhamnolipids, could serve to assess the demand and timing for expanding the carrying capacity of a population through spatial expansion mechanisms, such as swarming motility, thus

  11. In-line bulk supersaturation measurement by electrical conductometry in KDP crystal growth from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordui, P. F.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1984-07-01

    A method is presented for in-line bulk supersaturation measurement in crystal growth from aqueous solution. The method is based on a computer-controlled concentration measurement exploiting an experimentally predetermined cross-correlation between the concentration, electrical conductivity, and temperature of the growth solution. The method was applied to Holden crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). An extensive conductivity-temperature-concentration data base was generated for this system over a temperature range of 31 to 41°C. The method yielded continous, automated bulk supersaturation output accurate to within ±0.05 g KDP100 g water (±0.15% relative supersaturation).

  12. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain. Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO, local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees, tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results. Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  16. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  17. Measures to inhibit the growth of apple tree top with the `gala´ variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž BEBER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Fruit Research Center Maribor different methods of less vigorous growth of apple tree top with the variety `Gala´ were conducted during the period from 2010 to 2013: applying a coating of the central leader at a height of 2.2 m with 2 % solution of growth regulator NAA (Luxan Late – Val and plant resin, the use of the growth retardant Regalis (2 times, of replacing the the top of the tree with the highest appropriate bent branch, removal of new shoots 28 days after flowering (tearing and the June cut after the completion of the primary growth. Increment of annual shoots and harvest in the top (over 2.2 m was followed. Most commonly used practices, the June cut and tearing of young shoots resulted in the strongest growth in the top. The vigour of the top of the tree was the best reduced by the use of plant growth regulators (Regalis and NAA top coating and replacing the top of the tree. The highest yield of the top of the tree was achieved by using Regalis, meanwhile tearing of the young shoots gave the lowest yield. The replacing the top of the tree is suitable measure for organic production, because it successfully reduces the vigour of the tree top without the use of growth regulators.

  18. Self-similar measures in multi-sector endogenous growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Torre, Davide; Marsiglio, Simone; Mendivil, Franklin; Privileggi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We analyze two types of stochastic discrete time multi-sector endogenous growth models, namely a basic Uzawa–Lucas (1965, 1988) model and an extended three-sector version as in La Torre and Marsiglio (2010). As in the case of sustained growth the optimal dynamics of the state variables are not stationary, we focus on the dynamics of the capital ratio variables, and we show that, through appropriate log-transformations, they can be converted into affine iterated function systems converging to an invariant distribution supported on some (possibly fractal) compact set. This proves that also the steady state of endogenous growth models—i.e., the stochastic balanced growth path equilibrium—might have a fractal nature. We also provide some sufficient conditions under which the associated self-similar measures turn out to be either singular or absolutely continuous (for the three-sector model we only consider the singularity).

  19. Preoperative Cleft Lip Measurements and Maxillary Growth in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Tompson, Bryan D; Fisher, David M

    2016-11-01

    Maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate is highly variable. The authors' aim was to investigate associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and maxillary growth determined cephalometrically in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (cUCLP). Retrospective cross-sectional study. Children with cUCLP. Preoperative cleft lip measurements were made at the time of primary cheiloplasty and available for each patient. Maxillary growth was evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs taken prior to any orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting (8.5 ± 0.7 years). The presence of associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and cephalometric measures of maxillary growth was determined using regression analyses. In the 58 patients included in the study, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 90% and in transverse width in 81% of patients. There was an inverse correlation between cleft lateral lip height and transverse width with a β coefficient of -0.382 (P = .003). Patients with a more deficient cleft lateral lip height displayed a shorter maxillary length (β coefficient = 0.336; P = .010), a less protruded maxilla (β coefficient = .334; P = .008), and a shorter anterior maxillary height (β coefficient = 0.306; P = .020) than those with a less deficient cleft lateral lip height. Patients with cUCLP present with varying degrees of lateral lip hypoplasia. Preoperative measures of lateral lip deficiency are related to later observed deficiencies of maxillary length, protrusion, and height.

  20. The Link Between Economic Growth, Crime and Deterrence Measures in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of crime in Nigeria has become devastating and in order to put more sanity into the economy and the country at large, the Government has embarked on different deterrence measures in curbing crime. Thus, this study examined the interaction of deterrence measures with crime in order to see how economic growth was affected when they were used in curbing crime at different instances. That is, the interaction of deterrence measures with crime informed us how they have helped in lowering crime in Nigeria for a better economic growth to subsist. The deterrence measures considered in this work are in line with the rational choice theory being the cost of crime imposed on the society. Furthermore, this study considered data from 1975 to 2013 with the use of autoregressive distributed lag model. Moreover, the results showed that crime dependency on deterrence measures asymmetrically constituted means of lowering economic growth in the country. Hence, this study suggested that prosecution should be well funded and in order to curb crime and improve economic growth in Nigeria. That is, this would afford the country to reduce the congestion of prison inmates and thus, it would discourage long waiting trials.

  1. Unlocking the coral calcification process: Insights from boron isotope measurements and a skeletal growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, N. R.; Guo, W.; Cohen, A. L.; Huang, K. F.; Foster, G. L.; Donald, H.; Solow, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate skeletons of scleractinian corals are important archives of ocean climate and environmental change. However, corals don't accrete their skeletons directly from ambient seawater, but from a calcifying fluid whose composition is strongly regulated. There is mounting evidence that the carbonate chemistry of this calcifying fluid significantly impacts the amount of carbonate the coral can precipitate, which in turn affects the geochemical composition of the skeleton produced. However the mechanistic link between calcifying fluid (cf) chemistry, particularly the up-regulation of pHcf and thereby aragonite saturation state (Ωcf), and coral calcification is not well understood. We explored this link by combining boron isotope measurements with in situ measurements of seawater temperature, salinity, and DIC to estimate Ωcf of nine Porites corals from four Pacific reefs. Associated calcification rates were quantified for each core via CT scanning. We do not observe a relationship between calcification rates and Ωcf or Ωsw. Instead, when we deconvolve calcification into linear extension and skeletal density, a significant correlation is observed between density and Ωcf, and also Ωsw while extension does not correlate with either. These observations are consistent with the two-step model of coral calcification, in which skeleton is secreted in two distinct phases: vertical extension creating new skeletal elements, followed by lateral thickening of existing elements that are covered by living tissue. We developed a numerical model of Porites skeletal growth that builds on this two-step model and links skeletal density with the external seawater environment via its influence on the chemistry of coral calcifying fluid. We validated the model using existing coral skeletal datasets from six Porites species collected across five reef sites, and quantified the effects of each seawater parameter (e.g. temperature, pH, DIC) on skeletal density. Our findings illustrate

  2. A significant carbon sink in temperate forests in Beijing: based on 20-year field measurements in three stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianXiao; Hu, XueYang; Yao, Hui; Liu, GuoHua; Ji, ChenJun; Fang, JingYun

    2015-11-01

    Numerous efforts have been made to characterize forest carbon (C) cycles and stocks in various ecosystems. However, long-term observation on each component of the forest C cycle is still lacking. We measured C stocks and fluxes in three permanent temperate forest plots (birch, oak and pine forest) during 2011–2014, and calculated the changes of the components of the C cycle related to the measurements during 1992–1994 at Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. Forest net primary production in birch, oak, and pine plots was 5.32, 4.53, and 6.73 Mg C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Corresponding net ecosystem production was 0.12, 0.43, and 3.53 Mg C ha-1 a-1. The C stocks and fluxes in 2011–2014 were significantly larger than those in 1992–1994 in which the biomass C densities in birch, oak, and pine plots increased from 50.0, 37.7, and 54.0 Mg C ha-1 in 1994 to 101.5, 77.3, and 110.9 Mg C ha-1 in 2014; soil organic C densities increased from 207.0, 239.1, and 231.7 Mg C ha-1 to 214.8, 241.7, and 238.4 Mg C ha-1; and soil heterotrophic respiration increased from 2.78, 3.49, and 1.81 Mg C ha-1 a-1 to 5.20, 4.10, and 3.20 Mg C ha-1 a-1. These results suggest that the mountainous temperate forest ecosystems in Beijing have served as a carbon sink in the last two decades. These observations of C stocks and fluxes provided field-based data for a long-term study of C cycling in temperate forest ecosystems.

  3. Growth and Low Temperature Transport Measurements of Pure and Doped Bismuth Selenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mlack, Jerome Thomas

    Se3, which is a strong spin orbit material and a topological insulator. I describe a synthesis technique and low-temperature transport measurements of nanostructures of Bi2Se3, that when annealed with palladium show evidence of superconductivity. The growth method is a catalyst-free atmospheric...... with palladium via annealing, the transport properties of the samples can be altered to exhibit superconductivity. Thin films of palladium are deposited on prefabricated Bi2Se3 nanodevices and annealed at temperatures in excess of 100 Celsius. We find that Bi2Se3 absorbs Pd under these conditions...... pressure vapor-solid growth. The growth method yields a variety of nanostructures, and materials analysis shows ordered structures of bismuth selenide in all cases. Low-temperature measurements of as-grown nanostructures indicate tunable carrier density in all samples. By doping the nanostructures...

  4. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements of three-dimensional modulations in a nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Sadot, O.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the nonlinear evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is essential in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The nonlinear RT growth of three-dimensional (3-D) broadband nonuniformities was measured near saturation levels using x-ray radiography in planar foils accelerated by laser light. The initial 3-D target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and subsequently amplified by the RT instability. The measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in excellent agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [S. Haan, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. These spectra and growth velocities are insensitive to initial conditions. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions, in agreement with the Alon-Oron-Shvarts theoretical predictions [D. Oron et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883 (2001)

  6. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  7. In vivo measurement of tumor estradiol and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, Stina; Dabrosin, Charlotta

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis, crucial for tumor progression, is a process regulated in the tissue micro-environment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulatory factor of angiogenesis and a negative prognostic indicator of breast cancer. VEGF is biologically active in the extracellular space and hitherto, there has been a lack of techniques enabling sampling of angiogenic molecules such as VEGF in situ. The majority of breast cancers are estrogen-dependent, and estrogen has been shown to regulate VEGF in normal breast tissue and experimental breast cancer. We investigated if microdialysis may be applicable in human breast cancer for sampling of extracellular VEGF in situ and to explore if there is an association with local estradiol and VEGF levels in normal and cancerous breast tissue. Microdialysis was used to sample VEGF and estradiol in tumors and adjacent normal breast tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. VEGF and estradiol were also measured in plasma, and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF was performed on tumor sections. We show that in vivo levels of extracellular VEGF were significantly higher in breast cancer tumors than in normal adjacent breast tissue. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and extracellular VEGF in normal breast tissue. However, no correlation was detected between estradiol and VEGF in tumors or between tumor VEGF and plasma VEGF. We conclude that VEGF and estradiol correlates significantly in normal breast tissue. Microdialysis may be used to provide novel insight in breast tumor biology and the regulation of molecules in the extracellular space of human breast tumors in vivo

  8. Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Monnereau; S. Vogelezang; C.J. Kruithof (Claudia); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified many loci and biological pathways that influence adult body mass index (BMI). We aimed to identify if biological pathways related to adult BMI also affect infant growth and childhood adiposity measures. Methods:

  9. Serial hemodynamic measurement in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rang, Saskia; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Wolf, Hans

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study hypothesis was that hemodynamic measurements in conjunction with uterine artery Doppler could enable selection of women at risk for the development of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate (RR), cardiac

  10. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Value of volume measurements in evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysms growth rate and need for surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kontopodisn@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece); Metaxa, Eleni, E-mail: emmetaxa@gmail.com [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papaharilaou, Yannis, E-mail: yannisp@iacm.forth.gr [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Georgakarakos, Efstratios, E-mail: efstratiosgeorg@gmail.com [Vascular Surgery Department, “Demokritus” University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Tsetis, Dimitris, E-mail: tsetis@med.uoc.gr [Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Ioannou, Christos V., E-mail: ioannou@med.uoc.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To examine whether indices other than the traditionally used abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximum diameter, such as AAA volume, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness and ILT volume, may be superior to evaluate aneurismal enlargement. Materials and methods: Thirty-four small AAAs (initially presenting a maximum diameter <5.5 cm which is the threshold for surgical repair) with an initial and a follow-up CT were examined. Median increase and percentile annual change of these variables was calculated. Correlation between growth rates as determined by the new indices under evaluation and those of maximum diameter were assessed. AAAs were divided according to outcome (surveillance vs. elective repair after follow-up which is based on the maximum diameter criterion) and according to growth rate (high vs. low) based on four indices. Contingency between groups of high/low growth rate regarding each of the four indices on one hand and those regarding need for surgical repair on the other was assessed. Results: A strong correlation between growth rates of maximum diameter and those of AAA and ILT volumes could be established. Evaluation of contingency between groups of outcome and those of growth rate revealed significant associations only for AAA and ILT volumes. Subsequently AAAs with a rapid volumetric increase over time had a likelihood ratio of 10 to be operated compared to those with a slower enlargement. Regarding increase of maximum diameter, likelihood ratio between AAAs with rapid and those with slow expansion was only 3. Conclusion: Growth rate of aneurysms regarding 3Dimensional indices of AAA and ILT volumes is significantly associated with the need for surgical intervention while the same does not hold for growth rates determined by 2Dimensional indices of maximum diameter and ILT thickness.

  12. Value of volume measurements in evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysms growth rate and need for surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Tsetis, Dimitris; Ioannou, Christos V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether indices other than the traditionally used abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximum diameter, such as AAA volume, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness and ILT volume, may be superior to evaluate aneurismal enlargement. Materials and methods: Thirty-four small AAAs (initially presenting a maximum diameter <5.5 cm which is the threshold for surgical repair) with an initial and a follow-up CT were examined. Median increase and percentile annual change of these variables was calculated. Correlation between growth rates as determined by the new indices under evaluation and those of maximum diameter were assessed. AAAs were divided according to outcome (surveillance vs. elective repair after follow-up which is based on the maximum diameter criterion) and according to growth rate (high vs. low) based on four indices. Contingency between groups of high/low growth rate regarding each of the four indices on one hand and those regarding need for surgical repair on the other was assessed. Results: A strong correlation between growth rates of maximum diameter and those of AAA and ILT volumes could be established. Evaluation of contingency between groups of outcome and those of growth rate revealed significant associations only for AAA and ILT volumes. Subsequently AAAs with a rapid volumetric increase over time had a likelihood ratio of 10 to be operated compared to those with a slower enlargement. Regarding increase of maximum diameter, likelihood ratio between AAAs with rapid and those with slow expansion was only 3. Conclusion: Growth rate of aneurysms regarding 3Dimensional indices of AAA and ILT volumes is significantly associated with the need for surgical intervention while the same does not hold for growth rates determined by 2Dimensional indices of maximum diameter and ILT thickness

  13. Wall extensibility: its nature, measurement and relationship to plant cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cells is controlled principally by processes that loosen the wall and enable it to expand irreversibly. The central role of wall relaxation for cell expansion is reviewed. The most common methods for assessing the extension properties of plant cell walls ( wall extensibility') are described, categorized and assessed critically. What emerges are three fundamentally different approaches which test growing cells for their ability (a) to enlarge at different values of turgor, (b) to induce wall relaxation, and (c) to deform elastically or plastically in response to an applied tensile force. Analogous methods with isolated walls are similarly reviewed. The results of these different assays are related to the nature of plant cell growth and pertinent biophysical theory. I argue that the extensibilities' measured by these assays are fundamentally different from one another and that some are more pertinent to growth than others.

  14. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs): the significance of using humanistic measures in clinical trial and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, P; Minacori, R; Mele, V; Sacchini, D; Spagnolo, A G

    2012-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) is an "umbrella term" that covers a whole range of potential types of measurement but it is used specifically to refer to all measures quantifying the state of health through the evaluation of outcomes reported by the patient himself/herself. PROs are increasingly seen as complementary to biomedical measures and they are being incorporated more frequently into clinical trials and clinical practice. After considering the cultural background of PROs - that is the well known patient-centered model of medicine -, their historical profile (since 1914, the year of the first outcome measure) and typologies, the paper aims at debating their methodological complexity and implementation into practice. Some clinical trials and therapeutic managements utilizing patient-centered measures will be also analyzed.

  15. Estimating age from recapture data: integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated

  16. Detection and significance of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Rong Kang; Pei-Li Gu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the content of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in serum and the relationship with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis.Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes, 82 cases of patients with osteoporosis, 79 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic osteoporosis and 86 cases of healthy person were selected, the levels of IGF-1, diabetes related factors (fasting plasma c-peptide, FIN, HbA1c, GLU) and osteoporosis related factors (BMP, osteocalcin,β-CTx, P1NP, lumbar vertebra BMD) were detected, the relationship between the above indicators were compared with those of the disease.Results: In each group, content change of IGF-1 was not statistically significant; content changes of IGF-1, BMP and osteocalcin were control group>type 2 diabetes group>osteoporosis group>type 2 diabetic osteoporosis group. Diabetic osteoporosis enhanced the decrease of IGF-1 content. The contents ofβ-CTx and P1NP in osteoporosis group and diabetic osteoporosis group were similar, which were significantly lower than that in control group and type 2 diabetes group. The level of lumbar vertebra BMD in osteoporosis group and diabetic osteoporosis group were the lowest. Fasting plasma c-peptide in diabetes group and diabetic osteoporosis group were significantly lower than that in control group and osteoporosis group, and the content of fasting plasma c-peptide in diabetic osteoporosis group was the lowest. The contents of FIN, HbA1c and GLU in type 2 diabetes group and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis group were significantly higher than that in control group and osteoporosis group.Conclusion:IGF-1 was related with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis, and could offer help for predicting type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis in the future.

  17. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION : DELETION OF INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS FROM GROWTH MIXTURE OF TEN ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN URINARY NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F S; Miller, L L; Whipple, G H

    1947-02-28

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  18. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  19. Anti-tumor effects of ONC201 in combination with VEGF-inhibitors significantly impacts colorectal cancer growth and survival in vivo through complementary non-overlapping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, C Leah; Zhou, Lanlan; Khazak, Vladimir; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-01-22

    Small molecule ONC201 is an investigational anti-tumor agent that upregulates intra-tumoral TRAIL expression and the integrated stress response pathway. A Phase I clinical trial using ONC201 therapy in advanced cancer patients has been completed and the drug has progressed into Phase II trials in several cancer types. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer worldwide and metastatic disease has a poor prognosis. Clinical trials in CRC and other tumor types have demonstrated that therapeutics targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, such as bevacizumab, are effective in combination with certain chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated the potential combination of VEGF inhibitors such as bevacizumab and its murine-counterpart; along with other anti-angiogenic agents and ONC201 in both CRC xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We utilized non-invasive imaging and immunohistochemistry to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our results demonstrate significant tumor regression or complete tumor ablation in human xenografts with the combination of ONC201 with bevacizumab, and in syngeneic MC38 colorectal cancer xenografts using a murine VEGF-A inhibitor. Imaging demonstrated the impact of this combination on decreasing tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Our results indicate that ONC201 and anti-angiogenic agents act through distinct mechanisms while increasing tumor cell death and inhibiting proliferation. With the use of both a murine VEGF inhibitor in syngeneic models, and bevacizumab in human cell line-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that ONC201 in combination with anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab represents a promising approach for further testing in the clinic for the treatment of CRC.

  20. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%endash 7% over a 600-μm-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-μm and 60-μm wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-μm-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-μm perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-μm case when compared to targets without foam. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Survival significance of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and current staging system for survival after recurrence in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Hisashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that the staging system and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status are key factors for treatment strategy and predicting survival. However, the significance of these factors as predictors of overall survival (OS) and postoperative recurrence survival (PRS) has not been sufficiently elucidated. The objective here was to investigate EGFR mutation status and p-stage, which affect PRS and OS in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma, using a different database. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 56 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients with disease recurrence in St. Marianna University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Results EGFR mutants (M) were detected in 16/56 patients (29%). The patients with EGFR M had a better OS than those with EGFR wild-type (WT) status (5-year survival: 50.3% vs 43.1, P=0.133). There was no significant difference in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate between patients with M and WT (6.3% vs 7.7%, P=0.656), and the patients with EGFR M had a significantly better 3-year PRS than those with WT (77.4% vs 51.7%, P=0.033). The 3-year PRS rate for patients with M/pathologic stage (p-stage) I–II (87.5%) was better than that for patients with M/p-stage III (60.0%), WT/p-stage I–II (52.7%), and WT/p-stage III (43.8%). There was a significant difference between patients with M/p-stage I and WT/p-stage I–II or WT/p-stage III (P=0.021 and 0.030, respectively). During the study period, of the 16 patients with mutants, 12 patients (75%) received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy and among the 40 patients with WT, no patient received EGFR-TKI therapy. Multivariate survival analysis showed that patients with EGFR-TKI therapy had a statistically significant association with favorable PRS (hazard ratio 0.271; 95% confidence interval 0.074–1.000; P=0.050). Conclusion EGFR status and p-stage were found to be essential prognostic factors for

  2. Significance of measurement of serum fibrosis markers (HA, LN, P III P, IV C) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingxian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of serum fibrosis markers in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen III peptide (P III P) and Type IV collagen (IV C) contents were determined with RIA in 128 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after treatment as well as in 40 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum contents of the four markers in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Decreases of the levels in treatment failures were not significant and the levels remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum fibrosis markers levels in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is valuable for early diagnosis as well as for evaluation of the effect of chemotherapy. (authors)

  3. Microbial uptake of radiolabeled substrates: estimates of growth rates from time course measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of [ 3 H]glucose and a mixture of 3 H-labeled amino acids was measured, in time course fashion, in planktonic microbial assemblages of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The average generation times of those portions of the assemblages able to utilize these substrates were estimated from a simple exponential growth model. Other workers have independently used this model in its integrated or differential form. A mathematical verification and an experimental demonstration of the equivalence of the two approaches are presented. A study was made of the size distribution of heterotrophic activity, using time course measurements. It was found that the size distribution and the effect of sample filtration before radiolabeling were dependent on time of incubation. In principle, it was possible to ascribe these time dependences to differences in th specific growth rate and initial standing stock of the microbial assemblages. 33 references

  4. Performance Measurements, Critical Facts to Business Growth – Exemplification on Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ileana ZAMFIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important consideration in the process of modeling business processes is that in order to improve, you must define the current state of work. Accordingly, the general argument for business growth based on performance measurement is that in order to improve the process in the future, you must know how activities are conducted in the present. The article presents the key elements of performance measurements in relation to business growth, taking also into account main challenges and obstacles. The author based the research upon a larger study of increasing performance, developed inside four companies from an extended supply chain in automotive industry, relating the theoretical discoveries in the field with the real business experience.

  5. Magnetic Waveform Measurements of the PS Injection Kicker KFA45 and Future Emittance Growth Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Vincenzo; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project [1], this document summarises the beam-based measurement of the magnetic waveform of the PS injection kicker KFA45 [2], from data collected during several Machine Development (MD) sessions in 2016 and 2017. In the first part of the document, the measurement methodology is introduced and the results presented and compared with the specification required for a clean transfer of the bunches coming from the PSB after the upgrade. These measurements represent, to date, the only way to reconstruct the magnetic waveform. In the second part, kicker magnetic waveform PSpice®[3] simulations are compared and tuned to the measurements. Finally the simulated (validated through measurements) waveforms are used to estimate the future expected emittance growth for the different PS injection schemes, both for (LIU target) LHC and fixed target beams.

  6. Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Monnereau, Claire; Vogelezang, Suzanne; Kruithof, Claudia J.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified many loci and biological pathways that influence adult body mass index (BMI). We aimed to identify if biological pathways related to adult BMI also affect infant growth and childhood adiposity measures. Methods We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,975 children with a mean age of 6?years. Genetic risk scores were constructed based on the 97 SNPs associated with adult BMI previously identi...

  7. Evaluating the robustness of three ring-width measurement methods for growth release reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, S. L.; Vannoppen, A.; Altman, Jan; Van den Bulcke, J.; Decocq, G.; De Mil, T.; Depauw, L.; Landuyt, D.; Perring, M. P.; Van Acker, J.; Vanhellemont, M.; Verheyen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, DEC 2017 (2017), s. 67-76 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07378S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dendrochronology * Growth release * Ring-width measurement Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  8. Proposed measurement of the imaginary component of atomic form factor for medium Z-elements in regions exhibiting significant discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, M.; Dhal, B.B.; Tran, C.Q.; Barnea, Z.; Chantler, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Discrepancies in measurements of the complex atomic form factor in regions of medium Z are alarmingly high for such a fundamental problem. The consequence of this is that any experiment reliant on the Beer-Lambert absorption law that uses the tabulated absorption coefficients assumes an immediate experimental uncertainty of 2-10%, depending on the element and the energy under consideration. We have begun to address this state of affairs in the medium Z-region through a series of precise determinations of attenuation coefficients. We will elaborate on a proposed method of measuring the atomic form factor to 0.2% absolute accuracy

  9. Significance of preoperative cerebral blood flow measurements in endovascular occlusion of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Weitzner, I.; Luft, A.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during 12 endovascular balloon occlusions (ten internal carotid and two middle cerebral arteries) with good clinical and angiographic tolerance were done with repeated boluses of Xe-133 injected directly into the ipsi- and contralateral carotid systems, during the occlusion and repeated measurements with detectors on both sides (before occlusion and 5-30 minutes after occlusion). In two cases of unchanged and four of increased CBF, one reversible deficit was probably due to an embolus. In six cases of decreased CBF, two deficits occurred, characterized by a greater than 25% decrease. It seems to represent a good predictive value for intolerance to occlusion

  10. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wanqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and NO (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 37 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL-8 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). While the serum NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After six weeks' treatment, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 in the patients, though dropped markedly still remained significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in controls. The serum NO levels, though markedly increased after treatment, were still remained significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  11. Measurements of postnatal growth of the skull of Pan troglodytes verus using lateral cephalograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Protsch von Zieten, Reiner; Schmidt, Ekehard

    2003-03-01

    The postnatal growth of the viscerocranium in relation to the neurocranium of Pan troglodytes verus has been investigated using standardized lateral cephalograms. Sex and age were determined on the basis of cranial morphology and the skulls were divided into four age groups: infantile, juvenile, subadult and adult. The cephalograms were traced on transparencies and specific anatomical landmarks were identified for the measurement of lines angles and the area of the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The results showed that the skull of Pan troglodytes verus exhibits klinorhynchy. During postnatal growth it develops towards airorhynchy, but never shows true airorhynchy. In the infantile age group the measured area of the neurocranium is larger than that of the viscerocranium. The measured area of the viscerocranium increases until adulthood and is larger than that of the neurocranium in the subadult and adult group. From the results we conclude that in Pan troglodytes verus growth of the neurocranium seizes early in juvenile individuals, whereas the viscerocranium grows until adulthood. This may reflect an adaptation to the masticatory system.

  12. Measures of difference and significance in the era of computer simulations, meta-analysis, and big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, R.; Henriksson, P.J.G.; Guinée, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In traditional research, repeated measurements lead to a sample of results, and inferential statistics can be used to not only estimate parameters, but also to test statistical hypotheses concerning these parameters. In many cases, the standard error of the estimates decreases (asymptotically) with

  13. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Deqi; Du Liang; Yang Sixue; Qin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with R/A) and NO/NOS (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 41 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results:Before treatment the serum NOS, TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01 ). After six weeks treatment, the levels in patients, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  14. Significance of determination of female sex hormones (E2, LH, FSH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of determination of serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and leptin (with RIA) levels were determined in 35 girls with early development of breast as the sign of precocious puberty, of which, 15 was considered to be of the ICPP group and 20 of simple premature thelarche group (SPT). Criteria of diagnosis for ICPP were: peak LH value>12IU/L and LH/FSH>1 after GnRH stimulating test. Results: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I leptin levels in girls with ICPP were significantly higher than those in the girls with SPT (P 0.2 as the cut-off value for diagnosis of ICPP there would still be a positive rate of 86.6% suggesting that the diagnostic criteria might be set lower. Serum IGF-I levels were positively correlated to those of E 2 (r=0.47, P 2 and IGF-I. Conclusion: Determinations of serum E 2 , LH, FHS, IGF-I and leptin levels were helpful for the early diagnosis of ICPP. (author)

  15. Toll-like receptor 6 and connective tissue growth factor are significantly upregulated in mitomycin-C-treated urothelial carcinoma cells under hydrostatic pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Kuan; Chung, Chih-Ang; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Chen, Wen-Yih; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Li, Chuan; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Hu, Wei-Wen; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common histologic subtype of bladder cancer. The administration of mitomycin C (MMC) into the bladder after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) is a common treatment strategy for preventing recurrence after surgery. We previously applied hydrostatic pressure combined with MMC in UC cells and found that hydrostatic pressure synergistically enhanced MMC-induced UC cell apoptosis through the Fas/FasL pathways. To understand the alteration of gene expressions in UC cells caused by hydrostatic pressure and MMC, oligonucleotide microarray was used to explore all the differentially expressed genes. After bioinformatics analysis and gene annotation, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) showed significant upregulation among altered genes, and their gene and protein expressions with each treatment of UC cells were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Under treatment with MMC and hydrostatic pressure, UC cells showed increasing apoptosis using extrinsic pathways through upregulation of TLR6 and CTGF.

  16. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  17. Expression of porcine myostatin prodomain genomic sequence leads to a decrease in muscle growth, but significant intramuscular fat accretion in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-beta superfamily, is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Previously, skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of myostatin prodomain cDNA (5’-region 886 nucleotide) dramatically increased growth performance and muscle mass in transgenic mice. I...

  18. A computational growth model for measuring dynamic cortical development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-10-01

    Human cerebral cortex develops extremely fast in the first year of life. Quantitative measurement of cortical development during this early stage plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural and high-level functional development. This paper presents a computational growth model to simulate the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex from birth to 1 year old by modeling the cerebral cortex as a deformable elastoplasticity surface driven via a growth model. To achieve a high accuracy, a guidance model is also incorporated to estimate the growth parameters and cortical shapes at later developmental stages. The proposed growth model has been applied to 10 healthy subjects with longitudinal brain MR images acquired at every 3 months from birth to 1 year old. The experimental results show that our proposed method can capture the dynamic developmental process of the cortex, with the average surface distance error smaller than 0.6 mm compared with the ground truth surfaces, and the results also show that 1) the curvedness and sharpness decrease from 2 weeks to 12 months and 2) the frontal lobe shows rapidly increasing cortical folding during this period, with relatively slower increase of the cortical folding in the occipital and parietal lobes.

  19. Catch up growth and social capability in developing countries: A conceptual and measurement proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the income per capita in the developing world since the turn of the Millennium has grown faster than that of the developed world, the question whether there is an ongoing process of catching up between countries remains. The notion of income convergence has provided many insights into the sources for long-run growth but has largely neglected the role of social capabilities in economic development. By social capabilities we mean the qualification of the ‘theory of convergence’ which asserts that productivity growth rates  between countries tend to vary inversely with regard to productivity levels. The social capabilities approach holds that a country’s potential for rapid growth is strong when “it is technologically backward but socially advanced” (see Abramovitz, 1986:388. This means that the potential to catch up under globalization is strongest for countries in which social capabilities are developed to allow successful use of technologies and where institutional arrangements are conducive to economic progress. Yet there is no clear agreement in the literature on the main components of social capabilities or how to measure them. Our framework argues that the role of capabilities in catching up needs to understand them in terms of structural transformation, economic and social inclusion, state´s autonomy and accountability. Without progress in these dimensions within-country inequality may increase and might in turn lead to stagnating growth and slim prospects for global income convergence.

  20. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  1. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  2. Bubble growth as a means to measure dissolved nitrogen concentration in aerated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Keita; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the amount of dissolved gases in water is important, for example, to food processing; it is essential to quantitatively evaluate dissolved gas concentration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured by commercial DO meters, but that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) cannot be obtained easily. Here, we propose a means to measure DN concentration based on Epstein-Plesset-type analysis of bubble growth under dissolved gas supersaturation. DO supersaturation in water is produced by oxygen microbubble aeration. The diffusion-driven growth of bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water is first observed. The observed growth is then compared to the extended Epstein-Plesset theory that considers Fick's mass transfer of both DO and DN across bubble interfaces; in this comparison, the unknown DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest, as expected, that DN can be effectively purged by oxygen microbubble aeration. This study was supported in part by the Mizuho Foundation for the Promotion of Science and by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the Program for Leading Graduate Schools.

  3. Benchmarking of measurement and simulation of transverse rms-emittance growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Groening

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transverse emittance growth along the Alvarez drift tube linac (DTL section is a major concern with respect to the preservation of beam quality of high current beams at the GSI UNILAC. In order to define measures to reduce this growth, appropriate tools to simulate the beam dynamics are indispensable. This paper is about the benchmarking of three beam dynamics simulation codes, i.e. DYNAMION, PARMILA, and PARTRAN against systematic measurements of beam emittances for different transverse phase advances along the DTL. Special emphasis is put on the modeling of the initial distribution for the simulations. The concept of rms equivalence is expanded from full intensity to fractions of less than 100% of the beam. The experimental setup, data reduction, preparation of the simulations, and the evaluation of the simulations are described. In the experiments and in the simulations, a minimum of the rms-emittance growth was observed at zero current phase advances of about 60°. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and experiment for the mean values of horizontal and vertical emittances at the DTL exit.

  4. Survival significance of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and current staging system for survival after recurrence in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hisashi Saji,1,2 Hiroki Sakai,1 Hiroyuki Kimura,1 Tomoyuki Miyazawa,1 Hideki Marushima,1 Haruhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Objective: We previously reported that the staging system and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status are key factors for treatment strategy and predicting survival. However, the significance of these factors as predictors of overall survival (OS and postoperative recurrence survival (PRS has not been sufficiently elucidated. The objective here was to investigate EGFR mutation status and p-stage, which affect PRS and OS in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma, using a different database.Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 56 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients with disease recurrence in St. Marianna University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014.Results: EGFR mutants (M were detected in 16/56 patients (29%. The patients with EGFR M had a better OS than those with EGFR wild-type (WT status (5-year survival: 50.3% vs 43.1, P=0.133. There was no significant difference in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate between patients with M and WT (6.3% vs 7.7%, P=0.656, and the patients with EGFR M had a significantly better 3-year PRS than those with WT (77.4% vs 51.7%, P=0.033. The 3-year PRS rate for patients with M/pathologic stage (p-stage I–II (87.5% was better than that for patients with M/p-stage III (60.0%, WT/p-stage I–II (52.7%, and WT/p-stage III (43.8%. There was a significant difference between patients with M/p-stage I and WT/p-stage I–II or WT/p-stage III (P=0.021 and 0.030, respectively. During the study period, of the 16 patients with mutants, 12 patients (75% received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy and among the 40 patients with WT, no patient received

  5. Ted (G.J.) Kloosterman: on intrauterine growth. The significance of prenatal care. Studies on birth weight, placental weight and placental index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, O P; Buimer, M; van der Post, J A M; van der Veen, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, there was a heated debate on whether fetal growth retardation is caused by a small placenta or whether a placenta is small because the baby is small. One of the active participants in this debate was Kloosterman who studied 80,000 birth weights, and 30,000 placental weights, in relation to gestational age at birth, fetal sex, maternal parity, and perinatal mortality. He found that pregnancies related to heavier placentas last longer. He also found that, from about 32 weeks of gestation onwards, children from primiparous women as compared to those from multiparous women, like twin children as compared to singleton children, are relatively growth retarded, most likely related to prior relatively poor placental growth. He concluded that poor fetal growth is not the cause, but the result of poor placental growth. The clinical implication of all these is that future early detection of poor placental growth may prospect poor fetal growth, and may even allow for early interventions to improve fetal outcome.

  6. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  7. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Iwasaki, Akinori; Walczak, Tadeusz; Demidenko, Eugene; Salikov, Ildar; Lesniewski, Piotr; Starewicz, Piotr; Schauer, David; Romanyukha, Alex

    2005-01-01

    There are plausible circumstances in which populations potentially have been exposed to doses of ionizing radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks, but there is no clear knowledge as to the magnitude of the exposure to individuals. In vivo EPR is a method, perhaps the only such method that can differentiate among doses sufficiently to classify individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. Individuals with significant risk then can have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects could be reassured and removed from the need for further medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosimeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose of ±25 cGy in the range of 100->1000 cGy. This is expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator, the algorithm for calculating dose, and the uniformity of the magnetic field. In its current state of development, it probably is sufficient for most applications related to terrorism or nuclear warfare, for decision-making for action for individuals in regard to acute effects from exposure to ionizing radiation

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Daping; Cheng Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury of different severity. Methods: 107 patients with traumatic brain injury were divided into three group on the basis of GCS: mild group (n=25, GCS>12), moderate group (n=33, GCS9-12) and severe group (n=49, GCS3-8). The plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in these patients and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: 1) The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury were signilieantly higher than those in controls, the more severe the illness, the higher the ET-1 levels. 2)The plasma CGRP levels in patients of mild and moderate brain injury were found significantly higher than those in controls, while no significant differences were found between those in severe and control group. 3)The more severe the illness was, the lower CGRP/ET-1 ratio were found. Conclusion: The changes of plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP and the CGRP/ET-1 ratio in the patients with traumatic brain injury were correlated with the severity of the illness, and might be of prognostic value. (authors)

  9. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide measurements in hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Shehab Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the role of NT-proBNP levels in Preterm neonates suffering from PDA and used as a screening tool for predicting HsPDA and guiding physicians to consider early echocardiographic evaluation. This is a monocentric prospective blind study which was conducted at Arar Central Hospital, Ar'ar, Saudi Arabia, during the period between Jan 2014 to June 2014. Thirty-three (33) preterm infants born at less than 31 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1200 g at birth infants were initially enrolled during a 6-month period. Blood samples were collected along with routine blood tests on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life for NT-proBNP analysis. Two echocardiographies were systematically performed on day two of life to ascertain about the status of Ductus Arteriosus. The Plasma NT-proBNP levels were high on day one of life and decline from day three to day seven of life except in those infants with significant hsPDA. Plasma NT-proNBP levels on day 2 of infants in the HsPDA group were significantly higher (ventricular posterior wall thickness (pclosure or otherwise.

  10. Development of a Capacitive Ice Sensor to Measure Ice Growth in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  11. Development of a capacitive ice sensor to measure ice growth in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiang; Cho, Hyo Chang; Wang, Bo; Ahn, Cheol Hee; Moon, Hyeong Soon; Go, Jeung Sang

    2015-03-19

    This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  12. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  13. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Verdon, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 μm diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 μm wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Collins, T. J. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Goncharov, V. N. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); McKenty, P. W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Verdon, C. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 {mu}m diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 {mu}m wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1975-11-01

    Measurements of the lambda 10830 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012, which may be singlet He or La II, are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes

  16. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

  17. Measuring significant inhomogeneity and anisotropy in indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of 2D temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razi, E Mohammady; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel set up, experimental study of the statistical properties of a light beam propagating horizontally through indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of a 2D temperature gradient (TG) is presented. A laser beam enters a telescope from its back focal point by virtue of an optical fiber and is expanded and recollimated by it and then passes through the turbulent area. Then the beam enters another telescope’s aperture. A mask consisting of four similar widely separated small subapertures was installed in front of the second telescope’s aperture. The subapertures were equidistant from the optical axis of the telescope and located at the corners of a square. A flat plane heater is used to produce a vertical TG in the medium. Due to the limited width of the heater, a horizontal component for the TG appeared. Near the focal plane of the second telescope, four distinct images of the source are formed and recorded by a CCD camera. Due to the turbulence all the images (spots) in the successive frames fluctuate. Using the four spot displacements we have calculated the fluctuations of the angle of arrival (AA) over the subapertures. The statistical properties of the optical turbulence are investigated using variance analysis of the AA component fluctuations at horizontal and vertical directions over the subapertures for different temperatures of the heater at different heights of the beam path from the heater. Experimental results show that when the heater is turned off, the variances of horizontal and vertical components of the AA fluctuations are approximately equal to zero over all the subapertures. When it is turned on, the variance of the horizontal component of the AA fluctuations over all of the subapertures are larger than those from the vertical one. In addition, in this case, we find a significant dependence of the variance of the AA components on the height from the heater. (paper)

  18. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez DT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Taira Juarez, Kendra M Demaris, Roy Goo, Christina Louise Mnatzaganian, Helen Wong SmithDaniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47 in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, glycosylated hemoglobin, USA

  19. Changes in foetal liver T2* measurements by MRI in response to maternal oxygen breathing: application to diagnosing foetal growth restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, David M; Semple, Scott IK; Gilbert, Fiona J; Redpath, Thomas W; Ross, John AS; McVicar, Alexandra; Haggarty, Paul; Abramovich, David R; Smith, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The motivation of the project was to investigate the use of oxygen-challenge magnetic resonance imaging (OC-MRI) as a method of diagnosing foetal growth restriction. Foetal growth restriction is associated with restricted foetal oxygen supply and is also associated with increased risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and a number of serious and chronic health problems. Measurements of T2* relaxation time, an MRI parameter which increases with blood oxygenation, were made in the right lobe of the foetal liver in 80 singleton pregnancies, before and after the mother breathed oxygen. The groups consisted of 41 foetuses with normal growth and 39 with apparent growth restriction. The mean ± SD gestational age at scanning was 35 ± 3 weeks. Changes in foetal liver T2* on maternal oxygen breathing showed no significant difference between the groups therefore the OC-MRI protocol used in this study has no value in the diagnosis of foetal growth restriction. A secondary finding was that a significant positive correlation of T2* change with gestational age was observed. Future studies on the use of oxygen-challenge MRI to investigate foetal growth restriction may therefore need to control for gestational age at the time of MR scanning in order to observe any underlying foetal growth-related effects

  20. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    We aim to develop a novel methodology for measuring thegrowth rate of structure around cosmic voids. We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then de-projecting it we are able to estimate the un-distorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well-measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields suggests that VIPERS is capable of measuring β, the ratio of the linear growth rate to the bias, with an error of around 25%. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space distortion parameter, β = 0.423-0.108+0.104 which, given the bias of the galaxy population we use, gives a linear growth rate of f σ8 = 0.296-0.078+0.075 at z = 0.727. These results are consistent with values observed in parallel VIPERS analyses that use standard techniques. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in

  1. Leaf-GP: an open and automated software application for measuring growth phenotypes for arabidopsis and wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ji; Applegate, Christopher; Alonso, Albor Dobon; Reynolds, Daniel; Orford, Simon; Mackiewicz, Michal; Griffiths, Simon; Penfield, Steven; Pullen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background Plants demonstrate dynamic growth phenotypes that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Phenotypic analysis of growth features over time is a key approach to understand how plants interact with environmental change as well as respond to different treatments. Although the importance of measuring dynamic growth traits is widely recognised, available open software tools are limited in terms of batch image processing, multiple traits analyses, software usability and cros...

  2. Hyperbaric pressure effects measured by growth of a transplantable tumor in the C3H/HeN mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, B L; Lally, J J

    1984-09-01

    Both hypobaric exposure at 0.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) and hyperbaric pressure exposure at 3.5-8 ATA slowed transplantable tumor growth. These experiments detailed the hyperbaric pressure exposure. C3H/HeN-MTV+ mice, bearing the 16/C transplantable murine mammary adenocarcinoma and exposed to 18 days' treatment by a hyperbaric chamber at 3.5-8 ATA, had tumor weights that averaged 50-75% less than the tumor weights in mice caged at ambient ("sea level") pressure. A series of experiments was run to investigate this response to hyperbaric pressure exposure. After mice underwent continuous exposure to 3.5-8 ATA normoxic (normal oxygen) hyperbaric pressure with use of either argon or nitrogen inert gas, which began 3 days after tumor inoculation, tumors were removed at about 3 weeks' growth from these pressure-exposed mice and measured for growth by weighing. Final tumor weight in pressure-exposed experimental mice was significantly less than tumor weight in paired groups of tumor-bearing controls that received no hyperbaric pressure. Tumor weight was inversely related to pressure "dose," although the small pressure range produced an effect at all pressures used. The number of compression-decompression cycles to which the animals were subjected, however, was related positively to tumor weight at necropsy. Continued tumor growth in mice subjected to frequent pressure change (in conjunction with pressure exposure that otherwise limited tumor size) was unexplained by these experiments. The greatest difference between tumor weights in controls and pressure-exposed animals was seen with 2 weeks' continuous pressure exposure. A limited profile of blood tests was performed, and these reflected only minor, expected change in the pressure-exposed experimental animals. The data at hand did not suggest a mechanism by which chronic normoxic hyperbaric pressure limited tumor size.

  3. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanfeng Yan

    Full Text Available Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  4. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  5. Measurement of the Economic Growth and Add-on of the R.M. Solow Adjusted Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the models of M. Keynes, R.F. Harrod, E. Domar, D. Romer, Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model etc., the R.M. Solow model is part of the category which characterizes the economic growth.The paper aim is the economic growth measurement and add-on of the R.M. Solow adjusted model.

  6. Multiple autophosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor receptor are essential for receptor kinase activity and internalization. Contrasting significance of tyrosine 992 in the native and truncated receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorkin, A; Helin, K; Waters, C M

    1992-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor autophosphorylation sites in the regulation of receptor functions has been studied using cells transfected with mutant EGF receptors. Simultaneous point mutation of 4 tyrosines (Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, Y1173) to phenylalanine, as well as removal of ...

  7. Ted (G.J.) Kloosterman: on intrauterine growth. The significance of prenatal care. Studies on birth weight, placental weight and placental index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O. P.; Buimer, M.; van der Post, J. A. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, there was a heated debate on whether fetal growth retardation is caused by a small placenta or whether a placenta is small because the baby is small. One of the active participants in this debate was Kloosterman who studied 80,000 birth weights, and 30,000 placental weights, in

  8. Measuring and modeling the hygroscopic growth of two humic substances in mixed aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Zamora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA / inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the water activity range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on chemical composition data for different

  9. The significance of measuring serum IGF1, IGFBP3 and OST for the judgement of abnormal skeletal development and therapeutic monitoring in precocious children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhiying; Zhao Ruifang; Lv Xiaomei; Gu Fanlei; Cai Depei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of measuring serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF 1 ), insulin-like growth factor binding protein III (IGFBP 3 ) and osteocalcin (OST) for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and skeletal maturity, and its value for therapeutic monitoring in precocious children. Methods: Serum IGF 1 and IGFBP 3 were measured with immunoradiometric assay, serum OST was measured with radioimmunoassay in 117 girls with idiopathic precocious puberty. The girls were grouped according to age, and various parameters collected from them were compared with normal values of matched girls. Furthermore, the girls were grouped according to Tanner's staging (the extent of precocious puberty), the analysis of correlativity between various parameters to the extent of precocious puberty was performed, and the analysis of correlativity between the level of serum IGF 1 and advancing of bone age was performed. Various parameters were measured once more in 38 of the study girls after six months of the treatment, and the parameters were compared with that before treatment. Results: 1) The levels of serum IGF 1 and OST in the girls with precocious puberty were elevated obviously than that in matched normal girls, but the level of serum IGFBP 3 was reduced obviously than that in matched normal girls. It was demonstrated that typical elevation of serum IGF 1 and OST occurred in normal adolescence appeared ahead of time in the girls with precocious puberty. 2) The extent of precocious puberty correlated closely with the level of serum IGF 1 (r=0.489, P 1 (r=0.411, P 1 was. 3) After the treatment, the concentration of serum IGF 1 reduced from (455.52 ± 119.45) μg/L to (284.55 ± 99.52) μg/L (P 1 and OST reduced obviously. Conclusions: Serum IGF 1 and OST could act as quantitative parameters for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and advancing of skeletal maturity in girls with idiopathic true precocious puberty. It could act as a parameter for therapeutic

  10. Biologic significance of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis in human uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Kenzo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamazaki, Ayano; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Manabu; Mekada, Eisuke; Wake, Norio

    2007-11-01

    The expression of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) is related significantly to the overall survival of patients with various cancers. RCAS1 reportedly induces apoptotic cell death in peripheral lymphocytes, which may contribute to the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. RCAS1 expression also has been related to tumor invasiveness and size in uterine cervical cancer. To clarify whether RCAS1 exacerbates tumor progression, the authors investigated the association between RCAS1 expression and tumor growth potential. The authors constructed small interfering ribonucleic acid (RNA) (siRNA) to target RCAS1. After transfection of siRNA and the RCAS1-encoding gene, growth of tumor cells was assessed in vitro and in vivo. The correlation between RCAS1 expression and angiogenesis was investigated in the transfected cells and in inoculated tumors from nude mice. In addition, the same association was investigated immunohistochemically with tissue samples from patients with uterine cervical cancer. Knockdown of RCAS1 expression by siRNA significantly suppressed the in vivo growth of SiSo and HOUA tumor cells (P cell growth was not affected significantly. Enhanced RCAS1 expression significantly promoted in vivo growth, but not in vitro growth, of tumors derived from COS-7 cells (P = .0039). Introduction of the RCAS1-encoding gene increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In uterine cervical cancer, RCAS1 expression was associated significantly with VEGF expression (P = .0407) and with microvessel density (P = .0108). RCAS1 may be a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis. Continued exploration of the biologic function of RCAS1 may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for uterine cancer.

  11. Dacomitinib, an irreversible Pan-ErbB inhibitor significantly abrogates growth in head and neck cancer models that exhibit low response to cetuximab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdows Ather

    Full Text Available Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling is associated with tumor growth in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in humans (HNSCC, and is a major focus of targeted therapy. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, has been successful at prolonging survival but has only a 10% tumor shrinkage response rate in a clinical setting. The goal of this study was to compare dacomitinib (PF-00299804, a next generation small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly blocks multiple HER family receptors (HER-1 (EGFR, HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases, to cetuximab, the current FDA approved anti-EGFR medication for HNSCC and erlotinib, an EGFR specific small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Dacomitinib, erlotinib and cetuximab were tested in a panel of 27 HNSCC cell lines. Treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab or 1 uM of erlotinib inhibited growth by at least 50% in 7/27 cell lines, while treatment with 1 uM of dacomitinib had similar growth inhibition in 17/27 lines. Cell lines representing three levels of sensitivity to dacomitinib were further examined using Western blots, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. Treatment with 100 nM of dacomitinib reduced EGFR activity and downstream AKT and ERK pathways more effectively than treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab in all ten tested lines. Although both compounds induced apoptosis at similar levels, dacomitinib caused greater G0/G1 arrest. Sensitivity to EGFR blockade was associated with levels of EGFR and ERK and was not associated with common oncogenic mutations and copy number variations. Phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK levels correlate with sensitivity to both cetuximab and dacomitinib. Three of the four lines in the exquisitely sensitive group had the highest levels of phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK among the ten lines selected, while the three resistant lines collectively had the lowest levels. Neither pAKT nor tAKT was associated with sensitivity.

  12. Significance of soluble growth factors in the chondrogenic response of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells in a porous three dimensional scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nirmal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for articular cartilage regeneration. Foetal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with their ease of availability, pluripotency and high expansion potential have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source over adult MSCs. However, there is a need for optimisation of chondrogenic signals to direct the differentiation of these multipotent MSCs to chondrogenic lineage. In this study we have demonstrated the in vitro chondrogenesis of human umbilical cord matrix MSCs in three dimensional PVA-PCL (polyvinyl alcohol-polycaprolactone scaffolds in the presence of the individual growth factors TGFβ1, TGFβ3, IGF, BMP2 and their combination with BMP2. Gene expression, histology and immunohistology were evaluated after 28 d culture. The induced cells showed the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and expression of typical chondrogenic extracellular matrix molecules. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9, collagen type II and aggrecan. The expression of collagen type I and collagen type X was also evaluated. This study has demonstrated the successful chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord MSCs in 3D scaffolds. Interestingly, the growth factor combination of TGF-β3 and BMP-2 was found to be more effective for chondrogenesis as shown by the real-time PCR studies. The findings of this study suggest the importance of using growth factor combinations for successful chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs.

  13. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  14. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  15. Measurements of emittance growth through the achromatic bend at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Kehne, D.

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of emittance growth in a high peak current beam as it passes through an achromatic double bend are summarized. Experiments were performed using the ATF at Brookhaven National Laboratory by X.J. Wang and D. Kehne as a collaboration resulting from the proposal attached at the end of the document. The ATF consists off an RF gun (1 MeV), two sections of linac (40-75 MeV), a diagnostic section immediately following the linac, a 20 degree bend magnet, a variable aperture slit at a high dispersion point, 5 quadrupoles, then another 20 degree bend followed by another diagnostic section. The TRANSPORT deck describing the region from the end of the linac to the end of the diagnostic line following the achromatic bends is attached to the end of this document. Printouts of the control screens are also attached

  16. Changes in Microbial Energy Metabolism Measured by Nanocalorimetry during Growth Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Alberto; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Finkel, Steven E.; Amend, Jan P.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2018-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the change in heat due to microbial metabolic activity convey information about the kinetics, as well as the thermodynamics, of all chemical reactions taking place in a cell. Calorimetric measurements of heat production made on bacterial cultures have recorded the energy yields of all co-occurring microbial metabolic reactions, but this is a complex, composite signal that is difficult to interpret. Here we show that nanocalorimetry can be used in combination with enumeration of viable cell counts, oxygen consumption rates, cellular protein content, and thermodynamic calculations to assess catabolic rates of an isolate of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and infer what fraction of the chemical energy is assimilated by the culture into biomass and what fraction is dissipated in the form of heat under different limiting conditions. In particular, our results demonstrate that catabolic rates are not necessarily coupled to rates of cell division, but rather, to physiological rearrangements of S. oneidensis MR-1 upon growth phase transitions. In addition, we conclude that the heat released by growing microorganisms can be measured in order to understand the physiochemical nature of the energy transformation and dissipation associated with microbial metabolic activity in conditions approaching those found in natural systems. PMID:29449836

  17. Significance of abnormal serum binding of insulin-like growth factor II in the development of hypoglycemia in patients with non-islet-cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Kapadia, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors reported that serum and tumor from a hypoglycemic patient with a fibrosarcoma contained insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), mostly in a large molecular form designated big IGF-II. They now describe two additional patients with non-islet-cell tumor with hypoglycemia (NICTH) whose sera contained big IGF-II. Removal of the tumor eliminated most of the big IGF-II from the sera of two patients. Because specific IGF-binding proteins modify the bioactivity of IGFs, the sizes of the endogenous IGF-binding protein complexes were determined after neutral gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Normally about 75% of IGFs are carried as a ternary complex of 150 kDa consisting of IGF, a growth hormone (GH)-dependent IGF-binding protein, and an acid-labile complexing component. The three patients with NICTH completely lacked the 150-kDa complex. IGF-II was present as a 60-kDa complex with variable contributions of smaller complexes. In the immediate postoperative period, a 110-kDa complex appeared rather than the expected 150-kDa complex. Abnormal IGF-II binding may be important in NICTH because the 150-kDa complexes cross the capillary membrane poorly. The smaller complexes present in our patients' sera would be expected to enter interstitial fluid readily, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in the fraction of IGFs reaching the target cells would result

  18. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu overexpression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and its prognostic significance: Is it worth hype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu expression has been reported over 10 years, but there is no clear correlation between prognosis and recurrence rate. The present study evaluates prognostic implication of HER-2/neu expression. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of primary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were processed. HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry staining procedure used for the study. Results: A total of 70 (70% patients were positive for overexpression of HER-2/neu. HER-2/neu was positive in patients with 42 (70% superficial tumor, 28 (70% muscle invasive tumor, 41 (75.9% high-grade tumor, 29 (63% low grade tumor, 31 (68.9% recurrent tumor, and 6 (66.6% had positive lymph nodes. Conclusions: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu over expression was not correlated with the tumor stage, lymphnode metastasis or recurrence of the disease. HER-2/neu overexpression was statistically insignificantly correlated with the differentiation grade (P < 0.161 as compared to previous studies. Future studies on HER-2 expression with chemo-sensitivity and efficacy of HER-2-targeted therapies in urothelial carcinomas is needed.

  19. Reappraisal of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) measurement in the detection of isolated and combined growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Cesar L; Lacerda, Claudio Silva de; Lacerda Filho, Luiz de; Carvalho, Julienne A R de; Boguszewski, Margaret C S

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of serum IGF-1 in the detection of isolated (IGHD) or combined growth hormone deficiency (CGHD) at the transition phase. Forty nine patients with GHD during childhood [16 with IGHD (10 men) and 33 with CGHD (24 men); age 23.2 ± 3.5 yrs.] were submitted to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) with a GH peak IGF-1 measurements were evaluated in the basal sample of the ITT. Transition patients were reclassified as GH-sufficient (SGH; n = 12), IGHD (n = 7), or CGHD (n = 30). Five (31%) patients with IGHD and 32 (97%) with CGHD at childhood persisted with GHD at retesting. One patient with IGHD was reclassified as CGHD, whereas 3 patients with CGHD were reclassified as IGHD. Mean GH peak was 0.2 ± 0.3 µg/L in the CGHD, 1.3 ± 1.5 µg/L in the IGHD, and 18.1 ± 13.1 µg/L in the SGH group. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly higher in the SGH (272 ± 107 ng/mL) compared to IGHD (100.2 ± 110) and CGHD (48.7 ± 32.8) (p IGF-1 level, resulting in 97.3% sensitivity and 91.6% specificity in the detection of GHD at the transition period; the cutoff value of 110 ng/mL showed 94.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Mean IGF-1 values did not differ in IGHD or CGHD associated with one, two, three, or four additional pituitary deficiencies. IGF-1 measurement is accurate to replace ITT as initial diagnostic test for IGHD and CGHD detection at the transition phase.

  20. Measurement of the volume growth rate of single budding yeast with the MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiashu; Stowers, Chris C; Boczko, Erik M; Li, Deyu

    2010-11-07

    We report on measurements of the volume growth rate of ten individual budding yeast cells using a recently developed MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter. The MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter is very sensitive, provides signals that are immune from the baseline drift, and can work with cell culture media of complex composition. These desirable features allow us to directly measure the volume growth rate of single cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYH3865 strain budding yeast in YNB culture media over a whole cell cycle. Results indicate that all budding yeast follow a sigmoid volume growth profile with reduced growth rates at the initial stage before the bud emerges and the final stage after the daughter gets mature. Analysis of the data indicates that even though all piecewise linear, Gomperitz, and Hill's function models can fit the global growth profile equally well, the data strongly support local exponential growth phenomenon. Accurate volume growth measurements are important for applications in systems biology where quantitative parameters are required for modeling and simulation.

  1. Direct Measurements of Island Growth and Step-Edge Barriers in Colloidal Epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ganapathy, R.; Buckley, M. R.; Gerbode, S. J.; Cohen, I.

    2010-01-01

    -scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of changes in serum NO/NOS ratio and plasma ET content after treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Zhaoshu; Liu Xugui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and serum NO/NOS ratio in patients with AMI after treatment. Methods: Serum NO/NOS ratio (with EIA) and plasma ET (with RIA) contents were measured in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of NO were significantly lower (P 0.05), but plasma ET levels remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum NO/NOS ratio and plasma ET contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong; Ren Hong; Xie Chuntao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and IFN-γ (with ELISA) were measured both before and after treatment in 37 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-2 levels in patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels though markedly corrected, were still significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased significantly in patients with psoriasis especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  4. Prognostic significance of equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results and clinical utility of alternative chromosome 17 genes in patients with invasive breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneige, Nour; Hess, Kenneth R; Multani, Asha S; Gong, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2017-04-01

    The 2013 testing guidelines for determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status include new cutoff points for the HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio and the average HER2 copy number per cell, and they recommend using a reflex test with alternative chromosome 17 probes (Ch17Ps) to resolve equivocal HER2 results. This study sought to determine the clinical utility of alternative Ch17Ps in equivocal cases and the effects of equivocal results and/or a change in the HER2 status on patients' outcomes. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database of HER2 dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization results from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of invasive breast cancer with HER2/CEP17 ratios Cancer 2017;123:1115-1123. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Core Inflation Measure and Its Effect on Economic Growth and Employment in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Kalai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a measure for the core inflation in Tunisia. This measure consists in a six-variable structural vector autoregression model covering the period 1975Q1-2014Q4. Our results show that the observed inflation rate exceeds the core inflation when demand rises and conversely when there is a low growth. This seems to be reasonable as core inflation has a deterministic tendency and, therefore, the monetary impulse largely accounts for the evolution of inflation. Our findings also support the idea that there is a weak positive correlation between the inflation rate and the industrial production index in the short run. This core inflation is also observed to have a weak effect on unemployment over the short and long runs. Thus, this type of inflation should be taken into account as an important element for the determination of a targeted inflation rate and for future predictions and decisions of the monetary authorities.

  7. Search for shot-time growths of flares od cosmic heavy nuclei according to measurement data at ''Prognoz'' satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodichev, N.N.; Savenko, I.A.; Suslov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Surch for short-time growths of fluxes of mainly cosmic heavy nuclei with the energy epsilon > or approximately 500 MeV/nucleon according to measurement data at ''Prognoz-2'' and ''Prognoz-3'' satellites is undertaken. Such growths have been recorded during the flights of the first soviet cosmic rockets, spacecraft-satellites, ''Electron'', ''Molnia-1'' satellites. At the ''Prognoz'' satellite such growth have not been observed. Moreover, the 2.1.1974 growth found at the ''Molnia-1'' satellite by the telescope of scintillation and Cherenkov counters has not been recorded by the analogous device at ''Prognoz-3'' satellite. Therefore, the problem on the nature of short-time growths of the heavy nuclei fluxes remains unsolved

  8. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum CA199 and tumor specific growth factor (TSGF) contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jiancheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum TSGF and CA199 contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. Methods: Serum CA199 (with IRMA) and TSGF (with biochemistry method) contents were determined in 33 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma and 35 controls. Results: Serum CA199 and TSGF contents were significantly higher in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma than those in controls (P<0.01) and their levels were significantly positively correlated with those of serum AFP. Conclusion: Determination of serum TSGF and CA199 contents was of clinical diagnostic value in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. (authors)

  9. Financial development and economic growth in Ghana: Does the measure of financial development matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the long-run growth effects of financial development in Ghana. We find that the growth effect of financial development is sensitive to the choice of proxy. Both the credit to the private sector as ratios to GDP and total domestic credit are conducive for growth, while broad money stock to GDP ratio is not growth-inducing. The indexes created from principal component analysis confirmed the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. The findings here suggest that whether financial development is good or bad for growth depends on the indicator used to proxy for financial development.

  10. COMPARISON OF GKS CALCULATED CRITICAL ION TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND ITG GROWTH RATES TO DIII-D MEASURED GRADIENTS AND DIFFUSIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, DR; STAEBLER, GM; PETTY, CC; GREENFIELD, CM; LUCE, TC

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The gyrokinetic equations predict that various drift type waves or modes can be unstable in a tokamak. For some of these modes, such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient mode, there exists a critical gradient, above which the mode is unstable. Since the existence of unstable modes can cause increased transport, plasmas which are centrally heated tend to increase in temperature gradient until the modes become unstable. Under some conditions the increased transport can fix the gradient at the critical value. here they present a comparison between the measured ion temperature gradients and the critical gradient as calculated by a gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) code. They also present the maximum linear growth rate as calculated by this code for comparison to experimentally derived transport coefficients. The results show that for low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the measured ion temperature gradient is significantly greater than the GKS calculated critical gradient over a large region of the plasma. This is the same region of the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity is large. For high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges the ion temperature gradient is closer to the critical gradient, but often still greater than the critical gradient over some region. For the best H-mode discharges, the ion temperature is less than or equal to the critical gradient over the whole plasma. In general they find that the position in the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity starts to increase rapidly is where the maximum linear growth rate is greater than the E x B shearing rate

  11. International standards for fetal growth based on serial ultrasound measurements: the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorghiou, Aris T; Ohuma, Eric O; Altman, Douglas G; Todros, Tullia; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Lambert, Ann; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Bertino, Enrico; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Noble, J Alison; Pang, Ruyan; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C; Carvalho, Maria; Salomon, Laurent J; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José

    2014-09-06

    In 2006, WHO produced international growth standards for infants and children up to age 5 years on the basis of recommendations from a WHO expert committee. Using the same methods and conceptual approach, the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS), part of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, aimed to develop international growth and size standards for fetuses. The multicentre, population-based FGLS assessed fetal growth in geographically defined urban populations in eight countries, in which most of the health and nutritional needs of mothers were met and adequate antenatal care was provided. We used ultrasound to take fetal anthropometric measurements prospectively from 14 weeks and 0 days of gestation until birth in a cohort of women with adequate health and nutritional status who were at low risk of intrauterine growth restriction. All women had a reliable estimate of gestational age confirmed by ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length in the first trimester. The five primary ultrasound measures of fetal growth--head circumference, biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length--were obtained every 5 weeks (within 1 week either side) from 14 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation. The best fitting curves for the five measures were selected using second-degree fractional polynomials and further modelled in a multilevel framework to account for the longitudinal design of the study. We screened 13,108 women commencing antenatal care at less than 14 weeks and 0 days of gestation, of whom 4607 (35%) were eligible. 4321 (94%) eligible women had pregnancies without major complications and delivered live singletons without congenital malformations (the analysis population). We documented very low maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, confirming that the participants were at low risk of adverse outcomes. For each of the five fetal growth measures, the mean differences between the observed and smoothed centiles for the 3rd

  12. Can anthropometry measure gender discrimination? An analysis using WHO standards to assess the growth of Bangladeshi children

    OpenAIRE

    Moestue, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the potential of anthropometry as a tool to measure gender discrimination, with particular attention to the WHO growth standards. Design Surveillance data collected from 1990 to 1999 were analysed. Height-for-age Z-scores were calculated using three norms: the WHO standards, the 1978 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference and the 1990 British growth reference (UK90). Setting Bangladesh. Subjects Boys and girls aged 6-59 months (n 504 358). Results...

  13. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    A fermentation extract of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae can be used as a prebiotic. The objective was to determine if dietary inclusion of a fermentation extract of A. oryzae as well as calf age would alter growth, health, performance parameters, and the growth and development of the rumen in Holstein calves from birth thru 1 wk postweaning; it was hypothesized that it would. Purchased bull calves (n=52) that originated from 1 of 13 farms were used in this experiment. All calves had serum IgG greater than 10 mg/mL. Calves were randomly assigned to a slaughter age, 4 (n=16) or 8 wk (n=36), and treatment, control (n=27) or fermentation extract of A. oryzae (AMF; n=25). Calves were housed and fed individually; no bedding was used and no forage was fed. Calves assigned to AMF were fed 2 g of AMF daily. Liquid AMF was delivered in milk replacer for the first 4 wk of the study; solid AMF was top-dressed on texturized starter thereafter. Calves were fed nonmedicated milk replacer twice daily (22.0% crude protein, 20.0% fat, dry matter basis; 680 g/d) and were weaned upon consumption of 0.91 kg of starter (20% crude protein, 2.0% fat; medicated with decoquinate) for 3 consecutive days or on d 45 of the study, whichever came first. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water throughout the study. Feed intake as well as fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily; body weight, withers height, and hip height were recorded weekly. Gross rumen measurements and rumen samples for future gross and histological analyses were taken at 4 and 8 wk. All calves grew similarly; weaning age averaged 40.39±0.77 d. Lifetime average daily gain was 0.60±0.05 kg/d and lifetime gain-to-feed ratio was 0.56±0.05. Milk replacer, starter, total dry matter intake, gross and histological rumen measurements, rumen pH, fecal and respiratory scores, and total medical costs were not affected by treatment. Despite total medical costs not differing by treatment, a lower percentage of AMF

  14. Significance of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or straw amendment on growth and dinitrogen fixation of wheat using 15N-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Komy, H M; Saad, O A; Hetta, A M

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or maize straw (0, 5 and 10 Mg/hm2) amendment on the growth and N2 fixation of wheat was determined in pot experiments using 15N-dilution method. Inoculation resulted in accumulation of fixed nitrogen, and % N from atmosphere being 24.6 and 26.5% in wheat shoot and grain, respectively. Straw amendment reduced % Natm to 16.1 and 20.2% at high straw level (10 Mg/hm2). Rational nitrogen fertilization (180 kg N/hm2) completely inhibited N2 fixation by H. seropedicae inoculation. Bacterial inoculation increased dry shoot and grain yield up to 23 and 31%, respectively. The highest levels of shoot and grain dry mass (46.5 and 42.4%) were obtained by N-fertilization in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Total shoot and grain N-yield increased irrespective of organic matter amendment by inoculation up to 9 and 25%, respectively. N-fertilized plants recorded a maximum increase in N-yield (57 and 51%). H. seropedicae was reisolated from inoculated wheat histosphere after harvesting (90 d from sowing). Neither organic matter nor mineral nitrogen applications had any marked effect on bacterial total counts colonizing wheat histosphere. Moreover, no symptoms of mottled stripe disease were observed on leaves and stems of inoculated plants.

  15. Growth of self-textured Ga3+-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 ceramics by solid state reaction and their significant enhancement in ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shiying; Zhu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Yue; Ling, Ming'en; Hu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiliang

    2018-03-01

    A highly self-textured Ga2O3-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO-Ga) solid electrolyte with a nominal composition of Li6.55Ga0.15La3Zr2O12 is obtained by a simple and low-cost solid-state reaction technique, requiring no seed crystals to achieve grain orientation. The as-prepared self-textured LLZO-Ga shows a strong (420) preferred orientation with a high Lotgering factor of 0.91. Coherently, a terrace-shaped microstructure consisting of many parallel layers, indicating a two-dimensional-like growth mode, is clearly observed in the self-textured sample. As a result, the highly self-textured garnet-type lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte of LLZO-Ga exhibits an extremely high ionic conductivity, reaching a state-of-the-art level of 2.06 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature (25 °C) and thus shedding light on an important strategy for improving the structure and ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes.

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were measured with RIA both before and after hemodialysis in 31 patients with chronic renal failure as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before hemodialysis,plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After hemodialysis for 1 week the levels, though dropped markedly, still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of leptin and NPY were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal failare. Hemodialysis could increase, the clearance rate of leptin and NPY and partially correct the levels with important clinical value. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contents after treatment in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma VEGF after treatment in patients with acute leukemia. Methods: Plasma VEGF levels were determined with (ELISA) in 34 patients with acute leukemia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the plasma levels of VEGF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After three months of treatment the levels dropped markedly but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of acute leukemia was closely related to the plasma levels of VEGF. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huajiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 38 pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IGF-II, and NO levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status of the patients as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  19. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2018-01-19

    The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The

  20. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability; Areva resultats 2007: acceleration de la croissance et hausse significative de la profitabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008.

  1. Insulin-Like growth factor-II (IGF-II) prevents proinflammatory cytokine-induced apoptosis and significantly improves islet survival after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Mohanasundaram, Daisy; Kireta, Svjetlana; Jessup, Claire F; Drogemuller, Chris J; Coates, P Toby H

    2013-03-15

    The early loss of functional islet mass (50-70%) due to apoptosis after clinical transplantation contributes to islet allograft failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II is an antiapoptotic protein that is highly expressed in β-cells during development but rapidly decreases in postnatal life. We used an adenoviral (Ad) vector to overexpress IGF-II in isolated rat islets and investigated its antiapoptotic action against exogenous cytokines interleukin-1β- and interferon-γ-induced islet cell death in vitro. Using an immunocompromised marginal mass islet transplant model, the ability of Ad-IGF-II-transduced rat islets to restore euglycemia in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient diabetic recipients was assessed. Ad-IGF-II transduction did not affect islet viability or function. Ad-IGF-II cytokine-treated islets exhibited decreased cell death (40% ± 2.8%) versus Ad-GFP and untransduced control islets (63.2% ± 2.5% and 53.6% ± 2.3%, respectively). Ad-IGF-II overexpression during cytokine treatment resulted in a marked reduction in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells (8.3% ± 1.4%) versus Ad-GFP control (41% ± 4.2%) and untransduced control islets (46.5% ± 6.2%). Western blot analysis confirmed that IGF-II inhibits apoptosis via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Transplantation of IGF-II overexpressing islets under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice restored euglycemia in 77.8% of recipients compared with 18.2% and 47.5% of Ad-GFP and untransduced control islet recipients, respectively (Pislet transplant outcomes in vivo. Antiapoptotic gene transfer is a potentially powerful tool to improve islet survival after transplantation.

  2. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  3. Anthropometry as a tool for measuring malnutrition: impact of the new WHO growth standards and reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, M B

    2010-01-01

    Anthropometry is a useful tool, both for monitoring growth and for nutritional assessment. The publication by WHO of internationally agreed growth standards in 1983 facilitated comparative nutritional assessment and the grading of childhood malnutrition. New growth standards for children under 5 years and growth reference for children aged 5-19 years have recently (2006 and 2007) been published by WHO. Growth of children growth reference study involving children from six countries, selected for optimal child-rearing practices (breastfeeding, non-smoking mothers). They therefore constitute a growth standard. Growth data for older children were drawn from existing US studies, and upward skewing was avoided by excluding overweight subjects. These constitute a reference. More indicators are now included to describe optimal early childhood growth and development, e.g. BMI for age and MUAC for age. The growth reference for older children (2007) focuses on linear growth and BMI; weight-for-age data are age-limited and weight-for-height is omitted. Differences in the 2006 growth pattern from the previous reference for children toddler. The spread of values for height and weight for height is narrower in the 2006 dataset, such that the lower limit of the normal range for both indices is set higher than in the previous dataset. This means that a child will be identified as moderately or severely underweight for height (severe acute malnutrition) at a greater weight for height than previously. The implications for services for malnourished children have been recognised and strategies devised. The emphasis on BMI-for-age as the indicator for thinness and obesity in older children is discussed. The complexity of calculations for health cadres without mathematical backgrounds or access to calculation software is also an issue. It is possible that the required charts and tables may not be accessible to those working in traditional health/nutrition services which are often poorly

  4. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than...... fasting FGF19 for detection of BAD and we evaluate the reproducibility of fasting FGF19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients consecutively referred to Se homocholic acid retention test (SeHCAT) were included. Serum FGF19 was measured after an overnight fast and again 1 h postprandially and again...... in the fasting state 1 week later. RESULTS: Nine of 26 patients had SeHCAT less than 10% and fasting FGF19 was lower [median 62 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR): 47-67] than in the 17 diarrhoea controls with SeHCAT at least 10% (median 103 pg/ml, IQR: 77-135, P=0.006). Postprandial FGF19 in BAD patients (61 pg...

  5. Growth Trajectories of Exercise Self-Efficacy in Older Adults: Influence of Measures and Initial Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; Mailey, Emily L.; Mullen, Sean P.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines differential trajectories of exercise-related self-efficacy beliefs across a 12-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Methods Previously inactive older adults (N = 144; M age = 66.5) were randomly assigned to one of two exercise conditions (walking, flexibility-toning-balance) and completed measures of barriers self-efficacy (BARSE), exercise self-efficacy (EXSE), and self-efficacy for walking (SEW) across a 12-month period. Changes in efficacy were examined according to efficacy type and inter-individual differences. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to (a) examine average levels and change in each type of efficacy for the collapsed sample and by intervention condition, and (b) explore subpopulations (i.e., latent classes) within the sample that differ in their baseline efficacy and trajectory. Results Analyses revealed two negative trends in BARSE and EXSE at predicted transition points, in addition to a positive linear trend in SEW. Two subgroups with unique baseline efficacy and trajectory profiles were also identified. Conclusions These results shed new light on the relationship between exercise and self-efficacy in older adults, and highlight the need for strategies for increasing and maintaining efficacy within interventions, namely targeting participants who start with a disadvantage (lower efficacy) and integrating efficacy-boosting strategies for all participants prior to program end. PMID:21038962

  6. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; He Qing; Li Fengyan; Li Changjian; Sun Yun; Tian Jianguo; Li Zubin

    2009-01-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga–Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses

  7. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jian-Guo; Li, Zu-Bin; He, Qing; Li, Feng-Yan; Li, Chang-Jian; Sun, Yun

    2009-03-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga-Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses.

  8. Whole-organ and segmental stiffness measured with liver magnetic resonance elastography in healthy adults: significance of the region of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Grażyna; Zawada, Elżbieta; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    MR elastography (MRE) is a recent non-invasive technique that provides in vivo data on the viscoelasticity of the liver. Since the method is not well established, several different protocols were proposed that differ in results. The aim of the study was to analyze the variability of stiffness measurements in different regions of the liver. Twenty healthy adults aged 24-45 years were recruited. The examination was performed using a mechanical excitation of 64 Hz. MRE images were fused with axial T2WI breath-hold images (thickness 10 mm, spacing 10 mm). Stiffness was measured as a mean value of each cross section of the whole liver, on a single largest cross section, in the right lobe, and in ROIs (50 pix.) placed in the center of the left lobe, segments 5/6, 7, 8, and the parahilar region. Whole-liver stiffness ranged from 1.56 to 2.75 kPa. Mean segmental stiffness differed significantly between the tested regions (range from 1.55 ± 0.28 to 2.37 ± 0.32 kPa; P < 0.0001, ANOVA). Within-method variability of measurements ranged from 14 % for whole liver and segment 8-26 % for segment 7. Within-subject variability ranged from 13 to 31 %. Results of measurement within segment 8 were closest to the whole-liver method (ICC, 0.84). Stiffness of the liver presented significant variability depending on the region of measurement. The most reproducible method is averaging of cross sections of the whole liver. There was significant variability between stiffness in subjects considered healthy, which requires further investigation.

  9. In vivo MRI volumetric measurement of prostate regression and growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcioglu Orhan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse models for treatment of late-stage prostate cancer are valuable tools, but assessing the extent of growth of the prostate and particularly its regression due to therapeutic intervention or castration is difficult due to the location, small size and interdigitated anatomy of the prostate gland in situ. Temporal monitoring of mouse prostate regression requires multiple animals and examination of histological sections. Methods Initially, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed on normal year-old C57/BL6 mice. Individual mice were repeatedly imaged using inhalation anesthesia to establish the reproducibility of the method and to follow hormone manipulation of the prostate volume. Subsequently, MRI fat signal was suppressed using a chemical shift-selective (CHESS pulse to avoid signal contamination and enhance discrimination of the prostate. Results High field (7T MRI provides high resolution (117 × 117 μm in plane, highly reproducible images of the normal mouse prostate. Despite long imaging times, animals can be imaged repeatedly to establish reliability of volume measurements. Prostate volume declines following castration and subsequently returns to normal with androgen administration in the same animal. CHESS imaging allowed discrimination of both the margins of the prostate and the dorsal-lateral lobes of the prostate (DLP from the ventral lobes (VP. Castration results in a 40% reduction in the volume of the DLP and a 75% reduction in the volume of the VP. Conclusion MRI assessment of the volume of the mouse prostate is precise and reproducible. MRI improves volumetric determination of the extent of regression and monitoring of the same mouse over time during the course of treatment is possible. Since assessing groups of animals at each time point is avoided, this improves the accuracy of the measurement of any manipulation effect and reduces the number of animals required.

  10. Clinical significance of three-dimensional measurement of tumour thickness on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Minsu [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Yoon-Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To identify the clinical significance of primary tumour thickness (TT) and its direction in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we measured TT in all axial/coronal/sagittal views on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their meaning. A total of 53 OTSCC patients were analysed who had undergone preoperative three-dimensional MRI and had been surgically treated. TT measured on axial (mediolateral direction), coronal (superoinferior direction), and sagittal (anteroposterior direction) views was compared to that in pathologic specimens. The association between TT on MRI and other pathologic parameters was also evaluated. TT on MRI in each plane showed relatively high concordance rates with the histological measurements. TT in all three planes was significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Occult LN metastasis was found in 15 of 39 (38.5 %) patients, and the cutoff value of TT in axial/coronal/sagittal MRI predicting occult LN metastasis was 6.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively. TT on MRI did not show any significant association with recurrence and survival. TT on MRI in all three planes showed relatively high coincidence with TT on histopathology and presented a potential cut-off value as a predictive indicator for occult LN metastasis. (orig.)

  11. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  12. Clinical significance of three-dimensional measurement of tumour thickness on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Minsu; Moon, Hyun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Yoon-Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    To identify the clinical significance of primary tumour thickness (TT) and its direction in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we measured TT in all axial/coronal/sagittal views on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their meaning. A total of 53 OTSCC patients were analysed who had undergone preoperative three-dimensional MRI and had been surgically treated. TT measured on axial (mediolateral direction), coronal (superoinferior direction), and sagittal (anteroposterior direction) views was compared to that in pathologic specimens. The association between TT on MRI and other pathologic parameters was also evaluated. TT on MRI in each plane showed relatively high concordance rates with the histological measurements. TT in all three planes was significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Occult LN metastasis was found in 15 of 39 (38.5 %) patients, and the cutoff value of TT in axial/coronal/sagittal MRI predicting occult LN metastasis was 6.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively. TT on MRI did not show any significant association with recurrence and survival. TT on MRI in all three planes showed relatively high coincidence with TT on histopathology and presented a potential cut-off value as a predictive indicator for occult LN metastasis. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of FLOWTRAN predictions of onset of significant voiding (OSV) to Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory subcooled boiling flow instability measurements, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1988-10-01

    The onset of flow instability (OFI) was measured in the first of a scheduled series of subcooled boiling tests at the Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). This report summarizes the benchmarking of predictions of the onset of significant voiding (OSV) using Version 16 of the FLOWTRANΩ reactor limits code against the HTL measurements. This study confirms that, for this series of HTL subcooled boiling tests, the Saha-Zuber OSV correlation was a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers between 30,000 and 80,000. The Saha-Zuber correlation was not a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers below 30,000. A conservative bound to the Saha-Zuber correlation (the Saha-Zuber constant Stanton number criterion -- 30%) was agreed to at a meeting of SRL, DOE, and the DOE EH and DP review panels. This bound was a conservative indicator of OFI for all measurements in this study

  14. Expression and clinical significance of extracellular matrix protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in lymphatic metastasis of human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiu-Wan; She, Hong-Qiang; Liang, Jing; Huang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Qing-Mo; Yang, Qiao-Lu; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) are secretory glycoproteins that are associated with lymphangiogenesis; these proteins could, therefore, play important roles in the lymphatic dissemination of tumors. However, very little is known about their potential roles in lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether correlations exist between ECM1 and VEGF-C in human breast cancer, lymphangiogenesis, and the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA and protein expression levels in 41 patients were investigated using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue, matched noncancerous breast epithelial tissues, and suspicious metastatic axillary lymph nodes. D2-40 labelled lymph vessels and lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) were counted. Correlations between ECM1 or VEGF-C protein expression levels, LMVD, and clinicopathological parameters were statistically tested. The rate of ECM1 positive staining in breast cancer tissues was higher (31/41, 75.6%) than that in the corresponding epithelial tissues (4/41, 9.8%, P < 0.001) and lymph nodes (13/41, 31.7%, P < 0.001). Similarly, the VEGF-C expression rate in cancer specimens was higher (33/41, 80.5%) than in epithelial tissues (19/41, 46.3%, P < 0.01) or lymph nodes (15/41, 36.6%, P < 0.01). Higher ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA expression levels were also detected in the tumor tissues, compared to the non-cancerous tissue types or lymph nodes (P < 0.05). ECM1 protein expression was positively correlated with the estrogen receptor status (P < 0.05) and LMVD (P < 0.05). LMVD in the ECM1- and VEGF-C-positive tumor specimens was higher than that in the tissue types with negative staining (P < 0.05). Both ECM1 and VEGF-C were overexpressed in breast cancer tissue samples. ECM1 expression was positively correlated with estrogen responsiveness and the

  15. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA) serum IL-6, IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with children nephrotic syndrome both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment,the plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels were significantly higher than those in controls(P <0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels in patients though dropped markedly remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with IL-6, IL-18 levels (r=0.6138, 0.5784, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 42 elderly patients with chronic bronchitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After two weeks of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly, lemained higher than those in controls (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels in patients with AMI after treatment. Methods: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were measured with RIA in 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were significantly higher in the AMI patients than those in the controls before treatment and the levels were mutually positively correlated (P 0.05), but plasma ET levels, though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Bo; Zheng Guo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance ef changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis. Methods: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with viral encephalitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients, the serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After 1 month's treatment the levels dropped markedly but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels changes were closely related to the progress of viral encephalitis. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum TNF-α, EGF levels (with RIA) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum TNF- α and EGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum TNF-α and EGF levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of malignant hydatidiform mole in patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and EGF levels. (authors)

  2. Growth of salmonid fishes from heated and unheated areas of Lake Michigan: as measured by RNA-DNA ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Smith, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Relative growth rate comparisons were made between tagged thermal plume resident fish and fish collected from two ambient temperature areas (control). Plume fish were tagged, released and subsequently recaptured in the thermal discharge area of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (near Two Rivers, Wisconsin). Total tag days indicated minimum residence time and temperature-sensitive tags gave estimates of time spent at discharge temperatures. Growth rate estimates were based on RNA-DNA ratios in epaxial muscle samples taken from brown and rainbow trout and chinook salmon. Mean RNA-DNA ratios of plume rainbow trout and chinook salmon were not significantly different from mean ratios of combined control groups for each species. The mean ratio of plume brown trout was significantly higher than that of combined control fish. Significant differences between mean ratios of control groups for each species suggest considerable natural variability in growth rates among individuals of a population. (U.S.)

  3. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  4. Population Growth Rate: Teaching Guide. Measures of Progress Poster Kit Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide accompanies the Population Growth Rate poster kit which is designed to teach students about population growth differences between rich and poor nations and about what people in developing countries are doing to help improve their quality of life. The guide is designed for use with: (1) a poster map of the world providing social…

  5. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and…

  6. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  7. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  8. Measuring Student Growth within a Merit-Pay Evaluation System: Perceived Effects on Music Teacher Motivation Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, music teachers from a large school district were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical conditions reflecting different methods for measuring student growth under a merit pay compensation system. In Scenario A, half of a teacher's effectiveness rating was based on student standardized test scores in reading,…

  9. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls ( P 0.05). Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic values. (authors)

  10. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 centent after treatment in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured with RIA in 36 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension both before and after 2 weeks of treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients with PIH than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, TNF-α and gastrin contents in helicobacter pylori associated digestive tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Gao Leihua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of IL-8, TNF-α, Gastrin and disease process in HP infection associated chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Diagnosis was established in 35 HP positive chronic gastritis and 30 HP positive duodenal ulcer patients through gastroscopy, histopathology and 14 C-UBT test. RIA was adopted to measure the plasma contents of the three parameters in those 65 patients and 32 controls. Results: The serum IL-8, TNF-α and Gastrin (Gas) levels in patients with chronic gastritis were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). Significant difference also existed between the contents in the two disease group (p<0.01). Conclusion: It proved that HP infection played an important role in the development of the two digestive tract diseases

  12. Clinical significance of measurement of changes in serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes of levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after treatment in children with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Changes of serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in children with bronchial asthma. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Men; Duo Huanzhi; Luo Guorong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in 36 patients with lung carcinoma. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 36 patients with lung carcinoma both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=20) had their IL-2 and SIL-2R levels returned to normal but in those with recurrences (n=12) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patient as well as the progress of disease and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of changes serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 contents after operation in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wentao; Jin Zeqiu; Jiang Hui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels in patients with gastric cancer after operation. Methods: Serum levels of soluble E-Cadherin were measured with ELISA and serum CEA, CA19 -9 levels measared with RIA in 32 patients with gastric cancer both before and 6 months after operation as well as in 30 controls. Results: Serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls before operation (P 0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels after operation might be prognostic importance in patients with gastric cancer. (authors)

  15. Direct Measurements of Island Growth and Step-Edge Barriers in Colloidal Epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ganapathy, R.

    2010-01-21

    Epitaxial growth, a bottom-up self-assembly process for creating surface nano- and microstructures, has been extensively studied in the context of atoms. This process, however, is also a promising route to self-assembly of nanometer- and micrometer-scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics of colloidal crystal films with single-particle resolution. We show quantitatively that colloidal epitaxy obeys the same two-dimensional island nucleation and growth laws that govern atomic epitaxy. However, we found that in colloidal epitaxy, step-edge and corner barriers that are responsible for film morphology have a diffusive origin. This diffusive mechanism suggests new routes toward controlling film morphology during epitaxy.

  16. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  17. Measuring the Effect of Gender-Based Policies on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto

    2012-01-01

    To this day, policy makers, policy advisers, and economists in development institutions do not have any practical tools to help them to assess the impacts of policies aimed at promoting gender equality and quantify the effect of these policies on growth. Yet, there has been limited effort in that direction. This note lays out such a tool, a framework for quantifying the growth effects of g...

  18. Standard test method for measurement of creep crack growth times in metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The time (CCI), t0.2 to an initial crack extension δai = 0.2 mm from the onset of first applied force and creep crack growth rate, ˙a or da/dt is expressed in terms of the magnitude of creep crack growth relating parameters, C* or K. With C* defined as the steady state determination of the crack tip stresses derived in principal from C*(t) and Ct (1-14). The crack growth derived in this manner is identified as a material property which can be used in modeling and life assessment methods (15-25). 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile (1-14) and creep-brittle (26-37). In creep ductile materials, where cr...

  19. Can anthropometry measure gender discrimination? An analysis using WHO standards to assess the growth of Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestue, Helen

    2009-08-01

    To examine the potential of anthropometry as a tool to measure gender discrimination, with particular attention to the WHO growth standards. Surveillance data collected from 1990 to 1999 were analysed. Height-for-age Z-scores were calculated using three norms: the WHO standards, the 1978 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference and the 1990 British growth reference (UK90). Bangladesh. Boys and girls aged 6-59 months (n 504 358). The three sets of growth curves provided conflicting pictures of the relative growth of girls and boys by age and over time. Conclusions on sex differences in growth depended also on the method used to analyse the curves, be it according to the shape or the relative position of the sex-specific curves. The shapes of the WHO-generated curves uniquely implied that Bangladeshi girls faltered faster or caught up slower than boys throughout their pre-school years, a finding consistent with the literature. In contrast, analysis of the relative position of the curves suggested that girls had higher WHO Z-scores than boys below 24 months of age. Further research is needed to help establish whether and how the WHO international standards can measure gender discrimination in practice, which continues to be a serious problem in many parts of the world.

  20. The application of knemometry to measure childhood short-term growth among the indigenous Shuar of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Knemometry, the precise measurement of lower leg (LL) length, suggests that childhood short-term (e.g., weekly) growth is a dynamic, nonlinear process. However, owing to the large size and complexity of the traditional knemometer device, previous study of short-term growth among children has been restricted predominantly to clinical settings in industrialized Western nations. The aim of the present study is to address this limitation and promote broader understandings of global variation in childhood development by: (1) describing a custom-built portable knemometer and assessing its performance in the field; and (2) demonstrating the potential application of such a device by characterizing childhood short-term LL growth among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal LL length data were collected weekly from 336 Shuar children age 5-12 years old using the custom portable knemometer (n = 1,145 total observations). Device performance and Shuar short-term LL growth were explored using linear mixed effects models and descriptive statistics. The portable knemometer performed well across a range of participant characteristics and possesses a low technical error of measurement of 0.18 mm. Shuar childhood LL growth averages 0.47 mm/week (SD = 0.75 mm/week), but exhibits large between- and within-individual variation. Knemometry can be reliably performed in the field, providing a means for evaluating childhood short-term growth among genetically and ecologically diverse populations. Preliminary findings suggest that Shuar weekly LL growth is comparable in mean magnitude but likely more variable than reported for healthy Western children. Future work will further explore these patterns. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:353-357, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  2. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  3. Significance of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement for the differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson's disease: evaluation by 3.0-T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Kazumichi; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Kakite, Suguru; Fujii, Shinya; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Matsusue, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The clinical differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be challenging, especially in their early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement to distinguish among these degenerative disorders. Twenty-five MSA, 20 PSP, and 17 PD patients and 18 healthy controls were retrospectively studied. Axial diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained using a 3-T MR system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were precisely placed in the midbrain, pons, putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus, and the regional ADC (rADC) value was calculated in each ROI. In MSA, rADC values in the pons, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus were significantly higher than in PSP, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the posterior putamen were significantly higher in MSA than in PSP and controls. In PSP, rADC values were significantly higher in the globus pallidus and midbrain than in MSA, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the caudate nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle were significantly higher in PSP than in MSA and controls. In PD, there were no significant differences in the rADC values compared to in MSA, PSP, and controls in all regions. Evaluation of rADC values in characteristic lesions in MSA, PSP, and PD by placing ROIs using 3-T systems can provide useful additional information for differentiating these disorders. (orig.)

  4. Clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 measurement in children with microbial inflammatory kidney and urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Eremeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL measurement in children with urinary tract infection (я=15 and pyelonephritis (я=15. The patients' age was 1 to 16 years (mean age, 7.32+4.52 years. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and medical history and instrumental examination data. Urinary NGAL levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (a Bio\\fendor Laboratory Medicine kit and calculated with reference to mg of creatinine. Urinary NGAL levels were established to depend on the degree of renal parenchymal damage. The investigation showed a relationship between the excretion of NGAL during the acute phase of pyelonephritis and the detection of renal scarring, as evidenced by statistical DMCA nephroscintigraphy. The acute pyelonephritis group exhibited a moderate direct correlation between the renal excretion of NGAL and the degree of leukocytosis and the blood levels of C-reactive protein. The findings allow recommendations for measuring urinary NGAL levels as an additional noninvasive marker for the early detection of renal parenchymal damage.

  5. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  6. Correlated responses in tissue weights measured in vivo by computer tomography in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsoso, S.J.; Young, M.J.; Beatson, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate correlated responses in lean, fat and bone weights in vivo in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth. Over the period 1986-1992 inclusive, the lean tissue growth line had been selected using two economic indices for an increased aggregate breeding value incorporating predicted lean and fat weights with positive and negative economic weightings, respectively. The control line was selected for no change in lean tissue growth each year. Animals were born and run on pasture all year round. X-ray computer tomography was used to estimate the weights of lean, fat and bone in vivo in the 1994-born sheep, aged 265-274 days and selected randomly into 12 rams and 12 ewes from the selected line and 10 rams and 9 ewes from the control line. The lean tissue growth line had significantly greater responses in lean weight (+0.65 + 0.10 kg) and lean percentage (+1.19 + 0.17%) and significantly lesser fat weight (-0.36 + 0.08 kg) and fat percentage (-1.88 + 0.20%) compared to the control line. There was a significant increase in bone weight (+0.27 + 0.03 kg) and bone percentage (+0.69 + 0.09%) in the lean tissue growth line compared to the control line. Responses differed significantly between sexes of the lean tissue growth line, rams having a greater response in weight of lean (+1.22 + 0.20 vs. +0.08 + 0.22 kg) and bone (+0.45 + 0.06 vs. +0.09 + 0.07 kg), and a lesser response in weight of fat (-0.03 + 0.15 vs. -0.70 + 0.16 kg) than the ewes. Selection led to significant changes in lean (increase) and fat weights (decrease), and bone weight increased. Although responses in the lean tissue growth line differed significantly between sexes, there were confounding factors due to differences in management and lack of comparison at equal stage of development. Therefore, to assess real genetic differences further studies should be conducted taking these factors into consideration

  7. Measurement of stress effects (scope for growth) and contaminant levels in mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, J; Donkin, P; Staff, F J; Matthiessen, P; Law, R J; Allen, Y T; Thain, J E; Allchin, C R; Jones, B R

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this research was to quantify the impact of pollution along the coastlines of the Irish Sea. Pollution assessment was based on the combined measurement of scope for growth (SFG), and chemical contaminants in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from 38 coastal sites around the Irish Sea during June-July in 1996 and 1997. On the UK mainland coast, the SFG showed a general trend with a significant decline in water quality in the Liverpool and Morecambe Bay region. High water quality was recorded along the west coast of Wales, as well as southwest England and northwest Scotland (clean reference sites outside the Irish Sea). Along the coast of Ireland there was a similar trend with reduced SFG within the Irish Sea region. SFG was generally low north of Duncannon and then improved north of Belfast. The poor water quality on both sides of the Irish Sea is consistent with the prevailing hydrodynamics and the spatial distribution of contaminants associated with urban/ industrial development. The decline in SFG of mussels on both sides of the Irish Sea was associated with a general increase in contaminant levels in the mussels. Certain contaminants, including PAHs, TBT, sigmaDDT, Dieldrin, gamma-HCH, PCBs, and a few of the metals (Cd, Se, Ag, Pb), showed elevated concentrations. Many of these contaminants were particularly elevated in the coastal margins of Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay and Dublin Bay. A quantitative toxicological interpretation (QTI) of the combined tissue residue chemistry and SFG measurements indicated that at the majority of coastal sites, c. 50 to > 80% of the observed decline in SFG was due to PAHs as a result of fossil fuel combustion and oil spills. TBT levels were highest at major ports and harbours, but these concentrations only made a minor contribution to the overall reduction in SFG. At no sites were individual metals accumulated to concentrations that could cause a significant effect on SFG. The study identified

  8. Definition of bulky disease in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma in computed tomography era: prognostic significance of measurements in the coronal and transverse planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Burger, Irene A; Zhang, Zhigang; Drill, Esther N; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Ng, Andrea; LaCasce, Ann; Wall, Darci; Witzig, Thomas E; Ristow, Kay; Yahalom, Joachim; Moskowitz, Craig H; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Disease bulk is an important prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma, but its definition is unclear in the computed tomography era. This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic significance of bulky disease measured in transverse and coronal planes on computed tomography imaging. Early stage Hodgkin lymphoma patients (n=185) treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy from 2000-2010 were included. The longest diameter of the largest lymph node mass was measured in transverse and coronal axes on pre-treatment imaging. The optimal cut off for disease bulk was maximal diameter greater than 7 cm measured in either the transverse or coronal plane. Thirty patients with maximal transverse diameter of 7 cm or under were found to have bulk in coronal axis. The 4-year overall survival was 96.5% (CI: 93.3%, 100%) and 4-year relapse-free survival was 86.8% (CI: 81.9%, 92.1%) for all patients. Relapse-free survival at four years for bulky patients was 80.5% (CI: 73%, 88.9%) compared to 94.4% (CI: 89.1%, 100%) for non-bulky; Cox HR 4.21 (CI: 1.43, 12.38) (P=0.004). In bulky patients, relapse-free survival was not impacted in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy; however, it was significantly lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone. In an independent validation cohort of 38 patients treated with chemotherapy alone, patients with bulky disease had an inferior relapse-free survival [at 4 years, 71.1% (CI: 52.1%, 97%) vs 94.1% (CI: 83.6%, 100%), Cox HR 5.27 (CI: 0.62, 45.16); P=0.09]. Presence of bulky disease on multidimensional computed tomography imaging is a significant prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Coronal reformations may be included for routine Hodgkin lymphoma staging evaluation. In future, our definition of disease bulk may be useful in identifying patients who are most appropriate for chemotherapy alone. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  9. The clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate measured by 99Tcm-diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renal dynamic imaging in renal cercinoma patients before surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xiaonan; Wang Yuetao; Wang Xiaosong; Chen Hailong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renal dynamic imaging in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients before surgery. Methods: There were 99 cases of RCC patients, 89 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) and 10 patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery(NSS). 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed for determining GFR before surgery. Make a comparison of GFR between RCC group and control group (normal kidney donors), RN group and NSS group. Make a comparison between GFR and serum creatinine in determining preoperative renal dysfunction of RCC patients. All of the data were analyzed by t-test and χ 2 -text. Results: Compared with control group, total GFR of RCC patients was lower, but there was no significant difference [(76.4±20.4)ml/min vs. (80.6±17.4)ml/min, t=0.650, P>0.05)]. Nineteen cases (19.2%) of RCC patients had preoperative renal dysfunction (total GFR 133μmol/L). There was no significant difference in GFR of neoplastic kidneys between RN group and NSS group [(34.1±11.7)ml/min vs.(37.9±11.9)ml/min, t=0.975, P>0.05]. GFR of contralateral kidneys was lower in NSS group than RN group [(32.7±10.3)ml/min vs. (39.6±10.1)ml/min, t=0.044, P 2 =6.808, P<0.01). Conclusion: GFR can provide the accurate information of both kidneys and single kidney before surgery, and this result possessed an important significance in choice of treatments. (authors)

  10. The measurement of insulin-like growth factor 1 in sheep plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L A; Atkinson, T; Hutchinson, J S; Shakespear, R A; MacRae, J C

    1991-02-01

    A method is described for the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in neutralised formic acid-ethanol extracts of sheep plasma. The ability of the acid-ethanol pretreatment to remove the IGF-1 binding proteins (BPs), which interfere in the assay has been examined. Comparative plasma IGF-1 concentrations determined by the method correlated closely (P less than 0.001) with corresponding values where BPs were removed by acid gel filtration. The method has been applied to studies in which sheep were given exogenous growth hormone and indicated that plasma IGF-1 levels respond rapidly to the onset and termination of treatment.

  11. Effects of Growth Conditions on the Measured Electrical Properties of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    transferred via potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to a new SiO2 substrate. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4 Samples 77C...agitation. A titanium/ gold (Ti/Au) marker layer (10 nm Ti /90 nm Au) in the shape of a coordinate grid was first deposited via electron beam evaporation... hydroxide (KOH) to separate the MoS2 from the SiO2 growth substrate. The transfer process can potentially improve performance by relaxing growth-induced

  12. Using growth measures in the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution of South African freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    There has been global concern about the effect of toxic chemicals on aquatic biota due to the upsurge in contamination of aquatic ecosystems by these chemicals, which includes pesticides. Roundup® and other glyphosate-based herbicides are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These bio-active chemicals ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. However, there is no South African water quality guideline to protect indigenous freshwater non-target organisms from the toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. This study evaluated the possible use of growth measures in Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution as part of developing glyphosate water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life in South Africa. Using static-renewal methods in a 25-day growth toxicity test, 40 days post hatch shrimps were exposed to different sub-lethal Roundup® concentrations of 0.0 (control), 2.2, 2.8, 3.4, 4.3 and 5.4 mg/L. Shrimps were fed daily with TetraMin® flake food and test solutions changed every third day. Shrimp total lengths and wet weights were measured every fifth day. These data were used to determine the shrimp’s growth performance and feed utilization in terms of percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). Moulting was observed for 14 days and the data used to determine the daily moult rate for each concentration. Results of growth performance and food utilization indices showed that growth was significantly impaired in all exposed groups compared to control (p < 0.05). Moulting frequency was also higher in all exposed groups than in control (p < 0.05). Although all the tested growth measures proved to be possible

  13. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  14. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  15. Significant geographic gradients in particulate sulfate over Japan determined from multiple-site measurements and a chemical transport model: Impacts of transboundary pollution from the Asian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Ohara, Toshimasa; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Oishi, Okihiro; Tsuji, Akihiro; Yamagami, Makiko; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    We found a significant geographic gradient (longitudinal and latitudinal) in the sulfate (SO 42-) concentrations measured at multiple sites over the East Asian Pacific Rim region. Furthermore, the observed gradient was well reproduced by a regional chemical transport model. The observed and modeled SO 42- concentrations were higher at the sites closer to the Asian continent. The concentrations of SO 42- from China as calculated by the model also showed the fundamental features of the longitudinal/latitudinal gradient. The proportional contribution of Chinese SO 42- to the total in Japan throughout the year was above 50-70% in the control case, using data for Chinese sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emission from the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (40-60% in the low Chinese emissions case, using Chinese SO 2 emissions data from the State Environmental Protection Administration of China), with a winter maximum of approximately 65-80%, although the actual concentrations of SO 42- from China were highest in summer. The multiple-site measurements and the model analysis strongly suggest that the SO 42- concentrations in Japan were influenced by the outflow from the Asian continent, and this influence was greatest in the areas closer to the Asian continent. In contrast, we found no longitudinal/latitudinal gradient in SO 2 concentrations; instead SO 2 concentrations were significantly correlated with local SO 2 emissions. Our results show that large amounts of particulate sulfate are transported over long distances from the East Asian Pacific Rim region, and consequently the SO 42- concentrations in Japan are controlled by the transboundary outflow from the Asian continent.

  16. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  17. Polarity in GaN and ZnO: Theory, measurement, growth, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Consonni, Vincent; Lymperakis, Liverios; Kong, Xiang; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Brandt, Oliver; Renevier, Hubert; Keller, Stacia; Hestroffer, Karine; Wagner, Markus R.; Reparaz, Juan Sebastián; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth; Rennesson, Stéphanie; Palacios, Tomás; Feuillet, Guy

    2016-12-01

    The polar nature of the wurtzite crystalline structure of GaN and ZnO results in the existence of a spontaneous electric polarization within these materials and their associated alloys (Ga,Al,In)N and (Zn,Mg,Cd)O. The polarity has also important consequences on the stability of the different crystallographic surfaces, and this becomes especially important when considering epitaxial growth. Furthermore, the internal polarization fields may adversely affect the properties of optoelectronic devices but is also used as a potential advantage for advanced electronic devices. In this article, polarity-related issues in GaN and ZnO are reviewed, going from theoretical considerations to electronic and optoelectronic devices, through thin film, and nanostructure growth. The necessary theoretical background is first introduced and the stability of the cation and anion polarity surfaces is discussed. For assessing the polarity, one has to make use of specific characterization methods, which are described in detail. Subsequently, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of thin films and nanostructures, including nanowires, are presented, reviewing the specific growth conditions that allow controlling the polarity of such objects. Eventually, the demonstrated and/or expected effects of polarity on the properties and performances of optoelectronic and electronic devices are reported. The present review is intended to yield an in-depth view of some of the hot topics related to polarity in GaN and ZnO, a fast growing subject over the last decade.

  18. Effects of temperature and nitrogen supply on post-floral growth of wheat : measurements and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.

    1981-01-01

    Warmth accelerates the rate of grain growth in wheat, but the temperature coefficient expressed as Q 10 decreases gradually between 10 and 25°C. The rate of protein deposition responds more to temperature than the total grain dry matter accumulation rate. Warmth shortens the

  19. Selecting Growth Measures for Use in School Evaluation Systems: Should Proportionality Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Mark; Koedel, Cory; Parsons, Eric; Podgursky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The specifics of how growth models should be constructed and used for educational evaluation is a topic of lively policy debate in states and school districts nationwide. In this article, we take up the question of model choice--framed within a policy context--and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, reflected in the popular…

  20. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The

  1. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imel, E.A.; Peacock, M.; Pitukcheewanont, P.; Heller, H.J.; Ward, LM; Shulman, D.; Kassem, M.; Rackoff, P.; Zimering, M.; Dalkin, A.; Drobny, E.; Colussi, G.; Shaker, J.L.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hui, S.L.; Econs, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in

  2. Sensitivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements in tumor-induced osteomalacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imel, Erik A; Peacock, Munro; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit

    2006-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia, decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, normal or low serum 1,25-dihydryxyvitamin-D concentration, myopathy, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic protein overexpressed in tumors t...

  3. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma relevant cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO, EPO) levels in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tintin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of relevant cytokines in the development and pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. Methods: Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO (with RIA) and EPO (with CLIA) contents were measured in 100 patients (acute 43, chronic 57) with aplastic anemia and 50 controls. Complete blood count was also performed in all these subjects. Results: The peripheral RBC, WBC, platelet counts and GM-CSF contents were significantly lower in the patients with aplastic anemia than those in the controls (P<0.05), while the IL-2, EPO and TPO contents were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.05). GM-CSF contents were positively correlated with the WBC numbers. EPO contents were negatively correlated with the RBC counts and TPO contents were correlated (negatively) with the platelet counts. Conclusion: There was correlationship between each blood elements (WBC, RBC, platelet) and its corresponding cytokine (GS-CSF, EPO, TPO respectively). IL-2 contents were not correlated with WBC counts. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both before and one year after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels, were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), one year after treatment, the patients without recurrence (n=31) had their serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in patients with recurrences (n=8) the levels were about the same as those before treatment. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α lends were closely related to the diseases process and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in patients with ovary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in 34 patients with ovary cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 34 patients with ovary cancers both before and 6 months after chemotherapy as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=21) had their IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in those with recurrences (n=10) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  7. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  8. Growth measures among preschool-age Inuit children living in Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Niclasen, Birgit V L; Muckle, Gina; Young, Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland. We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572). Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts. Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.

  9. Measuring the factors influencing entrepreneurial e-Commerce growth in Saudi Arabia (I.S. Success factors & Demographics measurements)

    OpenAIRE

    Almehmadi, Bander

    2010-01-01

    The construction of an evaluation mechanism for entrepreneurial e-Commerce projects can be foreseen as vital to help tolerate any obstacles or source of failure that might arise in the path of the new business. Establishing a framework that encapsulates all crucial factors is a mandatory requirement in this evaluation process in order to set standers by which a firm could measure its success ability and predict and reveal all bottlenecks by carrying a full proactive inspection rather than ...

  10. Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Anita; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention. Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08). Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on

  11. Leaf-GP: an open and automated software application for measuring growth phenotypes for arabidopsis and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Applegate, Christopher; Alonso, Albor Dobon; Reynolds, Daniel; Orford, Simon; Mackiewicz, Michal; Griffiths, Simon; Penfield, Steven; Pullen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Plants demonstrate dynamic growth phenotypes that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Phenotypic analysis of growth features over time is a key approach to understand how plants interact with environmental change as well as respond to different treatments. Although the importance of measuring dynamic growth traits is widely recognised, available open software tools are limited in terms of batch image processing, multiple traits analyses, software usability and cross-referencing results between experiments, making automated phenotypic analysis problematic. Here, we present Leaf-GP (Growth Phenotypes), an easy-to-use and open software application that can be executed on different computing platforms. To facilitate diverse scientific communities, we provide three software versions, including a graphic user interface (GUI) for personal computer (PC) users, a command-line interface for high-performance computer (HPC) users, and a well-commented interactive Jupyter Notebook (also known as the iPython Notebook) for computational biologists and computer scientists. The software is capable of extracting multiple growth traits automatically from large image datasets. We have utilised it in Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) growth studies at the Norwich Research Park (NRP, UK). By quantifying a number of growth phenotypes over time, we have identified diverse plant growth patterns between different genotypes under several experimental conditions. As Leaf-GP has been evaluated with noisy image series acquired by different imaging devices (e.g. smartphones and digital cameras) and still produced reliable biological outputs, we therefore believe that our automated analysis workflow and customised computer vision based feature extraction software implementation can facilitate a broader plant research community for their growth and development studies. Furthermore, because we implemented Leaf-GP based on open Python-based computer vision, image

  12. Measurement of cellular copper levels in Bacillus megaterium during exponential growth and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W B; Kolodziej, B J

    1976-01-01

    Both atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis have been utilized to determine cellular Cu levels in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213. Both methods were selected for their sensitivity to detection of nanogram quantities of Cu. Data from both methods demonstrated identical patterms of Cu uptake during exponenetial growth and sporulation. Late exponential phase cells contained less Cu than postexponential t2 cells while t5 cells contained amounts equivalent to exponential cells. The t11 phase-bright forespore containing cells had a higher Cu content than those of earlier time periods, and the free spores had the highest Cu content. Analysis of the culture medium by AAS corroborated these data by showing concomitant Cu uptake during exponential growth and into t2 postexponential phase of sporulation. From t2 to t4, Cu egressed from the cells followed by a secondary uptake during the maturation of phase-dark forespores into phase-bright forespores (t6--t9).

  13. The role of serial measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in the development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorum, Bayram Ali; Yılmaz, Cansu Canbolat; Köksal, Nilgün; Özkan, Hilal; Yıldız, Meral; Özmen, Ahmet Tuncer

    2017-03-01

    To determine the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in the development of retinopathy of prematurity, which is a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. We prospectively studied newborn infants born at a postmenstrual age of prematurity screening and follow-up. Retinopathy of prematurity was classified according to the international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. Serum Insulin like growth factor 1 levels were measured serially in blood samples on the 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st , and 28 th day. Among the 40 infants, 11 (27.5%) constituted the retinopathy of prematurity group and 29 comprised the non-retinopathy of prematurity group. In the retinopathy of prematurity group, the mean gestational age and birth weight was significantly lower. The demographic features of the study cohort were similar. The duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly greater in the retinopathy of prematurity group compared with the non-retinopathy of prematurity group (p=0.036). In terms of neonatal morbidities such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, and necrotizing enterocolitis, no differences were detected between the groups. The mean serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in retinopathy of prematurity group were significantly lower than those in the non-retinopathy of prematurity group at each time point (1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st , and 28 th day of postnatal life) (p=0.001). This study demonstrated the low serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels was associated with retinopathy of prematurity development.

  14. Progress of a Cross-Correlation Based Optical Strain Measurement Technique for Detecting Radial Growth on a Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Sciences Project under NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is interested in the development of novel measurement technologies, such as optical surface measurements for the in situ health monitoring of critical constituents of the internal flow path. In situ health monitoring has the potential to detect flaws, i.e. cracks in key components, such as engine turbine disks, before the flaws lead to catastrophic failure. The present study, aims to further validate and develop an optical strain measurement technique to measure the radial growth and strain field of an already cracked disk, mimicking the geometry of a sub-scale turbine engine disk, under loaded conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center's High Precision Rotordynamics Laboratory. The technique offers potential fault detection by imaging an applied high-contrast random speckle pattern under unloaded and loaded conditions with a CCD camera. Spinning the cracked disk at high speeds (loaded conditions) induces an external load, resulting in a radial growth of the disk of approximately 50.0-µm in the flawed region and hence, a localized strain field. When imaging the cracked disk under static conditions, the disk will be undistorted; however, during rotation the cracked region will grow radially, thus causing the applied particle pattern to be 'shifted'. The resulting particle displacements between the two images is measured using the two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithms implemented in standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) software to track the disk growth, which facilitates calculation of the localized strain field. A random particle distribution is adhered onto the surface of the cracked disk and two bench top experiments are carried out to evaluate the technique's ability to measure the induced particle displacements. The disk is shifted manually using a translation stage equipped with a fine micrometer and a hotplate is used to induce thermal growth of the disk, causing the

  15. Effects of temperature and nitrogen supply on post-floral growth of wheat : measurements and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, J.

    1981-01-01

    Warmth accelerates the rate of grain growth in wheat, but the temperature coefficient expressed as Q 10 decreases gradually between 10 and 25°C. The rate of protein deposition responds more to temperature than the total grain dry matter accumulation rate. Warmth shortens the post-floral phase in cereals. The relation can be approximated by a direct log-linear relationship between temperature and duration, or by a heat sum above a minimum temperature. The proportion of t...

  16. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  17. Assessing the clinical utility of measuring Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in tissues and sera of melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Michael T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers in several types of tumors. In this study, we examined both IGFBP-3 and -4 levels in tissues and sera of melanoma patients representing different stages of melanoma progression. Methods The study cohort consisted of 132 melanoma patients (primary, n = 72; metastatic, n = 60; 64 Male, 68 Female; Median Age = 56 prospectively enrolled in the New York University School of Medicine Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (NYU IMCG between August 2002 and December 2006. We assessed tumor-expression and circulating sera levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 using immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays. Correlations with clinicopathologic parameters were examined using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Spearman-rank correlation coefficients. Results Median IGFBP-4 tumor expression was significantly greater in primary versus metastatic patients (70% versus 10%, p = 0.01 A trend for greater median IGFBP-3 sera concentration was observed in metastatic versus primary patients (4.9 μg/ml vs. 3.4 μg/ml, respectively, p = 0.09. However, sera levels fell within a normal range for IGFBP-3. Neither IGFBP-3 nor -4 correlated with survival in this subset of patients. Conclusion Decreased IGFBP-4 tumor expression might be a step in the progression from primary to metastatic melanoma. Our data lend support to a recently-described novel tumor suppressor role of secreting IGFBPs in melanoma. However, data do not support the clinical utility of measuring levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 in sera of melanoma patients.

  18. Significance of measurements of changes of plasma TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α levels in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Anqiong; Zan Qin; Xiao Xiaojie; Du Tongxing; Wang Zizheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of TXB 2 , 6-K-PGF 1α in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and to explore the mechanism of prethrombotic state (PTS) induced by AF. Methods: Plasma levels of TXB 2 , 6-K-PGF 1α were measured with RIA in 21 patients with isolated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (IPAF) both during and one week after termination of the attack. Levels were also measured in 28 patients with isolated sustained AF (ISAF), 27 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis associated with persistent AF (RHD), 32 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and 35 controls. Results Plasma levels of TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α in: (1) patients with IPAF during AF, (2) patients with ISAF and (3) patients with RHD were significantly higher than those in (1) patients with IPAF one week after termination of attack, (2) patients with PSVT and (3) the controls, but there were little difference in plasma 6-K-PGF 1α levels. Values in patients with PSVT were not much different from those in controls. Plasma TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α levels were positively correlated to the duration of the attack, but bore no relation to such parameters as: age, sex, mitral valve area, ejection fraction and inner diameter of left atrium. Conclusion: These results indicate that the changes of TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma in the patients with AF are caused by the irregular contractile activity of atrium. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  20. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-02-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis.

  1. Measuring growth index in a universe with massive neutrinos: A revisit of the general relativity test with the latest observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin

    2018-04-01

    We make a consistency test for the general relativity (GR) through measuring the growth index γ in a universe with massive (sterile/active) neutrinos. We employ the redshift space distortion measurements to do the analysis. To constrain other cosmological parameters, we also use other cosmological measurements, including the Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the type Ia supernova JLA data, the weak lensing galaxy shear data, and the Planck 2015 lensing data. In a universe with massive sterile neutrinos, we obtain γ =0.624-0.050+0.055, with the tension with the GR prediction γ = 0.55 at the 1.48σ level, showing that the consideration of sterile neutrinos still cannot make the true measurement of γ be well consistent with the GR prediction. In a universe with massive active neutrinos, we obtain γ = 0.663 ± 0.045 for the normal hierarchy case, γ =0.661-0.050+0.044 for the degenerate hierarchy case, and γ =0.668-0.051+0.045 for the inverted hierarchy case, with the tensions with GR all at beyond the 2σ level. We find that the consideration of massive active neutrinos (no matter what mass hierarchy is considered) almost does not influence the measurement of the growth index γ.

  2. Reliability of length measurements collected by community nurses and health volunteers in rural growth monitoring and promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Matilda E; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-02-17

    Length measurements are important in growth, monitoring and promotion (GMP) for the surveillance of a child's weight-for-length and length-for-age. These two indices provide an indication of a child's risk of becoming wasted or stunted, and are more informative about a child's growth than the widely used weight-for-age index (underweight). Although the introduction of length measurements in GMP is recommended by the World Health Organization, concerns about the reliability of length measurements collected in rural outreach settings have been expressed by stakeholders. Our aim was to describe the reliability and challenges associated with community health personnel measuring length for rural outreach GMP activities. Two reliability studies (A and B), using 10 children less than 24 months each, were conducted in the GMP services of a rural district in Ghana. Fifteen nurses and 15 health volunteers (HV) with no prior experience in length measurements were trained. Intra- and inter-observer technical error of measurement (TEM), average bias from expert anthropometrist, and coefficient of reliability (R) of length measurements were assessed and compared across sessions. Observations and interviews were used to understand the ability and experiences of health personnel with measuring length at outreach GMP. Inter-observer TEM was larger than intra-observer TEM for both nurses and HV at both sessions and was unacceptably (compared to error standards) high in both groups at both time points. Average biases from expert's measurements were within acceptable limits, however, both groups tended to underestimate length measurements. The R for lengths collected by nurses (92.3%) was higher at session B compared to that of HV (87.5%). Length measurements taken by nurses and HV, and those taken by an experienced anthropometrist at GMP sessions were of moderate agreement (kappa = 0.53, p reliability of length measurements improved after two refresher trainings for nurses but

  3. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  4. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers...... or the performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  5. Validity of the tritiated thymidine method for estimating bacterial growth rates: measurement of isotope dilution during DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, P.C.; Moriarty, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to estimate bacterial growth rates in aquatic environments. To be accurate, the calculation of growth rates has to include a factor for the dilution of isotope before incorporation. The validity of an isotope dilution analysis to determine this factor was verified in experiments reported here with cultures of a marine bacterium growing in a chemostat. Growth rates calculated from data on chemostat dilution rates and cell density agreed well with rates calculated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA and isotope dilution analysis. With sufficiently high concentrations of exogenous thymidine, de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate was inhibited, thereby preventing the endogenous dilution of isoope. The thymidine technique was also shown to be useful for measuring growth rates of mixed suspensions of bacteria growing anaerobically. Thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of a range of marine pseudomonads that were investigated. Three species did not take up thymidine. The common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus species did not incorporate thymidine into DNA

  6. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess measurements for growth monitoring in a developing country's primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, J J; Brown, L D; Vargas, W V; Morley, D

    1996-04-01

    Local supervisors used lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) during routine household visits to assess the technical quality of Costa Rican community-based health workers (CHW): measuring and recording weights of children, interpreting their growth trend and providing nutrition education to mothers. Supervisors sampled 10 households in each of 12 Health Areas (4-8 hours per area). No more than two performance errors were allowed for each CHW. This LQAS decision rule resulted in judgments with a sensitivity and specificity of about 95 percent. Three categories of results are reported: (1) CHW adequately weighed children, calculated ages, identified children requiring nutritional services, and used the growth chart. (2) They needed to improve referral, education, and documentation skills. (3) The lack of system support to regularly provide growth cards, supplementary feeding to identified malnourished children, and other essential materials may have discouraged some CHW resulting in them not applying their skills. Supervisors regularly using LQAS should, by the sixth round of supervision, identify at least 90 percent of inadequately performing CHW. This paper demonstrates the strength of LQAS, namely, to be used easily by low level local health workers to identify poorly functioning components of growth monitoring and promotion.

  7. Measurements of electron cloud growth and mitigation in dipole, quadrupole, and wiggler magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvey, J.R., E-mail: jrc97@cornell.edu; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Livezey, J.A.; Makita, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Rubin, D.

    2015-01-11

    Retarding field analyzers (RFAs), which provide a localized measurement of the electron cloud, have been installed throughout the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), in different magnetic field environments. This paper describes the RFA designs developed for dipole, quadrupole, and wiggler field regions, and provides an overview of measurements made in each environment. The effectiveness of electron cloud mitigations, including coatings, grooves, and clearing electrodes, are assessed with the RFA measurements.

  8. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Dynamic Measurement Modeling: Using Nonlinear Growth Models to Estimate Student Learning Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis G.; McNeish, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Single-timepoint educational measurement practices are capable of assessing student ability at the time of testing but are not designed to be informative of student capacity for developing in any particular academic domain, despite commonly being used in such a manner. For this reason, such measurement practice systematically underestimates the…

  10. Measurement Invariance of a Summative Achievement Assessment over Time: Is Status Really Ready for Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Steven Guy

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the phenomenon of measurement invariance by examining the construct stability of a summative mathematics achievement instrument over time gleaned from an existing data set. In doing so, not only is the general question of measurement invariance of the particular instrument addressed, but also in the context of growth…

  11. Posttraumatic growth measures: translation and adaptation of three self-report instruments to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is one of the most commonly used concepts to evaluate positive changes after trauma. The principal scales used internationally to evaluate this phenomenon have not yet a Brazilian Portuguese version. Objectives This study aimed to translate and adapt to the Brazilian context the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Methods The procedures included translation, back translation, expert committee’s evaluation, and pilot testing in the target population. Results All items of all three instruments had a good content validity index after evaluation by four experts and three reformulations. The back translation of the final version also demonstrated that all Brazilian Portuguese versions convey the same meaning as the original English version. The final version was pilot tested with 30 undergraduate students, and all the items were above the cut-off point. Discussion This study was able to produce Brazilian versions of the PTGI, CBI, and ERRI. Further studies are underway to determine the reliability, factorial validity, and convergent validity of the subscales of the instruments.

  12. Incorporating Measurement Non-Equivalence in a Cross-Study Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B; Curran, Patrick J; Hussong, Andrea M; Edwards, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    A large literature emphasizes the importance of testing for measurement equivalence in scales that may be used as observed variables in structural equation modeling applications. When the same construct is measured across more than one developmental period, as in a longitudinal study, it can be especially critical to establish measurement equivalence, or invariance, across the developmental periods. Similarly, when data from more than one study are combined into a single analysis, it is again important to assess measurement equivalence across the data sources. Yet, how to incorporate non-equivalence when it is discovered is not well described for applied researchers. Here, we present an item response theory approach that can be used to create scale scores from measures while explicitly accounting for non-equivalence. We demonstrate these methods in the context of a latent curve analysis in which data from two separate studies are combined to create a single longitudinal model spanning several developmental periods.

  13. Investigation of a Cross-Correlation Based Optical Strain Measurement Technique for Detecting radial Growth on a Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Sciences Project under NASA`s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is extremely interested in the development of novel measurement technologies, such as optical surface measurements in the internal parts of a flow path, for in situ health monitoring of gas turbine engines. In situ health monitoring has the potential to detect flaws, i.e. cracks in key components, such as engine turbine disks, before the flaws lead to catastrophic failure. In the present study, a cross-correlation imaging technique is investigated in a proof-of-concept study as a possible optical technique to measure the radial growth and strain field on an already cracked sub-scale turbine engine disk under loaded conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center`s High Precision Rotordynamics Laboratory. The optical strain measurement technique under investigation offers potential fault detection using an applied high-contrast random speckle pattern and imaging the pattern under unloaded and loaded conditions with a CCD camera. Spinning the cracked disk at high speeds induces an external load, resulting in a radial growth of the disk of approximately 50.0-im in the flawed region and hence, a localized strain field. When imaging the cracked disk under static conditions, the disk will be undistorted; however, during rotation the cracked region will grow radially, thus causing the applied particle pattern to be .shifted`. The resulting particle displacements between the two images will then be measured using the two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithms implemented in standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) software to track the disk growth, which facilitates calculation of the localized strain field. In order to develop and validate this optical strain measurement technique an initial proof-of-concept experiment is carried out in a controlled environment. Using PIV optimization principles and guidelines, three potential speckle patterns, for future use on the rotating disk, are developed

  14. Growth during infancy and early childhood in relation to blood pressure and body fat measures at age 8-18 years of IVF children and spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Prein, Janneke; Smit, Judith J; Vermeiden, Jan P W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about post-natal growth in IVF offspring and the effects of rates of early post-natal growth on blood pressure and body fat composition during childhood and adolescence. The follow-up study comprised 233 IVF children aged 8-18 years and 233 spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents. Growth data from birth to 4 years of age, available for 392 children (n = 193 IVF, n = 199 control), were used to study early post-natal growth. Furthermore, early post-natal growth velocity (weight gain) was related to blood pressure and skinfold measurements at follow-up. We found significantly lower weight, height and BMI standard deviation scores (SDSs) at 3 months, and weight SDS at 6 months of age in IVF children compared with controls. Likewise, IVF children demonstrated a greater gain in weight SDS (P pressure in IVF children (P = 0.014 systolic, 0.04 diastolic) but not in controls. Growth during late infancy was not related to skinfold thickness in IVF children, unlike controls (P = 0.002 peripheral sum, 0.003 total sum). Growth during early childhood was related to skinfold thickness in both IVF and controls (P = 0.005 and 0.01 peripheral sum and P = 0.003 and 0.005 total sum, respectively). Late infancy growth velocity of IVF children was significantly higher compared with controls. Nevertheless, early childhood growth instead of infancy growth seemed to predict cardiovascular risk factors in IVF children. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to follow-up growth and development of IVF children into adulthood.

  15. Measuring laves phase particle size and thermodynamic calculating its growth and coarsening behavior in P92 steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Bing-Yin; Zhou, Rong-Can; Fan, Chang-Xin

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Laves phase particles in three kinds of P92 steels were investigated. Laves phase particles can be easily separated and distinguished from the matrix and other particles by atom number contrast using comparisons of the backscatter electrons (BSE) images and the secondary electrons (SE......) images in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The smaller Laves phase particle size results in higher creep strength and longer creep exposure time at the same conditions. DICTRA software was used to model the growth and coarsening behavior of Laves phase in the three P92 steels. Good agreements were...... attained between measurements in SEM and modeling by DICTRA. Ostwald ripening should be used for the coarsening calculation of Laves phase in P92 steels for time longer than 20000 h and 50000 h at 650°C and 600°C, respectively. © 2010 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng....

  16. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  17. Detecting and Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy%糖尿病视网膜病变患者血管内皮生长因子的测定及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权玉萍; 王育水; 赵志勇; 李高亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)and type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) with diabetic retinopathy. Methods A total of 52 T2DM was divided into two groups based on developing diabetic retinopathy or not: 31 patients with diabetic retinopathy( DR group)and 21 patients without retinopathy( NDR group). The DR group was divided into 2 groups: 19 cases of background diabetic retinopathy(BDR) group and 12 cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group. Level of VEGF in the three groups was measured and compared with that in the 36 cases in the normal control group. Results Level of VEGF in the normal control (pg/ml), DR group, N DR group, B DR group and PDR group was 108.4 ± 27.2、185.2 ± 32.6、162.3 ± 28.7、220.3 ±44.6 and 201.9 ± 31.7. It showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and the DR group(P <0.01 ). Differences of the level of VEGF were statistically significant( P <0. 05 ) ,when the BDR group and PDR group were compared with NDR, the same as between groups BDR and PDR(P < 0.05 ). Conclusion VEGF level can be used as an important index of diabetic retinopathy.%目的 探讨血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)与2型糖尿病患者视网膜病变(DR)之间的关系.方法 将52例2型糖尿病患者分为31例糖尿病视网膜病变组(DR组)和21例糖尿病视网膜无病变组(NDR组),又将DR组分为背景型糖尿病患者视网膜病变组(BDR组)19例和增值型糖尿病患者视网膜病变组(PDR组)12例.分别检测各组VEGF值并与36例正常对照组进行比较.结果 正常对照组、糖尿病组、NDR组、BDR组及PDR组VEGF含量(pg/m1)分别为108.4±27.2、185.2±32.6、162.3±28.7、220.3±44.6和201.9±31.7.糖尿病组和正常对照组相比,差异有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01);BDR、PDR与NDR组相比,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05),PDR与BDR相比,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 VEGF可作为了解糖尿病

  18. Measurement and interpretation of growth and evaporation of monodispersed droplets in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Paikert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A special gasdynamic shock tube process in combination with a Mie light scattering method is used to study growth and subsequent evaporation of monodispersed droplets carried in argon or air. The droplets are generated by homogeneous nucleation and observed in the micrometer range (0.15-6 micrometer radius). Droplet concentrations range from 10-1000/cu mm. Four different substances, i.e. water, n-propanol, methanol and n-hexane are tested for a wide range of properties. A model covering the entire range between large (Kn much greater than 1) and small Knudsen numbers (K much less than 1) is applied to interpret the experimental data. Excellent agreement is found.

  19. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  20. A critical assessment of the use of microculture tetrazolium assays to measure cell growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N J; Goodwin, C J; Holt, S J

    1995-06-01

    Microculture tetrazolium assays (MTAs) are being widely applied to probe the relationships between cell survival, growth, and differentiation and also to investigate associations between compromised cell metabolism, oxidative stress, and programmed cell death as occurs in apoptosis. MTAs rely upon the cellular reduction of tetrazolium salts to their intensely coloured formazans. The resulting colorimetric assays form the basis of exceptionally precise systems which are technically amenable and capable of a high throughput of samples. As a consequence, MTAs are being used to monitor responses to both extracellular activators and toxic agents in disciplines as diverse as radiobiology and endocrinology. We review the chemistry and histochemical applications of tetrazolium salts and subsequently discuss the criteria for their use in MTAs. These assays are one of the latest examples of the application of the tetrazolium/formazan system to cell biology. We outline current views on the mechanisms of the bioreduction of tetrazolium salts. These probably combine to reflect the integrated pyridine nucleotide dependent redox state of the cell. We try to illustrate how an understanding of these mechanisms helps to avoid some of the pitfalls of the MTA systems. There is now for example, extensive evidence that changes in cell culture environments, such as glucose supply or pH of the medium, influence the reduction of tetrazolium salts and thereby introduce artefacts into MTAs. Finally, we provide examples of situations in which MTAs can be used to complement other more established experimental systems. They then act as unique probes with which to investigate changes in the redox state of the cell. These changes are associated with regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation and conversely, the different pathways leading to cell death.

  1. Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's english productive vocabulary development: the utility of combining parent and teacher report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagh, Shaher Banu; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined growth in the English productive vocabularies of bilingual and monolingual children between ages 24 and 36 months and explored the utility and validity of supplementing parent reports with teacher reports to improve the estimation of children's vocabulary. Low-income, English-speaking and English/Spanish-speaking parents and Early Head Start and Head Start program teachers completed the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, Words and Sentences for 85 children. Results indicate faster growth rates for monolingual than for bilingual children and larger vocabularies for bilingual children who spoke mostly English than mostly Spanish at home. Parent-teacher composite reports, like parent reports, significantly related to children's directly assessed productive vocabulary at ages 30 and 36 months, but parent reports fit the model better. Implications for vocabulary assessment are discussed.

  2. Cell growth, intracellular calcium concentration and metabolic cooperation measured in cells exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skauli, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    Colony-forming efficiency, DNA/protein and DNA/cell were measured in cells exposed to magnetic fields of 0.2 and 1 mT at a frequency of 50 Hz. Intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in cells exposed to 0.3 and 1 mT at 50 Hz. Metabolic cooperation was measured in cells exposed to 1 mT at 50 Hz. No significant effects of the fields were observed. 20 refs., 10 figs

  3. Application of the system of water erosion control measures in growths of special cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Hálek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to select an optimal variant of the system of water erosion control measures. The water erosion issue was observed and evaluated in 15 blocks of special cultivations-vineyards and orchards. These blocks are situated in the managed area of the join-stock company PATRIA Kobylí. At first the average long-term loss of soil with the influence of water erosion is calculated. The universal Wischmeier-Smith equation is used for this purpose. If the calculated loss of soil exceeds the permissible value, the erosion control measures have to be suggested. The optimal variant has been selected on the bases of the evaluation of several kinds of measures in each block. This variant follows first of all the erosion control efficiency, but also demands on production as well as slope accessibility for mechanization, expensiveness and some negative sides of suggested measures. The suggested system of water erosion control measures contributes to increasing of soil fertility and production ability with the respect to landscape management and environmental protection.

  4. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement by FibroScan in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Vergniol, Julien; Guillet, Anne; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Lannes, Adrien; Le Bail, Brigitte; Michalak, Sophie; Chermak, Faiza; Bertrais, Sandrine; Foucher, Juliette; Oberti, Frédéric; Charbonnier, Maude; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Calès, Paul; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2016-09-01

    NAFLD is highly prevalent but only a small subset of patients develop advanced liver fibrosis with impaired liver-related prognosis. We aimed to compare blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroScan for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and the evaluation of prognosis in NAFLD. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in a cross-sectional study including 452 NAFLD patients with liver biopsy (NASH-CRN fibrosis stage), LSM, and eight blood fibrosis tests (BARD, NAFLD fibrosis score, FibroMeter(NAFLD), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB4, FibroTest, Hepascore, FibroMeter(V2G)). Prognostic accuracy was evaluated in a longitudinal study including 360 NAFLD patients. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the two best-performing tests in the cross-sectional study: AUROCs for advanced fibrosis (F3/4) were, respectively, 0.831±0.019 and 0.817±0.020 (p⩽0.041 vs. other tests); rates of patients with ⩾90% negative/positive predictive values for F3/4 were 56.4% and 46.7% (ptests); Obuchowski indexes were 0.834±0.014 and 0.798±0.016 (p⩽0.036 vs. other tests). Two fibrosis classifications were developed to precisely estimate the histological fibrosis stage from LSM or FibroMeter(V2G) results without liver biopsy (diagnostic accuracy, respectively: 80.8% vs. 77.4%, p=0.190). Kaplan-Meier curves in the longitudinal study showed that both classifications categorised NAFLD patients into subgroups with significantly different prognoses (pfibrosis classification, the worse was the prognosis. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the most accurate of nine evaluated tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) fibrosis classifications help physicians estimate both fibrosis stage and patient prognosis in clinical practice. The amount of liver fibrosis is the main determinant of the liver-related prognosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated eight blood tests and Fibro

  6. Single crystal growth and electrical and magnetic measurements on CeFe4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, I.; Sugawara, H.; Magishi, K.; Saito, T.; Koyama, K.; Kikuchi, D.; Tanaka, K.; Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have succeeded in growing single crystals of CeFe 4 Sb 12 by a Sb-self-flux method and measured the electrical resistivity and magnetization. The residual resistivity is about two times smaller than that of polycrystalline ones, suggesting that the sample quality is highly improved. The magnetization measurements at low temperature revealed that the sample contains almost no magnetic impurities which are always observed in polycrystalline samples. The weak temperature dependence and a broad maximum around 115K in magnetic susceptibility, which is a typical feature of valence fluctuation compounds, have been observed

  7. Assessment of exposure risk from hidden fungal growth by measurements of air change rates in construction cavities and living areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie M; Møller, Eva B.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    The transfer of particulate and gaseous pollution from hidden fungi growing on non-visible surfaces within the building envelope to occupied rooms is limited by the separating structure. Yet, growth, even in sealed construction cavities, is known to cause annoying smells and other more adverse...... health symptoms among the building occupants. This study analyses limitations of air change rate measurements in inaccessible construction cavities as well as analyses of the air exchange between living areas and accessible cavities such as crawl spaces and attics. It was necessary to invent a field...

  8. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  9. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  10. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  11. Generalized W1;1-Young Measures and Relaxation of Problems with Linear Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baia, M.; Krömer, Stefan; Kružík, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2018), s. 1076-1119 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR(CZ) GF16-34894L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : lower semicontinuity * quasiconvexity * Young measures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/2018/MTR/kruzik-0487019.pdf

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of fundal height and handheld ultrasound-measured abdominal circumference to screen for fetal growth abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haragan, Adriane F.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hawk, Angela F.; Newman, Roger B.; Chang, Eugene Y.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare fundal height and handheld ultrasound–measured fetal abdominal circumference (HHAC) for the prediction of fetal growth restriction (FGR) or large for gestational age. STUDY DESIGN This was a diagnostic accuracy study in nonanomalous singleton pregnancies between 24 and 40 weeks’ gestation. Patients underwent HHAC and fundal height measurement prior to formal growth ultrasound. FGR was defined as estimated fetal weight less than 10%, whereas large for gestational age was defined as estimated fetal weight greater than 90%. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared using methods described elsewhere. RESULTS There were 251 patients included in this study. HHAC had superior sensitivity and specificity for the detection of FGR (sensitivity, 100% vs 42.86%) and (specificity, 92.62% vs 85.24%). HHAC had higher specificity but lower sensitivity when screening for LGA (specificity, 85.66% vs 66.39%) and (sensitivity, 57.14% vs 71.43%). CONCLUSION HHAC could prove to be a valuable screening tool in the detection of FGR. Further studies are needed in a larger population. PMID:25818672

  13. Variation in performance measure criteria significantly affects cardiology practice rankings: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Spertus, John A; Rumsfeld, John S; Heidenreich, Paul A; Peterson, Eric D; Drozda, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Million Hearts is a national initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over 5 years by improving cardiovascular prevention. An important tool in the success of programs like Million Hearts is public ranking on the quality of practices, yet different measures may provide different rankings, so the true quality of practices is difficult to discern. We evaluated the quality of ambulatory cardiology care using performance measure metrics. We compared rankings of practices participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry using measures from (1) the physician quality reporting system and (2) the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. We compared achievement rates for measures between the 2 frameworks and determined correlations in rankings using Spearman correlation coefficients. From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, there were 1,711,326 patients enrolled from 111 US practices. Among eligible patients, the physician quality reporting system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement measures were achieved in 76.1% versus 77.4% for antiplatelet prescription (P performance and failing to achieve public health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-exponential Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wanfeng Yan; Edgar van Tuyll van Serooskerken

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous over reaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential grow...

  15. Application of Coherent Tune Shift Measurements to the Characterization of Electron Cloud Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreinick, D.L.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.; Holtzapple, R.L.; Randazzo, M.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.; Palmer, M.A.; Ramirez, G.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of coherent tune shifts at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) have been made for electron and positron beams under a wide variety of beam energies, bunch charge, and bunch train configurations. Comparing the observed tunes with the predictions of several electron cloud simulation programs allows the evaluation of important parameters in these models. These simulations will be used to predict the behavior of the electron cloud in damping rings for future linear colliders. We outline recent improvements to the analysis techniques that should improve the fidelity of the modeling.

  16. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  17. Routine ultramicro-measurement of human growth hormone in plasma by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norio; Takahara, Jiro; Ofuji, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    The development and application of the method for the ultramicromeasurement of human growth hormone (HGH) in plasma based on the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by using antibody-coated disposable microtiter trays was reported. There was no statistical significance between the basal HGH level obtained from this method and that from the double-antibody RIA in normal subjects. On the other hand, the mean basal plasma HGH level after an overnight fasting in 21 hypopituitary patients was 484 pg/ml (+-282; 1 SD) by this method, and this was significantly lower (P<0.001) than 1376 pg/ml (+-498; 1 SD) by the double-antibody RIA. These data show that determination of basal plasma HGH levels by this method is of much value in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism. (JPN)

  18. Clinical significance of measurment of changes of serum IGF-I, hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Conggang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-I,hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum IGF-I, hs-CRP(with RIA), and serum hs-CRP with immuno-turbidity methods levels were determined both before and after treatment in 36 cases of hyperthyroidism 30 cases of hypothyroidism as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-I levels in patients with hyperthyroidism were significantly higher and the levels in patients with hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (both P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months,the levels were much corrected, but still remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Before treatment serum hs-CRP levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), but after treatment,the levels were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: Serum levels of IGF-I and hs-CRP were closely related to the disease process in patients with hyperthyroidism as well as in patients with hypothyroidism, and were much corrected after trentment.(authors)

  19. Rapid Measurements of Aerosol Size Distribution and Hygroscopic Growth via Image Processing with a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pinterich, T.; Spielman, S. R.; Hering, S. V.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity are among key parameters in determining the impact of atmospheric aerosols on global radiation and climate change. In situ submicron aerosol size distribution measurements commonly involve a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The SMPS scanning time is in the scale of minutes, which is often too slow to capture the variation of aerosol size distribution, such as for aerosols formed via nucleation processes or measurements onboard research aircraft. To solve this problem, a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS) based on image processing was developed for rapid measurements of aerosol size distributions from 10 to 500 nm. The FIMS consists of a parallel plate classifier, a condenser, and a CCD detector array. Inside the classifier an electric field separates charged aerosols based on electrical mobilities. Upon exiting the classifier, the aerosols pass through a three stage growth channel (Pinterich et al. 2017; Spielman et al. 2017), where aerosols as small as 7 nm are enlarged to above 1 μm through water or heptanol condensation. Finally, the grown aerosols are illuminated by a laser sheet and imaged onto a CCD array. The images provide both aerosol concentration and position, which directly relate to the aerosol size distribution. By this simultaneous measurement of aerosols with different sizes, the FIMS provides aerosol size spectra nearly 100 times faster than the SMPS. Recent deployment onboard research aircraft demonstrated that the FIMS is capable of measuring aerosol size distributions in 1s (Figure), thereby offering a great advantage in applications requiring high time resolution (Wang et al. 2016). In addition, the coupling of the FIMS with other conventional aerosol instruments provides orders of magnitude more rapid characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. For example, the combination of a differential mobility analyzer, a relative humidity control unit, and a FIMS was

  20. Measured and modeled evidence for a two-fold increase in water use efficiency at an old-growth forest site in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Rastogi, B.; Kim, J. B.; Voelker, S.; Meinzer, F. C.; Still, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon uptake to transpiration, has been widely recognized as an important measure of carbon and water cycling in plants, and is used to track forest ecosystem responses to climate change and rising atmospheric CO2concentrations. In this study we used eddy covariance measurement data and Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) simulations to explore the patterns and physiological and biophysical controls of WUE at Wind River Experimental Forest, an old-growth coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest. We characterized how observed and simulated WUE vary between wet and dry years, and explored the drivers of the differences in WUE between the wet and dry years. Through this explorative process, we evaluated the utility of various ways that WUE have been computed in literature. Measurement-based and simulated WUE at the old-growth forest increased over twofold from 1998 to 2015. The primary driver of this trend is a decreasing trend in evapotranspiration (ET). There were significant inter-annual variations. For example, during drought years, higher air temperature drove increases in early season ET, thereby depleting soil water and decreasing GPP. Lower GPP in turn resulted in lower WUE. This mechanism might drive changes in future carbon and water budgets under warming climate. Our evaluation of multiple WUE metrics demonstrates that each metric has a distinct sensitivity to climate anomalies, but also indicates a robust increasing trend of WUE. Statistical (multiple linear regression) and machine learning (Random Forest) analyses of flux measurements indicated that atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature and radiation were the most important predictors of WUE at monthly, daily and half-hourly time scale, respectively. In contrast, WUE mechanism was stable across all time scales in ED2 simulations: vapor pressure deficit was consistently the most important predictor of WUE at the monthly, daily and half-hourly time scales.

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Weiqun; Zhao Yushan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were determined with RIA in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction both before and after treatment and 30 controls. Results: Before treatment plasma NPY levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the controls, while plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were lower than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment, plasma NPY levels decreased significantly (vs before treatment P<0.05), and plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with acute cerebral infarction, determination of which was of important clinical values. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Junmin; Zhou Xiujuan; Zhang Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with vitiligo. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) IL-4, IFN-γ (with ELISA) levels were examined in 37 patients with vitiligo both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-2 levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.01), while the serum IL-4, IFN-γ levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01). After treatment for 6 months, the values were greatly corrected, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitiligo is a kind of auto-immune diseases with abnormal immuno-regulation. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-II, EGF (with RIA), and CYFRA21-1 (with ECLIA) levels were determined both before and after chemotherapy in 39 patients with lung cancer as well as once in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls(P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels dropped markedly, but remained significantly higher than those in controls(P<0.05). Conclusion: The development of lung cancer in patients was closely related to the serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Huang Rongchong; Lu Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the detection of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Methods: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined with RIA in 176 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with CHF were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels increased along with the increase of severity of cardiac failure. The levels in patients with cardiac function of any grade were significantly different from those in patients with another grade of cardiac function. Conclusion: Immunological activation and myocardial inflammation exist in CHF patients. The increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-6 can trigger the onset and development of CHF. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum levels of free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolong; Chen Baixun; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of combined determination of serum levels of fPSA and IGF-1 in patients with prostatic cancer. Methods: Serum levels of fPSA (with chemiluminescence) and IGF-1 (with IRMA) were measured in 48 patients with prostatic cancer, 63 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and 38 controls. Results: Serum levels of fPSA and IGF-1 in the 111 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The positive rate for prostatic cancer detection with fPSA, IGF-1 and fPSA combined with IGF-1 was 83.3%, 79.2% and 95.8% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of fPSA and IGF-1 was most preferable for screening prostatic cancer

  6. Measurements of Compression and Emittance Growth after the First LCLS Bunch Compressor Chicane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray free-electron laser project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section from RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane was installed during the fall of 2006. The first bunch compressor is located at 250 MeV and nominally compresses a 1-nC electron bunch from an rms length of about 1 mm to 0.2 mm. Transverse phase space and bunch length diagnostics are located immediately after the chicane. We present preliminary measurements and simulations of the longitudinal and transverse phase space after the chicane in various beam conditions, including extreme compression with micron-scale current spikes

  7. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  8. Advanced In Situ I-V Measurements Used in the Study of Porous Structures Growth on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Benor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of oxide formation during growth of pores structures on silicon was investigated by in situ I-V measurements. The measurements were designed to get two I-V curves in a short time (total time for the two measurements was 300 seconds taking into account the gap (in mA/cm2 for each corresponding voltage. The in situ I-V measurements were made at different pore depth/time, at the electrolyte-pore tip interface, while etching takes place based on p-type Si. The results showed increasing, decreasing, and constant I-V gap in time, for macropores, nanopores, and electropolishing regimes, respectively. This was related to the expected diffusion limitation of oxide forming (H2O molecules reaching the electrolyte-pore tip and the anodizing current, while etching takes place. The method can be developed further and has the potential to be applied in other electrochemically etched porous semiconductor materials.

  9. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  10. International Outsourcing and Productivity Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Falk; Yvonne Wolfmayr

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of international outsourcing to low? and high income countries on total factor productivity growth based on manufacturing industry data for 14 OECD countries from 1995 ? 2000. We find that the broad measure of international outsourcing of material inputs to low income countries is significantly negatively related to productivity growth. Furthermore, while the narrow measure of international outsourcing of materials is not significant, purchased services from...

  11. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI. We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, P<0.01. IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, P<0.01 and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  12. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  13. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α(with RIA) levels were determined in 36 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis and might be of important clinical value. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of measurement of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum TNF-α, M-CSF (with RIA), hs-CRP (with immuneturbitity method) levels were determined in 38 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β1, urinary microalbuminuria (MAU) levels in patients with type II diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liming; Xu Shan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , urinary microalbuminuria levels in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) serum TGF-β 1 (with ELISA)microalbuminuria (with immune method) levels were determination in 40 cases of DM2 without nephropathy, 32 cases of DM2 with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1, serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls(P 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe. They could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Limin; Liu Hongshu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, M -CSF(with RIA), hs-CRP(with immuneturbidity method)levels were determined in 33 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  18. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, Loes J.; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Neer, Wim; Millner, Richard S.; van Leeuwen, Piet I.; Ervynck, Anton; Ayers, Richard; Ongenae, Ellen

    2004-05-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at low levels of exploitations is limited. Otoliths retrieved from archaeological excavations offer a unique opportunity to study growth rates in the past. This study compares historical and present-day growth rates for four commercially important demersal fish species. A total of 2532 modern otoliths (AD 1984-1999) and 1286 historical otoliths (AD 1200-1925) obtained from archaeological excavations in Belgium and Scotland were analysed. Comparison of the growth patterns between eras revealed a major increase in growth rate of haddock, whereas growth changes were not observed in saithe and only in the smaller size classes of plaice and cod. Comparison of our results with literature data indicates that the observed growth rate changes in plaice and cod occurred within the 20th century. Apparently the onset of industrialised fisheries has not greatly affected the growth of plaice, cod and saithe populations in the North Sea. This result contradicts the expectation of density-dependent limitation of growth during the era of pre-industrialised fishing, but is in agreement with the concentration hypothesis of Beverton (Neth. J. Sea Res. 34 (1995) 1) stating that species which concentrate spatially into nursery grounds during their early life-history may 'saturate' the carrying capacity of the juvenile habitat even though the adult part of the population is not limited by the adult habitat.

  19. Measurements of humidified particle number size distributions in a Finnish boreal forest: derivation of hygroscopic particle growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmili, W.; Schwirn, K.; Nowak, A.; Rose, D.; Wiedensohler, A. (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Petaejae, T.; Haemeri, K.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Joutsensaari, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Dry and humidified size distributions of atmospheric particles were characterised at the atmospheric research station SMEAR 2, Finland between May and July 2004. Particles were classified in a size range between 3 and 800 nm at controlled relative humidities up to 90% by two instruments complementary in size range (HDMPS; Nano-HDMPS). Using the summation method, descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF) were derived for particle diameters between 70 and 300 nm by comparing dry and humidified size distributions. At 90% relative humidity, DHGF showed mean values between 1.25 and 1.45 in the accumulation mode, between 1.20 and 1.25 in the Aitken mode, and between 1.15 and 1.20 in the nucleation mode. Due to the high size resolution of the method, the transition in DHGF between the Aitken and accumulation modes, which reflects differences in the soluble fraction, could be pinpointed efficiently. For the accumulation mode, experimental DHGFs were compared to those calculated from a simplistic growth model initialised by in-situ chemical composition measurements, and yielded maximum deviations around 0.1. The variation in DHGF could only imperfectly be linked to meteorological factors. A pragmatic parameterisation of DHGF as a function of particle diameter and relative humidity was derived, and subsequently used to study the sensitivity of the condensational sink parameter (CS) as a function of height in a well-mixed boundary layer. (orig.)

  20. On the use of simultaneous measurements of OH and O2 emissions to investigate wave growth and dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of mesospheric OH (6–2 Meinel and O2 (0–1 Atmospheric band emissions from a low-latitude station, Maui, Hawaii (20.8° N, 156.2° W are utilized to study the wave characteristics and associated processes. Deduced temperatures show large variability in both OH and O2 data. The seasonal variability in the temperature shows a well-defined, semiannual type of oscillation, which are comparable to the ground-based rocket sounding data. The "Wave Growth Factor", a ratio of normalized perturbation amplitude in O2 to the OH temperature variability, is estimated for principal as well as residual smaller period components of the nocturnal variability. It is noticed that smaller period waves (less than 12 h occasionally have large growth factors of about 3–4 during equinox transitions, an indication of wave amplitude amplification within the 87–94 km altitudes while a strong wave-dissipation occurs throughout the year.

  1. PET measurements of hyperthermia-induced suppression of protein synthesis in tumors in relation to effects on tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, B.J.; Elsinga, P.H.; Mooibroek, J.; Paans, A.M.; Wieringa, A.R.; Konings, A.W.; Vaalburg, W.

    1991-01-01

    Hyperthermia-induced metabolic changes in tumor tissue have been monitored by PET. Uptake of L-[1-11C]tyrosine in rhabdomyosarcoma tissue of Wag/Rij rats was dose-dependently reduced after local hyperthermia treatment at 42, 45, or 47 degrees C. Tumor blood flow, as measured by PET with 13NH3, appeared to be unchanged. The L-[1-11C]tyrosine uptake data were compared to uptake data of L-[1-14C]tyrosine and with data on the incorporation of L-[1-14C]tyrosine into tumor proteins. After intravenous injection, the 14C data were obtained from dissected tumor tissue. Heat-induced inhibition of the incorporation of L-[1-14C]tyrosine into tumor proteins tallied with the L-[1-11C]tyrosine uptake data. Heat-induced inhibition of amino acid uptake in the tumor correlated well with regression of tumor growth. It is concluded that PET using L-[1-11C]tyrosine is eligible for monitoring the effect of hyperthermia on tumor growth

  2. Delayed hydride cracking velocity and crack growth measurement using DCPD technique in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Kishore, R.; Roychaudhury, S.; Unnikrishnan, M.; Sinha, T.K.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear structural materials have to perform under most demanding and exotic environmental conditions. Due to its unique properties dilute zirconium alloys are the only choice for in-core structural materials in water cooled nuclear reactors. Hydrogen related problems have been recognized as the life-limiting factor for the core components of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). Delayed Hydride Cracking (Dhc) is one of them. In this study, Dhc crack growth has been monitored using Direct Current Potential Drop (Dcp) technique. Calibration curve between normalized Dcp output and normalized crack length was established at different test temperatures. Dhc velocity was measured along the axial direction of the Zirconium-2.5Niobium pressure tube material at 203 and 250 degree C. (author)

  3. Measurement of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor: Ag/ Si(100)-2x1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, D.E.; Ranney, J.T.; Larsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2001-01-01

    The first direct calorimetric measurements of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor surface are presented. The heat of adsorption of Ag on Si(100)-(2 x 1) at 300 K decreases from similar to 347 to 246 kJ/mol with coverage in the first monolayer (ML) due to overlap of substrate...... strain from nearby Ag islands. It then rises quickly toward the bulk sublimation enthalpy (285 kJ/mol) as 3D particles grow. A wetting layer grows to 1.0 ML, but is metastable above similar to0.55 ML and dewets when kinetics permit. This may be common when adsorbate islands induce a large strain...

  4. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-04-03

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation.

  5. On The Importance of Connecting Laboratory Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth with Model Parameterizations: Predicting Ice Particle Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Parameterizing the growth of ice particles in numerical models is at an interesting cross-roads. Most parameterizations developed in the past, including some that I have developed, parse model ice into numerous categories based primarily on the growth mode of the particle. Models routinely possess smaller ice, snow crystals, aggregates, graupel, and hail. The snow and ice categories in some models are further split into subcategories to account for the various shapes of ice. There has been a relatively recent shift towards a new class of microphysical models that predict the properties of ice particles instead of using multiple categories and subcategories. Particle property models predict the physical characteristics of ice, such as aspect ratio, maximum dimension, effective density, rime density, effective area, and so forth. These models are attractive in the sense that particle characteristics evolve naturally in time and space without the need for numerous (and somewhat artificial) transitions among pre-defined classes. However, particle property models often require fundamental parameters that are typically derived from laboratory measurements. For instance, the evolution of particle shape during vapor depositional growth requires knowledge of the growth efficiencies for the various axis of the crystals, which in turn depends on surface parameters that can only be determined in the laboratory. The evolution of particle shapes and density during riming, aggregation, and melting require data on the redistribution of mass across a crystals axis as that crystal collects water drops, ice crystals, or melts. Predicting the evolution of particle properties based on laboratory-determined parameters has a substantial influence on the evolution of some cloud systems. Radiatively-driven cirrus clouds show a broader range of competition between heterogeneous nucleation and homogeneous freezing when ice crystal properties are predicted. Even strongly convective squall

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels after operation in patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels after operation in patients with carcinoma uterine cervix. Methods: Serum levels of IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 were determined with RIA repeatedly in 31 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix (before operation 1 month after operation and 6 month after operation) and once in 35 controls. Results: Before operation,serum levels of IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). One month after operation all the serum levels were approaching normal. Six month later,the levels in the patients without recurrence remained normal. However, the levels in the 6 patients with recurrence returned to those before operation again. Conclusion: Changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels are closely related to the tumor burden and may be of prognostic importance. (authors)

  7. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Chen Huaming; Zhu Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    The 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate and the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131 I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131 I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131 I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131 I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  8. Quantitative morphological magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of low-grade glioma: a plea for systematic measurement of growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallud, Johan; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent; Fontaine, Denys; Peyre, Matthieu; Ducray, François; Duffau, Hugues; Mandonnet, Emmanuel

    2012-09-01

    Supratentorial hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs), i.e., World Health Organization grade II gliomas, are a heterogeneous group of tumors. During their natural course, LGGs tend to progress to a higher grade of malignancy, leading to neurological disability and ultimately to death. In this review, we will show, that during their low-grade period, these tumors exhibit systematically a spontaneous and continuous radiological growth, whatever their histological subtypes. The radiological tumor growth is easily quantified by measuring the evolution of the equivalent tumor diameter (calculated from the tumor volume), obtaining the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE). The spontaneous VDE of LGGs varies markedly with an average VDE of about 4 mm/year. It depends on intrinsic factors (1p19q codeletion status, P53 overexpression status) and can be modified by extrinsic factors (pregnancy). The spontaneous VDE carries a strong prognostic significance regarding progression-free and overall survivals. As a consequence, VDE should be integrated along with the other "static" parameters (multimodal imaging, histological and molecular analyses) in the initial investigations. In addition, the assessment of VDE obtained before, during, and after a particular oncological treatment helps in analyzing their effects on LGGs on an individual basis, helping to guide the decision making.

  9. The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Stoichiometric balance of protein copy numbers is measurable and functionally significant in a protein-protein interaction network for yeast endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David O; Johnson, Margaret E

    2018-03-01

    Stoichiometric balance, or dosage balance, implies that proteins that are subunits of obligate complexes (e.g. the ribosome) should have copy numbers expressed to match their stoichiometry in that complex. Establishing balance (or imbalance) is an important tool for inferring subunit function and assembly bottlenecks. We show here that these correlations in protein copy numbers can extend beyond complex subunits to larger protein-protein interactions networks (PPIN) involving a range of reversible binding interactions. We develop a simple method for quantifying balance in any interface-resolved PPINs based on network structure and experimentally observed protein copy numbers. By analyzing such a network for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) system in yeast, we found that the real protein copy numbers were significantly more balanced in relation to their binding partners compared to randomly sampled sets of yeast copy numbers. The observed balance is not perfect, highlighting both under and overexpressed proteins. We evaluate the potential cost and benefits of imbalance using two criteria. First, a potential cost to imbalance is that 'leftover' proteins without remaining functional partners are free to misinteract. We systematically quantify how this misinteraction cost is most dangerous for strong-binding protein interactions and for network topologies observed in biological PPINs. Second, a more direct consequence of imbalance is that the formation of specific functional complexes depends on relative copy numbers. We therefore construct simple kinetic models of two sub-networks in the CME network to assess multi-protein assembly of the ARP2/3 complex and a minimal, nine-protein clathrin-coated vesicle forming module. We find that the observed, imperfectly balanced copy numbers are less effective than balanced copy numbers in producing fast and complete multi-protein assemblies. However, we speculate that strategic imbalance in the vesicle forming module

  11. Laboratory polarization and permittivity measurements to interpret dust polarimetric observations and in-situ radar studies. Significance for Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Brouet, Yann; Hadamcik, Edith; Heggy, Essam; Hines, Dean; Lasue, Jérémie; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Polarimetric astronomical observations on dust clouds and regolithic surfaces require laboratory simulations on samples to provide information on properties (size distribution, porosity, refractive index) of the scattering media. Similarly, in-situ radar investigations in the solar system require laboratory studies on samples to infer physical properties (e.g. porosity, ice/dust ratio) of sub-surfaces and interiors. Recent developments are illustrated with present studies related to the Rosetta mission, which begun its rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko (C-G) and landed the Philae module on its nucleus in 2014.We will summarize laboratory simulations with the PROGRA2 suite of instruments that study (in the visible to near IR domain) the polarimetric properties of dust samples in microgravity conditions or on surfaces [1], with emphasis on the interpretation of polarimetric observations of C-G, during its previous perihelion passages from Earth observatories, and currently from HST [2,3]. The presence of large dust particles in the pre-perihelion coma previously inferred from remote observations agrees with Rosetta ground truth [4]. We will also present measurements on the permittivity (in the millimeter to meter domain) of various dust samples, with emphasis on porous samples [5,6]. Results provide constraints on the properties of the subsurface and interior of C-G, as explored by MIRO on Rosetta and CONSERT on Philae.Such studies are relevant for the interpretation of polarimetric observations of other dust clouds (e.g. debris disks, interplanetary dust cloud, clouds in planetary atmospheres) and surfaces (e.g. planets, moons), as well as for those of other radar characterization studies (e.g. Mars, moons, asteroids).[1] Levasseur-Regourd et al. In Polarization of stars and planetary systems, Cambridge UP, in press 2015.[2] Hadamcik et al. A&A 517 2010.[3] Hines and Levasseur-Regourd, PSS submitted 2015.[4] Schulz et al. Nature 518 2015.[5] Heggy et al

  12. Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li

    2007-01-01

    Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...

  13. Relationship between physiological measurements (SFG -scope for growth-) and the functionality of the digestive gland in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albentosa, Marina; Sánchez-Hernández, Miriam; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier

    2012-11-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the relationship between the functionality of the digestive gland and physiological rates including SFG (scope for growth) in wild mussels, Mytilus galloprovincilis. The experimental set-up consisted in the evaluation of changes in the morphology of the gland, as well as in the activity of some key digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase and protease) within a broad range of SFG obtained through manipulation of food ration. The higher SFG values were correlated to an increase in both the size of the digestive gland and the activities of enzymes when expressed in relation to individual. In contrast, no clear relations were observed when the activity of enzymes was expressed in relation to soluble protein, with the exception to amylase. The higher protease activities measured in mussels showing lower SFG may reflect an initial stage of catabolic processes intended to compensate the energy deficit produced by food restriction. The potential use of parameters measured in digestive glands in studies of marine pollution was discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, N; Sovio, U; Mayo, R Plitman; Charnock-Jones, D S; Smith, G C S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation to postnatal placental morphometry in detail. We conducted a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women in The Rosie Hospital, Cambridge (UK). We studied a group of 2120 women who had complete data on uterine and umbilical Doppler velocimetry and fetal biometry at 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age, digital images of the placenta available, and delivered a liveborn infant at term. Associations were expressed as the difference in the standard deviation (SD) score of the gestational age adjusted ultrasound measurement (z-score) comparing the lowest and highest decile of the given placental morphometric measurement. The lowest decile of placental surface area was associated with 0.87 SD higher uterine artery Doppler mean pulsatility index (PI) at 20 weeks (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.07, P flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutrinos in the holographic dark energy model: constraints from latest measurements of expansion history and growth of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The model of holographic dark energy (HDE) with massive neutrinos and/or dark radiation is investigated in detail. The background and perturbation evolutions in the HDE model are calculated. We employ the PPF approach to overcome the gravity instability difficulty (perturbation divergence of dark energy) led by the equation-of-state parameter w evolving across the phantom divide w=−1 in the HDE model with c<1. We thus derive the evolutions of density perturbations of various components and metric fluctuations in the HDE model. The impacts of massive neutrino and dark radiation on the CMB anisotropy power spectrum and the matter power spectrum in the HDE scenario are discussed. Furthermore, we constrain the models of HDE with massive neutrinos and/or dark radiation by using the latest measurements of expansion history and growth of structure, including the Planck CMB temperature data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the JLA supernova data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the cosmic shear data of weak lensing, the Planck CMB lensing data, and the redshift space distortions data. We find that ∑ m ν <0.186 eV (95% CL) and N eff =3.75 +0.28 −0.32 in the HDE model from the constraints of these data

  16. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  17. Non-destructive measurement of soybean leaf thickness via X-ray computed tomography allows the study of diel leaf growth rhythms in the third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Mielewczik, Michael; Friedli, Michael; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Present-day high-resolution leaf growth measurements provide exciting insights into diel (24-h) leaf growth rhythms and their control by the circadian clock, which match photosynthesis with oscillating environmental conditions. However, these methods are based on measurements of leaf area or elongation and neglect diel changes of leaf thickness. In contrast, the influence of various environmental stress factors to which leaves are exposed to during growth on the final leaf thickness has been studied extensively. Yet, these studies cannot elucidate how variation in leaf area and thickness are simultaneously regulated and influenced on smaller time scales. Only few methods are available to measure the thickness of young, growing leaves non-destructively. Therefore, we evaluated X-ray computed tomography to simultaneously and non-invasively record diel changes and growth of leaf thickness and area. Using conventional imaging and X-ray computed tomography leaf area, thickness and volume growth of young soybean leaves were simultaneously and non-destructively monitored at three cardinal time points during night and day for a period of 80 h under non-stressful growth conditions. Reference thickness measurements on paperboards were in good agreement to CT measurements. Comparison of CT with leaf mass data further proved the consistency of our method. Exploratory analysis showed that measurements were accurate enough for recording and analyzing relative diel changes of leaf thickness, which were considerably different to those of leaf area. Relative growth rates of leaf area were consistently positive and highest during 'nights', while diel changes in thickness fluctuated more and were temporarily negative, particularly during 'evenings'. The method is suitable for non-invasive, accurate monitoring of diel variation in leaf volume. Moreover, our results indicate that diel rhythms of leaf area and thickness show some similarity but are not tightly coupled. These

  18. Measuring the Regional Economic Significance of Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    How much did your company spend duringthe year (1982) on capital Improvenents at c. Aviation Fuel ........... $ HIA (i.e, majur purchase of equipment...FEDERAL FACILITIES Air Ritio’nal Guard 780400 Air Traffic Control 650500 Airport Mail Facilities 650500 Airways Facilities 650500 Armed Forces 780400

  19. Stress evolution during growth of InAs on GaAs measured by an in-situ cantilever beam setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Dongzhi

    2007-02-13

    The influence of stress on the growth of InAs on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated in this thesis. Film force curves were measured for InAs deposition under As-rich as well as In-rich growth conditions. The growth under As-rich conditions proceeds in the Stranski- Krastanov growth mode, meaning that quantum dots are formed after the initial growth of a wetting layer. During subsequent growth interruptions or intentional annealing at the growth temperature, the quantum dots undergo ripening. This growth mode of InAs films and the subsequent annealing behavior were studied in detail in this thesis. To understand the influence of strain on the growth mechanisms, the film force curves were analyzed and correlated to the morphological evolution of the InAs films during deposition and especially during annealing. Models were developed to fit and explain the relaxation of the film force measured during the annealing of InAs quantum dots. At temperatures lower than 470 C, quantum dots undergo standard Ostwald ripening. Different mechanisms, such as kinetic and diffusion limited, determine the ripening process. Fits of models based on these mechanisms to the film force relaxation curves, show, that although the relaxation curve for annealing at 440 C can be fitted reasonably well with all the models, the model describing ripening limited by the diffusion along dot boundaries yields a slightly better fit. The relaxation curves obtained at 455 C and 470 C can be fitted very well only with the model in which the ripening is controlled by the attachment/detachment of atoms on the dot surface. Annealing of quantum dots at temperatures higher than 500 C shows a very different behavior. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that the quantum dots ripen first and then dissolve after 450 s-600 s annealing. (orig.)

  20. Stress evolution during growth of InAs on GaAs measured by an in-situ cantilever beam setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dongzhi

    2007-01-01

    The influence of stress on the growth of InAs on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated in this thesis. Film force curves were measured for InAs deposition under As-rich as well as In-rich growth conditions. The growth under As-rich conditions proceeds in the Stranski- Krastanov growth mode, meaning that quantum dots are formed after the initial growth of a wetting layer. During subsequent growth interruptions or intentional annealing at the growth temperature, the quantum dots undergo ripening. This growth mode of InAs films and the subsequent annealing behavior were studied in detail in this thesis. To understand the influence of strain on the growth mechanisms, the film force curves were analyzed and correlated to the morphological evolution of the InAs films during deposition and especially during annealing. Models were developed to fit and explain the relaxation of the film force measured during the annealing of InAs quantum dots. At temperatures lower than 470 C, quantum dots undergo standard Ostwald ripening. Different mechanisms, such as kinetic and diffusion limited, determine the ripening process. Fits of models based on these mechanisms to the film force relaxation curves, show, that although the relaxation curve for annealing at 440 C can be fitted reasonably well with all the models, the model describing ripening limited by the diffusion along dot boundaries yields a slightly better fit. The relaxation curves obtained at 455 C and 470 C can be fitted very well only with the model in which the ripening is controlled by the attachment/detachment of atoms on the dot surface. Annealing of quantum dots at temperatures higher than 500 C shows a very different behavior. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that the quantum dots ripen first and then dissolve after 450 s-600 s annealing. (orig.)

  1. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Peterson, K. J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87125 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  2. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network for Growth Environment Measurement and Multi-Band Optical Sensing to Diagnose Tree Vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameoka, Shinichi; Isoda, Shuhei; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Ito, Ryoei; Miyamoto, Satoru; Wada, Genki; Watanabe, Naoki; Yamakami, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Kameoka, Takaharu

    2017-04-27

    We have tried to develop the guidance system for farmers to cultivate using various phenological indices. As the sensing part of this system, we deployed a new Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This system uses the 920 MHz radio wave based on the Wireless Smart Utility Network that enables long-range wireless communication. In addition, the data acquired by the WSN were standardized for the advanced web service interoperability. By using these standardized data, we can create a web service that offers various kinds of phenological indices as secondary information to the farmers in the field. We have also established the field management system using thermal image, fluorescent and X-ray fluorescent methods, which enable the nondestructive, chemical-free, simple, and rapid measurement of fruits or trees. We can get the information about the transpiration of plants through a thermal image. The fluorescence sensor gives us information, such as nitrate balance index (NBI), that shows the nitrate balance inside the leaf, chlorophyll content, flavonol content and anthocyanin content. These methods allow one to quickly check the health of trees and find ways to improve the tree vigor of weak ones. Furthermore, the fluorescent x-ray sensor has the possibility to quantify the loss of minerals necessary for fruit growth.

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network for Growth Environment Measurement and Multi-Band Optical Sensing to Diagnose Tree Vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Kameoka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to develop the guidance system for farmers to cultivate using various phenological indices. As the sensing part of this system, we deployed a new Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. This system uses the 920 MHz radio wave based on the Wireless Smart Utility Network that enables long-range wireless communication. In addition, the data acquired by the WSN were standardized for the advanced web service interoperability. By using these standardized data, we can create a web service that offers various kinds of phenological indices as secondary information to the farmers in the field. We have also established the field management system using thermal image, fluorescent and X-ray fluorescent methods, which enable the nondestructive, chemical-free, simple, and rapid measurement of fruits or trees. We can get the information about the transpiration of plants through a thermal image. The fluorescence sensor gives us information, such as nitrate balance index (NBI, that shows the nitrate balance inside the leaf, chlorophyll content, flavonol content and anthocyanin content. These methods allow one to quickly check the health of trees and find ways to improve the tree vigor of weak ones. Furthermore, the fluorescent x-ray sensor has the possibility to quantify the loss of minerals necessary for fruit growth.

  5. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  6. Notes on age determination, growth and measurements of Brown Hyaenas Hyaena Brunnea from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L Mills

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown hyaenas were aged on the basis of tooth eruption and wear and five age-classes were recognised. Weights and seven different body measurements were recorded from 38 immobilised hyaenas. Full size is reached at the age of 30 months, but age-class 5 animals were significantly lighter than were animals from the other adult age-classes. This was probably due to the worn down premolars of old animals resulting in less efficient bone chewing. With a few puzzling exceptions the sizes of brown hyaenas from different parts of their distribution range are similar.

  7. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated by providing midge larvae with 1.0 mg of food per individual per day, but varying the ratio of Tetramin to non-nutritious methyl-cellulose. A second experiment followed a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors were growth period and diet quality. Diet quality and growth period were found to influence the individual biomass considerably. NO size was related to the quality of the diet provided at the end of the experiment, regardless of larval biomass. Therefore, NO size appears to be related to growth rate at time of collection rather than larval size. The authors proposed using NO size of larvae in natural populations as a measure of growth on which to base estimates of secondary production and as a new way to monitor individual and population responses to environmental stress. Preliminary field measurements of larval production and NO size from oil sands-affected and reference wetlands were found to be consistent with laboratory results.

  8. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated