WorldWideScience

Sample records for measured moisture content

  1. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  2. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  3. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  4. Development of the neutron technology for measuring the moisture content in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring mode (in-hopper, surface, sampling neutron moisture gauge), the development and application of neutron moisture gauge in china were introduced, which include the following course from only measuring moisture content of soil to monitoring moisture content of farmland and saving water for irrigating farmland, from measuring moisture content of pellet to coke and coal material, from only measuring moisture content to computerized neutron moisture gauges with density compensation and o f high precision. (authors)

  5. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel; Fukthaltsmaetning av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Njurell, Rolf; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Direct determination of the moisture content, i.e. analysis of the fuel, is the most dominating moisture measuring method of today, and is usually done manually by weighing and drying a sample. By measuring on the exhaust gases the moisture content is determined indirect. This method is based upon the fact that there is a relation between the moisture content in the fuel and in the exhaust gases. This is an alternative that is only considered briefly in this report. Acceptance test of the fuel today takes place in several ways. The methods vary from advanced automatic mechanical devices to manually taken tests made by the driver him self. In the simplest case when the plant only has one fuel supplier, deduction is maid against the amount of produced energy. There are no systems today that can automatically take tests for continuous measuring. This project aims to find methods that are practical for direct, automatic and continuous measurement of the moisture content for the following applications: Moisture determination of fuel supplies, acceptance test. Moisture determination for combustion control in furnaces and boilers. The possibilities to automate the sampling are discussed in detail, at which important background information concerning the handling problems associated with the point of measuring is illustrated. The measurement techniques that are described more in detail are NIR (Near Infra Red), radar technique, microwave technique, radio frequency scan, radioactive technique, double energy X-ray and some combinations of these techniques. In the report, suppliers of interesting instruments are presented. The fundamental technical demands and the basis that should be included in a specification of a measuring device are gathered. Our appraisal is that a sequel to this project should be concentrated on the following main issues: Automatic acceptance test: The measuring is suggested to be done with a test probe direct in the incoming batch. The most suited

  6. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  7. A Technical Design Approach to Soil Moisture Content Measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil moisture is an important type of data in many fields; ranging from agriculture to environmental monitoring. Three soil samples were collected at definite proportions to represent the three basic soil types (sandy, loamy and clay soils). The moisture contents of these soil samples were analyzed using the thermogravimetric ...

  8. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...

  9. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  10. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  11. Subcellular Electrical Measurements as a Function of Wood Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The percolation model developed by Zelinka et al. was based upon macroscale measurements of the electrical conductivity and implicitly treats the wood material as homogenous. The transport mechanism proposed by Jakes et al. depends upon a moisture induced glass transition occurring in the hemicelluloses. This theory suggests that there are likely differences in the...

  12. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  13. Moisture disturbance when measuring boron content in wet glass fibre materials with thermal neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiping; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical calculation and experimental study on the moisture disturbance in the boron content measurement of wet glass fibre materials using the thermal neutron transmission method were reported. The relevant formula of the moisture disturbance was derived. For samples with a mass of 16 g, it was found that a moisture variation of 1% (mass percent) would result in a deviation of 0.28% (mass percent) in the measurement of boron contents

  14. Nuclear techniques for measuring moisture content in soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The prevailing severe shortage of animal feed in most of the developing countries could, to a considerable extent, be overcome through improved range management, which includes introduction of high yielding drought-resistant forage crops, development of adequate water conservation measures, and as far as possible growing annual forage crops on part of the vast areas of arable land currently left fallow each year. Year round measurements are essential for a good understanding of soil water and nutrients dynamics, which allow for adequate evaluation of pasture management alternatives. The methods most commonly used for moisture measurements in soil profiles are discussed because such measurements are likely to form an essential part of any investigation aimed at increasing animal feed production through the development of adequate pasture management practices. (author)

  15. Measurement of log moisture content and density by gamma and neutron backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content and green density of wood was investigated using scattering of gamma rays and neutrons. Both of these processes are dependent on density but neutrons are particularly sensitive to the hydrogen content, which changes with moisture content. A material mimicking the green density and moisture content of real wood was successfully used in a laboratory study to establish the feasibility of measuring these within the range found in standing trees. A later field trial indicated that the technique needed more development to take account of the natural variability of real trees. (author). 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 table

  16. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  17. Time domain reflectometry measured moisture content of sewage sludge compost across temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Liu, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zheng, Guo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a prospective measurement technology for moisture content of sewage sludge composting material; however, a significant dependence upon temperature has been observed. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of temperature upon moisture content measurement and determine if TDR could be used to monitor moisture content in sewage sludge compost across a range of temperatures. We also investigated the combined effects of temperature and conductivity on moisture content measurement. The results revealed that the moisture content of composting material could be determined by TDR using coated probes, even when the measured material had a moisture content of 0.581 cm(3)cm(-3), temperature of 70°C and conductivity of 4.32 mS cm(-1). TDR probes were calibrated as a function of dielectric properties that included temperature effects. When the bulk temperature varied from 20°C to 70°C, composting material with 0.10-0.70 cm(3)cm(-3) moisture content could be measured by TDR using coated probes, and calibrations based on different temperatures minimized the errors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  19. Measuring of the moisture content in brick walls of historical buildings - the overview of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of measuring the moisture content of brick walls in buildings of high historical value. It includes a classification of known methods used to measure the moisture content and their valorisation with regards to the legitimacy of using them in historical buildings. Moreover, the most important considerations for conducting such measurements are also described, which include the choice of an appropriate method for a specific situation, the determination of a correlative or hypothetical dependency for equipment used in tests and also the method of distributing measurement points.

  20. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  1. A Compound Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Packing Density and Moisture Content of Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delun; Meng, Fanjia; Sun, Wei; Deng, Shuang

    2017-12-28

    Packing density and moisture content are important factors in investigating the ensiling quality. Low packing density is a major cause of loss of sugar content. The moisture content also plays a determinant role in biomass degradation. To comprehensively evaluate the ensiling quality, this study focused on developing a compound sensor. In it, moisture electrodes and strain gauges were embedded into an ASABE Standard small cone for the simultaneous measurements of the penetration resistance (PR) and moisture content (MC) of silage. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed sensor and the theoretical analysis being used, relevant calibration and validation tests were conducted. The determination coefficients are 0.996 and 0.992 for PR calibration and 0.934 for MC calibration. The validation indicated that this measurement technique could determine the packing density and moisture content of the silage simultaneously and eliminate the influence of the friction between the penetration shaft and silage. In this study, we not only design a compound sensor but also provide an alternative way to investigate the ensiling quality which would be useful for further silage research.

  2. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  3. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  4. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  5. Increased profitability in cellulose production through more accurate measurement of the moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A general report on the project 'Dry Wood' is presented. In this project Noratom-Norcontrol A/S cooperate with the wood-pulp and paper factory Petersen and Soen in the application of Noratom's radiometric moisture gauge and their continuous weighing machine (densimeter) in the continuous measurement of the moisture content of wood chips in cellulose production. Conventional methods give an accuracy of π+ 2% and the objective of this method is an accuracy of π+ 1%. This would have a considerable economic significance. A test unit has been operating in the production line for a year and has attained the objective for short periods. Improved long term stability is the present problem. The system has process outputs which will facilitate future on-line computer process control. (JIW)

  6. Automatisation of moisture content measurement in biofuel deliveries; Automatiserad fukthaltsmaetning vid braenslemottagning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulin, Robert; Hessling, Krister; Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert (Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Measurement of moisture content in biofuel is normally made through manual sampling near the surface of truck deliveries or in the bulk of fuel deliveries that is distributed on e.g. a storage area. Moisture content is usually performed trough gravimetric determination at lab using oven drying for 24 hours. Precision is approximately a standard deviation of 2 %-units. However, there are several reasons to replace this method by an automatic procedure that measures moisture content in the bulk of the cargo. Except for obtaining more representative samples in the bulk, are speed and the measurement cost important characteristics. The purpose of this project was to develop a well-functioning prototype of a system that is automatic in the sense that manual sampling and sample preparation is replaced by a Near Infra Red (NIR) based system. The intended users of such a system would be both buyers of biofuel and suppliers who would benefit from better knowledge of the quality of the product that they are about to deliver. This project was initiated in the late autumn of 2006. A complete hardware set-up including a NIR spectrophotometer, light probe and a crane was installed in June 2007 in Eskilstuna, Sweden, and shown to members of the reference group at Vaermeforsk. The reliability of reference data obtained through gravimetric measurement was unfortunately not as good as expected on beforehand. This problem was due to the difficulty of obtaining representative samples near the surface of the truck cargo. It delayed the validation phase of this project significantly. An evaluation of the NIR based system reveals a good accuracy and precision that is far better than that of the traditional method for delivery control. A major reason for the superior precision is that the sampling error is reduced. Further, the NIR based system delivers real-time moisture data with a speed that is difficult to reach at lab because of restrictions in manual labour and limitations in

  7. Impact of stone content on soil moisture measurement with capacitive sensors 10HS (Decagon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Bernard, Julien; Bietlot, Louise; Clerbois, Laura; Rosière, Clément; Starren, Amandine; Colinet, Gilles; Mercatoris, Benoit; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    Lot of soil survey focused on agricultural soils. For practical reasons, those soils have a low stone content. So, most of the soil water content sensors are placed on low stone content soils and the calibration equations are developed for them. Yet some researches take an interest in forest soils that are often much different from the previous ones. The differences lie in their stone content and their slope. Lots of studies have proved the importance of making soil specific calibration of the soil water content sensor. As our lab use regularly the 10HS sensors (Decagon Devices, United States) in forested soil, we decided to evaluate the importance of the stone content in the soil moisture measurement. The soil used for this experimentation comes from Gembloux (50°33'54.9''N, 4°42'11.3''E). It is silt that has been sieved at 2 mm to remove the gravel. The stones used to form the samples come from an experimental site located in the Belgian Ardennes (50°1'52.6''N, 4°53'22.5''E). They are mainly composed of schist with some quartz and sandstone elements. Initially, only five samples were constructed with three replications each. The size and the proportion of stones were the variables. Stones were classified in two groups, the first contains gravels whose size is less than 1,5 cm and a the second contains gravels whose size is comprised between 2 and 3 cm. The proportions of stone selected for the experiment are 0, 20 and 40%. In order to generate validation data, two more samples were constructed with intermediate proportion of stone content (30%). The samples were built in PVC container which dimensions are slightly bigger than the sensor volume of influence (1.1-1.3l). The soil samples were saturated and then dried on a thermal chamber set at about 32°C. During at least 14 days, the samples soil water content was determined by the sensor measurement with the Procheck read-out system (Decagon Devices, United State) and by weighting the samples thrice a day

  8. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  9. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...

  10. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  11. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs

  12. Measuring the Moisture Content of Green Wood Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Schimleck; Kim Love-Myers; Joe Sanders; Heath Raybon; Richard Daniels; Jerry Mahon; Edward Andrews; Erik Schilling

    2011-01-01

    The responsible usage of water by facilities that rely on wet log storage in the southern United States has become an issue of great importance as restrictions on water usage have grown in recent years. In order to learn about the dynamics of moisture content in wet-stored logs over time, it is necessary to conduct continuous monitoring of log piles. Time domain...

  13. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30% for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  14. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  15. Development and evaluation of a low cost probe-type instrument to measure the equilibrium moisture content of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage bags are common in Africa, Asia and many other less developed countries therefore a grain probing method is well-suited for moisture content (MC) measurement. A low cost meter was developed as part of a USAID project to reduce the post-harvest loss (PHL). The meter measures the MC of maize a...

  16. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility

  17. Design of Moisture Content Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Wang, L.

    In this paper, a method for measuring the moisture content of grain was presented based on single chip microcomputer and capacitive sensor. The working principle of measuring moisture content is introduced and a concentric cylinder type of capacitive sensor is designed, the signal processing circuits of system are described in details. System is tested in practice and discussions are made on the various factors affecting the capacitive measuring of grain moisture based on the practical experiments, experiment results showed that the system has high measuring accuracy and good controlling capacity.

  18. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  19. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  20. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  1. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  2. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunjong Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Seunggun Won; Heekwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdu...

  3. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  4. Measurements of moisture content in wood fuels with dual energy x-ray; Maetning av fukt i biobraenslen med dubbelenergiroentgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordell, Anders [Industriellt Utvecklingscentrum i Karlskoga, Karlskoga (Sweden); Vikterloef, K J [Oerebro Radiofysik AB, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    some of the mixed fuels. Provided that the main category is known the moisture content can be determined within one or two percent from the measurements. A complication is that the procedure requires that the fuel type be known. The method offers a relative measurement which means that it relies on calibration against known references. Different types of fuels therefore to some extent need different calibrations. This is basically due to the differences in carbon content which affects the result. With a further development of the method there are ways to overcome this difference in the total absorption resulting in a measurement more or less independent of the fuel type. As the content of carbon as well as of oxygen strongly affects the absorption, one would also in principle be able to calculate the heat content of the fuel. On top of that there is a correlation of the absorption to the mineral content, which opens a possibility to calculate the amount of ash in the material. To reveal these for biofuels highly interesting parameters a substantial effort of software development in the data treatment is required. A fine-tuning of the x-ray energies is also desirable to reach a higher signal ratio for the case moisture in wood, compared to what is possible with the medical equipment. These development steps are regarded fully feasible and are recommended to be taken in the coming work.

  5. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  7. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  8. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  9. Moisture Content Monitoring of a Timber Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Björngrim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction of modern timber bridges has greatly increased during the last 20 years in Sweden. Wood as a construction material has several advantageous properties, e.g., it is renewable, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing, but it is also susceptible to deterioration. To protect wood from deterioration and ensure the service life, the wood is either treated or somehow covered. This work evaluates a technology to monitor the moisture content in wood constructions. Monitoring the moisture content is important both to verify the constructive protection and for finding areas with elevated levels of moisture which might lead to a microbiological attack of the wood. In this work, a timber bridge was studied. The structure was equipped with six wireless sensors that measured the moisture content of the wood and the relative humidity every hour. Data for 744 days of the bridge are presented in this paper. Results show that the technology used to monitor the bridge generally works; however, there were issues due to communication problems and malfunction of sensors. This technology is promising for monitoring the state of wood constructions, but a more reliable sensor technology is warranted continuous remote monitoring of wood bridges over long periods of time.

  10. Measurement of water content in semi-humid sandy land by using IAE-II neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qi

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of using a neutron moisture gauge to study moisture change in semi-humid sandy land was affirmed. The gauge is compact and can rapidly take measurements with small errors. It is found that both the inter-substance boundary surface and the space formed in fixing the neutron tube affect obviously the precision of measurements in the survey process. The calibration variance is the most important part of total uncertainty in measurements

  11. Assessment of Wildfire Risk in Southern California with Live Fuel Moisture Measurement and Remotely Sensed Vegetation Water Content Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Kim, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Live fuel moisture (LFM) is the water content of live herbaceous plants expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of plant. It is a critical parameter in fire ignition in Mediterranean climate and routinely measured in sites selected by fire agencies across the U.S. Vegetation growing cycle, meteorological metrics, soil type, and topography all contribute to the seasonal and inter-annual variation of LFM, and therefore, the risk of wildfire. The optical remote sensing-based vegetation indices (VIs) have been used to estimate the LFM. Comparing to the VIs, microwave remote sensing products have advantages like less saturation effect in greenness and representing the water content of the vegetation cover. In this study, we established three models to evaluate the predictability of LFM in Southern California using MODIS NDVI, vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) from downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products, and vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived by Land Parameter Retrieval Model. Other ancillary variables, such as topographic factors (aspects and slope) and meteorological metrics (air temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), are also considered in the models. The model results revealed an improvement of LFM estimation from SMAP products and VOD, despite the uncertainties introduced in the downscaling and parameter retrieval. The estimation of LFM using remote sensing data can provide an assessment of wildfire danger better than current methods using NDVI-based growing seasonal index. Future study will test the VOD estimation from SMAP data using the multi-temporal dual channel algorithm (MT-DCA) and extend the LFM modeling to a regional scale.

  12. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  13. Influence of moisture content on radon diffusion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Ramola, R.C.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radon diffusion from soil has been studied as a function of the moisture content of the soil. A few simple experiments showed that up to a certain moisture content the radon diffusion increased with increasing moisture. A sharp rise in radon concentration occurred as the moisture was increased from the completely dry state to 13% water by weight. The radon flux was measured for columns of dry, moist and water saturated soil. The highest flux came from the column filled with moist soil. Water saturated soil gave the lowest flux because of the much lower diffusion coefficient of radon through water. (author)

  14. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  15. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  16. Determination of moisture content in hard coals using microwave meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Turek, B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of hard-coal moisture-content measurements, performed with the aid of the ZAM-WILMER microwave meter are presented. Over 80 ground coal samples, weighing 1.5 kg (approx.) each, were examined. The moisture content values ranged from 0 to 15 wt%, with the mean standard error being equal to 0.8 wt%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  17. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  18. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  19. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  20. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  1. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  2. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  3. The measurement of moisture content and dry bulk-density of the top layer of agricultural soils, with minimum calibration, using a gamma-ray attenuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Westhuizen, M.; Van der Bank, D.J.; Meulke, M.

    1978-06-01

    Various methods of measuring moisture content and dry bulk-density of soil by means of gamma-ray attenuation are discussed. A new method is described in which the same parameters can be measured in consecutive determinations, but for which only one sample of unknown volume is needed for calibration. This method employs a radioactive source in a lead container in an aluminium tube in the soil. From the container the gamma rays follow a path at an angle upwards through the soil towards the detector. The method was tested in a number of experiments and the results are given in tables and graphs. The conclusion is that this method, which is fairly easy and quick to use, is accurate enough for most applications [af

  4. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  5. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  6. Use of Ultrasonic Technology for Soil Moisture Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Metzl, R.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Belisle, W.; Coleman, T.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve existing soil moisture measurement techniques or find new techniques using physics principles, a new technique is presented in this paper using ultrasonic techniques. It has been found that ultrasonic velocity changes as the moisture content changes. Preliminary values of velocities are 676.1 m/s in dry soil and 356.8 m/s in 100% moist soils. Intermediate values can be calibrated to give exact values for the moisture content in an unknown sample.

  7. Testing for moisture content in foods by neutron gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron gaging was applied to the testing for moisture content in bulk powdered foods and in canned Army field rations. The technique is based on the moderation or thermalization of fast neutrons by hydrogenous matter and the measurement of thermal neutron intensity as a function of moisture content. A small californium-252 capsule, of approximate output 10 7 neutrons per second, was used as the source of fast neutrons. It is concluded that a fast neutron moderation technique is feasible for the nondestructive measurement or control of moisture or both in near-dry bulk powdered foods. Samples must be measured under identical geometric conditions, that is, uniform bulk density and volume using a standard metal container or cell. For canned or otherwise prepacked rations, measurement of moisture is interfered with by variations in fill weight among cans or packages of the same product. A gamma-ray attenuation gaging method proved to be of insufficient sensitivity to correct for fill weight variation and was further complicated by nonuniformity in can wall dimensions. Neutron gaging, however, appears to be quite useful for monitoring a standard packaged item for fill weight since the neutron signal is virtually unaffected by variations in container dimensions. The radiation dose imparted to a sample or package of food subjected to such a test is judged to pose no threat to humans from subsequent consumption of the food. An estimate is given for the cost range of a commercial neutron gage and of encapsulated radioisotopic neutron sources

  8. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  9. Correlation between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal and moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuan [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Gigant, Lionel [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Baudelet, Matthieu, E-mail: baudelet@creol.ucf.edu [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the moisture content of fresh food samples is studied. The normalized line emission of oxygen is highly correlated with the moisture content of the sample, cheese in our case, and can be used as a moisture marker in situations where oxygen interference from the matrix is not a critical issue. The linear correlation between the oxygen signal and the moisture content in the sample shows great potential for using LIBS as an alternative spectroscopic method for moisture monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative moisture measurement by LIBS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of matrix effects and normalization for physical information on the sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of signal from oxygen and CN radical in air background for moisture measurement.

  10. Correlation between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal and moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Gigant, Lionel; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the moisture content of fresh food samples is studied. The normalized line emission of oxygen is highly correlated with the moisture content of the sample, cheese in our case, and can be used as a moisture marker in situations where oxygen interference from the matrix is not a critical issue. The linear correlation between the oxygen signal and the moisture content in the sample shows great potential for using LIBS as an alternative spectroscopic method for moisture monitoring. - Highlights: ► Quantitative moisture measurement by LIBS. ► Use of matrix effects and normalization for physical information on the sample. ► Use of signal from oxygen and CN radical in air background for moisture measurement.

  11. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  12. Measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration: importance of incubation time, soil type, moisture content and model fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Robinson, J.; O'Neill, T.; Ryburn, J.; Arcus, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Developing robust models of the temperature response and sensitivity of soil respiration is critical for determining changes carbon cycling in response to climate change and at daily to annual time scales. Currently, approaches for measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration generally use long incubation times (days to weeks and months) at a limited number of incubation temperatures. Long incubation times likely allow thermal adaptation by the microbial population so that results are poorly representative of in situ soil responses. Additionally, too few incubation temperatures allows for the fit and justification of many different predictive equations, which can lead to inaccuracies when used for carbon budgeting purposes. We have developed a method to rapidly determine the response of soil respiration rate to wide range of temperatures. An aluminium block with 44 sample slots is heated at one end and cooled at the other to give a temperature gradient from 0 to 55°C at about one degree increments. Soil respiration is measured within 5 hours to minimise the possibility of thermal adaptation. We have used this method to demonstrate the similarity of temperature sensitivity of respiration for different soils from the same location across seasons. We are currently testing whether long-term (weeks to months) incubation alter temperature response and sensitivity that occurs in situ responses. This method is also well suited for determining the most appropriate models of temperature dependence and sensitivity of soil respiration (including macromolecular rate theory MMRT). With additional testing, this method is expected to be a more reliable method of measuring soil respiration rate for soil quality and modelling of soil carbon processes.

  13. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  14. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 4.46, 3.66 and 0.79 mm, respectively, at 7.27% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ...

  15. Radiometric measurement of ceramic material moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominek, A.; Sojka, J.; Votava, P.

    1975-01-01

    Water content measurement using a neutron moisture meter has a long tradition in the CSSR. The method of water content determination using neutron and gamma radiation was developed by the Research Institute of Building Materials in Brno for a number of materials, as e.g. coke, brown coal semi-coke, anthracite, glass sand, dolomite, soda, gravel, aggregates, cement sludge, slag, brick clay, intermediate products of the ceramics industry, refractory building materials, etc. The water content measurement of ceramic materials for the manufacture of wall tiles was performed in a special equipment by detection of the slowed-down neutrons with an accuracy of +-0.6% water (within the range from 5 to 11%) and of materials for the manufacture of floor tiles by means of neutron and gamma radiation with an accuracy of +-0.4% water (within the range from 5 to 8%). (author)

  16. Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation. Properties of Coconut Tissues During Mechanical Oil. Expression. *J. J. Mpagalile1 and B. Clarke2. 1Department of ... The study confirmed that moisture content has an important role in the deformation of coconut ..... A micro penetration technique for mechanical.

  17. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  19. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Moisture measurement in the iron and steel industry: experience with nuclear moisture measurements in coke, and studies of infrared moisture measurement of iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, J.A.; Wouters, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the heavy iron-making industry there are several processes for which it is necessary to measure on-line the moisture content of certain process materials, especially in the field of iron ore preparation and blast furnace practice. Two examples are given. (1) Experience with nuclear moisture-measurements in coke covers a period of ten years in which eight measuring systems have been installed in the weighing hoppers of blast furnaces. The standard deviation is about 0.7% moisture in the range 0 to 15% moisture. The way the method is used, the safety measures and the difficulties encountered, especially the effect on recalibration of neutron-absorbing materials in photomultipliers are described. (2) The application of infrared absorption to the study of moisture measurment or iron ore mixtures is described. With an ore mixture for pellets manufacture, a rather dark ore mixture, problems have arisen concerning the sensitivity. The reference and measuring wavelengths now in use are 2.51 and 2.95 μm. In this case the absorption of the energy is rather high. The results may be improved by using quartz optics instead of the normal Pyrex ones, as the cut-off wavelength of Pyrex is about 3 μm. Variations due to colour and specific surface have been studied. As the accuracy required is +- 0.1% moisture in the range 8 to 12% moisture, these variations need to be eliminated. (author)

  1. Soil density and moisture content on two unused forest roads during first 30 months after construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Helvey; J.N. Kochenderfer; J.N. Kochenderfer

    1990-01-01

    Reports results of soil density and soil moisture measurements on two roads in the central Appalachians over a 30-month period. Density increased slightly during the measurement period at most locations. Almost all of the density changes occurred during the first few months after construction. Moisture content decreased during the first few months after construction,...

  2. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  4. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  5. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  6. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  7. Adjustments of microwave-based measurements on coal moisture using natural radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, I.; Luengo-Garcia, J.C.; Alonso-Hidalgo, M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B. [University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain)

    2006-01-07

    The use of nonconventional on-line measurements of moisture and ash content in coal is presented. The background research is briefly reviewed. The possibilities of adjusting microwave-based moisture measurements using natural radioactive techniques, and vice versa, are proposed. The results obtained from the simultaneous analysis of moisture and ash content as well as the correlation improvements are shown.

  8. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... moisture content and reduced with increasing roasting duration. Analysis of ... Within the studied range, 13 h was the minimum OS recorded while maximum were 63.3 h.

  9. Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of cassava roots ... after harvest coupled with non-‐availability of acceptable storage alternatives. ... the properties simultaneously based on the transient line heat source method.

  10. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  11. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured ... and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. .... ters are important factors in climate modelling and.

  12. Estimating the fuel moisture content to control the reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striūgas, N.; Vorotinskienė, L.; Paulauskas, R.; Navakas, R.; Džiugys, A.; Narbutas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion of biomass with varying moisture content might lead to unstable operation of a furnace. • Method for automatic control of a furnace fired with wet biomass was developed. • Fuel moisture is estimated by cost-effective indirect method for predictive control. • Fuel moisture estimation methods and furnace control algorithm were validated in an industrial boiler. - Abstract: In small countries like Lithuania with a widespread district heating system, 5–10 MW moving grate biomass furnaces equipped with water boilers and condensing economisers are widely used. Such systems are designed for firing biomass fuels; however, varying fuel moisture, mostly in the range from 30% to 60%, complicates the automated operation. Without manual adjustment of the grate motion mode and other parameters, unstable operation or even extinction of the furnace is possible. To ensure stable furnace operation with moist fuel, the indirect method to estimate the fuel moisture content was developed based on the heat balance of the flue gas condensing economiser. The developed method was implemented into the automatic control unit of the furnace to estimate the moisture content in the feedstock and predictively adjust the furnace parameters for optimal fuel combustion. The indirect method based on the economiser heat balance was experimentally validated in a 6 MW grate-fired furnace fuelled by biomass with moisture contents of 37, 46, 50, 54 and 60%. The analysis shows that the estimated and manually measured values of the fuel moisture content do not differ by more than 3%. This deviation indicates that the indirect fuel moisture calculation method is sufficiently precise and the calculated moisture content varies proportionally to changes in the thermal capacity of the economiser. By smoothing the data using sliding weighted averaging, the oscillations of the fuel moisture content were identified.

  13. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.; Yeager, J.G.; Ashley, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content on the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria in sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized sludge as well as survival data on bacteria indigenous to sludge. Growth of bacteria was stimulated in sludge during the initial phase of moisture removal by evaporation, but the reduction of moisture content below about 50% by weight caused a proportional decrease in bacterial numbers. The rates of inactivation of bacteria by ionizing radiation in sludge were usually modified to some degree by variations in moisture content. Most bacteria were found to be somewhat protected from ionizing radiation at reduced moisture levels

  14. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  15. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates

  16. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  17. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  18. Redução da influência da massa específica na determinação do teor de umidade de sementes de trigo Density-independent moisture content measurement of wheat seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amorim Berbert

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A medição da capacitância e da condutância de um capacitor contendo amostras de trigo permite a determinação de duas de suas propriedades dielétricas: a permissividade relativa (épsilon' e o fator de perda dielétrica (épsilon". A utilização dessas propriedades, medidas simultaneamente em duas freqüências de oscilação do campo elétrico, permite reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica aparente na determinação do teor de umidade do trigo. Tal procedimento torna possível o monitoramento contínuo e em tempo real, sem a necessidade de retirar amostras, do teor de umidade de uma coluna de grãos em movimento, situação em que ocorrem as maiores variações na massa específica do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na obtenção de equações que permitam reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica na determinação em linha do teor de umidade do trigo. Foram utilizadas amostras das variedades Hussar, Mercia e Hereward com teor de umidade entre 11% e 22% b.u. e massa específica no intervalo 666 kg m-3 Measurement of the capacitance and conductance of a capacitor filled with samples of wheat allows the determination of two dielectric properties of the material: the relative permissivity (epsilon', and the dielectric loss factor (epsilon". The use of these two properties, measured simultaneously at two different frequencies of the electric field, permits bulk density-independent measurement of moisture content of wheat. This procedure makes it possible to monitor moisture content continuously, and on-line, of a moving column of grain, a situation where the greatest variations in bulk density are to be expected. The objective of the present research was the derivation of density-independent equations for the determination of moisture content of wheat. Samples of varieties Hussar, Mercia and Hereward at moisture contents ranging from 11% to 22% w.b., and bulk densities ranging from 666 to 873 kg m-3 have been

  19. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  20. Study of time variation of terrestrial gamma radiation due to depth distribution of soil moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro

    1994-01-01

    An empirical equation was deduced from studies of time variations of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and soil moisture content with depth distribution in the surface layer. It was definitely suggested that the variation of terrestrial gamma exposure rate is most strongly influenced by the change of soil moisture content at 5 cm depth. The seasonal variation with a relative maximum in early autumn and a relative minimum in early spring was clearly obtained in the consequence of long time measurements of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and degree of soil dryness. The diurnal change and phase difference due to the effect of depth were also obtained in the dynamic characteristics of soil moisture content at 3 different depths. From the comparison between measured terrestrial gamma exposure rate and that evaluated from soil moisture content using the empirical equation, it was seen that seasonal variations of the both agreed fairly well as a whole. (author)

  1. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  2. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  3. The Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the mechanization level of harvest and post-harvest operations of Berberis fruit, as one of the major and local crops of south Khorasan province, some of its physical properties were investigated. Different dimensions, geometrical mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, mass of thousand fruit, true density, bulk density, porosity, static coefficient of friction and the repose angles were determined. The properties and the effect of moisture content on them were studied by the completely randomized designs statistical method. Analysis of data indicated that the change of moisture content caused significant difference (P

  4. The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C; Das, K C; McClendon, R W

    2003-01-01

    To understand the relationships between temperature, moisture content, and microbial activity during the composting of biosolids (municipal wastewater treatment sludge), well-controlled incubation experiments were conducted using a 2-factor factorial design with six temperatures (22, 29, 36, 43, 50, and 57 degrees C) and five moisture contents (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70%). The microbial activity was measured as O2 uptake rate (mg g(-1) h(-1)) using a computer controlled respirometer. In this study, moisture content proved to be a dominant factor impacting aerobic microbial activity of the composting blend. Fifty percent moisture content appeared to be the minimal requirement for obtaining activities greater than 1.0 mg g(-1) h(-1). Temperature was also documented to be an important factor for biosolids composting. However, its effect was less influential than moisture content. Particularly, the enhancement of composting activities induced by temperature increment could be realized by increasing moisture content alone.

  5. Determination of moisture content gradient in wood by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1981-01-01

    A new methodology for determining water content gradients in wood was developed. It was based on the low energy gamma ray attenuation. Two equations were proposed for determining wood water content, below and above the fiber saturation point. A series of measurents of moisture content gradients in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made, during drying in an environment with controlled relative humidity and temperature. The water cntent gradients determination was quick, non-destructive and presented sensitivity and accuracy in moisture content range from 9% to 150%. Aspects of the application of this methodology in water diffusion and flow studies in wood are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  7. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  8. MAPPING SPATIAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF UNSATURATED AGRICULTURAL SOILS WITH GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shamir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf, common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf, common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1–5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  9. Determining moisture content in pasta by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Kuzawińska, Ewelina; Sobota, Aldona; Szostak, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Pasta aside from bread is the most consumed cereal-based product in the world. Its taste and cooking ease makes it the basis of many cuisines. The pasta dough formed by mixing flour and water is extruded through an extrusion die to mould the appropriate pasta form and is dried to obtain a stable product. The concentration of moisture in the pasta dough is a one of key parameters determining the final quality of the product. Monitoring the moisture content of pasta after extrusion is also critically important. It enables a selection of suitable drying conditions that ensure the appropriate parameters of pasta, such as texture, color and taste, are met. A method for the quantitative determination of moisture content in pasta dough and in pasta based on the partial least squares treatment of infrared spectra registered using a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance diamond accessory is described. Results of a similar quality were found using models derived from near infrared spectra obtained in a diffuse reflectance mode and slightly worse based on Raman spectra. Relative standard errors of prediction calculated for moisture quantification by ATR/NIR/Raman techniques amounted to 2.54/3.16/5.56% and 2.15/3.32/5.67%, for calibration and validation sets, respectively. The proposed procedures can be used for fast and efficient pasta moisture quantification and may replace the current, more laborious methods used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  11. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with

  12. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Yeager, J G; Ashley, C S

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content of the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized slu...

  13. Measuring Soil Moisture in Skeletal Soils Using a COSMOS Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.; Neely, H.; Desilets, D.; Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of coarse fragments directly influences the volumetric water content of the soil. Current surface soil moisture sensors often do not account for the presence of coarse fragments, and little research has been done to calibrate these sensors under such conditions. The cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system (COSMOS) rover is a passive, non-invasive surface soil moisture sensor with a footprint greater than 100 m. Despite its potential, the COSMOS rover has yet to be validated in skeletal soils. The goal of this study was to validate measurements of surface soil moisture as taken by a COSMOS rover on a Texas skeletal soil. Data was collected for two soils, a Marfla clay loam and Chinati-Boracho-Berrend association, in West Texas. Three levels of data were collected: 1) COSMOS surveys at three different soil moistures, 2) electrical conductivity surveys within those COSMOS surveys, and 3) ground-truth measurements. Surveys with the COSMOS rover covered an 8000-h area and were taken both after large rain events (>2") and a long dry period. Within the COSMOS surveys, the EM38-MK2 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of coarse fragments in the soil around two COSMOS points. Ground truth measurements included coarse fragment mass and volume, bulk density, and water content at 3 locations within each EM38 survey. Ground-truth measurements were weighted using EM38 data, and COSMOS measurements were validated by their distance from the samples. There was a decrease in water content as the percent volume of coarse fragment increased. COSMOS estimations responded to both changes in coarse fragment percent volume and the ground-truth volumetric water content. Further research will focus on creating digital soil maps using landform data and water content estimations from the COSMOS rover.

  14. A study of quantitative radiography for moisture content distributions in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Horie, T.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum pre-cooling in cut flower or perishable vegetables industry are used for protecting from the deterioration of the perishables during transportation. Some improvements of the pre-cooling way, however, are required for a bruise in plant on the way of handling. Neutron radiography is suitable to detect and observe the bruise in plant, especially, moisture content distributions in leaves, flowers and stalks. Neutron spectrum in irradiation neutron beams is required for obtaining quantitative moisture contents in plant. The neutron spectrum measurements for determination of effective cross-section of water are carried out at CN-3 experimental hole of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) by time of flight method. Moisture content distributions in leaves of chrysanthemum, before and after the vacuum pre-cooling are measured by cold neutron radiography at the experimental hole. The local decreases of moisture contents caused by a bruise on the surface of the leaves are measured quantitatively by the cold neutron radiography. The quantitative changes of the moisture content in the leaves are able to read out from the cold neutron radiography image. (M. Suetake)

  15. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.

  16. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-√t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from √t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction γ is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  17. Temporal and spatial variabilities in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikas, S. L.; Edwards, B. L.; Bitton, M. C. A.; Booth, J. L.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined spatial and temporal variations in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach at Padre Island, Texas, USA. Surface moisture measurements were collected on a 27 × 24 m grid that extended from the dune toe to the upper foreshore. The grid was surveyed at 2 to 4 h intervals for two tidal cycles, generating 17 maps of the spatial distribution of surface moisture. Simultaneous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, tidal elevation, and water table elevation were used to interpret observed changes in surface moisture. It was found that the spatial distribution of surface moisture was broadly characterized by a cross-shore gradient of high to low content moving landward from the swash zone. The distribution of surface moisture was conceptualized in terms of three zones: saturated (> 25%), intermediate or transitional (5-25%), and dry (< 5%). The position of the saturated zone corresponded to the uppermost swash zone and therefore shifted in accordance with tidal elevation. Moisture contents in the intermediate and dry zones were primarily related to variation in water table depth (which was in turn controlled by tidal elevation) and to a lesser extent by evaporation. Signals associated with atmospheric processes such as evaporation were muted by the minimal degree of variation in atmospheric parameters experienced during most of the study period, but were apparent for the last few hours. The observed spatial and temporal variations in moisture content correspond reasonably well with observations of key controlling processes, but more work is needed to fully characterize this process suite.

  18. Determination of degree of compacting and of moisture content by radiometric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, J.; Paul, P.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of radiometric probes used for measuring bulk density and moisture content. Surface probes are used in depths of up to 20 cm with an accuracy of 10%, drive-in probes are used to depths of up to 50 cm with a 4% error, depth probes are used for measuring in depths of 30 to 50 cm with an accuracy of roughly 5% and bulk density in depths of 10 to 150 cm may be measured with an accuracy of 2% using a lysimeter. Changes in the bulk density and soil moisture of the subsoil of an airport runway were studied radiometrically in dependence on time and depth. The dependence is represented graphically. The results of radiometric measurements were compared with the conventional method using a lysimeter probe; the comparison showed that the results were lower by about 7% for the moisture content and higher by about 8% for the bulk density. Radiometric measurements for determining bulk density and soil moisture are advantageous in that they allow the measurement of a great number of sites without any major disturbance of the measured material and results are available immediately on measurement. The economic effect is significant in a large number of measurements carried out on a surface having the same chemical composition and similar grain size which does not necessitate calibration of the instruments to be made more than once a week. The NZK-201 probe by Tesla does not provide sufficiently accurate information on the moisture and density of the earths probed

  19. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm 2 /s to 5.0E-3 cm 2 /s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm 2 /s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles

  20. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine parti...

  1. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  2. Seven methods to measure ground moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The correct irrigation methods are of great importance to the deciduous fruit grower. The article discusses seven methods for the measuring of ground humidity. These methods are based on gravimetry, electric resistance, gamma attenuation, neutron humidity measurement, tensiometers and a study of the correlation between ground humidity and water evaporation. At this stage, the last technique is regarded as the most practicle method. Neutron moisture gages might be used if adhered to the regulations of NUCOR

  3. Evaluation of moisture content distribution in wood by soft X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Avramidis, S.; Shida, S.

    2009-01-01

    A technique for nondestructive evaluation of moisture content distribution of Japanese cedar (sugi) during drying using a newly developed soft X-ray digital microscope was investigated. Radial, tangential, and cross-sectional samples measuring 100 x 100 x 10 mm were cut from green sugi wood. Each sample was dried in several steps in an oven and upon completion of each step, the mass was recorded and a soft X-ray image was taken. The relationship between moisture content and the average grayscale value of the soft X-ray image at each step was linear. In addition, the linear regressions overlapped each other regardless of the sample sections. These results showed that soft X-ray images could accurately estimate the moisture content. Applying this relationship to a small section of each sample, the moisture content distribution was estimated from the image differential between the soft X-ray pictures obtained from the sample in question and the same sample in the oven-dried condition. Moisture content profiles for 10-mm-wide parts at the centers of the samples were also obtained. The shapes of the profiles supported the evaluation method used in this study

  4. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  5. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  6. Moisture assessment by fast and non-destructive in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Møller, Eva B.; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2014-01-01

    moisture content, which is not revealed by this inspection. The moisture content may become a problem for the buyers. This problem might have been avoided if the moisture content of the Building materials was measured on inspection. This is easily done in wood-based materials but for example in concrete...... to use, easily applicable and suitable for most porous building materials. Furthermore, the measurements must be reliable at the high end of the hygroscopic area and describe absolute moisture content or corresponding relative humidity. The existing methods for moisture measuring cannot meet...... on measurements of the relative humidity of the air in a small hood placed tightly and sealed to the surface of the construction. Results with aerated concrete covered with acrylic paint are presented....

  7. Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byunghyun; Jafarpour, Behnam; Gallagher, Victoria N.; Imhoff, Paul T.; Chiu, Pei C.; Fluman, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7% was in reasonable agreement with gravimetric measurements of excavated refuse, where the moisture content was 26.5 ± 6.0CI%. Laboratory tests were used to assess the utility of the PGTT for measuring water in small pores, water sorbed to solid surfaces, and the influence of dry waste on PGTTs. These experiments indicated that when refuse surfaces are not completely solvated with water, PGTTs may produce misleading results (negative estimates) of water saturation and moisture content

  8. Moisture content of cereals at harvesting time by comparing microclimate values and standard weather data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atzema, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The moisture content of wheat and barley together with the weather elements were measured at 3 different experimental sites in the Netherlands in 1990-91. The difference in the dew point temperature in the screen[house] and in the field was small. However, the differences between air temperature in

  9. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  10. Pupation Behaviors and Emergence Successes of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Response to Different Substrate Types and Moisture Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifang; Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Xiong, Hongpeng; Qin, Wenquan; Liang, Shiping; Jian, Shengzhe; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2017-12-08

    Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the most severe pests of tea plants in China. This species commonly pupates in soil; however, little is known about its pupation ecology. In the present study, choice and no-choice tests were conducted to investigate the pupation behaviors and emergence success of E. grisescens in response to different substrates (sand, sandy loam 1, sandy loam 2, and silt loam) and moisture contents (5, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80%). Moisture-choice bioassays showed that significantly more E. grisescens individuals pupated in or on soil (sandy loam 1 and 2 and silt loam) that was at the intermediate moisture levels, whereas 5%- and 35%-moisture sand was significantly more preferred over 80%-moisture sand for pupating. Substrate-choice bioassays showed that sand was most preferred by E. grisescens individuals at 20%- and 80%-moisture levels, but no preference was detected among the four substrates at 50%-moisture content. No-choice tests showed that the percentage of burrowed E. grisescens individuals and pupation depth were significantly lower when soil was dry (20% moisture) or wet (80% moisture). In addition, 20%-moisture sandy loam 2 and silt loam significantly decreased the body water content of pupae and emergence success of adults compared to 50%-moisture content. However, each measurement (percentage of burrowed individuals, pupation depth, body water content, or emergence success) was similar when compared among different moisture levels of sand. Interestingly, pupae buried with 80%-moisture soil exhibited significantly lower emergence success than that were unburied. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Moisture content in raw rubber sheet analyzed by transflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnarit Rittiron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important trait for rubber sheet trading system. Therefore, a calibration equation for predicting moisture content was created by near infrared (NIR technique in order to develop a more fair trading system in Thailand. Spectra were recorded in two systems. One was measurement on each rubber sheet and the other was on a pile of sheets. Both were measured by a handheld NIR spectrometer in the short wavelength region (700–1100 nm in the transflectance mode using Teflon as a diffuse reflector. The spectra showed the peak at about 900 nm which belongs to isoprene, the major component of rubber sheet. Pretreatment with second derivative was applied to remove baseline shift effect occurring due to thickness differences on each rubber sheet. From validation results, moisture contents predicted by single sheet system were more accurate than a pile of sheet system with standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.39% and bias of -0.07%, and they were not significantly different from the actual values at 95% confidence. As a result, determining moisture content in each rubber sheet by a handheld NIR spectrometer provided accurate values, easy and rapid operation.

  13. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  14. A comparison of two methods for estimating conifer live foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow

    2012-01-01

    Foliar moisture content is an important factor regulating how wildland fires ignite in and spread through live fuels but moisture content determination methods are rarely standardised between studies. One such difference lies between the uses of rapid moisture analysers or drying ovens. Both of these methods are commonly used in live fuel research but they have never...

  15. Use a microwave oven to determine the moisture content of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, L.F.; Walz, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Much of the sunflower crop in the major producing areas of the United States requires artificial drying because of late crop maturity. Plant growth regulators permit earlier harvest by accelerating the maturation rate of the plant; research indicates that use of the growth regulator would result in approximately 10-14 days earlier maturation. Effectiveness of the chemical is dependent on timely application at relatively high moisture contents (50 to 55 percent). A rapid means of determining seed moisture content is required so the chemical can be applied at the proper growth stage . Additionally, sunflower is often harvested at moisture contents of more than 17 percent. Most electronic moisture meters are not calibrated for moisture contents this high and the accuracy of most moisture meters decreases with increasing moisture content. A recent study has shown that a conventional microwave oven can successfully be used to very rapidly determine the moisture content of high moisture sunflower seeds to indicate proper growth stage for the application of plant growth regulators. The microwave oven could also be used with reasonable accuracy to check harvest moisture content down to about 15 percent. At lower moisture contents, it would be advisable to use a calibrated electronic moisture meter

  16. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  17. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  18. The Utility of Using a Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera to Measure Beach Surface Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface moisture content is an important factor that must be considered when studying aeolian sediment transport in a beach environment. A few different instruments and procedures are available for measuring surface moisture content (i.e. moisture probes, LiDAR, and gravimetric moisture data from surface scrapings); however, these methods can be inaccurate, costly, and inapplicable, particularly in the field. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral band imagery is another technique used to obtain moisture data. NIR imagery has been predominately used through remote sensing and has yet to be used for ground-based measurements. Dry sand reflects infrared radiation given off by the sun and wet sand absorbs IR radiation. All things considered, this study assesses the utility of measuring surface moisture content of beach sand with a modified NIR camera. A traditional point and shoot digital camera was internally modified with the placement of a visible light-blocking filter. Images were taken of three different types of beach sand at controlled moisture content values, with sunlight as the source of infrared radiation. A technique was established through trial and error by comparing resultant histogram values using Adobe Photoshop with the various moisture conditions. The resultant IR absorption histogram values were calibrated to actual gravimetric moisture content from surface scrapings of the samples. Overall, the results illustrate that the NIR spectrum modified camera does not provide the ability to adequately measure beach surface moisture content. However, there were noted differences in IR absorption histogram values among the different sediment types. Sediment with darker quartz mineralogy provided larger variations in histogram values, but the technique is not sensitive enough to accurately represent low moisture percentages, which are of most importance when studying aeolian sediment transport.

  19. Apparatus for measuring moisture in moving bulk material using a lithium-7 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A nucleonic device is described for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials using a radioisotopic fast-neutron source such as lithium-7 admixed with an alpha-particle emitter such as americium-241 as a means of minimizing the thickness of the layer of bulk material required proximate to the moisture sensor for a neutron-reflection moisture gauge for proper operation of said gauge. Minimization of the required thickness of the bulk material permits use of a neutron-reflection moisture gauge for measurements of bulk materials on lightly-loaded belts and other types of conveyors where measurements have previously been impracticable

  20. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  1. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  2. Effect of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties and Terminal Velocity of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of Berberis not only is useful for design and optimization of transportation, processing and packaging equipment but also can prevent mechanical injuries and losses. In this study force, deformation, energy and toughness were measured at different moisture content levels including 70-76, 45-50, 25-30 and 7-10 percent (w.b.. The decrease of moisture content caused increasing rupture force from 1.387 to 2.679 N, decreasing shape deformation from 3.387 to 2.413mm, increasing toughness from 4.297 to 8.220 J/cm3 and decreasing rupture energy from 0.921 to 0.661mJ. Effects of loading speed, force orientation and their interaction were investigated on just fresh Berberis fruit. It was indicated that only force orientation was effective on all investigated properties except toughness. The moisture content was identified as an effective parameter on terminal velocity. It decreased from 9 to 4.5 m/s with decrease of moisture content from 76 to 7 percent (w.b..

  3. Analysis of Moisture Content in Beetroot using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and by Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesakumar, Noel; Baskar, Chanthini; Kesavan, Srinivasan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2018-05-22

    The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm -1 . In order to estimate the transmittance peak height (T p ) and area under the transmittance curve [Formula: see text] over the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 , Gaussian curve fitting algorithm was performed on FTIR data. Principal component and nonlinear regression analyses were utilized for FTIR data analysis. Score plot over the ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 allowed beetroot quality discrimination. Beetroot quality predictive models were developed by employing biphasic dose response function. Validation experiment results confirmed that the accuracy of the beetroot quality predictive model reached 97.5%. This research work proves that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis and beetroot quality predictive models could serve as an effective tool for discriminating moisture content in fresh, half and completely spoiled stages of beetroot samples and for providing status alerts.

  4. Effects of moisture content on coarse woody debris respiration in a tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y.; Li, G.; Han, S. H.; Abu Salim, K.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since coarse woody debris (CWD) respiration (Rcwd) has an important role in carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems, it is a significant parameter in an investigation of CWD decomposition rate. Rcwd is known as to be influenced not only by environmental factors but also by CWD properties (e.g., moisture content). This study investigated the effects of CWD moisture content on Rcwd in a lowland mixed Dipterocarp tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam. CWDs in the forest were selected and categorized into two decay classes (sound and partially decomposed), and three diameter classes (10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, more than 30 cm). Samplings of CWDs were conducted in February and October, 2016. The fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were measured within 24 h of sampling. Rcwd measurements were conducted using a closed chamber system with a diffusion-type, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. In February, the fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were remeasured, after submerging them in the fresh water for 24, 48, and 72 h. The Rcwd increased significantly with moisture content in February (r2=0.25, p0.05). Rcwd was lowest in the largest diameter class (p0.05). On the basis of these results, the Rcwd in this site was in the range of Rcwd in previous studies conducted in other tropical rainforests. Rcwd increased with moisture content, however, the contribution of moisture content to changes in Rcwd might not be influential during the eight months study period.*Supported by research grants from the Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01).

  5. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  6. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  7. The neutronic method for measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchat, Ph.

    1967-01-01

    The three group diffusion theory being chosen as the most adequate method for determining the response of the neutron soil moisture probe, a mathematical model is worked out using a numerical calculation programme with Fortran IV coding. This model is fitted to the experimental conditions by determining the effect of different parameters of measuring device: channel, fast neutron source, detector, as also the soil behaviour under neutron irradiation: absorbers, chemical binding of elements. The adequacy of the model is tested by fitting a line through the image points corresponding to the couples of experimental and theoretical values, for seven media having different chemical composition: sand, alumina, line stone, dolomite, kaolin, sandy loam, calcareous clay. The model chosen gives a good expression of the dry density influence and allows α, β, γ and δ constants to be calculated for a definite soil according to the following relation which gives the count rate of the soil moisture probe: N = (α ρ s +β) H v +γ ρ s + δ. (author) [fr

  8. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  9. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  10. Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg; Morsing, Merete [Department of Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, Michael; Rabier, Fabienne [Departement Genie Rural, Chee de Namur 146, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    One near infrared (NIR) reflectance and five dielectric moisture meters were tested for their capability of measuring moisture content (MC) in solid biofuels. Ninety-eight samples were tested at up to eight moisture levels covering the MC range from fresh fuel to approximately 10% MC (w.b.). The fuel types ranged from typical solid biofuels such as coniferous and deciduous wood chips over short rotation coppice (SRC) to sunflower seed and olive stones. The most promising calibrations were obtained with the NIR reflection method and two dielectric devices where the sample is placed in a container integrated in the device. The calibration equations developed show that there is a profound influence from both laboratory and fuel type. It is suggested that individual calibrations that are based on the specific fuel types used at the individual heating plant could be applied. (author)

  11. Components of variance involved in estimating soil water content and water content change using a neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.F.; Williams, J.

    1979-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and use of neutron moisture meters since Hewlett et al.(1964) investigated the sources of variance when using this instrument to estimate soil moisture. There appears to be little in the literature, however, which updates these findings. This paper aims to isolate the components of variance when moisture content and moisture change are estimated using the neutron scattering method with current technology and methods

  12. Effect of moisture content on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Hamilton, Garth R. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Strip samples from the Boundary Hill pit at Callide have been tested in an adiabatic oven to assess the effect of moisture on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of coal. The two strip samples tested had R{sub 70} self-heating rate values of 10.23 and 8.61 {sup o}C/h. As the moisture content of the coal was progressively increased, from the dry state of the test, the R{sub 70} value decreased dramatically. At approximately 40-50% of the moisture holding capacity of the coal, the self-heating rate becomes measurable. Above this critical level of moisture content, the heat produced by oxidation is dissipated by moisture evaporation and coal self-heating is significantly delayed. (author)

  13. The effect of moisture content on the corrosion of fasteners embedded in wood subjected to alkaline copper quaternary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinka, Samuel L.; Glass, Samuel V.; Derome, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the dependence of metal corrosion on wood moisture content. • Corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in treated wood were measured. • Corrosion products were analyzed across moisture contents using X-ray diffraction. • The corrosion rate has a sigmoidal dependence on moisture content. • The data herein can be used to improve combined hygrothermal–corrosion models. - Abstract: This paper characterizes the corrosion rate of embedded fasteners as a function of wood moisture content using gravimetric and electrochemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion rate increased with moisture content before reaching a plateau. The phases present in the corrosion products, as analyzed using X-ray diffraction, are generally consistent with previous work. Uniform corrosion was observed for all fasteners and all conditions except steel fasteners embedded in water-saturated wood. Data of dependence of corrosion rate on moisture content, presented herein, are necessary to ensure the accuracy of combined hygrothermal/corrosion models used to predict durability of wood structures

  14. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staroňová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  15. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Smith, R. (Sonsub Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented.

  16. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, E.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented

  17. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, R. [Sonsub Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented.

  18. Moisture measurements in iron ores, in freight cars, through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Said, M.; Duarte, U.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility and the advantages of using a nuclear technique for measuring on the spot (in the freight cars) and the moisture content of iron ores are described. The measurements included the determination of the volumetric moisture content and the density. From this values, the moisture content in percentage by weight was calculated. Nuclear Chicago d/M Combination Density-Moisture Probe with a 5 mCi Ra/Be source, and a digital portable scaler, were used. The investigated techniques give good results when the measurements are made directly on the ore surface, and has economical advantages over the gravimetric method by sampling. The probable reasons for both, the aleatory scattering of points and the lack of linear correlation between the values of both methods, when the nuclear measurement is made across the car walls are analized

  19. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  20. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  1. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  2. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  3. Leachate recirculation: moisture content assessment by means of a geophysical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Roger; Munoz, Marie Laure; Aran, Christophe; Laperrelle, Claire; Hidra, Mustapha; Drouart, Eric; Grellier, Solenne

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor technology is a waste treatment concept consisting in speeding up the biodegradation of landfilled waste by optimizing its moisture content through leachate recirculation. The measurement of variations in waste moisture content is critical in the design and control of bioreactors. Conventional methods such as direct physical sampling of waste reach their limits due to the interference with the waste matrix. This paper reviews geophysical measurements such as electrical direct current and electromagnetic slingram methods for measuring the electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is a property, which is linked to both moisture and temperature and can provide useful indications on the biodegradation environment in the waste mass. The study reviews three site experiments: a first experimentation shows the advantages (correlation between conductive anomaly and water seepage) but also the limits of geophysical interpretation; the two other sites allow the leachate recirculation to be tracked by studying the relative resistivity variation versus time from electrical 2D imaging. Even if some improvements are necessary to consider geophysical measurements as a real bioreactor monitoring tool, results are promising and could lead to the use of electrical 2D imaging in bioreactor designing.

  4. Generating a representative signal of coal moisture content to anticipate combustion control in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Luengo-Garcia, J. Carlos; Alonso-Hidalgo, Manuela; Ponte-Gutierrez, Daniel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus Universitario s/n 33203, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    This article describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal moisture in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. To do so, in the first place, the point through which coal would be fed into the boiler was chosen. After studying the different parts of the circuit, the feeder was selected. Then, an installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, faithfully reproducing the operation of a belt conveyor. In order to measure the moisture content, a microwave system was installed, and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes was tested showing eventually the likelihood of the objective.

  5. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  6. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  7. Effect of Moisture Content of Chitin-Calcium Silicate on Rate of Degradation of Cefotaxime Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimry, Suhair S; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state. The moisture content was determined at the beginning and the end of the kinetic study using TGA. The degradation in solution was studied for comparison. Increasing the moisture content of the excipient of size range 63-180 μm (surface area 7.2 m 2 /g) from 3.88 to 8.06% increased the rate of degradation of the drug more than two times (from 0.0317 to 0.0718 h -1 ). While an opposite trend was observed for the excipient of size range moisture content moisture content of 8.54%, and the degradation in solid state at both moisture contents was higher than that in solution (0.0871 h -1 ). In conclusion, the rate of degradation in solid should be studied taking into consideration the specific surface area and moisture content of the excipient at the storage condition and it may be higher than that in solution.

  8. Investigation of Historic Equilibrium Moisture Content Data from the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka; Jay A. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has provided equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values of wood for given temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in various forms over the course of its history, primarily for practical purposes related to drying lumber and controlling moisture content. The FPL EMC data have been widely cited and reprinted, not only in...

  9. Measurement of moisture depth distribution in composite materials using positron lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.; Mall, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced resin matrix composites reportedly suffer significant degradation in their mechanical properties when exposed to hot, moist, environments for extended periods. Moisture weakens the fiber matrix bond as well as the matrix shear strength. An important factor in determining the extent of degradation is the depth distribution of moisture in the resin matrix. Despite the importance of measuring moisture distribution and its effects on composite material properties, not enough data are available on suitable nondestructive techniques for detecting and measuring moisture diffusion in organic composite materials. This paper addresses itself to the problem of measuring the moisture content of such materials, with special emphasis on its depth distribution, using positron lifetime technique

  10. Relationship between seed moisture content and acquisition of impermeability in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds of Nelumbo nucifera do not imbibe water, and thus have physical dormancy (PY. However, a proportion of seeds are permeable to water, and so we hypothesized that variation in moisture content is a reason for the development of both permeable and impermeable seeds. The permeable proportion of seeds present in a lot collected from Suzhou, China, was separated using an imbibition test. The permeable proportion had an average moisture content of 15.6 %, compared with 8.5 % for impermeable seeds. Drying permeable seeds above silica gel to 10 % and 8 % f. wb., resulted in 77 and 100 % impermeable seeds, respectively, compared with no impermeable seeds at 15 % moisture content. Dried to 10 % moisture content, and incubated above water in an airtight container, 46 % of the seeds reverse impermeability. Permeable seeds with 15 % moisture content maintained above LiCl2 (RH=70 % did not develop impermeability after three months of storage. The seeds dried to 6 % moisture content and stored above water in an airtight container showed no increase in moisture. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a strong relationship between moisture content and the onset of impermeability in this species.

  11. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels made from Eucalyptus urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the efficiency of Nelson's equation to estimate equilibrium moisture content of this material and provide a model for determination of moisture content of panels based on air relative moisture content, as well as to evaluate the effect of some processing variables on the equilibrium moisture content of OSB (Oriented Strand Board panels. The 25 x 25 mm samples were put in an acclimation room where they were kept at 30ºC and had their mass determined after stabilization at the relative air moisture contents of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. By the results obtained it was possible to conclude that: Nelson's equation tended to underestimate moisture values of the panel; the polynomial model adjusted based on the relative moisture of the air presented great potential to be used; although different behavior may be observed for the isotherms of treatments, there was no significant effect of the variables panel density, wood basic density, mat type and pressure temperature on mean equilibrium moisture content in desorption 1, adsorption and desorption 2.

  12. Effects of neutron source type on soil moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving Goldberg; Norman A. MacGillivray; Robert R. Ziemer

    1967-01-01

    A number of radioisotopes have recently become commercially available as alternatives to radium-225 in moisture gauging devices using alpha-neutron sources for determining soil moisture, for well logging, and for other industrial applications in which hydrogenous materials are measured.

  13. Predicting moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine by microwave scanning of sawn timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Hagman, O.; Fjellner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of calibrating a prediction model for the moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using microwave sensors. The material was initially of green moisture content and was thereafter dried in several steps to zero moisture content. At each step, all the pieces were weighed, scanned with a microwave sensor (Satimo 9,4GHz), and computed tomography (CT)-scanned with a medical CT scanner (Siemens Somatom AR.T.). The output variables from the microwave sensor were used as predictors, and CT images that correlated with known moisture content were used as response variables. Multivariate models to predict average moisture content and density were calibrated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models for average moisture content and density were applied at the pixel level, and the distribution was visualized. The results show that it is possible to predict both moisture content distribution and density distribution with high accuracy using microwave sensors. (author)

  14. A gamma-source method of measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jeboori, M.A.; Ameen, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water content in soil column was measured using NaI scintillation detector 5 mci Cs-137 as a gamma source. The measurements were done with a back scatter gauge, restricted with scattering angle less to than /2 overcome the effect of soil type. A 3 cm air gap was maintained between the front of the detector and the wall of the soil container in order to increase the counting rate. The distance between the center of the source and the center of the back scattering detector was 14 cm. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.63. For comparision, a direct rays method was used to measure the soil moisture. The results gave an error of 0.65. Results of the two methods were compared with the gravimetric method which gave an error of 0.18 g/g and 0.17 g/g for direct and back method respectively. The quick direct method was used to determine the gravimetric and volumetric percentage constants, and were found to be 1.62 and 0.865 respectively. The method then used to measure the water content in the layers of soil column.(6 tabs., 4 figs., 12 refs.)

  15. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  16. Apparatus and process for continuous measurement of moisture in moving coal by neutron thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.F.

    1967-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and process for the measurement of moisture contents in solid materials. More particularly, the invention makes available a continuous moisture analysis of a moving mass of material, such as coal, by penetrating such material with neutrons emitted from a source of fast neutrons and detecting, counting, and recording slowed or thermalized neutrons reflected from the internal structure of the material. (U.S.)

  17. Relationship of the moisture content of Finnish wheat flour and relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Linko

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the moisture content of Finnish commercial wheat flour stored at variable relative humidities, representing the conditions typical of flour storage in Finland, were investigated. It could be shown that flour of 15 % moisture at the time of packing tends to dry considerably during normal storage conditions. Owing to the hysteresis effect, the moisture content of once dried flour is not likely to reach detrimental levels during normal storage, even if the relative humidity would exceed the critical level of 75—80 % for short periods. Minimum warehouse relative humidity was observed during Januay, at which time flour moisture had decreased to 6.7 %. The equilibrium humidity for flour of 15 % original moisture content was found to be about 70 %.

  18. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  19. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav; Banski, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  20. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzurenda Ladislav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm−3, fly ash 50 mgm−3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  1. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...... labour costs and sampling uncertainty is proposed, where the MC of a single stem section with the length of 10–50 cm corresponds to the mean shoot moisture content (MSMC) with a bias of maximum 11 g kg−1. This bias can be reduced by selecting the stem section according to the particular clone...

  2. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Rhizopus sp. were more abundant with increasing moisture content. Air-tight .... jute bag. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of moisture and storage .... be due to contamination as a result of local method of processing.

  3. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  4. Method of determining the enthalpy and moisture content of wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear powered multi-stage steam turbine system wherein steam at higher than atmospheric pressure is introduced into the turbine system at a high pressure turbine element and thereafter flows through a series of turbine elements at successively decreasing pressures, wherein portions of the steam are extracted from the turbine elements at a plurality of lower pressure points and the steam is finally exhausted at a lowest pressure point, the method of determining moisture content and enthalpy of steam at a selected pressure point. It comprises sampling a small quantity of steam at the selected pressure point; super heating the steam sample to a single-phase state by reducing its pressure and bottling it in a closed measuring chamber whereby the flow energy of the sample is converted into internal energy; measuring the pressure of the steam sample within the chamber; determining the sonic velocity of the steam sample by passing a sound wave through the sample from a transmitter to a receiver located at a known distance from the transmitter and measuring the time required for the sound wave to travel from transmitter to receiver; and utilizing the measured pressure and sonic velocity of the steam sample to calculate the moisture content and enthalpy of the steam at the selected pressure point

  5. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  6. Measured temperature and moisture conditions in the roof attic of a one-and-a-half story house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and moisture measurements were made in a ventilated attic on a house with 200 mm mineral wool insulation. The measurements showed that 1) solar radiation had a great effect on the temperature in the attic; 2) moisture content reached a level below the risk of mold formation – no mold ...

  7. Moisture content of PuO2 fuel used for the milliwatt generator heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotelli, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the moisture content of 238 Pu dioxide fuel for use in Milliwatt Generator heat sources was studied in an attempt to more clearly define the production fuel preloading procedures. The study indicated that water was not present or being adsorbed at various steps of the process (or during storage) that could lead to compatibility problems during pretreatment or long-term storage. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide was analyzed by a commercial moisture analyzer. The moisture content at all steps of the process including storage averaged from 0.002% to 0.005%. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide exposed to moist atmosphere for 7 days was 0.001%. These values indicated that no significant amount of moisture was adsorbed by the plutonium dioxide fuel charges. The only significant moisture content found was an average of 3.47%, after self-calcination. This was expected since no additional steps, other than self-heating of the fuel, are taken to remove the water

  8. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  9. Dielectric characterization of Bentonite clay at various moisture contents and with mixtures of biomass in the microwave spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the potential for using bentonite as a microwave absorber for microwave-assisted biomass pyrolysis based on the dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of bentonite at different moisture contents were measured using a coaxial line dielectric probe and vector network analyzer...

  10. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil

  11. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  12. Rapid field detection of moisture content for base and subgrade : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Mixing and compacting soil and flexible base pavement materials at the proper moisture content is critical : for obtaining adequate compaction and meeting construction specification requirements. This project sought : to evaluate rapid non-nuclear te...

  13. Effects of moisture content on mechanical properties, transparency, and thermal stability of yuba film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siran; Kim, Nayeon; Yokoyama, Wallace; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-15

    Yuba is the skin formed at the surface during the heating of soymilk. The 3rd, 7th, and 11th films were evaluated for properties at different RH. At 39% RH, the 11th film had the lowest moisture, while the 3rd film had the highest moisture. However, at 75% RH, reverse moisture results were obtained. The tensile strengths of the 3rd and 11th films were highest at 15% moisture, whereas the tensile strength of the 7th film was highest at 25% moisture. Elongation of the 3rd (127%) and 11th (85%) films were highest at 25% moisture. The light transmittance of the films was low and opaque at 5% moisture. The films were transparent at 23%-28% moisture, but became opaque as the moisture increased. The films at 39% RH (ΔH, 113-203J/g) had higher thermal stability than those at 87% RH (ΔH, 315-493J/g). Moisture content markedly changed the yuba film properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling effects of moisture content and advection on odor causing VOCs volatilization from stored swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Liang, H M

    2000-05-01

    Two models for evaluating the contents and advection of manure moisture on odor causing volatile organic compounds (VOC-odor) volatilization from stored swine manure were studied for their ability to predict the volatilization rate (indoor air concentration) and cumulative exposure dose: a MJ-I model and a MJ-II model. Both models simulating depletion of source contaminant via volatilization and degradation based on an analytical model adapted from the behavior assessment model of Jury et al. In the MJ-I model, manure moisture movement was negligible, whereas in the MJ-II model, time-dependent indoor air concentrations was a function of constant manure moisture contents and steady-state moisture advection. Predicted indoor air concentrations and inhaled doses for the study VOC-odors of p-cresol, toluene, and p-xylene varied by up to two to three orders of magnitude depending on the manure moisture conditions. The sensitivity analysis of both models suggests that when manure moisture movement exists, simply MJ-I model is inherently not sufficient to represent a more generally volatilization process, which can even become stringent as moisture content increases. The conclusion illustrates how one needs to include a wide variety of manure moisture values in order to fully assess the complex volatilization mechanisms that are present in a real situation.

  15. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  16. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  17. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  18. Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Under Different Soil Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Roseana Florentino da Costa; Oliveira,Edkarlla Sousa Dantas de; Lima,Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade; Brasil,Simone Louise Delarue Cezar

    2015-01-01

    Galvanized steel has been widely applied in different applications and the industry significantly increased its production in recent years. Some galvanized structures can be completely or partially buried, such as transmission tower footings. The corrosion of these metallic structures is related to the soil chemical and physicochemical properties, which define the aggressiveness of the environment. To assess the effect of the soil moisture on galvanized steel corrosion, a comparative study wa...

  19. Effect of moisture content on fed batch composting reactor of vegetable and fruit wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanun, B; Tripetchkul, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chaiprasert, P; Towprayoon, S

    2005-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust were composted in a laboratory scale reactor by controlling the waste feeding rate at 21 kg m(-3) day(-1) and aeration rate at 10.6 l m(-3) min(-1). The effects of initial moisture content on organic matter degradation and process performance of fed batch composting were investigated. The absolute amount of removal, removal percentage, and removal rate of dry mass obtained were substantially different among the initial moisture contents. The rapid rise of moisture content and the lowest absolute amount of removal observed were achieved in the 50% condition. The initial moisture content yielding the largest absolute amount of removal in both feeding and curing stage was 30% whereas the removal percentage and rate constant of waste decomposition were highest in the 50% condition. Examined by traditional soil physics method, the moisture content at 50-55% was suitable for satisfying the degree of free air space (65-70%) of compost during the fed batch composting. Most degradable organic matter was mainly consumed in the feeding stage as indicated by a higher removal rate of dry mass in all cases. It is recommended that the initial moisture content of 30% and mode of aeration and agitation should be adopted for achieving practical fed batch composting of vegetable and fruit wastes. The study also demonstrated that the composting kinetics of vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust can be described by a first order model.

  20. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  1. Characterizing the toughness of an epoxy resin after wet aging using compact tension specimens with non-uniform moisture content

    KAUST Repository

    Quino, Gustavo; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.

  2. Characterizing the toughness of an epoxy resin after wet aging using compact tension specimens with non-uniform moisture content

    KAUST Repository

    Quino, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.

  3. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  4. MULTIFREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DETERMINING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF LIQUID EMULSIONS BY THE METHOD OF RESONANCE DIELCOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    obtained. The value of the volumetric moisture in the transformer oil was measured. Originality. New multifrequency algorithms for determining the moisture content by the resonance dielcometric method have been proposed, investigated and practically realized. A generalized metrological characteristic for an algorithm with four frequencies is obtained. Metrological characteristics of algorithms for three and two frequencies are obtained. The problem of «uncertainty of varieties» was solved. Recommendations for increasing the sensitivity of dielcometric resonance moisture meters are developed and implemented. Practical value. The results of this work allow to solve the problem of «variability of varieties», increase sensitivity and accurately determine the moisture content in most nonpolar liquid dielectrics to a value of 10-5. This is applicable in a large field of electrical engineering, machine building, oil refining and the chemical industry.

  5. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Carlos; Garcia-Fuentevilla, Luisa; Garcia, Alfonso; Moron, Alberto

    2016-05-14

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate.

  6. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Carlos; Garcia-Fuentevilla, Luisa; Garcia, Alfonso; Moron, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate. PMID:27187410

  7. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely...... on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF......). Different data pre-treatments, wavelength selection and partial least squares regression were applied to construct calibration models. Multi-products model and product-specific models were obtained, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method to discriminate whether moisture content fit...

  8. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  9. Retrieval of canopy moisture content for dynamic fire risk assessment using simulated MODIS bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carmine; Leone, Antonio P.; Meoli, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Gaetano; Menenti, Massimo

    2007-10-01

    Forest fires are one of the major environmental hazards in Mediterranean Europe. Biomass burning reduces carbon fixation in terrestrial vegetation, while soil erosion increases in burned areas. For these reasons, more sophisticated prevention tools are needed by local authorities to forecast fire danger, allowing a sound allocation of intervention resources. Various factors contribute to the quantification of fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates vegetation susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. Many authors have demonstrated the role of remote sensing in the assessment of vegetation equivalent water thickness (EWT), which is defined as the weight of liquid water per unit of leaf surface. However, fire models rely on the fuel moisture content (FMC) as a measure of vegetation moisture. FMC is defined as the ratio of the weight of the liquid water in a leaf over the weight of dry matter, and its retrieval from remote sensing measurements might be problematic, since it is calculated from two biophysical properties that independently affect vegetation reflectance spectrum. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in retrieving both EWT and FMC from top of the canopy reflectance. The PROSPECT radiative transfer code was used to simulate leaf reflectance and transmittance as a function of leaf properties, and the SAILH model was adopted to simulate the top of the canopy reflectance. A number of moisture spectral indexes have been calculated, based on MODIS bands, and their performance in predicting EWT and FMC has been evaluated. Results showed that traditional moisture spectral indexes can accurately predict EWT but not FMC. However, it has been found that it is possible to take advantage of the multiple MODIS short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels to improve the retrieval accuracy of FMC (r2 = 0.73). The effects of canopy structural properties on MODIS

  10. Electromagnetic characterization of white spruce at different moisture contents using synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Detection and quantification of moisture content inside wood (timber) is key to ensuring safety and reliability of timber structures. Moisture inside wood attracts insects and fosters the development of fungi to attack the timber, causing significant damages and reducing the load bearing capacity during their design life. The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (e.g., microwave/radar, ultrasonic, stress wave, and X-ray) for condition assessment of timber structures is a good choice. NDE techniques provide information about the level of deterioration and material properties of timber structures without obstructing their functionality. In this study, microwave/radar NDE technique was selected for the characterization of wood at different moisture contents. A 12 in-by-3.5 in-by-1.5 in. white spruce specimen (picea glauca) was imaged at different moisture contents using a 10 GHz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor inside an anechoic chamber. The presence of moisture was found to increase the SAR image amplitude as expected. Additionally, integrated SAR amplitude was found beneficial in modeling the moisture content inside the wood specimen.

  11. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  12. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  13. Moisture content evaluation of biomass using CFD approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bartzanas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In grass conservation systems, drying in the field is an essential process upon which the quality and quantity of the material to be conserved is dependent on. In this study a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, previously validated, was used to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the field drying process of cut grass under different weather conditions and structural specifications of the grass. The use of the CFD model depicts the climate heterogeneity in the grass area with a special focus on moisture distribution, influence of the weather conditions, in order to create the possibility of applying the model as a decision support tool for an enhanced treatment of the grass after cutting.

  14. A Unilateral Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensor for Nondestructive Wood Moisture Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Deng-jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (UMR sensor was designed to measure wood moisture nondestructively. The sensor consisted of a unilateral magnet, an anti-eddy current module, a radiofrequency (RF coil and an impedance matching and tuning circuit. The sensor produced a static magnetic field of 71.1 mT (resonant frequency:3.027 MHz in a 50 mm×50 mm plane locating 75 mm above the sensor's surface. Preliminary nondestructive measurement of wood moisture was carried out with the sensor. The moisture distribution in the radical direction of a cylindrical wood sample was scanned. Variations in transverse relaxation time (T2 from the bark to core were obtained. Evaporation of moisture during wood drying was also measured with the UMR sensor. Experimental results showed that:the peak of long T2 component in the T2 spectrum moved to left and the peak integral area decreased gradually during drying. The integral area was proportional to the moisture content of the sample. The work presents a portable UMR device for wood research which may potentially be used for nondestructive moisture measurement on living trees in situ.

  15. Density and moisture measurements by nuclear method and its application to compaction control in road construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azmi Ismail

    1994-01-01

    The application of nuclear technique in civil engineering sector which emphasises on the in-situ density and moisture measurements of soil in road construction is discussed. The nuclear density-moisture gauge utilises both gamma-rays and neutrons for the determination of the density and moisture content, respectively. The knowledge on the density and moisture content will be used to evaluate the degree of compaction of the compacted layers. The technique offers not only a fast and non-destructive measurement but it is also accurate, economical and repeatable. A calibration equation which is stored in the built-in microprocessor is applicable for any type of soil. Corrections for the interferences from needless gamma-rays produced as a result of thermal neutrons interaction with certain nuclei for the density measurement and effects of hydrogen other than absorbed water for the moisture measurement are considered in the equation. This paper describes briefly the theory and the characteristics of the nuclear gauge and its application in road construction work

  16. Physical Properties of two Acha varieties as a function of Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Aviara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available "Acha" is a cereal crop of West African origin belonging to the family graminaea. There are many varieties of Acha, but the most prominent two are the white Acha (Digitaria exillis and brown Acha (Digitaria iburua. Acha is used in the production of food and beverages, and manufacture of medicines. The grain therefore, has immense economic values. However, the mechanization of Acha processing has been limited by shortage of data on its physical properties that would aid the design of equipment for its post-harvest operations. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the variation of bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, solid density, angle of repose and one thousand grain mass of the two varieties of the crop with moisture content. The moisture content range within which the study was conducted was 5 - 30% (d.b for both white and brown variety. Results showed that as the moisture content of the two varieties of Acha increased, there was decrease in bulk density, porosity and solid density. However, increase in moisture content increased the 1000-grain mass and angle of repose of both varieties, with the values for white Acha being higher than those of brown Acha. The operation and adjustment of any Acha processing and storage equipment would therefore require a consideration of the variety and moisture content to obtain good performance.

  17. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  18. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  19. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  20. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  1. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  2. Measuring spatial and temporal variation in surface moisture on a coastal beach with a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Yvonne; Ruessink, Gerben; Brakenhoff, Laura B.; Donker, Jasper J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Wind-alone predictions of aeolian sand deposition on the most seaward coastal dune ridge often exceed measured deposition substantially. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches, but existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content. Here, we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength (1550 nm) near a water absorption band, TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric surface moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0%-25%), with a correlation-coefficient squared of 0.85 and a root-mean-square error of 2.7%. This relation holds between 20 and 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O (106-107) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 × 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small reflectance disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale moisture trends.

  3. The error analysis of coke moisture measured by neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Huixing

    1995-01-01

    The error of coke moisture measured by neutron method in the iron and steel industry is analyzed. The errors are caused by inaccurate sampling location in the calibration procedure on site. By comparison, the instrument error and the statistical fluctuation error are smaller. So the sampling proportion should be increased as large as possible in the calibration procedure on site, and a satisfied calibration effect can be obtained on a suitable size hopper

  4. Strategies for multivariate modeling of moisture content in freeze-dried mannitol-containing products by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam; Gausemel, Ingvil; Sande, Sverre Arne; Dyrstad, Knut

    2012-11-01

    Accurate determination of residual moisture content of a freeze-dried (FD) pharmaceutical product is critical for prediction of its quality. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a fast and non-invasive method routinely used for quantification of moisture. However, several physicochemical properties of the FD product may interfere with absorption bands related to the water content. A commonly used stabilizer and bulking agent in FD known for variation in physicochemical properties, is mannitol. To minimize this physicochemical interference, different approaches for multivariate correlation between NIR spectra of a FD product containing mannitol and the corresponding moisture content measured by Karl Fischer (KF) titration have been investigated. A novel method, MIPCR (Main and Interactions of Individual Principal Components Regression), was found to have significantly increased predictive ability of moisture content compared to a traditional PLS approach. The philosophy behind the MIPCR is that the interference from a variety of particle and morphology attributes has interactive effects on the water related absorption bands. The transformation of original wavelength variables to orthogonal scores gives a new set of variables (scores) without covariance structure, and the possibility of inclusion of interaction terms in the further modeling. The residual moisture content of the FD product investigated is in the range from 0.7% to 2.6%. The mean errors of cross validated prediction of models developed in the investigated NIR regions were reduced from a range of 24.1-27.6% for traditional PLS method to 15.7-20.5% for the MIPCR method. Improved model quality by application of MIPCR, without the need for inclusion of a large number of calibration samples, might increase the use of NIR in early phase product development, where availability of calibration samples is often limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  6. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  7. Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L) juice at different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice were evaluated at different moisture contents ranging from 30.37 % to 89.30 % (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity range of 0.835 to 0.979. The thermophysical properties evaluated were density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified lime juice decreased significantly (p lime juice with moisture content/water activity employing regression analysis by the method of least square approximation. Results indicated the existence of strong correlation between thermophysical properties and moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified lime juice, a significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation between physical and thermal properties was observed.

  8. Impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubene, S.; Vilnitis, M.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most popular trends in construction industry is sustainable construction. Therefore, application of construction materials with high insulation characteristics has significantly increased during the past decade. Requirements for application of construction materials with high insulation parameters are required not only by means of energy saving and idea of sustainable construction but also by legislative requirements. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. However, if the AAC masonry construction has high moisture content the heat insulation properties of the material decrease significantly. This fact lead to the necessity for the on-site control of moisture content in AAC in order to avoid inconsistency between the designed and actual thermal resistivity values of external delimiting constructions. Research of the impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties has been presented in this paper.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Simple Rectangular Microstrip Sensor for Determination Moisture Content of Hevea Rubber Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, NZ; Ramli, MR; Razak, NNANA; Abbas, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The Finite Element Method, FEM has been successfully used to model a simple rectangular microstrip sensor to determine the moisture content of Hevea rubber latex. The FEM simulation of sensor and samples was implemented by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation includes the calculation of magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient and was compared to analytical method. The results show a good agreement in finding the magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient when compared with analytical results. Field distributions of both the unloaded sensor as well as the sensor loaded with different percentages of moisture content were visualized using FEM in conjunction with COMSOL software. The higher the amount of moisture content in the sample the more the electric loops were observed.

  10. Development of a method for the noncontact moisture measurement of different materials at a belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory tests a method was developed for a contactless moisture measurement at belt conveyors of different materials like coal, clay, industrial slay and stones of inflating clay. The moisture was measured with an 241 Am-Be-neutron source, the absolute necessary determination of the changing flow of material was made with the gamma rays of 137 Cs or 241 Am. The analysis of the records shows, that to all measuring values mathematical defined curves could be found, so that methods of calculation for the moisture content could be deduced. The maximal obtainable accuracy is about ± 0.5 percentage by weight. With the industrial slay and the stones of inflating clay supplementary tests were made direct on the belt conveyor. They show, that also in the practice good results can be obtained. (orig.) [de

  11. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  13. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  14. Measurement of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27...

  15. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  16. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  17. Effect of Moisture Content on Lignocellulosic Power Generation: Energy, Economic and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content of biomass affects its processing for applications such as electricity or steam. In this study, the effects of variation in moisture content of banagrass and energycane was evaluated using techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessments. A 25% loss of moisture was assumed as a variation that was achieved by field drying the biomass. Techno-economic analysis revealed that high moisture in the biomass was not economically feasible. Comparing banagrass with energycane, the latter was more economically feasible; thanks to the low moisture and ash content in energycane. About 32 GWh/year of electricity was produced by field drying 60,000 dry MT/year energycane. The investment for different scenarios ranged between $17 million and $22 million. Field-dried energycane was the only economically viable option that recovered the investment after 11 years of operation. This scenario was also more environmentally friendly, releasing 16-gCO2 equivalent/MJ of electricity produced.

  18. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  19. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  20. Development of an instrument for measuring moisture deep into solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, R.; Walletun, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is of value in some applications to be able to detect humidity rather deep into a solid material, for example when determining the moisture content in the frame of buildings, in insulation or in biofuels. Common to these measurement problems is that it is difficult to measure moisture in the bulk of a solid, in contrast to the surface layers. In this report is described the principle and the functioning of an instrument to measure moisture at larger depths than other instruments that are available today. It is intended for use primarily on solid materials, not on gases or liquids. Field experience is also reported here. The principle of the measuring technique is nuclear: we have utilized the ability of hydrogen atoms to moderate (or brake) high energy neutrons. If there is hydrogen in the sample, fast neutrons will interact with the hydrogen atoms and one may detect and count low energy, so called thermal neutrons. The intensity of the slow neutron flux is proportional to the water content, if one assumes that hydrogen atoms are water, i.e. moisture

  1. [The stratification of moisture content and its dynamics in co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Yu-qi; Zheng, Guo-di

    2004-03-01

    The experiment of co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure was studied. The moisture contents were 50.82%-60.87% at the stage of temperature rising and 38.7%-52.17% at the stage of thermophilic fermentation, and the stratification of moisture content were not obvious for both stages because the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had little effect on the stratification. At the stage of cooling, the moisture content was 24.54%-49.39%, and the stratification of moisture content was remarkable as the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had great influence on it. At the stage of maturity, the moisture content was 19.18%-49.34%, and the stratification of moisture weakened, for which the door and the internal wall were mainly responsible. At the different composting stage, the degree of difference of moisture content on the profiles of the pile was of the order: maturity stage > cooling stage > thermophilic stage = temperature rising stage, and the moisture content in the pile was as follows: the lower > the middle > the upper. The relation between moisture content and composting time meeted with two-order kinetics equation.

  2. Effect of moisture content and temperature on thermal behaviour of sesame seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei ASHTIANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of two varieties (white and brown of sesame seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 25-70˚C and the moisture content range of 3.86-19.83% (dry basis for white and 3.07-18.99% (dry basis for brown varieties. The specific heat of white and brown sesame seeds ranged 1062-3058 and 906-2958 J/(kg·˚C, respectively. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values also increased with increasing either moisture content or temperature. Thermal diffusivity varied between 4.66×10-8 and 8.59×10-8 m2/s for white and 4.36×10-8-8.08×10-8 m2/s for brown varieties. Thermal conductivity ranged 0.031-0.149 and 0.023-0.135 W/(m·˚C for white and brown varieties, respectively. Results showed that the moisture content and temperature had significant effects (p≤0.01 on the studied properties.

  3. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  4. The behavior of moisture content in Durian after harvesting by neutron reflection and transmission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoye, T.; Fuangfoong, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed at development of a neutron reflection and transmission technique to determine moisture content in Durian fruit as a function of time after harvesting. A system of a 3 mCi Am-Be neutron source with a BF 3 detector as a neutron probe was developed. The results obtained were validated using weighting method

  5. Modeling of the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Mueller, J.

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L. (stem and leaf separately) was determined by using the saturated salt solutions method at three temperatures (25, 50 and 70°C) within a range of 5 to 90% relative humidity. Both adsorption and desorption methods were used for

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  7. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  8. Behavior of an epoxy-polysulfide adhesive in wood joints exposed to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon P. Krueger

    1965-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a flexible epoxy-resin adhesive system was observed in joints of plywood to lumber. The joints were subjected to internal swelling stresses caused by an increase in moisture content. Previous experimental work at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory has shown that this adhesive system acts as a strain-absorbing cushion and thus has a...

  9. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  10. Technical note: Equilibrium moisture content of kabuli chickpea, black sesame, and white sesame seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame and chickpeas are important crops for Ethiopia as both are major exports providing small farmers and the country much revenue. There is a lack of information on fundamental equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships for these products which would help facilitate better monitoring and st...

  11. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...

  12. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2010-01-01

    One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty). The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on bui...

  13. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  14. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20746 (United States); Paul, R. [Chemical Sciences Division, NIST, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  15. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  16. Time to ignition is influenced by both moisture content and soluble carbohydrates in live Douglas fir and Lodgepole pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Jolly; Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Ann Hadlow

    2010-01-01

    Living plants are often the primary fuels burning in wildland fire but little is known about the factors that govern their ignition behavior. Moisture content has long been hypothesized to determine the characteristics of fires spreading in live fuels but moisture content alone fails to explain observed differences in the ignition of various species at different times...

  17. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  18. The effects of moisture content, particle size and binding agent content on oil palm shell pellet quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arzola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy represents a challenge for the oil palm industry worldwide. Bio-pellet production is an alternative way of adding value to oil palm biomass. This would mean that a product having major energy density becomes more mechanically stable and achieves better performance during combustion. This paper deals with oil palm shell pelleting; using binding agents having up to 25% mass keeping average particle size less than 1mm and moisture content up to 18.7% (d.b. were evaluated. An experimental factorial design used binding agent mass percentage, milled shell particle size and moisture content as factors. Pellet density response surfaces and durability index were obtained. Pellet performance during thermal-chemical transformation was also evaluated by using thermogravimetry equipment. The results led to technical evaluation of scale-up at industrial production level.

  19. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  20. Relation between moisture content and granulation of Shatian shaddock during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Junming

    1999-01-01

    The fruit Shatian shaddocks were stored at room temperature for ten days after harvest and then marked with 3 H 2 O. The radioactivities of the base, peel and pulp of the fruit were tested regularly, and the changes of the weight loss and fruit juice, the moisture content in different tissues, respiration intensity and the nutritious materials were also determined. The results showed that during the storage of Shatianyou, the moisture transferred among valves, pulp and peel. During granulation, the transfer of moisture from pulp to peel is faster than that of normal fruit. The reason for granulation of Shatian shaddock may be the consumption of nutritious materials in pulp and the simultaneously relative regeneration in peel tissue

  1. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite....... To evaluate the performance of hemp-lime, it is compared to models with common external walls, upon defined parameters. The article also determines the variation of thermal conductivity for hemp-lime commercial plaster and wall mix, as a function of moisture content. The most promising binder composition...

  2. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on equilibrium moisture content of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yong; Wang Jun; Jin Shuifeng; Teng Bin

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of irradiation on the EMC (equilibrium moisture content) of rice. Irradiation dose was included in three widely used models for EMC, the parameters in models based on the experimental data, and correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture were studied for the better model. Experimental results show that gamma irradiation dose affects the values of EMC of grain at the same relative humidity and temperature of ambient. Values of the EMC decreased with increass of γ-rays irradiation dose during both adsorption and desorption process. Based on the correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture, the modified Chung-Pfost equation and the modified Henderson equation were found to fit the desorption and adsorption isotherms for rough rice grain in the range of experimental conditions. (authors)

  3. Corrosion potential: influence of moisture, water-cement ratio, chloride content and concrete cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. F. Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The method of measuring the corrosion potential is used as an electrochemical tool for helping the monitoring of the corrosion of reinforcements of concrete structures. As a criterion for evaluating results it is common to use intervals of corrosion potential and their correlation with corrosion probability, as precognizes ASTM C 876:2015. With this criterion, it is possible to establish an overview of the thermodynamic situation of corrosion in the structure or in the test specimen in laboratory. However, the method is influenced by several factors related with the concrete, the environment and with procedures adopted at the moment of executing the readings. Aiming to provide information to guide the technical and scientific environment regarding the right use of this type of non-destructive testing, the objective of this work is to evaluate some possible factors influencing the reading of corrosion potential, such as: moisture content of the concrete, water/cement ratio, thickness of the concrete cover and degree of contamination by chlorides. Results indicate that moisture and degree of contamination of the concrete by chloride ions had a tendency of making the corrosion potential more electronegative. Besides, it was verified that the influence of the cover is different for the case of contaminated concrete (1% of chlorides by mass of cement and not contaminated with chlorides: the influence of the thickness of the cover, in the case of concrete contaminated by chlorides, was inversely proportional, in other words, the greater the cover thickness is, the less electronegative the value of the corrosion potential will be. On the other hand, in cases of concretes without chlorides, the effect of the cover thickness in the readings or corrosion potential was irrelevant. All this information was proved with 95% of statistical significance.

  4. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  6. Influence of wood moisture content on the modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Aparecido Lopes Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR7190:1997 for timber structures design, adopts a first degree equation to describe the influence of wood moisture content. Periodically, when necessary, the referred standard is revised in order to analyze inconsistencies and to adopt considerations according new realities verified. So, the present paper aims to examine the adequacy of its equation which corrects to 12% of moisture the values of rigidity properties obtained on experimental tests. To quantify the moisture influence on modulus of elasticity, it was applied tests of compression parallel to the grain for six specimens of different strength classes, considering nominal moisture of 12; 20; 25; 30%. As results, modulus of elasticity in the moisture range 25-30% showed statistically equivalents, and was obtained a first degree equation to correlate the studied variables which leads to statically equivalent estimations when compared with results by ABNT NBR7190:1997 equation. However, it was indicated to maintain the current expression for the next text of the referred document review, without prejudice to statistical significance of the estimates.

  7. Effects of moisture content on long-term survival and regrowth of bacteria in wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, J.G. (BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM); Ward, R.L.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of moisture content on the survival and regrowth of seeded and indigenous enteric bacteria in raw sludge were determined. Cultures of six strains of fecally associated bacteria grown in sterilized, liquid sludge (5% solids) were all quite stable at this moisture level for over 90 days at 21/sup 0/C. When the moisture content of the sludge containing these organisms was reduced by evaporation and the samples were stored at 21/sup 0/C for extended periods, bacterial inactivation rates were generally proportional to the moisture losses of the samples. A dramatic reversal in this effect was observed in samples containing more than 90% solids. In this dried sludge, every bacterial species studied except Proteus mirabilis was found to be extremely stable. Bacteria indigenous to sludge were also found to survive for long periods in dried sludge. Growth of seeded Salmonella typhimurium was also found to occur in the presence of indigenous organisms in both liquid and dewatered raw sludges. However, the population density attained was well below that found in sterilized samples of the same sludges.

  8. Mapping The Temporal and Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Content Using Proximal Soil Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgawati, S.; Mawardi, M.; Sutiarso, L.; Shibusawa, S.; Segah, H.; Kodaira, M.

    2018-05-01

    In studies related to soil optical properties, it has been proven that visual and NIR soil spectral response can predict soil moisture content (SMC) using proper data analysis techniques. SMC is one of the most important soil properties influencing most physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. The problem is how to provide reliable, fast and inexpensive information of SMC in the subsurface from numerous soil samples and repeated measurement. The use of spectroscopy technology has emerged as a rapid and low-cost tool for extensive investigation of soil properties. The objective of this research was to develop calibration models based on laboratory Vis-NIR spectroscopy to estimate the SMC at four different growth stages of the soybean crop in Yogyakarta Province. An ASD Field-spectrophotoradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of soil samples. The partial least square regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between the SMC with Vis-NIR soil reflectance spectra. The selected calibration model was used to predict the new samples of SMC. The temporal and spatial variability of SMC was performed in digital maps. The results revealed that the calibration model was excellent for SMC prediction. Vis-NIR spectroscopy was a reliable tool for the prediction of SMC.

  9. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  10. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  11. Measuring the spatial variation in surface moisture on a coastal beach with an infra-red terrestrial laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Yvonne; Donker, Jasper; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sand dunes provide essential protection against marine flooding. Consequently, dune erosion during severe storms has been studied intensively, resulting in well-developed erosion models for use in scientific and applied projects. Nowadays there is growing awareness that similarly advanced knowledge on dune recovery and growth is needed to predict future dune development. For this reason, aeolian sand transport from the beach into the dunes has to be investigated thoroughly. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches. By increasing the velocity threshold for sediment entrainment, pick-up rates reduce and the fetch length increases. Conventional measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content required to study the effects on aeolian transport. Here we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using the RIEGL VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface soil moisture over its full range. Three days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric soil moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0% - 25%). This relation holds to about 80 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(106-107) data points, which we averaged into soil moisture maps with a 0.25x0.25 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. As the next step in our research, we will analyze the obtained maps to determine which processes affect the spatial and

  12. Moisture Content Impact on Mechanical Properties of Selected Cohesive Soils from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship Southern Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezowicz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of shearing resistance and compressibility of fine-grained cohesive soil from the southern part of the wielkopolskie voivodeship in relation to the increasing moisture content are presented. The analysis of two series of samples, using soil paste for the consistency index of 0.9 and 0.4–0.3 was carried out. The results imply that the increasing moisture content causes a decrease in the angle of shearing resistance and cohesion and is also reflected in the higher compressibility of the soil. It was observed that regardless of the soil consistency, the angle of shearing resistance decreases and the cohesion value and the oedometric modulus of primary (consolidation and secondary compressibility grows with the increase in the clay fraction.

  13. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  14. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  15. Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalala Jalama

    2012-01-01

    A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction tempera...

  16. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  17. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  18. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  19. Temperature and moisture content effects on compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús Manríquez Figueroa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the temperature and moisture content on the compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke from cultivated forests. The experiments were carried out on 3 timber samples under different conditions: heated (HT, thermal treatment (TT and water saturated (WS. The HT sample consisted of 105 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups, the TT consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups and the WS consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 9 groups. The specimens from HT and WS samples were tested at a temperature range from 20 to 230 ºC and 20 to 100 ºC, respectively. The HT specimens were tested at ambient temperature, but after being submitted to thermal treatment. The HT, TT and WS samples present a decrease in the compressive strength, reaching 65%, 76% and 59% of the compressive strength at room temperature, respectively. The decrease in the compressive strength of the HT and WS samples can be associated to the thermal degradation of wood polymers and the moisture content. For the TT sample, the strength increased for a pre-heating temperature of up to 170 °C due to the reduction in the moisture content of the specimens.

  20. Evaluation of density, moisture content and percentage compaction of concrete using direct transmission and backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attobrah, A. T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear method widely used in determining the density and moisture content of soil - aggregates, asphalt concretes, roller compacted concretes and Portland cement concretes, is the radiometry technique. Generally, all radiometry systems consist of a source of radiation, the sample being examined and a radiation detector. In operation, a radioactive source and a detector are placed on the same or opposite sides of a concrete sample. A portion of radiation from the source which passes through the concrete sample and reaches the detector produces a series of electrical pulses which when counted gives a measure of the dimensions or physical characteristics of the concrete sample. In this research work, concrete beams were fabricated using a 500 x 225 x 200mm wooden mould whiles a table vibrator was used to consolidate the concrete after placement in the mould. The mass of the beam was determined and the actual density calculated and inputted in the gauge. Measurements were performed on the unhardened and hardened concrete using the backscatter method and the direct transmission method at depths of 50mm, 100mm and 150mm. The measuring times of 15, 60 and 240 second were use to take the measurements. The study provided information on the variation of density with depth and this was observed to be within the range of 0 kg/m 3 to 1 kg/m 3 and 13 kg/m 3 to 23 kg/m 3 for the unhardened concrete samples in which density increased with depth and those in which density decreased with depth respectively. For the hardened concrete sample, the average change in density with depth was between 4 - 11 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density increased with depth and between 11 - 21 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density decreased with depth. The study also provided information about the degree of consolidation of Portland cement concrete which on the average was between 95% - 97% for the unhardened concrete samples and increased to between 97% - 99% for the hardened concrete

  1. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  2. Soil Moisture Content Estimation Based on Sentinel-1 and Auxiliary Earth Observation Products. A Hydrological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D; Mexis, Filippos-Dimitrios K; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini K; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N; Tsanis, Ioannis K

    2017-06-21

    A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested. The methodology is applied in Western Crete, Greece, where a SMC gauge network was deployed during 2015. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and sensitivity analysis. ANNs prove to be the most efficient in SMC estimation yielding R² values between 0.7 and 0.9. The proposed methodology is used to support a hydrological simulation with the HEC-HMS model, applied at the Keramianos basin which is ungauged for SMC. Results and model sensitivity highlight the contribution of combining Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat 8 images for improving SMC estimates and supporting hydrological studies.

  3. Influence of moisture content on microbial activity and silage quality during ensilage of food processing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Yates, Matthew; Aung, Hnin; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Guo, Hongyun; Zhang, Ruihong; Vandergheynst, Jean; Jenkins, Bryan M

    2011-10-01

    Seasonally produced biomass such as sugar beet pulp (SBP) and tomato pomace (TP) needs to be stored properly to meet the demand of sustainable biofuel production industries. Ensilage was used to preserve the feedstock. The effect of moisture content (MC) on the performance of ensilage and the relationship between microorganism activities and MC were investigated. For SBP, MC levels investigated were 80, 55, 30, and 10% on a wet basis. For TP, MC levels investigated were 60, 45, 30, and 10%. Organic acids, ethanol, ammonia, pH and water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) were measured to evaluate the silage quality. Ensilage improved as the MC decreased from 80 to 55% for SBP and from 60 to 45% for TP. When the MC decreased to 30%, a little microbial activity was detected for both feedstocks. Storage at 10% MC prevented all the microbial activity. The naturally occurring microorganisms in TP were found to preserve TP during silage and were isolated and determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results suggest that partial drying followed by ensilage may be a good approach for stabilization of food processing residues for biofuels production.

  4. Dependence of Microcrack Behavior in Wood on Moisture Content during Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM system was developed not only to observe the microcracks on the surface of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don in situ at the cellular level but also to obtain information about the moisture content (MC of the wood surface by measuring the change in its electrical resistivity. The sequential images and changes in the electrical resistivity of the wood surface indicated that microcracks formed between the tracheid and ray parenchyma in the latewood region at >1.0E + 07 Ω/sq (square. Microcracks formed when the MC of the wood surface was below the fiber saturation point determined through regression analysis of the surface electrical resistivity and MC. Most of the microcracks develop when the surface electrical resistivity ranged from 3.95E + 10 to 3.60E + 12 Ω/sq. When the surface MC was ~2.5%, microcracks closed and the surface electrical resistivity was either ~1.00E + 15 Ω/sq or outside the measurement range. The modified CLSM and the method to measure the MC of the wood surface can be used to acquire information about the surface MC in specific areas shown in CLSM images. The findings indicated that the MC of the surface of the wood plays an important role in suppressing the emergence of microcracks in drying wood. The modified CLSM system and the method of measuring the MC of the surface of wood can be used to efficiently evaluate methods of drying wood and the quality of dried wood.

  5. Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar to explore spatial variations in thaw depth and moisture content in the active layer of a permafrost site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wollschläger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar (GPR was applied at a permafrost site on the Tibetan Plateau to investigate the influence of surface properties and soil texture on the late-summer thaw depth and average soil moisture content of the active layer. Measurements were conducted on an approximately 85 × 60 m2 sized area with surface and soil textural properties that ranged from medium to coarse textured bare soil to finer textured, sparsely vegetated areas covered with fine, wind blown sand, and it included the bed of a gravel road. The survey allowed a clear differentiation of the various units. It showed (i a shallow thaw depth and low average soil moisture content below the sand-covered, vegetated area, (ii an intermediate thaw depth and high average soil moisture content along the gravel road, and (iii an intermediate to deep thaw depth and low to intermediate average soil moisture content in the bare soil terrain. From our measurements, we found hypotheses for the permafrost processes at this site leading to the observed late-summer thaw depth and soil moisture conditions. The study clearly indicates the complicated interactions between surface and subsurface state variables and processes in this environment. Multi-channel GPR is an operational technology to efficiently study such a system at scales varying from a few meters to a few kilometers.

  6. Data quality objectives for moisture measurement in stabilized special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weier, D.R.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Silvers, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Data Quality Objectives methodology is applied to Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) moisture content testing for stabilized nuclear materials. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)/Fluor Hanford, Inc. Historical results on LOI test results for two material types, oxide and sludge, are used to estimate within container variability. This variability estimate is then used in formulating the two recommended acceptance criteria for containers of material. The criteria which follow are proposed to replace the current criterion, which requires recycle if either of two container LOI measurements exceed 0.5 wt%, the DOE Standard 3013-99 threshold value. (1) The 95% upper confidence limit (UCL) for the true mean underlying moisture content in the container material should be less than 0.5 wt%. (2) The difference between the two LOI measurements per container should not exceed their expected 95th percentile relative to the estimated variability. Containers not meeting the first criterion, or those that generate in any negative LOI result, require material recycle. Containers not meeting the second criteria require review of the measurement results, potentially leading to resampling and retesting. Data from Los Alamos National Laboratory studies on moisture testing are obtained and analyzed. The performance of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), which will soon be implemented at the PFP, is described for several material types. This information will be used to establish initial acceptance criteria when SFE comes on line

  7. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  8. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

    2017-01-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

  9. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-02-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  10. Moisture Content Numerical Simulation on Structural Damage of Hot Mix Asphaltic Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejide, O. S.; Mostafa, M. M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the merits of road transportation in the economy and communication activities of the modern societies, it is imperative to design a safe, stable, efficient and cost effective road that will lead to increased economic development and growth of the South African nation. Although, the overarching effect of failed roads has in many ways led to increased travel time, loss of life and property; leading to reduced driver control on failed road sections (riding quality). Thus, time rate delamination of flexible pavement is a major focus of this study. Since structural collapse in a flexible pavement structure is caused by the evolution of different types of damage mechanisms; fatigue cracking, advanced crushing, temperature variation, and delamination. The effect of moisture content on HMA was analysed. The analysis from the multi-layered elastic model indicates that increase in moisture content in the underlying layer of HMA pavement results to increase in the strain of the individual layers and culminates to a decrease in the structural carrying capacity of the pavement with respect to number of load cycles that can be carried on the HMA pavement. This study shows a clear relationship between the moisture/saturation coefficient and the Elastic Modulus of the underlying geometric material layer properties of the pavement during the service life of the pavement.

  11. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  12. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  13. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  14. The effect of moisture content on the explosively driven fragmentation of wet sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive model is established to account for the instability onset of rapidly expanding granular shells subject to the explosion loadings generated by the detonation of the central explosives. The moisture content strongly influences the shock interactions in the wet particle beds and the ensuing evolvement of the granular compacts. A material model for granular materials which can account for the degree of saturation was incorporated into a nonlinear dynamic simulation program to investigate the moisture effect on the shock responses of wet granular materials. In conjunction with our instability model, the predicted instability diameters of the expanding dry/wet granular shells are in a good agreement with the experimental results. Particularly the postponed instability onset of the wet granular shell found both experimentally and analytically can largely be attributed to the significantly greater kinetic energy obtained by wet particles thanks to less energy of shock wave consumed in compacting the granular material.

  15. Linking precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture content for the improvement of predictability over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios are expected to show an intensification of the hydrological cycle together with modifications of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content. Evapotranspiration changes have been already evidenced for the end of the 20th century. The variance of evapotranspiration has been shown to be strongly related to the variance of precipitation over land. Nevertheless, the feedbacks between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and precipitation have not yet been completely understood at present-day. Furthermore, soil moisture reservoirs are associated to a memory and thus their proper initialization may have a strong influence on predictability. In particular, the linkage between precipitation and soil moisture is modulated by the effects on evapotranspiration. Therefore, the investigation of the coupling between these variables appear to be of primary importance for the improvement of predictability over the continents. The coupled manifold (CM) technique (Navarra and Tribbia 2005) is a method designed to separate the effects of the variability of two variables which are connected. This method has proved to be successful for the analysis of different climate fields, like precipitation, vegetation and sea surface temperature. In particular, the coupled variables reveal patterns that may be connected with specific phenomena, thus providing hints regarding potential predictability. In this study we applied the CM to recent observational datasets of precipitation (from CRU), evapotranspiration (from GIMMS and MODIS satellite-based estimates) and soil moisture content (from ESA) spanning a time period of 23 years (1984-2006) with a monthly frequency. Different data stratification (monthly, seasonal, summer JJA) have been employed to analyze the persistence of the patterns and their characteristical time scales and seasonality. The three variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. Interestingly, most of the signal of the

  16. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  17. Using microcantilever sensors to measure poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) plasticization by moisture uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Gustavo Marcati A.; Bose-Goswami, Sanjukta; Mansano, Ronaldo D.

    2018-01-01

    Polymeric materials absorb water when exposed to humidity or in contact with aqueous solutions. The polymer and water molecules interact, changing the physicochemical parameters of the material; the most noticeable effect is a decreased glass transition temperature (Tg), known as plasticization. We...... used microcantilever sensors to measure the Tg versus moisture content in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer used in implants and as a drug carrier. We demonstrate a concomitant measurement of the mass absorption and Tg using nanograms of material and an inexpensive setup...

  18. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  19. Estimating values for the moisture source load and buffering capacities from indoor climate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential for estimating values for the total size of human induced moisture source load and the total buffering (moisture storage) capacity of the interior objects with the use of relatively simple measurements and the use of heat, air, and moisture

  20. The moisture content monitoring device for PuO2 using self neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanenko, Valeriy I.; Sviridov, Victor; Frolov, Vladimir V.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Talanov, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    Solutions technology of plutonium dioxide powders production inevitably leads to free or chemically bound hydrogen to be present in these powders. This work is devoted to the nondestructive method of PuO 2 powder moisture measurement based on application of the effect of neutron moderation caused by water. Plutonium dioxide is fast neutron source, while 3 He counters located in the nickel and polyethylene annular reflectors surrounding PuO 2 serve as detectors. In the work wide range of issues are considered related to practical implementation of the moisture measurement method by detecting inherent neutron radiation of plutonium dioxide powder. The most practical design of the detector has been chosen, which include two 3 He detectors having different reflectors mounted to the device. The absolute error of measurement does not exceed 0.2wt% with confidence coefficient of 0.95. Duration of analysis ∼5 minutes. (author)

  1. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calibration of a geophysically based model using soil moisture measurements in mountainous terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, Cécile; Hilbich, Christin; Marmy, Antoine; Hauck, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The use of geophysical methods in the field of permafrost research is well established and crucial since it is the only way to infer the composition of the subsurface material. Since geophysical measurements are indirect, ambiguities in the interpretation of the results can arise, hence the simultaneous use of several methods (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismics) is often necessary. The so-called four-phase model, 4PM (Hauck et al., 2011) constitutes a further step towards clarification of interpretation from geophysical measurements. It uses two well-known petrophysical relationships, namely Archie's law and an extension of Timur's time-averaged equation for seismic P-wave velocities, to quantitatively estimate the different phase contents (air, water and ice) in the ground from tomographic electric and seismic measurements. In this study, soil moisture measurements were used to calibrate the 4PM in order to assess the spatial distribution of water, ice and air content in the ground at three high elevation sites with different ground properties and thermal regimes. The datasets used here were collected as part of the SNF-project SOMOMOUNT. Within the framework of this project a network of six entirely automated soil moisture stations was installed in Switzerland along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1'200 m. a.s.l. to 3'400 m. a.s.l. The standard instrumentation of each station comprises the installation of Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors for long term monitoring coupled with repeated Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Refraction Seismic Tomography (RST) as well as spatial FDR (S-FDR) measurements. The use of spatially distributed soil moisture data significantly improved the 4PM calibration process and a semi-automatic calibration scheme was developed. This procedure was then tested at three different locations, yielding satisfactory two dimensional distributions of water

  3. Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

  4. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  5. Finally It Is Possible To Measure Area-Average Soil Moisture!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zreda, M. G.; Zeng, X.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2011-12-01

    When a hitherto impossible measurement becomes possible, there are transformational changes in understanding. Measuring soil moisture using cosmic rays sounds like 1950s science fiction. But the non-invasive measurement of soil moisture at a horizontal scale of ~700m and depths of 15-70 cm is now feasible, by counting cosmic-ray neutrons that are generated within soil, moderated mainly by the hydrogen atoms, and emitted back to the atmosphere. The number of neutrons counted is sensitive to water content changes, only weakly sensitive to soil chemistry, and their intensity is inversely correlated with the hydrogen (i.e., water) content of the soil. Neither the basis of this measurement method nor the sensor technology used is new, they have been around for decades. However, the systematic understanding of cosmic-ray interactions at the ground-atmosphere interface and resulting knowledge of the source "footprint" of above ground neutron detectors and recognition of their limited of sensitivity to soil type in selected neutron energy bands is new, as is the low power electronics used for remote signal conditioning, counting and data capture. The measurement with a portable neutron detector placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. The large footprint makes the method suitable for weather and short-term climate forecast initialization and satellite validation, while the measurement depth makes the probe ideal for studying plant/soil/atmosphere interactions. Inclusion of a second detector that is sensitive to neutrons with lower energy shows promise as a means for detecting snow cover. This talk briefly overviews evidence that soil moisture status can potentially influence weather and seasonal climate and describe the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), which observing program will install initially a network of 50 probes (to provide a proof of concept) and subsequently

  6. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  7. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  8. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  9. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  10. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  11. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  12. Measuring soil sydric content by the attenuation of a microwave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orden, S.; Goldberg, M.; Landini, A.; Sainato, C.; Bottini, L.; Arrigo, N.

    1995-01-01

    Measuring soil water content by means of microwave signal attenuation. The attenuation of microwave signal was used to measure the moisture of various soils. Samples of three soils with different textures and organic matter contents were used. The attenuation of the transmitted electromagnetic signal was measured for each sample with different values of soil moisture. Linear regression models were used to fit the experimental values obtained, and the 95% prediction interval was estimated for the attenuation. From the comparison between the moisture values obtained with this method and those of the gravimetric method, the advantages of the first one are seen, both in speed and in the possibility to estimate the in situ moisture, even if this method has a greater relative error. This method would be useful to operate an automatic control irrigation system, preventing hydric stress when the values of soil moisture reach near field capacity. (author) [es

  13. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the simultaneous determination of Density and Moisture Content in Porous Structural Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Signe Kamp; Gerward, Leif

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the dual-energy x-ray equipment, which consists of a x-ray source, filters and a detector. The x-ray beam can be moved automatically in two dimensions relative to a fixed specimen. The purpose of the equipment is to measure simultaneously the density and moisture content...... in porous materials relevant for the building industry. The theory of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is presented. DEXA results on two combinations of aluminium and acrylic plastic are compared with corresponding values calculated from the geometry of the experimental setup. The results from the x......-ray measurements show good agreement with results from the two standard materials which imitate water in a porous material. On this background the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement principle can be used on porous structural materials....

  14. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  15. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound.

  16. Thermophysical properties of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius: experimental determination and effect of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Augusto Perussello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about thermophysical properties of foods is especially important in thermal processing, influencing the design, optimization and cost reduction of the process, as well as the quality and safety of the final product. This article deals with the determination of some thermophysical properties of yacon, namely, specific mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity during the osmo-convective drying. Yacon is a root with approximately 90% w.b. of moisture content, whose high concentration of fructooligosacharydes and antioxidants has gained attention in the food research field. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 hours in a sucralose solution and then dried in a convective tray dryer for 2 hours, varying the osmotic solution’s temperature and stirring rate and temperature of the drying air. All thermophysical properties were determined during the drying process at 30-minute intervals. The thermophysical properties were determined not only experimentally but also calculated by models available in literature based on the product’s centesimal composition. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted results was obtained. Further, empirical models obtained by nonlinear regression were successfully fitted to the experimental data, as a function of moisture content, within a 94% - 3% w.b. range.

  17. Effects of moisture content and redox potential on in situ K d values for radioiodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.J.; Shaw, G.

    2006-01-01

    The soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) value is of great significance in understanding and modelling the environmental behaviour of soil contaminants. For many years, the batch sorption technique has been used for the determination of such values. Here, we propose an alternative 'mini-column' approach in which somewhat more realistic soil conditions are maintained. In particular, this approach allows for determination of radionuclide K d values under realistic soil moisture contents and in a system in which time-dependent processes such as changes in redox potential can take place. Data obtained for radioactive iodine (a key radionuclide in the consideration of radioactive waste disposal) are presented and indicate that soil moisture content, particularly in conjunction with soil redox potential (through water-logging of the soil), has a marked effect on measured K d values. The results indicate the advantages and potential usefulness of the mini-column approach in assessing the environmental behaviour of radioactive, and other, soil contaminants

  18. Lipid and moisture content modeling of amphidromous Dolly Varden using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.T.; Margraf, F.J.; Carlson, J.G.; Sutton, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological well-being or condition of fish is most commonly estimated from aspects of individual morphology. However, these metrics may be only weakly correlated with nutritional reserves stored as lipid, the primary form of accumulated energy in fish. We constructed and evaluated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models as an alternative method of assessing condition in amphidromous Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma collected from nearshore estuarine and lotic habitats of the Alaskan Arctic. Data on electrical resistance and reactance were collected from the lateral and ventral surfaces of 192 fish, and whole-body percent lipid and moisture content were determined using standard laboratory methods. Significant inverse relationships between temperature and resistance and reactance prompted the standardization of these data to a constant temperature using corrective equations developed herein. No significant differences in resistance or reactance were detected among spawning and nonspawning females after accounting for covariates, suggesting that electrical pathways do not intersect the gonads. Best-fit BIA models incorporating electrical variables calculated from the lateral and ventral surfaces produced the strongest associations between observed and model-predicted estimates of proximate content. These models explained between 6% and 20% more of the variability in laboratory-derived estimates of proximate content than models developed from single-surface BIA data and 32% more than models containing only length and weight data. While additional research is required to address the potential effects of methodological variation, bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as a way to provide high-quality, minimally invasive estimates of Dolly Varden lipid or moisture content in the field with only small increases in handling time.

  19. Decrease in fruit moisture content heralds and might launch the onset of ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Chaim; Hartman, Thomas G

    2012-10-01

    It is known that fruit ripening is a genetically programmed event but it is not entirely clear what metabolic cue(s) stimulate the onset of ripening, ethylene action notwithstanding. Here, we examined the conjecture that fruit ripening might be evoked by an autonomously induced decrease in tissue water status. We found decline in water content occurring at the onset of ripening in climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit, suggesting that this phenomenon might be universal. This decline in water content persisted throughout the ripening process in some fruit, whereas in others it reversed during the progression of the ripening process. Applied ethylene also induced a decrease in water content in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. In ethylene-mutant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit (antisense to1-aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase), cold-induced decline in water content stimulated onset of ripening processes apparently independently of ethylene action, suggesting cause-and-effect relationship between decreasing water content and onset of ripening. The decline in tissue water content, occurring naturally or induced by ethylene, was strongly correlated with a decrease in hydration (swelling) efficacy of cell wall preparations suggesting that hydration dynamics of cell walls might account for changes in tissue moisture content. Extent of cell wall swelling was, in turn, related to the degree of oxidative cross-linking of wall-bound phenolic acids, suggesting that oxidant-induced wall restructuring might mediate cell wall and, thus, fruit tissue hydration status. We propose that oxidant-induced cell wall remodeling and consequent wall dehydration might evoke stress signaling for the onset of ripening processes. This study suggests that decline in fruit water content is an early event in fruit ripening. This information may be used to gauge fruit maturity for appropriate harvest date and for processing. Control of fruit hydration state might be used to regulate the

  20. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  1. Effects of soil moisture on the diurnal pattern of pesticide emission: Comparison of simulations with field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Yates, Scott R.; Skaggs, Todd H.; Rolston, Dennis E.

    2013-02-01

    Pesticide volatilization from agricultural soils is one of the main pathways in which pesticides are dispersed in the environment and affects ecosystems including human welfare. Thus, it is necessary to have accurate knowledge of the various physical and chemical mechanisms that affect volatilization rates from field soils. A verification of the influence of soil moisture modeling on the simulated volatilization rate, soil temperature and soil-water content is presented. Model simulations are compared with data collected in a field study that measured the effect of soil moisture on diazinon volatilization. These data included diurnal changes in volatilization rate, soil-water content, and soil temperature measured at two depths. The simulations were performed using a comprehensive non-isothermal model, two water retention functions, and two soil surface resistance functions, resulting in four tested models. Results show that the degree of similarity between volatilization curves simulated using the four models depended on the initial water content. Under fairly wet conditions, the simulated curves mainly differ in the magnitude of their deviation from the measured values. However, under intermediate and low moisture conditions, the simulated curves also differed in their pattern (shape). The model prediction accuracy depended on soil moisture. Under normal practices, where initial soil moisture is about field capacity or higher, a combination of Brooks and Corey water retention and the van de Grind and Owe soil surface resistance functions led to the most accurate predictions. However, under extremely dry conditions, when soil-water content in the top 1 cm is below the volumetric threshold value, the use of a full-range water retention function increased prediction accuracy. The different models did not affect the soil temperature predictions, and had a minor effect on the predicted soil-water content of Yolo silty clay soil.

  2. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative...... humidity. The input data were acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, from which air temperature and relative humidity were estimated every 15 min. Air temperature estimations are based on the Temperature-Vegetation...... Index (TVX) algorithm. This algorithm exploits the inverse linear relationship between the land surface temperature and the vegetation fractional cover. This relationship was evaluated in a spatial window where the meteorological forcing is assumed to be constant. To estimate the vapour pressure...

  3. Effect of Soil Moisture Content on Growth, Crude Drug "Cho-to-ko" Yield and Oxindole Alkaloid Content of Uncaria rhynchophylla (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    川添, 禎浩; 小林, 茂樹; 水上, 元; 大橋, 裕; SADAHIRO, KAWAZOE; SHIGEKI, KOBAYASHI; HAJIME, MIZUKAMI; HIROMU, OHASHI; Laboratory of Environmetal Health and Toxicology, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyoto Prefectural University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University

    1992-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla was cultivated by using soil with various moisture contents (20,40,60,80 or 100% of the maximum moisture content retained by soil). Both growth and crude drug "Cho-to-ko" (dried stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla) yield of the plant were in the following order : 60%> 80%> 40%> 100%> 20%, while oxindole alkaloid content of the stem was in the following order : 20%> 60%> 100%> 40%> 80%. It is concluded that moderately wet soil is suitable for cultivation of U. rhynchophyl...

  4. Effects of biofilter media depth and moisture content on removal of gases from a swine barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongshuai; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Shang, Bin; Yin, Fubin; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhou, Tanlong

    2017-12-01

    Media depth (MD) and moisture content (MC) are two important factors that greatly influence biofilter performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of MC and MD on removing ammonia (NH 3 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from swine barns. Biofiltration performance of different MDs and MCs in combination based on a mixed medium of wood chips and compost was monitored. A 3 × 3 factorial design was adopted, which included three levels of the two factors (MC: 45%, 55%, and 67% [wet basis]; MD: 0.17, 0.33, and 0.50 m). Results indicated that high MC and MD could improve NH 3 removal efficiency, but increase outlet N 2 O concentration. When MC was 67%, the average NH 3 removal efficiency of three MDs (0.17, 0.33, and, 0.50 m) ranged from 77.4% to 78.7%; the range of average H 2 S removal efficiency dropped from 68.1-90.0% (1-34 days of the test period) to 36.8-63.7% (35-58 days of the test period); and the average outlet N 2 O concentration increased by 25.5-60.1%. When MC was 55%, the average removal efficiency of NH 3 , H 2 S, and N 2 O for treatment with 0.33 m MD was 72.8 ± 5.9%, 70.9 ± 13.3%, and -18.9 ± 8.1%, respectively; and the average removal efficiency of NH 3 , H 2 S, and N 2 O for treatment with 0.50 m MD was 77.7 ± 4.2%, 65.8 ± 13.7%, and -24.5 ±12.1%, respectively. When MC was 45%, the highest average NH 3 reduction efficiency among three MDs was 60.7% for 0.5 m MD, and the average N 2 O removal efficiency for three MDs ranged from -18.8% to -12.7%. In addition, the pressure drop of 0.33 m MD was significantly lower than that of 0.50 m MD (p moisture contents (45%, 55%, and 67% [wet basis]) were compared to remove gases from a swine barn. Using wood chips and compost mixture as the biofilters media, the combination of 0.33 m media depth and 55% media moisture content is recommended to obtain good reduction of NH 3 and H 2 S, and to simultaneously prevent elevated emission of N 2 O and large

  5. Comparison of neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods for measuring soil water content in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, R.L.; Das, D.K.; Naskar, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    Water content of a sandy clay loam soil was measured by neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods. Tensiometric measurement based on laboratory moisture retention curve gave comparatively higher moisture content than those obtained by other methods. No significant differences were observed among neutron meter, gravimetric and tensiometric measurement based on field calibration curve. Though for irrigation purposes all the methods can be used equally, use of tensiometric method with field calibration curve is suggested for easy and more accurate soil water content measurement where neutron meter is not available. (author)

  6. Application of acoustical methods to the measurement of water content in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, V.E.; Radostin, A.V.; Stepanyants, Y.A.

    2000-10-01

    Results of laboratory experiments on the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves (f = 100 kHz) in a glass tube, filled with river sand are presented. Several sand samples have been used with different water content: dry, unsaturated and completely water saturated. It is shown that the dissipative coefficient of acoustic waves decreases with increasing wave amplitude. This 'self-brightening' phenomenon takes place over the whole range of moisture content, from zero to 100%, but its degree of manifestation depends on the moisture content. The exponent of the dissipative nonlinearity α, is found to be the most sensitive parameter to the moisture content and is determined on the basis of measurements. It is considered to be a good indicator of water content in porous media and provides an opportunity to measure water content in such materials indirectly by means of an acoustic method. A simple phenomenological model is presented to explain the experimental results

  7. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  8. Field and laboratory calibration of neutron probes for soil moisture measurements on a deep loess chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaecke, B.; Schaecke, E.

    1979-01-01

    In the case of a varying profile structure it is necessary to use different calibration curves and adequate correction factors, respectively. The bulk density of the soil had the greatest influence on the calibration. An increase in bulk density by 0.2 g/cm 3 at a clay content of 18% resulted in an apparent increase in the values of moisture measurements by 1.5 to 2.0% of the volume of water. In naturally stratified soil the humus content of the chernozem horizon, being 3% higher than that of the underlying loess horizon, was found to influence the measuring results obtained by the probe. The calibration curves determined for chernozem and loess horizons in the laboratory agreed well with those obtained in the field. The measured values read from the probe and the gravimetrically determined values of the soil moisture were of great significance in all measured depths of the profile. (author)

  9. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  10. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  11. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  12. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  13. Influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in a peat formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.I.; Kostyuk, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Under laboratory and field conditions, observations are made of the influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in the upper layers of the peat formation. It is established that prolonged evaporation sharply reduces the moisture content of the upper layers of the formation at a depth up to 20cm. Precipitation is mainly absorbed by the upper layers of the formation and can penetrate in the season with level of subsoil water about 1m at depth of no more than 50cm. The zone of complete capillary water-saturation of the upper formation does not exceed 45cm.

  14. Calibration of neutron moisture gauges and their ability to spatially determine soil water content in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Martinez, J.L.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1994-10-01

    Several neutron moisture gauges were calibrated, and their ability to spatially determine soil water content was evaluated. In 1982, the midpoint of sensitivity of each neutron probe to the detection of hydrogen was determined, as well as the radius of investigation of each probe in crushed Bandelier Tuff with varying water contents. After determining the response of one of the moisture gauges to changes in soil water at the soil-air interface, a neutron transport model was successfully calibrated to predict spatial variations in soil water content. The model was then used to predict various shapes and volumes of crushed Bandelier Tuff interrogated by the neutron moisture gauge. From 1991 through 1994, six neutron moisture gauges were calibrated for soil water determinations in a local topsoil and crushed Bandelier Tuff, as well as for a sample of fine sand and soils from a field experiment at Hill Air Force Base. Statistical analysis of the calibration results is presented and summarized, and a final summary of practical implications for future neutron moisture gauge studies at Los Alamos is included

  15. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  16. The Effect of Soil Type and Moisture Content on Head Impacts on Natural Grass Athletic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyley Dickson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies are warranted to evaluate head injury criterion (HIC on athletic fields to determine baseline numbers and compare those findings to current critical thresholds for impact attenuation. A two year (2016 and 2017 study was conducted on University of Tennessee athletic fields (Knoxville, TN, USA to determine the effect of soil type (cohesive soil, United States Golf Association sand specifications and grass species (Poa pratensis and Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis on HIC. Additionally soil moisture conditions monitored were: dry (0.06–0.16 m3/m3, acceptable (0.17–0.29 m3/m3, and wet (0.30–0.40 m3/m3. A linear relationship (r = 0.91 was identified between drop height (0.5–2.9 M and HIC value (35-1423 HIC on granular root zones of both grass types. However, HIC on cohesive soil is a function of soil water content in addition to drop height. These results demonstrate to aid in head injury prevention on cohesive soil athletic fields the HIC can be lowered by managing soil water content.

  17. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Moisture Content of Maize Grits on Physicochemical Properties of Its Puffed Food Products Properties of Its Puffed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different levels of moisture content of maize grits (10, 13, 16 and 19% as an attribute of physicochemical properties of extruder-derived puffed products, was investigated. The results showed that with increasing maize grits' moisture content, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI were decreased. Moreover, with changing in feed moisture content from 10 to 16%, the volume and sectional expansion index (SEI increased but further increase of moisture content to 19% caused a reduction in these parameters. The textural tests also revealed that with increase in moisture content, the compression energy (Nmm, maximum force (N and time to achieve the first major peak (s were increased but the number of peaks was decreased. With increase in the moisture content, specific mechanical energy (SME was decreased, due probably to the reduction in the viscosity of melt. With increase in the moisture content the L and b values were increased but the value of the samples were decreased due to the reduction of Maillard reaction rate. Our data confirms that the moisture content of maize grits may play an important role in the quality of produced extruded snacks and a high quality product can be achieved by optimizing this parameter. In this research, the maximum volume of the extruder product was obtained in 16% of moisture level.

  19. Effects of particle fracturing and moisture content on fire behaviour in masticated fuelbeds burned in a laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical mastication is a fuels treatment that converts shrubs and small trees into dense fuelbeds composed of fractured woody particles. Although compaction is thought to reduce fireline intensity, the added particle surface area due to fracturing could also influence fire behavior. We evaluated effects of particle fracturing and moisture content (ranging from 2.5...

  20. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  1. Effects of delayed wrapping and moisture content on intake and digestibility of ryegrass silage by growing lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baling silage provides an alternative method for preserving forage quality in areas where hay production can be compromised because of the risk of rain exposure and humidity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of moisture content at baling and delayed wrapping intervals on the intake an...

  2. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...

  3. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Comparison of sampling and test methods for determining asphalt content and moisture correction in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the difference, if any, in AASHTO and OSHD test procedures and results. This report addresses the effect of the size of samples taken in the field and evaluates the methods of determining the moisture content...

  5. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  7. A practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture content using combined satellite and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Gao, Mao-Fang; Huo, Hong-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture has long been recognized as one of the essential variables in the water cycle and energy budget between Earth's surface and atmosphere. The present study develops a practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture using combined satellite images and gridded meteorological products. In this approach, soil moisture over the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky pixels are estimated from the Vegetation Index/Temperature (VIT) trapezoid scheme in which theoretical dry and wet edges were determined pixel to pixel by China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) meteorological products, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and specific humidity. For cloudy pixels, soil moisture values are derived by the calculation of surface and aerodynamic resistances from wind speed. The approach is capable of filling the soil moisture gaps over remaining cloudy pixels by traditional optical/thermal infrared methods, allowing for a spatially complete soil moisture map over large areas. Evaluation over agricultural fields indicates that the proposed approach can produce an overall generally reasonable distribution of all-weather soil moisture. An acceptable accuracy between the estimated all-weather soil moisture and in-situ measurements at different depths could be found with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varying from 0.067 m3/m3 to 0.079 m3/m3 and a slight bias ranging from 0.004 m3/m3 to -0.011 m3/m3. The proposed approach reveals significant potential to derive all-weather soil moisture using currently available satellite images and meteorological products at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  8. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  9. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-03-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  10. Thermo-mechanical Densification of Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa with Low Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyun Tu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermo-mechanical densification technology to compress low-moisture content (3~5% rapid-growth Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa trees to produce specimens with a low-compression ratio (small volume loss and a uniform density profile and desirable properties. Furthermore, the densified specimens were subjected to post-heat treatment at 180, 190, and 200 °C for 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. Microscopic examination was performed to observe the changes that occurred in the wood vessels after densification. To determine the influence of post-heat treatment on the set recovery, the specimens were subjected to eight cycles of soaking and drying in 20 °C water and two cycles in boiling water. The density profile tendencies of the densified specimens were in accord with undensified specimens. Microscopic observation revealed that the deformations present in the densified wood resulted from the viscous buckling of cell walls without fracture. The volume of the void areas in the specimens decreased uniformly. Post-heat treatment can decrease compressive deformation, especially when applied at 200 °C for 4 h. After two boiling water cycles of soaking and drying, the densified wood still had a certain set recovery. Therefore, densified wood should be used sparingly in high temperature and high humidity environments.

  11. Development of water movement model as a module of moisture content simulation in static pile composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of vertical water movement and a performance evaluation of the model in static pile composting operated with neither air supply nor turning. The vertical moisture content (MC) model was developed with consideration of evaporation (internal and external evaporation), diffusion (liquid and vapour diffusion) and percolation, whereas additional water from substrate decomposition and irrigation was not taken into account. The evaporation term in the model was established on the basis of reference evaporation of the materials at known temperature, MC and relative humidity of the air. Diffusion of water vapour was estimated as functions of relative humidity and temperature, whereas diffusion of liquid water was empirically obtained from experiment by adopting Fick's law. Percolation was estimated by following Darcy's law. The model was applied to a column of composting wood chips with an initial MC of 60%. The simulation program was run for four weeks with calculation span of 1 s. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. Only a top layer (less than 20 cm) had a considerable MC reduction; the deeper layers were comparable to the initial MC, and the bottom layer was higher than the initial MC. This model is a useful tool to estimate the MC profile throughout the composting period, and could be incorporated into biodegradation kinetic simulation of composting.

  12. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  13. Processing temperature and moisture content effects on the texture and microscopic appearance of cooked fowl meat gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, L M; Dawson, P L; Han, I Y

    1996-12-01

    New aseptic processes are being used and refined to produce convenient, shelf stable liquid products containing meat particles. These processes utilize high temperature, short time thermal treatments to minimize food quality change; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of this process on the texture of meat from mature hens traditionally used for canning. The objective of this study was to examine textural and structural changes in meat structure due to different high temperature (HT) heat treatments and meat moisture contents were examined by use of electron microscopy and torsion analyses. Cooked gels of different moisture contents (71.2 to 74.8%) were formulated from spent fowl breast meat and exposed to processing temperatures of 120 or 124 C. The HT processing resulted in stronger (tougher) meat gels that were more deformable (more chewy) than gels that were not processed by HT. Water added prior to cooking was not retained in samples that were cooked and then processed at 124 C, but was retained in the samples processed at 120 C. Electron micrographs showed a more organized and open gel structure in the samples with higher moisture content and lower temperature (120 C) processing compared to the lower moisture and higher (124 C) temperature treatments.

  14. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...

  15. A numerical investigation of the influence of radiation and moisture content on pyrolysis and ignition of a leaf-like fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; C.W. Lautenberger; David Weise

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thermal radiation and moisture content on the pyrolysis and gas phase ignition of a solid fuel element containing high moisture content were investigated using the coupled Gpyro3D/FDS models. The solid fuel has dimensions of a typical Arctostaphylos glandulosa leaf which is modeled as thin cellulose subjected to radiative heating on...

  16. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  17. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  18. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  19. Non-destructive determination of moisture content and micro-fibril angle of wood using a poly-chromatic X-ray beam theoretical and experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, R.

    2005-07-01

    Non-destructive determination of moisture content and micro-fibril angle are important stakes for the sciences of the wood because these two parameters influence strongly the macroscopic behavior of the wood. For example, the shrinkage, the mechanical properties, the thermal and acoustic conductivity are dependent on the moisture content and their anisotropic character is largely governed by the micro-fibril angle. We used the light difference between X-ray mass attenuation coefficient for the water and for the wood in transmission. Regrettably, the results show that this difference between X-ray mass attenuation coefficient is insufficient to allow the precise measurement of the moisture content.In spite of this, the coherent scattering shows sensitive effects. So, by using a poly-energetic beam and a spectrometric system, we were able to discriminate between the crystalline constituent (cellulose) of the amorphous constituent (water) in a sample of wet wood, because for a given angle these phases scatter in different energy. Besides, the device created allowed us to study the crystalline phase of the wood. We were able to confront experimental profiles of diffraction with theoretical profiles of diffraction, obtained by means of a rigorous simulation, in the objective to estimate the average micro-fibril angle and its standard deviation. (author)

  20. Boiler control using on-line determination of moisture content for incoming fuel; Forskning kring pannstyrning med on-line fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelin, Anders; Dahlquist, Erik; Moden, Per Erik

    2008-10-15

    Incoming fuels to the biomass fueled boiler are the main source for uncertainties in the combustion process. Fuel quality has large impact on the combustion and the heat transfer in the boiler. There are several possibilities to control the boiler when the bed temperature varies. Flue gas recirculation is one of the variables used for control of the bed temperature in the boiler. Another parameter to use for controlling the bed temperature is to adjust the humidification of the combustion air. The parameter with the major influence on the bed temperature is the amount of primary air. These three parameters are all used as control variables for control of the bed temperature. One part of the study has been to investigate how much and how fast each parameter influences bed temperature and how the information of the moisture content in the incoming fuel can be used for feed-forward information for controlling bed temperature. At the reception terminal all the incoming deliveries are registered with quality and moisture content. This study has also investigated how to use the information about the moisture content of incoming fuel, based on NIR measurements on the fuel transported in to the boiler, and the fluctuation of the bed temperature. Another question is how to connect this information for the bed control. This part of the study is used to evaluate if the information to the operators about the moisture content from the NIR has affect on the variation of the bed temperature. A process model has been developed of the Bubbling Fluidised Bed boiler (BFB) that is one of the boilers at the power plant in Eskilstuna. The model has been used to analyze the process. Process models have become more common and important in the heat and power industry. Nowadays process models are used for training of the staff in simulators of the real plant and for offline tests of control systems

  1. The study of thickness and density compensation of neutron-measuring moisture system on conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin; Xu Zhongfeng

    1999-01-01

    The neutron-measuring transmission moisture system on the conveyer belt is systematically studied. A method of density and thickness compensation has been used to carryout the on-line measurements of the moisture of the unshaped, discontinuous and irregular moving matter. At the same time, the thickness weighed average method is employed to modify the prompt moisture at a fixed time, and to improve the accuracy of measuring the moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement errors are within ±2.5% when the thickness is between 2 cm and 16 cm and the water percentage is between 6% and 16%. The errors can reach 0.2% if thickness weighed average for moving matter lasts for a long time

  2. Structural changes in a clay-containing nanocomposite with a different moisture content caused by its deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajtel'son, E.A.; Glaskova, T.I.; Korkhovm, V.P.; Aniskevich, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the properties of a clay-containing nanocomposite with an epoxy binder under moisture-temperature and mechanical action. It has been established that whatever the moisture content, the nanocomposite crystallizes under the thermomechanical action (upon reaching the glasstransition temperature). When the nanocomposite is heated to 70 C, the restructuring process is reversible, and its heating to above 150 C leads to its amorphization. The presence of clay nanoparticles (up to 6 mass percent) does not influence the temperature of structural transitions of the nanocomposite and does not cause a substantial strengthening effect. The sorbed moisture plasticizes the nanocomposite and decreases its glasstransition temperature by 10 C. The specific features of the thermomechanical behavior of nanocomposites upon their tensile prestrain or creep are due to the formation of an oriented structure. Their crystallization begins at lower temperatures and with a higher degree of crystallinity than that of unloaded nanostructures. (authors)

  3. Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConnell D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the trailing shoe application technique reduces phosphorus (P in the runoff postslurry application when compared to the traditional splash-plate application technique. However, the effectiveness of the trailing-shoe technique as a means of reducing P losses has not been evaluated when slurry is applied during periods of high soil moisture levels and lower herbage covers. To address this issue, three treatments were examined in a 3 × 4 factorial design split-plot experiment, with treatments comprising three slurry treatments: control (no slurry, splashplate and trailing-shoe, and four slurry application dates: 7 December, 18 January, 1 March and 10 April. Dairy cow slurry was applied at a rate of 20 m3/ha, while simulated runoff was generated 2, 9 and 16 days later and analysed for a range of P fractions. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff at day two was 41% lower when slurry was applied using the trailing-shoe technique, compared to the splash-plate technique (P < 0.05. In addition, P concentrations in runoff were higher (P < 0.05 from slurry applied in December and March compared to slurry applied in January or April, coinciding with periods of higher soil moisture contents. While the latter highlights that ‘calendar’-based non-spreading periods might not always achieve the desired consequences, the study demonstrated that further field-scale investigations into the trailing shoe as a mitigation measure to reduced P loss from agricultural soils is warranted.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW HYPERSPECTRAL ANGLE INDEX FOR ESTIMATION OF SOIL MOISTURE USING IN SITU SPECTRAL MEASURMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mobasheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. On the other hand, information of distributed soil moisture at large scale with reasonable spatial and temporal resolution is required for improving climatic and hydrologic modeling and prediction. The advent of hyperspectral imagery has allowed examination of continuous spectra not possible with isolated bands in multispectral imagery. In addition to high spectral resolution for individual band analyses, the contiguous narrow bands show characteristics of related absorption features, such as effects of strong absorptions on the band depths of adjacent absorptions. Our objective in this study was to develop a new spectral angle index to estimate soil moisture based on spectral region (350 and 2500 nm. In this paper, using spectral observations made by ASD Spectroradiometer for predicting soil moisture content, two soil indices were also investigated involving the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI, NMDI (Normalized Multi-band Drought Index indices. Correlation and regression analysis showed a high relationship between PDI and the soil moisture percent (R2 = 0.9537 and NMDI (R2 = 0.9335. Furthermore, we also simulated these data according to the spectral range of some sensors such as MODIS, ASTER, ALI and ETM+. Indices relevant these sensors have high correlation with soil moisture data. Finally, we proposed a new angle index which shows significant relationship between new angle index and the soil moisture percentages (R2 = 0.9432.angle index relevant bands 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 MODIS also showing high accuracy in estimation of soil moisture (R2 = 0.719.

  5. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  6. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to measure spatiotemporal surface moisture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Y.; Donker, J.; Ruessink, G.

    2017-12-01

    A terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique that utilizes the round trip time of an emitted laser beam to provide the range between the laser scanner and the backscattering object. It is routinely used for topographic mapping, forest measurements or 3D city models since it derives useful object representations by means of a dense three-dimensional (3D) point cloud. Here, we present a novel application using the returned intensity of the emitted beam to detect surface moisture with the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Concurrent gravimetric surface moisture samples were collected to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal the reflectance output is a robust parameter to measure surface moisture from the thin upper layer over its full range from 0% to 25%. The obtained calibration curve of the presented TLS, describing the relationship between reflectance and surface moisture, has a root-mean-square error of 2.7% and a correlation coefficient squared of 0.85. This relation holds to about 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(10^6-10^7) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 x 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. Concluding, TLS (RIEGL-VZ 400) is a highly suited technique to accurately and robustly measure spatiotemporal surface moisture variations on a coastal beach with high spatial ( 1 x 1 m) and temporal ( 15-30min.) resolution.

  7. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  8. Study of Material Moisture Measurement Method and Instrument by the Combination of Fast Neutron Absorption and γ Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Chaoqin; Gong Yalin; Zhang Wei; Shang Qingmin; Li Yanfeng; Gou Qiangyuan; Yin Deyou

    2010-01-01

    To solve the problem of on-line sinter moisture measurement in the iron making plant, we developed material moisture measurement method and instrument by the combination of fast neutron absorption and y-absorption. It overcomes the present existed problems of other moisture meters for the sinter. Compare with microwave moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by conductance and magnetism of material; to infrared moisture meter, the measurement result dose not influenced by colour and light-reflect performance of material surface, dose not influenced by changes of material kind; to slow neutron scatter moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by density of material and thickness of hopper wall; to the moisture measurement meter which combined by slow neutron penetrate through and y-absorption, there are definite math model and good linear relation between the measurement values, and the measurement dose not affected by material thickness, changes of material form and component. (authors)

  9. Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Grissom, Brad L.; McGrew, Clark E.; Raynor, Mark W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of water vapor (moisture) contamination in process gases is critical to the successful manufacture of semiconductor devices. As specified moisture levels have become more stringent, there is a growing demand for more sensitive analytical methods. Instrumental methods currently being used or in development for measuring trace moisture at ppbv levels include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, intracavity laser spectroscopy, electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, sensor-based technologies such as oscillating quartz crystal microbalances, and chilled mirror-, capacitor-, and electrolytic-based hygrometers operate in this regime. These approaches are presented and reviewed. As the success of each trace moisture method is dependent on the degree to which the different process gases interfere with the measurement process, important process gas applications of the techniques are highlighted. Advantages and disadvantages as well as future developments and trends are also presented

  10. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  11. Improvement of Soil Moisture Retrieval from Hyperspectral VNIR-SWIR Data Using Clay Content Information: From Laboratory to Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oltra-Carrió

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the constraints and performance of SMC retrieval methodologies in the VNIR (Visible-Near InfraRed and SWIR (ShortWave InfraRed regions (from 0.4 to 2.5 µm when passing from controlled laboratory conditions to field conditions. Five different approaches of signal processing found in literature were considered. Four local criteria are spectral indices (WISOIL, NSMI, NINSOL and NINSON. These indices are the ratios between the spectral reflectances acquired at two specific wavelengths to characterize moisture content in soil. The last criterion is based in the convex hull concept and it is a global method, which is based on the analysis of the full spectral signature of the soil. The database was composed of 464 and 9 spectra, respectively, measured over bare soils in laboratory and in-situ. For each measurement, SMC and texture were well-known and the database was divided in two parts dedicated to calibration and validation steps. The calibration part was used to define the empirical relation between SMC and SMC retrieval approaches, with coefficients of determination (R2 between 0.72 and 0.92. A clay content (CC dependence was detected for the NINSOL and NINSON indices. Consequently, two new criteria were proposed taking into account the CC contribution (NINSOLCC and NINSONCC. The well-marked regression between SMC and global/local indices, and the interest of using the CC, were confirmed during the validation step using laboratory data (R² superior to 0.76 and Root mean square errors inferior to 8.3% m3∙m−3 in all cases and using in-situ data, where WISOIL, NINSOLCC and NINSONCC criteria stand out among the NSMI and CH.

  12. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; 1M. Arman; M. Ibrahim; 2S. Shafique

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  14. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  15. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  16. Neutron activation analysis for sulphur in coal samples and moisture content by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of sulphur in coal samples by analysing the beta spectrum emitted from 32 P and 33 P following the reactions 32 S(n, p) 32 P and 33 S(n, p) 33 P using 252 Cf as a source of neutrons. The transmission of the combined gamma-rays emitted from three 137 Cs and three 241 Am sources is used to measure the water content of the coal samples. (author)

  17. Comparison of time domain reflectometry, capacitance methods and neutron scattering in soil moisture measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasani, A.; Mousavi Shalmani, M. A.; Piervali Bieranvand, N.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate, precise, fast and ease as well as the ability for measurements in depth are the characteristics that are desirable in measuring soil moisture methods. To compare methods (time domain reflectometry and capacitance) with neutron scattering for soil water monitoring, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (Split Split plot) on tomato with three replications on the experimental field of International Atomic Energy Agency (Seibersdorf-Austria). The treatment instruments for the soil moisture monitoring (main factor) consist of neutron gauge, Diviner 2000, time domain reflectometer and an EnviroScan and different irrigation systems (first sub factor) consist of trickle and furrow irrigations and different depths of soil (second sub factor) consist of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The results showed that for the neutron gauge and time domain reflectometer the amount of soil moisture in both of trickle and furrow irrigations were the same, but the significant differences were recorded in Diviner 2000 and EnviroScan measurements. The results of this study showed that the neutron gauge is an acceptable and reliable means with the modern technology, with a precision of ±2 mm in 450 mm soil water to a depth of 1.5 meter and can be considered as the most practical method for measuring soil moisture profiles and irrigation planning program. The time domain reflectometer method in most mineral soils, without the need for calibration, with an accuracy ±0.01m 3 m -3 has a good performance in soil moisture and electrical conductivity measurements. The Diviner 2000 and EnviroScan are not well suitable for the above conditions for several reasons such as much higher soil moisture and a large error measurement and also its sensitivity to the soil gap and to the small change in the soil moisture in comparison with the neutron gauge and the time domain reflectometer methods.

  18. A study on the measurement of coal moisture by the neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yonghe

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the result of measuring coal moisture by the neutron method. A deducting intercept method is used to eliminate the effects of the structural hydrogen and the matrix effect. A measuring device has been developed and its measuring accuracy is less than 1%

  19. Spectral detection of near-surface moisture content and water-table position in northern peatland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Meingast; Michael J. Falkowski; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Brian W. Benscoter; Alistair M.S. Smith; Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez; Mary Ellen. Miller

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence has been increasing in peatland ecosystems during recent decades. As such, there is a need for broadly applicable tools to detect and monitor controls on combustion such as surface peat moisture and water-table position. A field portable spectroradiometer was used to measure surface reflectance of two Sphagnum moss-dominated...

  20. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  1. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    SummaryStemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600 m 2 ha -1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5 m × 5 m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α = 0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients

  2. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2009-08-01

    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be

  3. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  4. A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave measurements over crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigneron, J.P.; Chanzy, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Bruguier, N.

    1995-01-01

    A simple algorithm to retrieve sail moisture and vegetation water content from passive microwave measurements is analyzed in this study. The approach is based on a zeroth-order solution of the radiative transfer equations in a vegetation layer. In this study, the single scattering albedo accounts for scattering effects and two parameters account for the dependence of the optical thickness on polarization, incidence angle, and frequency. The algorithm requires only ancillary information about crop type and surface temperature. Retrievals of the surface parameters from two radiometric data sets acquired over a soybean and a wheat crop have been attempted. The model parameters have been fitted in order to achieve best match between measured and retrieved surface data. The results of the inversion are analyzed for different configurations of the radiometric observations: one or several look angles, L-band, C-band or (L-band and C-band). Sensitivity of the retrievals to the best fit values of the model parameters has also been investigated. The best configurations, requiring simultaneous measurements at L- and C-band, produce retrievals of soil moisture and biomass with a 15% estimated precision (about 0.06 m 3 /m 3 for soil moisture and 0.3 kg/m 2 for biomass) and exhibit a limited sensitivity to the best fit parameters. (author)

  5. Influence of Moisture Absorption and Content of Graphite Filler on Electrical Property of Sensors and Transducers Enclosures and Phenomena of Electrostriction in Glass- Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivamurthy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of graphite particles were prepared by compression. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200g / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 were used as matrix. The graphite of 50 particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of graphite fillers viz 0 %, 3 %, 6 % and 9 % with unchanged reinforcement. After subjecting the samples to water absorption up to 96 hours in steps of 24 hrs, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity have been measured by using a LCR meter at two different frequencies (100 Hz and 1 kHz. Results show that tan δ direct constant, a.c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite in the composites at both high and low frequency for dry samples. Samples with 24 hrs moisture absorption showed approximately same result. After 48 hrs, tan δ values showed variations. However, the fluctuations were less at 6 % of graphite in all samples after 48 and 72 hrs of moisture absorption. Dielectric constant increases with increase in graphite % in composites at higher frequency and there was not much variation at low frequency. In all samples after 24 and 48 hrs of moisture absorption, dielectric constant decreases with increase in graphite loading. It is observed that dielectric constant increases in all samples after 72 hrs of moisture absorption as compared to dry samples. A c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite content in dry sample. Up to 6% a. c. conductivity increases after 24 and 48 hrs of immersion, after 72 hrs the trend is reversed. Since Fermi level is initially shifted towards the conduction band and then after 72 hrs of moisture absorption shifted towards the valence band. a. c. conductivity increases with increase in moisture content. The

  6. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  7. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  8. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed ... m-3; ρt, true density, kg m-3; φ, sphericity of seed; al, ... the experiments in this study. ... For each experiment, a sample was.

  9. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  10. Year-round estimation of soil moisture content using temporally variable soil hydraulic parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2017), s. 1438-1452 ISSN 0885-6087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05665S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydrological modelling * pore-size distribution * saturated hydraulic conductivity * seasonal variability * soil hydraulic parameters * soil moisture Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2016

  11. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R-direct...

  12. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...

  13. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The goal with the project has been to evaluate two methods for determination of moisture content in biomass fuels and to determine if these methods can be used in practice in connection with delivery control of biomass at power plants. Tests have been performed with different biomass qualities and with two different measurement methods within a large moisture span, 0.6-72%. The two methods have been NIR (Near Infrared spectroscopy), and RF (Radio Frequency spectroscopy). The NIR-method is a surface analysis method, where hydro-carbons like wood have a different absorption pattern than water. The RF-method is a bulk method and utilizes that wood and water have different dielectric constants. Radio waves thus are affected differently by transportation through wet and dry biomass. In this project we have studied how representative sampling can be achieved from a large volume of delivered biomass fuel. We also have performed calibration with mixtures of the different fuels. Sampling has been performed by extracting biomass in a four meter long screw from the large volume as it is poured into a storage vessel. A conveyor belt is then transporting the material to the measurement systems. Two different NIR-instruments, DA (Diod Array) -NIR respective FT (Fourier Transform)- NIR, were placed above the conveyor belt. The material was collected from the belt into the measuring vessel for the RF, a 200 liter 'oil barrel'. The radio waves were sent from the transceiver into the sample from above without direct contact between the biomass and the transceiver antenna. Six different fuels were studied separately. Calibration was performed where the moisture content was varied by mixing relatively dry fuel with humidified biomass in different proportions a day before the measurements. Samples were taken from each mixture in connection with the measurements, from the conveyor belt. The samples were made in such a way that they represented the whole volume as good as

  14. Implications of moisture content determination in the environmental characterisation of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    The leachable contents of elements of environmental concern considered in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal were determined in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum. To this end, leaching tests were performed following the standard EN-12457-4 which specifies the determination of the dry mass of the material at 105 deg. C and the use of a liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10 l kg{sup -1} dry matter. Additionally, leaching tests were also carried out taking into account the dry mass of the material at 60 deg. C and using different L/S ratios (2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 l kg{sup -1} dry matter). It was found that the dry mass determination at 105 deg. C turns out to be inappropriate for FGD gypsum since at this temperature gypsum transforms into bassanite, and so, in addition to moisture content, crystalline water is removed. As a consequence the moisture content is overvalued (about 16%), what makes consider a lower L/S ratio than that specified by the standard EN-12457-4. As a result the leachable contents in FGD gypsum are, in general, overestimated, what could lead to more strict environmental requirements for FGD gypsum when considering its disposal in landfills, specially concerning those elements (e.g., F) risking the characterisation of FGD gypsum as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  15. Comparing Evapotranspiration Rates Estimated from Atmospheric Flux and TDR Soil Moisture Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelde, Kirsten; Ringgaard, Rasmus; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    limit estimate (disregarding dew evaporation) of evapotranspiration on dry days. During a period of 7 wk, the two independent measuring techniques were applied in a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) field, and six dry periods were identified. Measurements of daily root zone soil moisture depletion were...

  16. Non-invasive measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most current techniques of setting crop irrigation schedules use invasive, labor-intensive soil-water content measurements. We developed a cart-mounted neutron probe capable of non-invasive measurements of volumetric soil moisture contents. The instrument emits neutrons which are captured by hydroge...

  17. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on Kd values of radio-selenium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.J.; Moore, J.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K d value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K d values for 75 Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K d values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg -1 , with mean soil K d increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in 75 Se K d value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on 75 Se K d value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled 75 Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment

  18. A study on the relationship of arsenic accumulation with protein, lipid, ash and moisture contents in muscle of eight species of fish in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Askary Sary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to investigate a relationship between concentration of arsenic with protein, lipid, ash and moisture content in Cyprinus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Aristichthys nobilis, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber. A total of 72 sample of common carp, Bighead carp, silver carp and grass carp fishing from Azadegan fish farming center, Ahvaz; Rainbow trout from Cheshme Dimeh and Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber caught with gill netfrom Hendijan. Wet-digestion method was performed prior to arsenic determination in the samples. The level of arsenic was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that concentration of arsenic in the muscle of fishes was 269.87 ± 20.96 µg/Kg. Moreover, levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture in the samples were estimated at 19.67±0.78 g/100, 2.45±0.45 g/100, 1.49±0.23 g/100, 78±1.89 g/100, respectively. Results also showed a positive correlation between the accumulation of arsenic in muscle of fishes with levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture (p

  19. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  20. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  1. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  2. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  3. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  4. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  5. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  6. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Yuanqiu

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O, CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution. A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio, aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system. The results showed that about 23.9% to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen. N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it. Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0189), CH4 (p = 0.0113) and N2O (p = 0.0493) emissions significantly. Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses. C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0442) and CH4 (p = 0.0246) emissions significantly, but not the N2O. Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions. The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly. Most treatments were matured after 37 days, except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  7. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  8. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking. We adjusted the concentration of substrate available to form lactic acid. We added water to decrease the lactose content of the milk, but this also decreased the protein content, so we used ultrafiltration to help maintain a constant protein concentration. We used 3 milks with different lactose-to-casein ratios: one at a high level, 1.8 (HLC, the normal level in milk); one at a medium level, 1.3 (MLC); and one at a low level, 1.0 (LLC). All milks had similar total casein (2.5%) and fat (2.5%) content. We investigated the composition, texture, and functional and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella manufactured from these milks when the cheeses were ripened at 4°C for 84d. All cheeses had similar pH values at draining and salting, resulting in cheeses with similar total calcium contents. Cheeses made with LLC milk had higher pH values than the other cheeses throughout ripening. Cheeses had similar moisture contents. The LLC and MLC cheeses had lower levels of lactose, galactose, lactic acid, and insoluble calcium compared with HLC cheese. The lactose-to-casein ratio had no effect on the levels of proteolysis. The LLC and MLC cheeses were harder than the HLC cheese during ripening. Maximum loss tangent (LT), an index of cheese meltability, was lower for the LLC cheese until 28d of ripening, but after 28d, all treatments exhibited similar maximum LT values. The temperature where LT=1 (crossover temperature), an index

  9. Seasonal relationships between foliar moisture content, heat content and biochemistry of lodge pole pine and big sagebrush foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Matt Jolly; Philip E. Dennison; Rachael C. Kropp

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fires propagate by liberating energy contained within living and senescent plant biomass. The maximum amount of energy that can be generated by burning a given plant part can be quantified and is generally referred to as its heat content (HC). Many studies have examined heat content of wildland fuels but studies examining the seasonal variation in foliar HC...

  10. Investigation of the dual-gauge principle for eliminating measurement interference in nuclear density and moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.

    1974-07-01

    The development of mathematical models for an application of the dual-gauge principle to surface neutron moisture content gauges were made under an Agency co-ordinated research programme. The response of a detector (such as a BF 3 proportional counter) to low-energy neutrons is dependent on the hydrogen present in the sample in the form of water. Other factors which affect the gauge response are sample density, composition (particularly with regard to the presence of strong thermal neutron absorbers), and bound hydrogen content. In this work mathematical models for epicadmium and bare BF 3 detector response have been developed for surface neutron moisture content gauges. These models are based on epithermal and thermal line and area flux models obtained from Diffusion Theory and Transport Theory, where flux as a function of radial distance, r, from the source is phi(r), line flux ∫ phi (r) dr, and area flux is ∫ phi (r)rdr. All models have been checked by calculation and comparison to experimental results except for the Transport Theory thermal flux models. The computer calculations were made on an IBM 370/165 system. In addition, the dual-gauge principle was applied and demonstrated as a means of minimizing the composition measurement interference

  11. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  12. Radon emanation and soil moisture effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to explain variations in airborne gamma-ray measurements over a calibration range near Ottawa, Ontario. The gamma-ray flux from potassium and the thorium decay series showed an expected decrease with increasing soil moisture. However, the gamma-ray flux from the uranium decay series was highest in the spring when the ground was water-saturated and even covered with snow. These results are explained through the build-up of radon and its associated gamma-ray-emitting decay products in the clay soil of the calibration range with increasing soil moisture. Similar results were found from airborne measurements over other clay soils. However, measurements over sandy soils showed that the count rates from all three radio elements increased with decreasing soil moisture. This difference between soil types was attributed to the lower radon emanation of the more coarse-grained sandy soils compared to finer-grained clay soils. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that any estimate of the natural gamma-ray field caused by radium in the ground must take into consideration the radon emanation coefficient of the soil. The radon diffusion coefficient of the soil must also be considered since it depends strongly on soil moisture. This has significant implications for the assessment of outdoor radiation doses using laboratory analyses of soil samples and the use of ground and airborne gamma-ray measurements for radon potential mapping

  13. Moisture separator for steam generator level measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantineau, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    A steam generator level measurement system having a reference leg which is kept full of water by a condensation pot, has a liquid/steam separator in the connecting line between the condensation pot and the steam phase in the steam generator to remove excess liquid from the steam externally of the steam generator. This ensures that the connecting line does not become blocked. The separator pot has an expansion chamber which slows down the velocity of the steam/liquid mixture to aid in separation, and a baffle, to avoid liquid flow into the line connected to the condensate pot. Liquid separated is returned to the steam generator below the water level through a drain line. (author)

  14. Moisture content during extrusion of oats impacts the initial fermentation metabolites and probiotic bacteria during extended fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sandrayee; Weier, Steven A; Rose, Devin J

    2017-07-01

    Extrusion exposes flour components to high pressure and shear during processing, which may affect the dietary fiber fermentability by human fecal microbiota. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of flour moisture content during extrusion on in vitro fermentation properties of whole grain oats. Extrudates were processed at three moisture levels (15%, 18%, and 21%) at fixed screw speed (300rpm) and temperature (130°C). The extrudates were then subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation. Extrusion moisture significantly affected water-extractable β-glucan (WE-BG) in the extrudates, with samples processed at 15% moisture (lowest) and 21% moisture (highest) having the highest concentration of WE-BG. After the first 8h of fermentation, more WE-BG remained in fermentation media in samples processed at 15% moisture compared with the other conditions. Also, extrusion moisture significantly affected the production of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA by the microbiota during the first 8h of fermentation. Microbiota grown on extrudates processed at 18% moisture had the highest production of acetate and total SCFA, whereas bacteria grown on extrudates processed at 15% and 18% moisture had the highest butyrate production. After 24h of fermentation, samples processed at 15% moisture supported lower Bifidobacterium counts than those produced at other conditions, but had among the highest Lactobacillus counts. Thus, moisture content during extrusion significantly affects production of fermentation metabolites by the gut microbiota during the initial stages of fermentation, while also affecting probiotic bacteria counts during extended fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of soil moisture content on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, M.A.; El-Nennah, M.E.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Abd-Elmonem, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of soil moisture on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi. The percentages of survival of soil bacteria and fungi, after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, were lower in the moistened soil samples than in the dry one, inspite of the observed encouragement of wetting the soil samples, before gamma radiation exposure, on the proliferation of soil micro-organisms. This effect was explained by the indirect action from the breakdown products of radiolysis of water rather than by the direct damage to the cell structure

  16. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally

  17. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient

  19. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in Southwestern Saudi Arabian Dune Sand

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Iqra

    2013-05-01

    In arid lands, a major contribution to water loss is by soil water evaporation. Desert sand dunes in arid regions are devoid of runoff and have high rates of infiltration. Rainwater is commonly stored within them because of the low permeability soils in the underlying desert pavement. In such cases, moisture is confined in the sand dune below a depth, termed as the “extinction depth”, where it is protected from evaporation during long dry periods. Moreover, desert sand dunes have sparse vegetation, which results in low transpiration losses from the stored water. The water accumulated below the extinction depth of the sand dunes can be utilized for various purposes such as in irrigation to support desert agriculture. In this study, field experiments were conducted in Western Saudi Arabia to monitor the soil moisture gradients and determine the diffusive extinction depth of dune sand. The dune sand was saturated with water and was exposed to natural conditions (evaporation and precipitation). The decline of the water level in the sand column was continuously recorded using transducers and sensors installed at different depths monitored the temporal variation of temperature and moisture content within the sand. The hydrological simulator HYDRUS-1D was used to construct the vertical profiles of soil water content and temperature and the results obtained from HYDRUS-1D were compared to the gradients monitored by the sensors.

  20. Effects of Processing Method, Moisture Content, and Resin System on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Woven Kenaf Plant Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaiman Jaffar Sharba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the processing method, moisture content, and polymer type were evaluated relative to the physical and mechanical properties of composites based on natural plants. When kenaf was heated above the glass transition temperature of lignin, there was a reduction in moisture content by more than 8% of the total weight of the raw material. To investigate polymer behavior, the raw material was reinforced with three types of polymers: epoxy, unsaturated polyester (UP, and vinyl ester fabricated using hand lay-up with cold press (HCP and vacuum infusion (VI. The results of (HCP showed a noticeable improvement in tensile and flexural strength and their moduli for all types of polymer used compared with (VI, in ascending order from UP and vinyl ester to epoxy. Using the HCP method, the tensile strength improved considerably, by 60% for epoxy, 59% for UP, and 250% for vinyl ester, while flexural strength was enhanced by 16% for epoxy, 126% for UP, and 117% for vinyl ester compared to VI. Impact results showed a slight or no improvement in absorbed energy.

  1. An extension of the talbot-ogden hydrology model to an affine multi-dimensional moisture content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2013-09-01

    The Talbot-Ogden hydrology model provides a fast mass conservative method to compute infiltration in unsaturated soils. As a replacement for a model based on Richards equation, it separates the groundwater movement into infiltration and redistribution for every time step. The typical feature making this method fast is the discretization of the moisture content domain rather than the spatial one. The Talbot-Ogden model rapidly determines how well ground water and aquifers are recharged only. Hence, it differs from models based on advanced reservoir modeling that are uniformly far more expensive computationally since they determine where the water moves in space instead, a completely different and more complex problem.According to the pore-size distribution curve for many soils, this paper extends the one dimensional moisture content domain into a two dimensional one by keeping the vertical spatial axis. The proposed extension can describe any pore-size or porosity distribution as an important soil feature. Based on this extension, infiltration and redistribution are restudied. The unconditional conservation of mass in the Talbot-Ogden model is inherited in this extended model. A numerical example is given for the extended model.

  2. The effect of slope steepness and antecedent moisture content on interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Defersha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a two-phase process consisting of the detachment of individual particles and their transport by the flowing water. This study discusses the results of laboratory experiments in which for three soils, the runoff depth, sediment yield, splash erosion and sediment size were measured. Rainfall intensity, slope and antecedent moisture contents were varied in the experiment. The soil types ranged from clay to sandy clay loam (Alemaya Black soil, Regosols and Cambisols. Rainfall was applied for six sequential 15-min periods with rainfall intensities varying between 55 and 120 mm h−1. The three slopes tested were 9, 25, and 45 %. Results show that as slope increased from 9 to 25 %, splash erosion and sediment yield increased. An increase in slope from 25 to 45 % generally decreases in splash erosion. Sediment yield for one soil increased and one soil decreased with slope and for the third soil the trend was different between the two initial moisture contents. Sediment yield was correlated (r = 0.66 with runoff amounts but not with splash erosion. Interrill erosion models that were based on the flowing water and rainfall intensity fitted the data better than when based on rainfall intensity solely. Models that assume a positive linear relationship between erosion and slope may overestimate sediment yield.

  3. TAKING VARIOUS AGRO-TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR THE PRESERVATION AND ACCUMULATION OF MOISTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Khalilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ARTICLE RETRACTEDAim. The aim is to conduct a theoretical study of the conditions of occurrence of surface runoff and take technical measures for its prevention.Discussion. The occurrence of surface runoff is possible on condition that the intensity of moisture entry per time unit is greater than the intensity of its absorption and passage through the topsoil. Conditions of surface runoff occur at high intensity of moisture entering the soil surface which can be in the case of heavy rainfall, low water permeability of topsoil as a result of the increased density. The upper topsoil not affected by loosening passes moisture worse than loosened. Low water conductivity of the arable layer may be due to the fact that it is saturated with moisture up to the limit, and the underlying subsoil layers do not absorb or absorb not enough water, pass water less than enters through the upper topsoil. This phenomenon leads to oversaturation of the top plowed layer by water, which can lead to water erosion and landslide.Conclusion. We obtained analytical expressions describing the process of accumulation of moisture in the soil and the formation of surface runoff, which also allow to theoretically justify the need for different agronomic techniques impact on soil. We should select tools and soil impact techniques in order to preserve and accumulate moisture with account of the certain agrolandscape conditions specific to these fields.

  4. Umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira Equilibrium moisture content of wood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciane Angélica da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira numa câmara de climatização e comparação dos seus valores com os obtidos através da equação de Nelson. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade Experimental de Produção de Painéis de Madeira da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram utilizadas amostras de aglomerado, compensado multilaminado e sarrafeado, chapa dura, OSB (Oriented Strand Board , MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, madeira-cimento e madeira-pl��stico, sendo esses produtos de escala industrial e experimental. As dimensões dos corpos-de-prova foram de 2,60 cm de largura por 2,60 cm de comprimento. As espessuras foram aquelas mais utilizadas comercialmente de cada produto, sendo utilizadas cinco repetições por painel. Os corpos-de-prova foram pesados e levados para uma câmara de climatização, onde foram submetidos a diferentes condições de umidade relativa (90, 80, 70, 60, 50 e 40% e uma temperatura constante de 30 ºC. Determinaram-se a histerese e a umidade de equilíbrio, que variaram de 40 a 90%. Os resultados indicaram que a equação de Nelson se mostrou eficiente na estimativa da umidade de equilíbrio e que não existe em média diferença de histerese entre os produtos estudados, mostrando que todos apresentam a mesma estabilidade dimensional. Observou-se, também, que o revestimento dos painéis não afetou a umidade de equilíbrio.This study aimed at determining the equilibrium moisture content of wood panels in a climatization chamber and comparing the values of equilibrium moisture content found with those given by Nelson's equation. The research was developed at the Experimental Unit of Wood Panel Production of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Samples of particleboard, plywood, hardboard, OSB (Oriented Strand Board, MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, cement wood and plastic wood were taken both from

  5. On the control of irrigation through soil moisture measurement using a neutron depth probe in horizontal subsurface measuring circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaecke, B.; Schaecke, E.

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the advantages inherent in soil moisture measurement by means of a neutron probe in horizontal subsurface measuring circuits for irrigation control. Preliminary experience for the setting up of a field calibration curve and for practical measurement are submitted. This technique includes the following advantages: almost complete covering of the upper soil range which is of interest to irrigation control; good measuring density; suitable distribution of measuring points per unit area; possibility of continuous probe passage; optimal repeatability of measurements; exploration of a unit area with but few measuring circuits; no obstacles to tillage, drilling, intercultivation and harvest operations; and complete conservation of crop and plot which is not reached with any other soil moisture measurement technique so far available. Making use of the above advantages, the new technique allows automatic irrigation control with only one neutron depth probe. (author)

  6. The effect of sulphide and moisture content on steel corrosion during transport of fine wet coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the influence of compaction pressure (stress) on the corrosivity of wet coal was investigated. Two coal samples, one high in sulphur content (3 %) and the other low in sulphur content (0.6 %) were used to determine the influence of compaction stress on the corrosion rates of steel samples in contact with compacted coal. It was found that the pressure exerted on finely divided wet coal is an important factor in determining its water content and corrosivity towards mild steel. Corrosion of the steel was typically in the form of pitting and the sulphur content of the coal was an important factor in determining the corrosivity of the coal. The corrosion rate of the high sulphur content coal was higher than that of the low sulphur coal. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that a FeS species developed on the steel surface.

  7. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  8. Influence of mineralogy and moisture content on plasticity and induced anisotropic damage of a clay-stone: application to nuclear waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarelli, A.S.; Sibai, M.; Karami, M.; Ledesert, B.; Hoteit, N.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mineralogy and moisture content on mechanical behaviour of a clay-stone rock is studied by the way of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests and microscopic observations. Some parameters characteristic of phenomena like plasticity and induced anisotropic damage are discussed as a function of these two factors. Rock behaviour becomes more brittle when calcite content grows or when clay or moisture content decreases. At the micro-level, plasticity is induced by slip of clay sheets and induced anisotropic damage appears by growth of oriented microcracks at the interface between grains and matrix. (authors)

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  10. Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lanzerstorfer; M. Hinterberger

    2017-01-01

    The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-graine...

  11. Organic matter and soil moisture content and double cropping with organic matter sourceplants

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Aris Wibawa

    2005-01-01

    Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants is thought to increase organic matter content of soil. This study examined the effect of double cropping of coffee and organic matter source plants on soil organic matter content and yield of coffee plants. Arabica coffee trees in Andungsari Experimental Station (Bondowoso district), 1400 m asl. and climate type C; and Robusta coffee trees in Sumberasin Experimental Station (Malang district), 550 m asl. and climate type C, were used ...

  12. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  13. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  14. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  15. Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Sun, Xiaolong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture content and temperature on the degree of carbonation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration bottom ash (IBA) from two different incineration plants in Singapore. The initial rate of carbonation was affected by the nominal moisture content used. Carbonation temperature seemed to play a part in changing the actual moisture content of IBA during carbonation, which in turn affected the degree of carbonation. Results showed that 2h of carbonation was sufficient for the samples to reach a relatively high degree of carbonation that was close to the degree of carbonation observed after 1week of carbonation. Both Cu and Cr leaching also showed significant reduction after only 2h of carbonation. Therefore, the optimum moisture content and temperature were selected based on 2h of carbonation. The optimum moisture content was 15% for both incineration plants while the optimum temperature was different for the two incineration plants, at 35°C and 50°C. The effect on Cu and Cr leaching from IBA after accelerated carbonation was evaluated as a function of carbonation time. Correlation coefficient, Pearson's R, was used to determine the dominant leaching mechanism. The reduction in Cu leaching was found to be contributed by both formation of carbonate mineral and reduction of DOC leaching. On the other hand, Cr leaching seemed to be dominantly controlled by pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in polyimides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar specimen was 45.5 + or - 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 + or - 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite-epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 + or - 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 + or - 5.0%

  17. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in the polymides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar/epoxy specimen (55 v/o fiber) was 45.5 +- 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 +- 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite/epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 +- 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 +- 5.0%. (orig.)

  18. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  19. Moisture measurement in wood, wood-based materials and building materials - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, A.; Mehlhorn, L.; Plinke, B.

    1989-10-01

    Methods of moisture measurement in solid substances, especially on wood, wood-based materials and building materials were examined and evaluated according to the literature available. The question was which methods of examining the moisture distribution in building elements at climate loading offer the best accuracy and spatial resolution as well as which methods are the most appropriate at present and in future for the solution of measurement problems in the wood and wood-based industry. The most common methods are electric measurement methods which are utilizing either the moisture-depending conductivity or the dielectric constant or the reflectivity of the material for infrared radiation but they offer only a limited accuracy. The same is valid for the rarely used microwave methods or X-ray and NMR tomography. Simple electric methods will further on play an important role in the industrial process measuring technique. For the examination of building elements, methods using nuclear radiation still offer possibilities for a further development. (orig.) With 207 refs., 13 figs [de

  20. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  1. Estimation of Soil Moisture Content from the Spectral Reflectance of Bare Soils in the 0.4–2.5 µm Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fabre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to compare the performance of new methods to estimate the Soil Moisture Content (SMC of bare soils from their spectral signatures in the reflective domain (0.4–2.5 µm in comparison with widely used spectral indices like Normalized Soil Moisture Index (NSMI and Water Index SOIL (WISOIL. Indeed, these reference spectral indices use wavelengths located in the water vapour absorption bands and their performance are thus very sensitive to the quality of the atmospheric compensation. To reduce these limitations, two new spectral indices are proposed which wavelengths are defined using the determination matrix tool by taking into account the atmospheric transmission: Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Linear correlation (NINSOL and Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Non linear correlation (NINSON. These spectral indices are completed by two new methods based on the global shape of the soil spectral signatures. These methods are the Inverse Soil semi-Empirical Reflectance model (ISER, using the inversion of an existing empirical soil model simulating the soil spectral reflectance according to soil moisture content for a given soil class, and the convex envelope model, linking the area between the envelope and the spectral signature to the SMC. All these methods are compared using a reference database built with 32 soil samples and composed of 190 spectral signatures with five or six soil moisture contents. Half of the database is used for the calibration stage and the remaining to evaluate the performance of the SMC estimation methods. The results show that the four new methods lead to similar or better performance than the one obtained by the reference indices. The RMSE is ranging from 3.8% to 6.2% and the coefficient of determination R2 varies between 0.74 and 0.91 with the best performance obtained with the ISER model. In a second step, simulated spectral radiances at the sensor level are

  2. Measurement of water content and density of soil using photon multiplescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.

    1981-04-01

    A gamma-backscatter gauge for field and laboratory applications was set up for the measurement of density and water content of soil at the same time. The method works successfully between 0-40 cm depth of the soil and is superior to the neutron gauge between 0-30 cm depth. The system is extremely simple and practical and can be installed on a tractor during ploughing. The developed method also works for absolute values of densities and moisture content and is able to distinguish the bulk density changes due to vacancies in the soil or the water content taken inside the soil grains

  3. Regulation of Picea abies seed dormancy by red and far-red light at various moisture contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, K.; Chantal, M. de [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1998-04-01

    The effects of red (R), far-red (FR) and R+FR light on Norway spruce seed dormancy were studied at five different moisture contents (MC) between 5 and 20%. The degree of dormancy was studied by germinating seeds over a wide range of temperatures in the dark. The non-irradiated control seeds were shallowly dormant, only a proportion of them germinated and within a limited temperature range. Red light progressively stimulated germination between 5 and 17% MC, but this effect was reversed if a FR treatment followed, although all germination could not be inhibited by one FR pulse. Far-red light had a slightly stimulating effect at 19% MC. To generate seeds able to germinate over a wide range of temperatures in darkness, an artificial light pretreatment should be given to seeds at MC above 17% in order to receive maximum response 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  5. Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinus pinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Barra, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content variations in wood have a significant influence in wood’s physicochemical properties, as well as in its electromagnetic properties and to specific effects upon waves’ characteristics. In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the Ground-penetrating Radar’s (GPR using an antenna of 1.6GHz central frequency capacity to register the velocity and the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves’ variation during the drying process of Pinus pinaster Ait timber joists. The results showed that when timber MC descends, the propagation velocity and amplitude of both the direct and the reflected wave increased. The high correlation found between the variables studied demonstrates GPR efficiency and the innovative application of this technique as a non-destructive evaluation tool for timber structures, particularly when studying its moisture content.La variación en el contenido de humedad (CH tiene una influencia significativa tanto en las propiedades físico- químicas de la madera, como en sus propiedades electromagnéticas y por tanto afecta a las características de la propagación de las ondas. En concreto, en este trabajo se estudia la capacidad del georradar (GR empleando una antena de 1.6GHz de frecuencia central para registrar las variaciones que se producen en la velocidad y en la amplitud de las ondas electromagnéticas cuando se propagan en unas viguetas de madera de Pinus pinaster Ait de uso estructural cuyo CH va disminuyendo. Se ha comprobado como cuando el CH descendía la velocidad de propagación y las amplitudes, tanto de la onda directa como de la reflejada aumentaba. Los altos factores de correlación encontrados demuestran que el GR es una técnica capaz de evaluar, de forma no destructiva, el CH de la madera de uso estructural.

  6. Conductive and steam-diffuse constituents of thermotransfer in different soil moisture contents: case study of the Altai Region’s soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Makarychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the conductive and steam-diffusive heat transfer constituents in the soil. Based on the solution of differential equation system of heat and mass transfer, the method to determine the conductive and steam-diffusive heat transfer constituents in wet soils was developed. To measure the thermophysical properties in laboratory setting, a pulse method of a two-dimensional heat source was used. The method takes into account the patterns of temperature field equalization in an unbounded medium after the heat source termination. A feature of this process is the occurrence of peak temperature at the investigated point of the medium at a given instant. In this experiment, the temperature was controlled not only at the investigated point of the medium, but also at the soil-heater interface. The proposed method was used to study the thermophysical indices of the chernozems of the Altai Region’s Priobye area (the Ob River area. The chernozem under study is of light-loamy particle-size composition; the illuvial horizon В is enriched by a sand fraction. It has been found that the soil conductive thermal diffusivity is reduced with increasing moisture content. The steam-diffusive thermal diffusivity has the extremum at the moisture close to the discontinuous capillary moisture. In humus horizons it plays a smaller role than in the mineral horizons. The thermal diffusivity determined by the steam molecule motion in the pore space of the soil exceeds the conductive thermal diffusivity two or three times. At the same time thermal steam diffusivity is more than ten time lower than the conductive constituent. Eventually, the stem molecules though dramatically accelerating the processes of heat transfer in the soil profile conduct a small amount of heat and make a weak contribution to soil thermal accumulation.

  7. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  8. Gamma-ray yield dependence on bulk density and moisture content of a sample of a PGNAA setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagadi, M.M.; Naqvi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to study the dependence of γ-ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content of a sample in a thermalneutron capture-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The results of the study showed a strong dependence of the γ-ray yield upon the sample bulk density. An order of magnitude increase in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in a Portland cement sample was observed for a corresponding order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density. On the contrary the γ-ray yield has a weak dependence on sample moisture content and an increase of only 20% in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in the Portland cement sample was observed for an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the Portland cement sample. A similar effect of moisture content has been observed on the yield of 1.167 MeV prompt γ-rays from chlorine contaminants in Portland cement samples. For an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample, a 7 to 12% increase in the yield of the 1.167 MeV chlorine γ-ray was observed for the Portland cement samples containing 1 to 5 wt.% chlorine contaminants. This study has shown that effects of sample moisture content on prompt γ-ray yield from constituents of a Portland cement sample are insignificant in a thermal-neutrons capture-based PGNAA setup. (author)

  9. Study of the effect of moisture content and bending rate on the fracture toughness of rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Leona; Souček, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 247-253 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : fracture toughness * bending rate * tensile strength Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_14_Vavro_Soucek_247-253.pdf

  10. In-Situ Measurement of Soil Permittivity at Various Depths for the Calibration and Validation of Low-Frequency SAR Soil Moisture Models by Using GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N. Koyama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At radar frequencies below 2 GHz, the mismatch between the 5 to 15 cm sensing depth of classical time domain reflectometry (TDR probe soil moisture measurements and the radar penetration depth can easily lead to unreliable in situ data. Accurate quantitative measurements of soil water contents at various depths by classical methods are cumbersome and usually highly invasive. We propose an improved method for the estimation of vertical soil moisture profiles from multi-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR data. A semi-automated data acquisition technique allows for very fast and robust measurements in the field. Advanced common mid-point (CMP processing is applied to obtain quantitative estimates of the permittivity and depth of the reflecting soil layers. The method is validated against TDR measurements using data acquired in different environments. Depth and soil moisture contents of the reflecting layers were estimated with root mean square errors (RMSE on the order of 5 cm and 1.9 Vol.-%, respectively. Application of the proposed technique for the validation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR soil moisture estimates is demonstrated based on a case study using airborne L-band data and ground-based P-band data. For the L-band case we found good agreement between the near-surface GPR estimates and extended integral equation model (I2EM based SAR retrievals, comparable to those obtained by TDR. At the P-band, the GPR based method significantly outperformed the TDR method when using soil moisture estimates at depths below 30 cm.

  11. The impact of compaction, moisture content, particle size and type of bulking agent on initial physical properties of sludge-bulking agent mixtures before composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, J; Druilhe, C; Trémier, A; Benoist, J C; Debenest, G

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to experimentally acquire evolution profiles between depth, bulk density, Free Air Space (FAS), air permeability and thermal conductivity in initial composting materials. The impact of two different moisture content, two particle size and two types of bulking agent on these four parameters was also evaluated. Bulk density and thermal conductivity both increased with depth while FAS and air permeability both decreased with it. Moreover, depth and moisture content had a significant impact on almost all the four physical parameters contrary to particle size and the type of bulking agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  13. High dietary levels of biotin and zinc to improve health of foot pads in broilers exposed experimentally to litter with critical moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, A; Radko, D; Kamphues, J

    2013-07-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a widespread problem in poultry production and constitutes a welfare issue. The objective of this study was to test potentially prophylactic effects of higher biotin and Zn levels in the diet of broilers exposed to critical litter moisture content (35% water) on the development of FPD. Two trials were performed in each 4 groups of 1-wk-old male broilers (Ross 708) during 33 d. The pens of all groups (25 birds in each) were littered with wood shavings of critical moisture content. Two groups were fed high levels of Zn as zinc-oxide (150 mg/kg of diet), with normal levels of biotin (300 µg/kg of diet) or high biotin (2,000 µg/kg of diet). The other 2 groups were fed Zn as zinc-methionine (150 mg/kg of diet), with normal levels of biotin (300 µg/kg of diet) or high biotin (2,000 µg/kg of diet). External assessment of foot pads and measurements the moisture contents of excreta and litter were performed weekly. The signs of foot pad lesions were recorded on a 7-point scale (0 = normal skin; 7 = more than half of the foot pad is necrotic). High biotin supplementation resulted in a reduction of 30 and 18% of cases of foot pad lesions in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The combination of Zn-methionine and high biotin supplementation led to a decreased severity of FPD in a range of about 50 and 30% in trials 1 and 2, respectively. In broilers fed the diet containing zinc-oxide and normal biotin levels about 28 and 24% of the birds had the scores of 6 and 7 (= high foot pad alterations), whereas in birds fed Zn-methionine and high biotin no high alterations (score = 7) in the foot pad (0%) occurred in either trial. The presented results suggest that it is advisable to combine the maximum levels of Zn (especially of Zn-methionine) and high levels of biotin when clinically relevant alterations in the foot pad occur.

  14. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  15. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, 60092 (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a {sup 137}Cs source for density measurements and an {sup 241}Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  16. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a 137 Cs source for density measurements and an 241 Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  17. Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

  18. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  19. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  20. Quantitation of 24-Hour Moisturization by Electrical Measurements of Skin Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, R Randall; Damjanovic, Bronson

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of several moisturizers on hydration of the stratum corneum by measuring their effect on electrical conductance over a 24-hour period. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers aged 18 to 65 years with dry skin on the lower legs and no other known dermatologic pathology participated in the study. Additional exclusion criteria were pregnant or taking anti-inflammatory steroids. The study was carried out in a clinical research facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Subjects underwent a 3-day conditioning period using a natural soap bar on the lower legs and no application of moisturizer to the skin. Participants then came to the test site and equilibrated for at least 30 minutes under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. After baseline hydration measurements on test sites on the lower legs of each subject, a single application of each of 5 test products at a dose of 2 mg/cm was made. Skin hydration was assessed by electrical conductance measurements with a specialized probe. The probe was briefly placed on the skin surface with light pressure, and the measurement recorded in units of microsiemens (μS). Conductance was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after product applications. Although all but 1 of the test products increased conductance at 2 hours, only 2 moisturizers containing high levels of glycerin (products C and E) maintained increased conductance relative to baseline at 24 hours, +37.8 (P skin conductance for at least 24 hours after a single application.

  1. Measurement of moisture motion under a temperature gradient in a concrete for SNR-300 using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinger, A.

    1975-01-01

    For describing the behavior of the moisture in the concrete of the containment of SNR-300 in a hypothetical accident parameters were determined experimentally. The method is based on transmission of thermal neutrons through a plate of concrete. When a temperature of 170 deg C was applied at one end of the plate migration of moisture and evaporation took place. This could be observed by neutron radiography giving a gross picture of moisture migration. Furthermore the intensity of the transmitted neutron beam was measured with a neutron counter. From these values profiles of the change of moisture concentration could be obtained with a spatial resolution of few millimeters. The method used is entirely different from the conventional moisture meters which use fast neutrons. From the experimental data the mass transfer coefficient of vapour, the diffusion coefficient of vapour in concrete and the porosity of the concrete could be determined

  2. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  3. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Dong, Shuangzhao; Du, Yun; Li, Shengli; Wang, Yajing; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-09-01

    A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length) and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length) samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW), dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD), or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG). Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h ( P  < 0.05) compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG). Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact ( P  < 0.05) on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  4. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  5. Moisture content, insect pests and mycotoxin levels of maize at harvest and post-harvest in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin contamination of maize are challenges to food safety and security, especially in the tropics where maize is a staple grain. However, very little documentation is available on the impact of these factors on maize in Ghana. This study focused on ...

  6. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  7. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  8. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW, dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD, or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG. Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h (P < 0.05 compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG. Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact (P < 0.05 on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  9. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  10. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. O' Donnell; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Jennifer W. Harden; A. David. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity...

  11. Blending Satellite Observed, Model Simulated, and in Situ Measured Soil Moisture over Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of different soil moisture (SM products over the Tibetan Plateau (TP reveals the inconsistency among different SM products, when compared to in situ measurement. It highlights the need to constrain the model simulated SM with the in situ measured data climatology. In this study, the in situ soil moisture networks, combined with the classification of climate zones over the TP, were used to produce the in situ measured SM climatology at the plateau scale. The generated TP scale in situ SM climatology was then used to scale the model-simulated SM data, which was subsequently used to scale the SM satellite observations. The climatology-scaled satellite and model-simulated SM were then blended objectively, by applying the triple collocation and least squares method. The final blended SM can replicate the SM dynamics across different climatic zones, from sub-humid regions to semi-arid and arid regions over the TP. This demonstrates the need to constrain the model-simulated SM estimates with the in situ measurements before their further applications in scaling climatology of SM satellite products.

  12. In vivo skin moisturizing measurement by high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrar, J; Ognard, J; Garetier, M; Chechin, D; Misery, L; Ben Salem, D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rarely used for the exploration of skin, even if studies have validated both feasibility of skin MRI and its interest for anatomical, physiological, and biochemical study of the skin. The purpose of this study is to explore moisturizing of the different skin layers using 3-T scan. An MRI of the heel's skin was performed using a 23 mm coil diameter on a 3T scan with a FFE (Fast Field Echo) 3D T1-weighted sequence and a TSE (Turbo Spin Echo) calculation T2-weighted sequence (pixels size of respectively 60 and 70 μm). This study was conducted on 35 healthy volunteers, who were scanned before applying moisturizer topic and 1 h after applying it. Region of interest in the stratum corneum, the epidermis and the dermis were generated on the T2 mapping. The thickness of each layer was measured. The T1 sequence allowed accurate cross-examination repositioning to ensure the comparability of the measurements. Among the 35 cases, two were excluded from the analysis because of movement artifacts. Measurements before and after moisturizer topic application displayed a T2 increase of 48.94% (P < 0.0001) in the stratum corneum and of 5.45% (P < 0.0001) in the epidermis yet without significant difference in the dermis. There was no significant link between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the T2 increase. However, there was a strong correlation between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the thickness of the epidermis (P < 0.001; rhô=0.72). High-resolution MRI allows fine exploration of anatomical and physiological properties of the skin and can further be used to extend the studies of skin hydration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  14. Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Taysom, K; Taysom, D M; Shaver, R D; Hoffman, P C

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to determine relationships between high-moisture corn (HMC) dry matter (DM), ammonia-N [% of crude protein (CP)], and soluble CP concentrations, and pH, with 7-h ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivStarchD), and (2) to evaluate the effect of ensiling on pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD measurements in HMC. A data set comprising 6,131 HMC samples (55 to 80% DM) obtained from a commercial feed analysis laboratory was used for this study. Month of sample submittal was assumed to be associated with length of the ensiling period. Data for month of sample submittal were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with month as a fixed effect. Regressions to determine linear and quadratic relationships between ivStarchD and ammonia-N, soluble CP, pH, and DM content were performed using Proc Mixed. The ivStarchD increased by 9 percentage units from October to August of the following year. Similar results were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP with increases from 1.8 to 4.6% of CP and 31.3 to 46.4% of CP, respectively, from October to August of the following year. Ammonia-N was positively related to ivStarchD (R(2)=0.61). The DM content of HMC at silo removal was negatively related (R(2)=0.47) to ivStarchD with a decrease of 1.6 percentage units in ivStarchD per 1-percentage-unit increase in DM content. The pH of HMC was negatively related to ammonia-N (R(2)=0.53), soluble CP (R(2)=0.57), and ivStarchD (R(2)=0.51). Combined, ammonia-N, DM, soluble CP, and pH provided a good prediction of ivStarchD (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Increasing pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD values indicate that HMC may need up to 10 mo of ensiling to reach maximum starch digestibility. Ammonia-N, DM content, soluble CP concentration, and pH are good indicators of ruminal in vitro starch digestibility for high-moisture corn. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  16. Grau de umidade e temperatura na conservação de sementes de café Moisture content and temperature on the preservation of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL FELIPE DE OLIVEIRA GENTIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de sementes de Coffea arabica L. Sementes com 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% e 10% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno e mantidas sob temperaturas de 30 °C, 20 °C e 10 °C, durante 48 semanas de armazenamento, foram submetidas a avaliações periódicas do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Foi constatado que as reduções do grau de umidade até 10% e da temperatura até 10 °C são favoráveis à manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e que umidade próxima a 23% favorece o estabelecimento de Penicillium sp. e de Aspergillus sp. nas sementes.The aim of this work was to verify the influences of the moisture content and storage temperature in the preservation of Coffea arabica L. seeds. Seeds with 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% and 10% moisture content were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C and 10 °C for forty-eight weeks, and submitted to periodic evaluations of moisture content, germination, vigour and sanity. Decreases in moisture content until 10% and temperature until 10 °C were favorable to the maintenance of seed physiological quality. Seed moisture content around 23% favor the establishment of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp.

  17. An automatic time domain reflectometry device to measure and store soil water contents for stand-alone field use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Kokot, J.; Skierucha, W.; Halbertsma, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A field set-up was developed to measure soil moisture content on ten different positions using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. The set-up works on a 12 V battery or solar panel system, independent of an external power source, has low power consumption, and compact dimensions. The

  18. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Adschiri, T.; Ekbom, T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane at elevated pressures. The goal of this research is to develop commercial processes for the catalytic steam reforming of biomass and other organic wastes at high pressures. This approach avoids the high cost of gas compression and takes advantage of the unique properties of water at high pressures. Prior to this year the authors reported the ability of carbon to catalyze the decomposition of biomass and related model compounds in supercritical water. The product gas consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and traces of higher hydrocarbons. During the past year the authors have: (a) developed a method to extend the catalyst life, (b) begun studies of the role of the shift reaction, (c) completed studies of carbon dioxide absorption from the product effluent by high pressure water, (d) measured the rate of carbon catalyst gasification in supercritical water, (e) discovered the pumpability of oil-biomass slurries, and (f) completed the design and begun fabrication of a flow reactor that will steam reform whole biomass feedstocks (i.e. sewage sludge) and produce a hydrogen rich synthesis gas at very high pressure (>22 MPa).

  19. Innovative Natural Ingredients-Based Multiple Emulsions: The Effect on Human Skin Moisture, Sebum Content, Pore Size and Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugne Cizauskaite

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary. The aim of our study was to estimate the potential of W/O/W emulsions based on natural ingredients for skin irritation and phototoxicity using reconstructed 3D epidermis models in vitro and to evaluate in vivo its effect on human skin moisture, sebum content and pigmentation by biomedical examination using a dermatoscopic camera and corneometer. According to the results obtained after in vitro cell viability test the investigated emulsion was neither irritant nor phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes. W/O/W emulsion did not cause skin dryness in vivo, despite the fact that it contained ethanol. We can conclude that the emulsion is safe for use as a leave-on product due to the positive effect on human skin characteristics or as a semisolid pharmaceutical base where active compounds could be encapsulated.

  20. Potential use of multispectral imaging technology to identify moisture content and water-holding capacity in cooked pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wu; Li, Peijun; Niu, Xiangli; Chen, Conggui; Zheng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The traditional detection methods for moisture content (MC) and water-holding capacity (WHC) in cooked pork sausages (CPS) are destructive, time consuming, require skilled personnel and are not suitable for online industry applications. The goal of this work was to explore the potential of multispectral imaging (MSI) in combination with multivariate analysis for the identification of MC and WHC in CPS. Spectra and textures of 156 CPS treated by six salt concentrations (0-2.5%) were analyzed using different calibration models to find the most optimal results of predicting MC and WHC in CPS. By using the fused data of spectra and textures, partial least squares regression models performed well for determining the MC and WHC, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.949 and 0.832, respectively. Additionally, their spatial distribution in CPS could be visualized via applying prediction equations to transfer each pixel in the image. Results of satisfactory detection and visualization of the MC and WHC showed that MSI has the potential to serve as a rapid and non-destructive method for use in sausage industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Gradient on Runoff and Soil Moisture Content on Different Growing Stages of Spring Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall-runoff process (RRP is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage of spring maize in which simulated rainfall events were used to study the effects of various factors (rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the RRP. The RRP was tested with three different rainfall intensities (0.67, 1.00, and 1.67 mm/min and subjected to three different slopes (5°, 15°, and 20° so as to study RRP characteristics in semiarid regions. Regression analysis was used to study the results of this test. The following key results were obtained: (1 With the increase in rainfall intensity and slope, the increasing relationship with rainfall duration, overland flow, and cumulative runoff, respectively, complied with logarithmic and quadratic functions before reaching stable runoff in each growing stage of spring maize; (2 The runoff coefficient increased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope in each growing stages of spring maize. The relationship between runoff coefficient, slope, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage was multivariate and nonlinear; (3 The runoff lag time decreased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope within the same growing stage. In addition, the relationship between runoff lag time, slope, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage could also be expressed by a multivariate nonlinear equation; (4 The descent rate of soil infiltration rate curve increased with the increased rainfall intensity and slope in the same growing stage. Furthermore, by comparing the Kostiakov, Horton, and Philip models, it was found that the Horton infiltration model was the best for estimating soil infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration under the condition of test.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  3. Moisture content prediction in poultry litter using artificial intelligence techniques and Monte Carlo simulation to determine the economic yield from energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Contreras, José Octavio; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto Alfonso; Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Andrés, Jhony Josué; Cid-Chama, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process. Estimates of poultry litter production and heating value are made based on 4 different moisture content percentages (scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%), and then a risk analysis is proposed using the Monte Carlo simulation to select the best investment alternative and to estimate the environmental impact for greenhouse gas mitigation. The results show that dry poultry litter (25%) is slightly better for combustion, generating 3.20% more energy. Reducing moisture from 40% to 25% involves considerable economic investment due to the purchase of equipment to reduce moisture; thus, when calculating financial indicators, the 40% scenario is the most attractive, as it is the current scenario. Thus, this methodology proposes a technology approach based on the use of advanced tools to predict moisture and representation of the system (Monte Carlo simulation), where the variability and uncertainty of the system are accurately represented. Therefore, this methodology is considered generic for any bioenergy generation system and not just for the poultry sector, whether it uses combustion or another type of technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  5. Autonomous Sensors for Measuring Continuously the Moisture and Salinity of a Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a new field sensor to monitor continuously in situ moisture and salinity of a porous medium via measurements of its dielectric permittivity, conductivity and temperature. It intends to overcome difficulties and biases encountered with sensors based on the same sensitivity principle. Permittivity and conductivity are determined simultaneously by a self-balanced bridge, which measures directly the admittance of sensor electrodes in medium. All electric biases are reduced and their residuals taken into account by a physical model of the instrument, calibrated against reference fluids. Geometry electrode is optimized to obtain a well representative sample of the medium. The sensor also permits acquiring a large amount of data at high frequency (six points every hour, and even more) and to access it rapidly, even in real time, owing to autonomy capabilities and wireless communication. Ongoing developments intend to simplify and standardize present sensors. Results of field trials of prototypes in different environments are presented. PMID:28492471

  6. Humidity measurements in passive heat and moisture exchangers applications: a critical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, G; Fumero, R

    2000-01-01

    A reliable, quantitative assessment of humidification performances of passive heat and moisture exchangers in mechanically-ventilated patients is still to be achieved, although relevant efforts have been made to date. One of the major problems to tackle consists in the difficulty of humidity measurements, both in vivo (during either anaesthesia or intensive care unit treatments) and in vitro set-ups. In this paper a review of the basic operation principles of humidity sensors as well as an analysis of their usage within in vivo and in vitro tests are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the limitations arising from the specific measurement set-up, as they may affect the results notably.

  7. Autonomous Sensors for Measuring Continuously the Moisture and Salinity of a Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-11

    The article describes a new field sensor to monitor continuously in situ moisture and salinity of a porous medium via measurements of its dielectric permittivity, conductivity and temperature. It intends to overcome difficulties and biases encountered with sensors based on the same sensitivity principle. Permittivity and conductivity are determined simultaneously by a self-balanced bridge, which measures directly the admittance of sensor electrodes in medium. All electric biases are reduced and their residuals taken into account by a physical model of the instrument, calibrated against reference fluids. Geometry electrode is optimized to obtain a well representative sample of the medium. The sensor also permits acquiring a large amount of data at high frequency (six points every hour, and even more) and to access it rapidly, even in real time, owing to autonomy capabilities and wireless communication. Ongoing developments intend to simplify and standardize present sensors. Results of field trials of prototypes in different environments are presented.

  8. New Primary Standards for Establishing SI Traceability for Moisture Measurements in Solid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M.; Bell, S.; Choi, B. Il; Cortellessa, G.; Fernicola, V.; Georgin, E.; Hudoklin, D.; Ionescu, G. V.; Ismail, N.; Keawprasert, T.; Krasheninina, M.; Aro, R.; Nielsen, J.; Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Österberg, P.; Skabar, J.; Strnad, R.

    2018-01-01

    A European research project METefnet addresses a fundamental obstacle to improving energy-intensive drying process control: due to ambiguous reference analysis methods and insufficient methods for estimating uncertainty in moisture measurements, the achievable accuracy in the past was limited and measurement uncertainties were largely unknown. This paper reports the developments in METefnet that provide a sound basis for the SI traceability: four new primary standards for realizing the water mass fraction were set up, analyzed and compared to each other. The operation of these standards is based on combining sample weighing with different water vapor detection techniques: cold trap, chilled mirror, electrolytic and coulometric Karl Fischer titration. The results show that an equivalence of 0.2 % has been achieved between the water mass fraction realizations and that the developed methods are applicable to a wide range of materials.

  9. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  10. Olive mill wastewater disposal in evaporation ponds in Sfax (Tunisia): moisture content effect on microbiological and physical chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Hadrich, Bilel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2009-11-01

    The study of the isotherms desorption of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated to describe its water activity under different saturated environments. The microbial biodegradation of OMW during its storage in 5 evaporation ponds located in Agareb (Sfax-Tunisia) was carried out during the oil-harvesting year held 105 days in 2004. Gravimetric static method using saturated salt solutions was used and OMW as placed at 30 degrees C and under different water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.90. Eight models were taken from the literature to describe experimental desorption isotherms. During storage, the evolution of physico-chemical parameters including pH, temperature, evaporation, humidity, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phenols and three microbiological flora (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds) were considered. At 30 degrees C, when relative humidity increased in the experimented ponds of 69, 84 and 90%, the evaporation speed decreased from 1.24 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1), from 6 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) and from 5 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) respectively. The desorption isotherm exhibited a sigmoidal curve corresponding to type II, typical of many organic material. The GAB and Peleg models gave the best fit for describing the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and water activity in OMW (R (2) = 0.998). During the storage period, the analysis showed an increase of all the physico-chemical parameters studied, except phenols and total phosphorus concentrations. The microbiological study showed the predominance of yeasts and moulds and the decrease of bacteria population after 75 days reflecting both effect of recalcitrant compounds and the water activity on microbial growth.

  11. The measurement of moisture in nuclear coolant gases. Experience and new developments within the CEGB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiorns, D.S.; Stallard, M.D.

    1982-06-01

    Humidity measurements on nuclear reactor coolant gases are required for many reasons, for instance to detect and locate water leakages from the boilers and to monitor the chemical composition of the coolant for normal operation and during commissioning and maintenance, and the assessment of the performance of driers. For leak detection sensitivity and rapid response are important whereas for routine monitoring drift may be a prime criterion. Some coolants include methane for chemical control that decomposes to water so the levels of moisture that normally exist in the coolant vary with reactor types. No one measurement technique or hygrometer system currently available can be expected to meet all these requirements and in the CEGB it has proved necessary to concentrate on finding a solution to each separately. This paper reviews CEGB experience with numerous hygrometer systems that have been used on both Magnox and AGR coolant gases and highlights some of the problems that have arisen. New development work in the important and demanding area of boiler leak detection and location is also included where a number of new approaches are being investigated, including:- (i) An improved 'first-up' system based on coulometric moisture analysers. (ii) A differential system based on the piezo-electric hygrometer. (iii) A microprocessor controlled system using capacitance probes. Whilst work on the development of new instruments and the design of approved systems is proceeding at different locations within the CEGB it is being reported, together with the latest operational experiences, through the CEGB Chemical Measuring Instruments Advisory Group, on whose behalf this paper is presented. (author)

  12. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component ... relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. ..... the moisture contents showing that the infiltration of.

  13. Comparison of Soil Moisture in Switzerland Using In-Situ Measurements and Model Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelbach, H.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2011-01-01

    Soil moisture is an essential contributor to land surface- atmosphere interactions. In this study we evaluate the two Land surface models CLM3.5 and SIB3 regarding their performance in simulating soil moisture and its anomalies for the one year period 01.09.2009 to 31.08.2010. Four grassland sites from the SwissSMEX/- Veg project were used as reference soil moisture data. In general, both models represent the soil moisture anomalies and their distribution better than the absolute soil moisture. Furthermore, both models show a seasonal dependence of the correlation and root mean square error. In contrast to the SIB3 model, the CLM3.5 model shows stronger seasonal variation of the root mean square error and a larger interquantile range for soil moisture anomalies.

  14. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  15. Field measurements, simulation modeling and development of analysis for moisture stressed corn and soybeans, 1982 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Norman, J. M.; Gardner, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental design, data acquisition and analysis procedures for agronomic and reflectance data acquired over corn and soybeans at the Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory of the University of Nebraska are described. The following conclusions were reached: (1) predictive leaf area estimation models can be defined which appear valid over a wide range of soils; (2) relative grain yield estimates over moisture stressed corn were improved by combining reflectance and thermal data; (3) corn phenology estimates using the model of Badhwar and Henderson (1981) exhibited systematic bias but were reasonably accurate; (4) canopy reflectance can be modelled to within approximately 10% of measured values; and (5) soybean pubescence significantly affects canopy reflectance, energy balance and water use relationships.

  16. Comparison study of moisture content, colour properties and essential oil compounds extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Shazlin; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Haiyee, Zaibunnisa Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of moisture content, colour and essential oil compounds between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus). The essential oil was extracted using two different methods which are hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). There was no significant difference of moisture content between stem and leaves of lemongrass. The lightness (L) and yellowness (+b) values of the stems were significantly higher (pleaves. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by extraction using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in leaves (˜ 0.7%) by treatment at 1700psi and 50°C. The main compound of extracted essential oil was citral (geranial and neral).

  17. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pasture expansion in Brazil has shown an increase in 4.5% per year, and a total cattle herd of about 200 millions in 2010. Associated to animal husbandry there are emissions of N2O (nitrous oxide) and other gases to the atmosphere. The liquid manure contributes to emitte 5% of the total N2O emissions. The urea content of cattle urine will readily hydrolyze to form ammonium after deposition to the soil. Nitrous oxide may then be emitted through the microbiological processes of nitrification and denitrification. Important factors can influence on these processes and consequently in nitrous oxide emissions, as soil water content and temperature (Bolan et al., 2004; Luo et al., 2008). The main goal of this research was to determine the soil water content and temperature influence on N2O emissions from urine depositions on the soil. In order to achieve the objective, soil incubation experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions at three levels of water-filled pore space (40%, 60% and 80% WFPS) and two temperatures (25ºC and 35ºC) with and without urine, with five replicates each. The soil used in this study was collected from the 0-10 cm layer of a grassland field in Southeast of Brazil and classified as Nitisols. For each measurement, the Kilner jar was hermetically sealed by replacing the lid and a first gas sample was immediately taken (time-zero, t0 sample) using a syringe and stored in a pre-evacuated gas vial. After 30 minutes the headspace of each jar was sampled again (time-thirty, t_30 sample). The lids were then removed and kept off until the next sampling day. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the sampled air were measured using a SRI Gas Chromatograph (Model 8610C). Gas fluxes were calculated by fitting linear regressions through the data collected at t0 and t_30 and were corrected for temperature and amount of soil incubated. Gas measurements were carried out up to 55 days. To determine the statistical significance, Tukey tests were carried out at 0

  18. Self-adaptive Green-Ampt infiltration parameters obtained from measured moisture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Green-Ampt (G-A infiltration model (i.e., the G-A model is often used to characterize the infiltration process in hydrology. The parameters of the G-A model are critical in applications for the prediction of infiltration and associated rainfall-runoff processes. Previous approaches to determining the G-A parameters have depended on pedotransfer functions (PTFs or estimates from experimental results, usually without providing optimum values. In this study, rainfall simulators with soil moisture measurements were used to generate rainfall in various experimental plots. Observed runoff data and soil moisture dynamic data were jointly used to yield the infiltration processes, and an improved self-adaptive method was used to optimize the G-A parameters for various types of soil under different rainfall conditions. The two G-A parameters, i.e., the effective hydraulic conductivity and the effective capillary drive at the wetting front, were determined simultaneously to describe the relationships between rainfall, runoff, and infiltration processes. Through a designed experiment, the method for determining the G-A parameters was proved to be reliable in reflecting the effects of pedologic background in G-A type infiltration cases and deriving the optimum G-A parameters. Unlike PTF methods, this approach estimates the G-A parameters directly from infiltration curves obtained from rainfall simulation experiments so that it can be used to determine site-specific parameters. This study provides a self-adaptive method of optimizing the G-A parameters through designed field experiments. The parameters derived from field-measured rainfall-infiltration processes are more reliable and applicable to hydrological models.

  19. Uranium (VI) Sorption and Transport in Unsaturated, Subsurface Hanford Site Sediments - Effect of Moisture Content and Sediment Texture: Final Report for Subtask 2b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamerdinger, A.P.; Resch, C.T.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment. These experiments evaluated the sorption and transport of uranium, U(VI), under conditions of partial moisture saturation that are relevant to arid region burial sites and vadose-zone far-field conditions at the Hanford Site. The focus was on measuring breakthrough curves (from which distribution coefficient [K d ] values can be calculated) for U(W) in three Hanford Site sediments that represent different texture classes in two unsaturated moisture conditions. Previous research showed that K d values measured during transport in unsaturated sediments varied with moisture saturation

  20. Study of nitrate contaminated samples from a historic building with the hygroscopic moisture content method: Contribution of laboratory data to interpret results practical significance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Skružná, Olga; Válek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, March-April (2018), s. 57-69 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02H012 Keywords : soluble salts * hygroscopicity * moisture content * nitrate salts * deliquescence * porous building materials Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207417302649