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Sample records for measured metabolizable energy

  1. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n=18) was ...

  2. Proper expression of metabolizable energy in avian energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    We review metabolizable energy (ME) concepts and present evidence suggesting that the form of ME used for analyses of avian energetics can affect interpretation of results. Apparent ME (AME) is the most widely used measure of food energy available to birds. True ME(TME) differs from AME in recognizing fecal and urinary energy of nonfood origin as metabolized energy. Only AME values obtained from test birds fed at maintenance levels should be used for energy analyses. A practical assay for TME has shown that TME estimates are less sensitive than AME to variation in food intake. The TME assay may be particularly useful in studies of natural foods that are difficult to obtain in quantities large enough to supply test birds with maintenance requirements. Energy budgets calculated from existence metabolism should be expressed as kJ of AME and converted to food requirements with estimates of metabolizability given in kJ AME/g.

  3. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, SK; Novotny, JA; Bornhorst, GM; Baer, DJ

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n = 18) was conducted to measure the ME of different forms of almonds (42 g per day), as part of a controlled diet: whole, natural almonds; whole, roasted almonds; chop...

  4. Effect of caecectomy on true metabolizable energy and lysine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    True metabolizable energy, conected for nitrogen retention. cfMEx) and true rysine avilabiliry, was determined for maize and sunflower oilcake o,?, t*o ,u*ii"s of each, *O in-r*ples of fishmeal, soyabean oilcake -"ur -a sorghum meal using intact and caecectomized roosters. The roosters were allowed ad tibitum intake over a ...

  5. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Novotny, Janet A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Baer, David J

    2016-10-12

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n = 18) was conducted to measure the ME of different forms of almonds (42 g per day), as part of a controlled diet: whole, natural almonds; whole, roasted almonds; chopped almonds; almond butter; and control (0 g per day). After 9 days of adaptation to each diet, participants collected all urine and fecal samples for 9 days. Diets, urine, and feces were analyzed to determine ME. Fracture force and fracture properties of whole and chopped almonds were measured. Measured ME (kcal g -1 ) of whole natural almonds (4.42), whole roasted almonds (4.86), and chopped almonds (5.04) was significantly lower than predicted with Atwater factors (P almond butter (6.53 kcal g -1 ) was similar to predicted (P = 0.08). The ME of whole roasted and chopped almonds was lower than almond butter (P almonds was lower than whole roasted almonds (P almonds (345 ± 1.6 N) (P almonds fracturing into fewer, larger particles, thus inhibiting the release of lipids. Atwater factors overestimate the ME of whole (natural and roasted) and chopped almonds. The amount of calories absorbed from almonds is dependent on the form in which they are consumed.

  6. Metabolizable energy and oil intake in brown commercial layers

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    Amadeu Benedito Piozzi da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to establish the best metabolizable energy (ME intake for layers, and the best dietary vegetable oil addition level to optimize egg production, an experiment was carried out with 432 30-week-old Hisex Brown layers. Birds were distributed into nine treatments with six replicates of eight birds each according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three daily metabolizable energy intake (280, 300 or 320 kcal/bird/day and three oil levels (0.00; 0.75 and 1.50 g/bird/day. Daily feed intake was limited to 115, 110 and 105 g/bird in order to obtain the desired energy and oil intake in each treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: initial weight, final weight, body weight change, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and per egg mass and energy conversion. There was no influence of the treatments on egg production (% or egg mass (g/bird/day. Final weight and body weight change were significantly affected by increasing energy intake. Feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and energy conversion significantly worsened as a function of the increase in daily energy intake. An energy intake of 280 kcal/bird/day with no addition of dietary oil does not affect layer performance.

  7. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yong-Z; Zhang, Jian-Y; Zhao, Li-H; Ma, Qiu-G; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  8. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of rations with different levels of metabolizable energy on performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of rations with different levels of metabolizable energy on performance of laying hens. The experiment was conducted on 25 laying hens of the commercial high line W-36 strain with 4 treatments and 4 replicates (16 laying hens in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Treatments included: (1 diet with amount of metabolizable energy recommended by NRC in 1994 (as control group, (2 diet with 10% higher level of metabolizable energy than that recommended by NRC in 1994, (3 diet with 10% lower level of metabolizable energy than that recommended by NRC in 1994 and (4 diet with 15% lower level of metabolizable energy than that recommended by NRC in 1994 which were fed for 10 weeks (from the age of 41 to 51 weeks to the laying hens. The results demonstrated that the amount of feed intake was significantly different among treatments (p

  10. Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.

  11. Calculating the metabolizable energy of macronutrients: a critical review of Atwater's results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, M Judith; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C; Velasco-Ramírez, Sandra F; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; González-Ortiz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies. This review presents specific guidelines for establishing new experimental procedures to estimate more precise and/or more accurate values for the metabolizable energy of macronutrients. The importance of estimating these values in light of their possible dependence on certain nutritional parameters and/or physical activity patterns of individuals is emphasized. The use of more precise values would allow better management of the current overweight and obesity epidemic. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  13. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements, and to determine relationships between these traits and growth trajectories. Crossbred Large White × L...

  14. Genetic background in partitioning of metabolizable energy efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, T; Negussie, E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A; Lidauer, M H

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic differences in metabolizable energy efficiency and efficiency in partitioning metabolizable energy in different pathways: maintenance, milk production, and growth in primiparous dairy cows. Repeatability models for residual energy intake (REI) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) were compared and the genetic and permanent environmental variations in MEI were partitioned into its energy sinks using random regression models. We proposed 2 new feed efficiency traits: metabolizable energy efficiency (MEE), which is formed by modeling MEI fitting regressions on energy sinks [metabolic body weight (BW 0.75 ), energy-corrected milk, body weight gain, and body weight loss] directly; and partial MEE (pMEE), where the model for MEE is extended with regressions on energy sinks nested within additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The data used were collected from Luke's experimental farms Rehtijärvi and Minkiö between 1998 and 2014. There were altogether 12,350 weekly MEI records on 495 primiparous Nordic Red dairy cows from wk 2 to 40 of lactation. Heritability estimates for REI and MEE were moderate, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The estimate of the residual variance was smaller for MEE than for REI, indicating that analyzing weekly MEI observations simultaneously with energy sinks is preferable. Model validation based on Akaike's information criterion showed that pMEE models fitted the data even better and also resulted in smaller residual variance estimates. However, models that included random regression on BW 0.75 converged slowly. The resulting genetic standard deviation estimate from the pMEE coefficient for milk production was 0.75 MJ of MEI/kg of energy-corrected milk. The derived partial heritabilities for energy efficiency in maintenance, milk production, and growth were 0.02, 0.06, and 0.04, respectively, indicating that some genetic variation may exist in the efficiency of using

  15. Digestibility, Determination of Metabolizable Energy and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed with Nutritionally Valued Phytase

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    FH Litz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using exoenzyme phytase in broiler's diets on digestibility of nutrients, feed energy and tibia bone mineralization. A completely randomized design was used, with the following treatments: sorghum with dicalcium phosphate (SDP, corn with dicalcium phosphate (CDP, sorghum with meat and bone meal (SMBM, sorghum with valued phytase (SVP and sorghum with phytase without valued (SPWV. For digestibility analysis, eighty 15 day old broilers were used, a total of 1400 male Hubbard Flex chickens, which were submitted to total excreta collection to obtain the percentages of food digestibility, crude protein, ether extract, apparent metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus while for tibias mineralization. Six birds per treatment were used, where determination of mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were performed. Metabolizable energy (ME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn of the feed were also calculated. Data were subjected to variation analysis and the average compared by 5% Tukey test. There was no difference between treatments for the digestibility at 15-20 day old as well as for the feed energy values, but the diets with phytase had higher phosphorous percentage values for tibia bone mineralization, demonstrating that exogenous phytase enzyme is able to hydrolyze phytate origininated from plant and release the phosphorus for assimilation by animals, acting as a substitute for phosphorus plant sources.

  16. Improved prediction of meat and bone meal metabolizable energy content for ducks through in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Phillips, J G; Adeola, O

    2012-08-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of meat and bone meal (MBM) for poultry is highly variable, but impractical to measure routinely. Previous efforts at developing an in vitro method for predicting AME have had limited success. The present study uses data from a previous publication on the AME of 12 MBM samples, determined using 288 White Pekin ducks, as well as composition data on these samples. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that 2 noncompositional attributes of MBM, particle size and protease resistance, will have utility in improving predictions of AME based on in vitro measurements. Using the same MBM samples as the previous study, 2 measurements of particle size were recorded and protease resistance was determined using a modified pepsin digestibility assay. Analysis of the results using a stepwise construction of multiple linear regression models revealed that the measurements of particle size were useful in building models for AME, but the measure of protease resistance was not. Relatively simple (4-term) and complex (7-term) models for both AME and nitrogen-corrected AME were constructed, with R-squared values ranging from 0.959 to 0.996. The rather minor analytical effort required to conduct the measurements involved is discussed. Although the generality of the results are limited by the number of samples involved and the species used, they suggest that AME for poultry can be accurately predicted through simple and inexpensive in vitro methods.

  17. Adjustment of equations to predict the metabolizable energy of corn for meat type quails

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    Tiago Junior Pasquetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metabolizable energy (ME determination for foods used in quail diets, through metabolism assays, takes time, infrastructure and financial resources, which makes the development of prediction equations based on proximal composition of foods to estimate the ME values of particular interest. The objective of this study was to adjust the prediction equations of metabolizable energy (ME of corn for quail. The chemical compositions of 12 maize varieties were determined and a metabolism assay was carried out in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of these corn varieties. The values of chemical composition, AME and AMEn, converted to dry matter, were used to adjust the prediction equations. The initial adjustment of simple and multiple linear regression of the AME and AMEn was performed using the values of crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral (NDF and acid (ADF detergent fiber, mineral matter (MM, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P as regressors (full model. To adjust the prediction equations the statistical procedure of simple and multiple linear regression was used, with the technique of indirect elimination (Backward. There was adjustment of 10 prediction equations, in which five were for AME and another five for AMEn, the R² values of which ranged from 0.20 to 0.75 and from 0.21 to 0.78, respectively. For all adjusted equations, negative correlations for MM were observed, which may be related to its dilutive effect of the gross energy contained in corn. In conclusion, the equations that showed better adjustment were AME= 5605.46 - 385.074CP + 111.648EE + 48.1133NDF + 303.924ADF - 929.931MM (R²= 0.75 and AMEn= 5878.16 - 403.937CP + 81.9618EE + 41.8954NDF + 303.506FDA - 901.621MM (R²= 0.78.

  18. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

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    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  19. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  20. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

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    C. X. Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals. The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg. The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84 MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31 MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values.

  1. Metabolizable energy of corn hybrids for broiler chickens at different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Kato,Reinaldo Kanji; Bertechini,Antonio Gilberto; Fassani,Edison José; Brito,Jerônimo Avito Gonçalves de; Castro,Solange de Faria

    2011-01-01

    We determined the values of apparent metabolizable (AME), apparent corrected (AMEn), true (TME) and true corrected (TMEn) energy of six corn hybrids for broiler chickens in phases 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35 and 36-42 day-old birds, using the substitution method (40%) of reference diet with the test ingredient. Ross-308 male chicks (1,134) were allotted to metabolism cages and the number of birds per experimental unit was adjusted to suit each bird's density stage in the cage, using six re...

  2. The influence of Aspergillus niger inoculum dosage on nutritive value and metabolizable energy of apu-apu meal (Pistia stratiotes L.) on broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, J.; Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Daulay, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Apu-apu lives at tropical and subtropical fresh waterways. The apu-apu meals ultization as feed still limited. The problem of ultization apu-apu meals as ingredients is a high crude fiber and need a treatment to decrease crude fiber. This study aim to find out the influence of Aspergillus niger inoculums dosage on apu-apu meal (Pistia stratiotes L.) on metabolizable energy on broiler chicken. This research used completely randomize design (CRD). The treatments consists of Aspergillus niger inoculum dosage (CFU/g) such as P0 (0), P1 (104 CFU/g), P2 (106 CFU/g), and P3 (108 CFU/g). The variable were observed : apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME), apparent metabolizable energy nitrogen corrected (AMEn) and true metabolizable energy nitrogen corrected (TMEn).The results showed that the dosage of Aspergillus niger increase nutritive value of Aspergillus niger. Dosage of Aspergillus niger also influence (P<0.05) metabolizable energy of apu-apu meals. Dosage 108 CFU/g had metabolizable energy significantly higher than other treatments. Conclusion of this research is the Aspergillus niger at the dosage 108 CFU/g increased nutritive value and metabolizable energy of apu-apu meal.

  3. Digestibility Is Similar between Commercial Diets That Provide Ingredients with Different Perceived Glycemic Responses and the Inaccuracy of Using the Modified Atwater Calculation to Calculate Metabolizable Energy

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    Asaro, Natalie J.; Guevara, Marcial A.; Berendt, Kimberley; Zijlstra, Ruurd; Shoveller, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary starch is required for a dry, extruded kibble; the most common diet type for domesticated felines in North America. However, the amount and source of dietary starch may affect digestibility and metabolism of other macronutrients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 3 commercial cat diets on in vivo and in vitro energy and macronutrient digestibility, and to analyze the accuracy of the modified Atwater equation. Dietary treatments differed in their perceived glycemic response (PGR) based on ingredient composition and carbohydrate content (34.1, 29.5, and 23.6% nitrogen-free extract for High, Medium, and LowPGR, respectively). A replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design was used, with 3 diets and 3 periods. In vivo apparent protein, fat, and organic matter digestibility differed among diets, while apparent dry matter digestibility did not. Cats were able to efficiently digest and absorb macronutrients from all diets. Furthermore, the modified Atwater equation underestimated measured metabolizable energy by approximately 12%. Thus, the modified Atwater equation does not accurately determine the metabolizable energy of high quality feline diets. Further research should focus on understanding carbohydrate metabolism in cats, and establishing an equation that accurately predicts the metabolizable energy of feline diets. PMID:29117110

  4. Digestibility Is Similar between Commercial Diets That Provide Ingredients with Different Perceived Glycemic Responses and the Inaccuracy of Using the Modified Atwater Calculation to Calculate Metabolizable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Asaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary starch is required for a dry, extruded kibble; the most common diet type for domesticated felines in North America. However, the amount and source of dietary starch may affect digestibility and metabolism of other macronutrients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 3 commercial cat diets on in vivo and in vitro energy and macronutrient digestibility, and to analyze the accuracy of the modified Atwater equation. Dietary treatments differed in their perceived glycemic response (PGR based on ingredient composition and carbohydrate content (34.1, 29.5, and 23.6% nitrogen-free extract for High, Medium, and LowPGR, respectively. A replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design was used, with 3 diets and 3 periods. In vivo apparent protein, fat, and organic matter digestibility differed among diets, while apparent dry matter digestibility did not. Cats were able to efficiently digest and absorb macronutrients from all diets. Furthermore, the modified Atwater equation underestimated measured metabolizable energy by approximately 12%. Thus, the modified Atwater equation does not accurately determine the metabolizable energy of high quality feline diets. Further research should focus on understanding carbohydrate metabolism in cats, and establishing an equation that accurately predicts the metabolizable energy of feline diets.

  5. Performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed with two levels of metabolizable energy intake during summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R A; Keim, J P; Gandarillas, M; Velásquez, A; Alvarado-Gilis, C; Mader, T L

    2018-05-22

    Climate change is producing an increase on extreme weather events around the world such as flooding, drought and extreme ambient temperatures impacting animal production and animal welfare. At present, there is a lack of studies addressing the effects of climatic conditions associated with energy intake in finishing cattle in South American feed yards. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental variables and level of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance requirements (MEI) on performance and carcass quality of steers. In each experiment (winter and summer), steers were fed with 1.85 or 2.72 times of their requirements of metabolizable energy of maintenance. A total of 24 crossbred steers per experiment were used and located in four pens (26.25 m2/head) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System. Animals were fed with the same diet within each season, varying the amount offered to adjust the MEI treatments. Mud depth, mud scores, tympanic temperature (TT), environmental variables, average daily gain, respiration rates and carcass characteristics plus three thermal comfort indices were collected. Data analysis considered a factorial arrangement (Season and MEI). In addition, a repeated measures analysis was performed for TT and respiration rate. Mean values of ambient temperature, solar radiation and comfort thermal indices were greater in the summer experiment as expected (Pcarcass characteristics were affected by season but not by the level of MEI. Finally, due to the high variability of data as well as the small number of animals assessed in these experiments, more studies on carcass characteristics under similar conditions are required.

  6. Determinação da energia metabolizável de alimentos para codornas japonesas em postura Metabolizable energy of different feedstuffs tested in female Japanese quails

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    A.M.A. Moura

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida por retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn e do coeficiente de metabolização aparente da energia bruta (CMAEB% do milho, sorgo, farelo de soja, farelo de glúten de milho e óleo de soja refinado. Foram utilizadas 240 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, fêmeas com idade inicial de 60 dias, em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao caso, com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e oito codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações experimentais e uma ração referência. Cada ração experimental foi constituída, na base da matéria natural, por 70% da ração referência e 30% do ingrediente a ser testado, com exceção da ração para determinação da EMAn do óleo de soja, com 10% de inclusão e 90% da ração referência. O experimento foi realizado em gaiolas distribuídas em baterias metálicas. Os valores de EMA, EMAn (em kcal/kg de matéria natural e do CMAEB (% do milho moído, sorgo, farelo de soja, farelo de glúten de milho e óleo de soja refinado foram, respectivamente: 3.572 e 3.612kcal/kg e 92,6%; 3.108 e 3.149kcal/kg e 80,9%; 2.633 e 2.676kcal/kg e 65,3%; 4.043 e 4.096kcal/kg e 75,0%; 9.335 e 9.379kcal/kg e 98,8%. Os valores de EMA descritos para outras espécies de aves são discrepantes dos obtidos no presente estudo, não sendo recomendado seu uso em formulação de rações para codornas japonesas em postura.The values of the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn, and the apparent metabolization coefficient of crude energy (AMCCE were determined in corn, sorghum, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, and refined soybean oil. Two-hundred and forty six-day-old female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica were used in a completely randomized design, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unit. The

  7. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

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    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  8. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  9. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

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    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  10. Starch digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy of western Canadian wheat market classes in broiler chickens.

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    Karunaratne, N D; Abbott, D A; Hucl, P J; Chibbar, R N; Pozniak, C J; Classen, H L

    2018-05-16

    Wheat is the primary grain fed to poultry in western Canada, but its nutritional quality, including the nature of its starch digestibility, may be affected by wheat market class. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and extent of starch digestibility of wheat market classes in broiler chickens, and to determine the relationship between starch digestibility and wheat apparent metabolizable energy (AME). In vitro starch digestion was assessed using gastric and small intestinal phases mimicking the chicken digestive tract, while in vivo evaluation used 468 male broiler chickens randomly assigned to dietary treatments from 0 to 21 d of age. The study evaluated 2 wheat cultivars from each of 6 western Canadian wheat classes: Canadian Prairie Spring (CPS), Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), CW General Purpose (CWGP), CW Hard White Spring (CWHWS), CW Red Spring (CWRS), and CW Soft White Spring (CWSWS). All samples were analyzed for relevant grain characteristics. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design and cultivars were nested within market class. Pearson correlation was used to determine relationships between measured characteristics. Significance level was P ≤ 0.05. The starch digestibility range and wheat class rankings were: proximal jejunum - 23.7 to 50.6% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); distal jejunum - 63.5 to 76.4% (CWHWSc, CPSbc, CWSWSbc, CWRSab, CWGPa, CWADa); proximal ileum - 88.7 to 96.9% (CWSWSc, CPSbc, CWHWSbc, CWRSb, CWGPb, CWADa); distal ileum - 94.4 to 98.5% (CWSWSb, CWHWSb, CPSb, CWRSab, CWGPab, CWADa); excreta - 98.4 to 99.3% (CPSb, CWRSb, CWHWSb, CWSWSab, CWGPab, CWADa). Wheat class affected wheat AMEn with levels ranging from 3,203 to 3,411 kcal/kg at 90% DM (CWRSc, CWSWSc, CPSb, CWGPb, CWADa, CWHWSa). Significant and moderately strong positive correlations were observed between in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility, but no correlations were found between AME and starch digestibility. In

  11. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  12. TRUE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FIVE Vigna unguiculata VARIETIES IN CHICKENS

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    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment on grain true metabolizable energy (TME, dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of five Vigna unguiculata varieties: H82, T782, TM97, C666 y XL. The grain of the former three varieties were heat-treated, and offered raw or cooked, whereas grain of the late two varieties were used only row, resulting in a total of eight treatments. The heat treatment consisted of watering the grains with boiling water for 30 minutes and drying at 60°C.  Forty-five Hubbard male chickens (2.1 ± 0.2 kg housed in individual wire pens were used to evaluate the treatments. Five chickens from each treatment were fed 40 g of treated grain in mash form, using the force-feeding technique. Additionally, five fasted chickens were used to calculate the endogenous energy and DM losses. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance according to the randomized statistical model; to evaluate the effect of heat treatment orthogonal contrasts were performed. There were no significant differences in all the variables neither among varieties nor between heat treatments (P>0.05. TME values in this study were similar to those found in the literature and equivalent to the TME value of soybean meal, a conventional feedstuff used in the poultry industry.

  13. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

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    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  14. Determination of digestible and metabolizable energy of fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Sayed Kamaleddin; Soofiani, Nasrollah Mahboobi; Pourreza, Javad

    2007-10-15

    The present research carried out to measure digestible (DE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) for fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (120 and 220 g mean body weights). DE and ME are evaluation systems for feedstuffs and also, necessary for diet formulation. The fishes were maintained in metabolic chamber with single ingredient assay of feeding and chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was used as an external marker using total fecal collection method. Gross energy and chromic oxide values measured in feces, fishmeal and soybean meal. The results indicated that DE offishmeal was 3700 and 3591 kcal kg(-1) in 120 and 220 g body weight rainbow trout, respectively. Soybean meal had 3004 and 2889 kcal kg(-1) respectively. Calculated ME from DE were 3204 and 3110 kcal kg(-1) for fishmeal and 2601 and 2502 kcal kg(-1) for soybean meal in 120 and 220 g rainbow trout, respectively. The results showed that rainbow trout can utilize fishmeal more efficiently than soybean meal.

  15. Developing a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the concentration of metabolizable energy of feedstuffs for rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Ren, L Q; Mi, B M; Tan, H Z; Zhao, J T; Li, H; Zhang, H F; Zhang, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) for predicting apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) using in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) content of feeds for roosters. In Exp. 1, the repeatability of the IVDE assay was tested in corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal with 3 assays of each sample and each with 5 replicates of the same sample. In Exp. 2, the additivity of IVDE concentration in corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal was tested by comparing determined IVDE values of the complete diet with values predicted from measurements on individual ingredients. In Exp. 3, linear models to predict AME and TME based on IVDE were developed with 16 calibration samples. In Exp. 4, the accuracy of prediction models was tested by the differences between predicted and determined values for AME or TME of 6 ingredients and 4 diets. In Exp. 1, the mean CV of IVDE was 0.88% (range = 0.20 to 2.14%) for corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal. No difference in IVDE was observed between 3 assays of an ingredient, indicating that the IVDE assay is repeatable under these conditions. In Exp. 2, minimal differences (<21 kcal/kg) were observed between determined and calculated IVDE of 3 complete diets formulated with corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal, demonstrating that the IVDE values are additive in a complete diet. In Exp. 3, linear relationships between AME and IVDE and between TME and IVDE were observed in 16 calibration samples: AME = 1.062 × IVDE - 530 (R(2) = 0.97, residual standard deviation [RSD] = 146 kcal/kg, P < 0.001) and TME = 1.050 × IVDE - 16 (R(2) = 0.97, RSD = 148 kcal/kg, P < 0.001). Differences of less than 100 kcal/kg were observed between determined and predicted values in 10 and 9 of the 16 calibration samples for AME and TME, respectively. In Exp. 4, differences of less than 100 kcal/kg between determined and predicted

  16. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

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    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  17. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain and requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

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    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável (EM, para ganho de peso, e as exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore, não-castrados, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado. Foram utilizados 29 animais com, em média, idade de 17 meses e peso vivo inicial de 354 kg. Cinco animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, como referência, e o restante foi alimentado à vontade e distribuído nos tratamentos, de forma inteiramente casualizada, de acordo com o nível de concentrado na ração: 25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75%. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram o peso de 500 kg. As concentrações de energia líquida das rações foram calculadas e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso foram estimadas, por análise de regressão, entre as energias líquidas para ganho, em relação à energia metabolizável (EM das rações. As exigências de EM para ganho de um quilograma de peso de corpo vazio aumentaram, à medida que se elevou o peso corporal dos animais e diminuíram, para mesmo peso vivo, à medida que se elevaram os níveis de concentrado nas rações. Estimaram-se as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso em: 0,27; 0,26; 0,36; 0,39; e 0,42. O nível de concentrado melhorou a eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso.The objective of this work was to estimate the efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization (ME for weight gain, and the requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls fed diets containing different concentrate levels. Twenty-nine animals averaging 17 of age and initial live weight of 354 kg were used. Five animals were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment, as a reference, and the remainders were full fed and allotted to a completely randomized

  18. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes determinada com codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metabolizable energy of feedstuffs determined in japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento um foi realizado para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn de nove alimentos utilizando codornas japonesas em crescimento. No experimento dois, objetivou-se comparar formulações de rações utilizando EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja determinada para frangos de corte e poedeiras, com aquelas determinadas com codornas com 22 a 27 dias de idade e 65 dias de idade. No experimento um, foram utilizadas 400 codornas em crescimento recebendo uma dieta basal (DB e nove misturas compostas por 70% da DB + 30% dos alimentos testes, totalizando dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de dez aves. No experimento dois, 160 codornas européias em postura receberam três tratamentos durante três períodos de 15 dias de duração, com doze repetições de cinco aves. Os valores de EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg determinados para os alimentos de origem vegetal foram, respectivamente, 3.340 e 3.354 para o milho moído, 2.718 e 2.456 para o farelo de soja, 3.453 e 3.084 para a soja integral extrusada, 1.624 e 1.593 para o farelo de trigo, 4.558 e 3.992 para o farelo de glúten de milho, 3.329 e 3.378 para a farinha de mandioca e 1.238 e 1.223 para a farinha integral da vagem de algaroba e para os alimentos de origem animal, respectivamente, de 2874 e 2453 para a farinha de peixe e 3090 e 2791 para a farinha de vísceras. A EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja estimada com codornas não melhorou o consumo, produção, peso e conversão por massa de ovos, validando o uso da energia desses ingredientes determinada com frangos de corte e poedeiras para compor rações para codornas.The experiment one was carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected ME (AMEn of nine feedstuffs in Japanese quails. The objective of the experiment two was to compare diets formulated with AMEn of corn and soybean meal, usually fed to broilers and laying hens, with diets formulated

  19. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

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    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  20. Metabolizable energy levels for semi-heavy laying hens at the second production cycle Níveis de energia metabolizável para poedeiras semipesadas no segundo ciclo de produção

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the energy levels in the diet to obtain better performance rates and quality of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle. One hundred and eighty Bovans Goldline laying hens with 62 weeks of age were used during four 28-day periods. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four metabolizable energy levels (2,650, 2,725, 2,800, 2,875 and 2,950 kcal/kg, each with six replicates of six birds. The energy level of diet did not affect the weight of the egg, yolk, albumen and eggshell, the percentages of yolk, albumen and eggshell, yolk color and egg specific gravity. Feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per dozen eggs increased significantly with increasing levels of metabolizable energy. Feed intake decreased linearly as the energy level in the diet increased. The metabolizable energy levels showed a quadratic effect on egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per dozen eggs. The metabolizable energy level of 2,830 kcal/kg was the most appropriate to promote better performance and quality of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar níveis energéticos na dieta para obtenção de melhores índices de desempenho e qualidade de ovos de poedeiras de segundo ciclo de produção. Utilizaram-se 180 poedeiras com 62 semanas de idade, da linhagem Bovans Goldline, durante quatro períodos de 28 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de energia metabolizável (2.650, 2.725, 2.800, 2.875 e 2.950 kcal/kg de ração, cada um com seis repetições de seis aves. O nível energético da dieta não influenciou os pesos do ovo, da gema, do albúmen e da casca, as porcentagens de gema, albúmen e casca, a coloração da gema e a gravidade específica do ovo. O consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, a massa do ovo e a conversão por massa

  1. Níveis de energia metabolizável em rações para frangos de corte mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura Metabolizable energy levels in diets for broiler maintained in environment of high temperature

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    Firmino José Vieira Barbosa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentas aves com peso médio de 675,00 g foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com base no peso das aves, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As dietas experimentais foram constituídas de cinco níveis de energia metabolizável (2.800, 2.900, 3.000, 3.100 e 3.200 kcal de EM/kg de ração formuladas para atender às exigências nutricionais, exceto de energia metabolizável. O aumento do nível de energia das rações foi obtido pela adição de óleo de soja. Realizaram-se análises de variância e de regressão, associando-se os níveis de energia aos valores das variáveis estudadas. As aves foram avaliadas quanto ao desempenho (consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e às características de carcaça nos períodos de 22 a 35 dias, 36 a 42 dias, 43 aos 49 dias e de 22 a 49 dias de idade. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar de frangos de corte da linhagem Hubbard mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura não são influenciados pelos níveis de energia metabolizável da ração. Os níveis de energia da dieta não afetam os rendimentos de carcaça, coxa, sobrecoxa, asa, tulipa, moela coração fígado, proventrículo e intestino. Entretanto, a gordura abdominal aumenta e o rendimento de peito decresce proporcionalmente à elevação da energia da dieta em ambiente de altas temperaturas.Four hundred birds Hubbard linage with average weight of 675g were distributed to completely randomized block design, based in birds he weight, with five treatments and four replications. The experimental diets were constituted of five metabolizable energy levels (2,800, 2,900, 3,000, 3,100 and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg ration formulated to attend the nutritional requirements, except for metabolizable energy. The increase of energy was obtained by the addition of soybean oil. The variance and regression analysis was made, associating the energy levels with the values of the studied characteristics. The birds

  2. Silencing of Soybean Raffinose Synthase Gene Reduced Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides and Increased True Metabolizable Energy of Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Valentine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2, to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets.

  3. Silencing of Soybean Raffinose Synthase Gene Reduced Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides and Increased True Metabolizable Energy of Poultry Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Michelle F.; De Tar, Joann R.; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Firman, Jeffre D.; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.

    2017-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2), to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME) in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets. PMID:28559898

  4. Variability in amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy of corn studied in cecectomized laying hens1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, T; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-06-01

    To optimize the use of corn grain in diets for laying hens, differences in amino acid (AA) digestibility and metabolizable energy among different corn samples should be considered in feed formulation. The present study investigated the variability of AA digestibility and AMEn concentration of 20 corn samples in cecectomized laying hens. Corn grains were characterized based on their physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, grain density, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen to study any relationship with AA digestibility or AMEn. The animal study comprised 4 Latin squares (6 × 6) distributed between 2 subsequent runs. Cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and fed either a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 corn diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one corn batch, for 8 days. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. A linear regression approach was used to calculate AA digestibility of the corn. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 corn batches, including Lys (digestibility range 64 to 85%), Met (86 to 94%), Thr (72 to 89%), and Trp (21 to 88%). The AMEn of the corn batches ranged between 15.7 and 17.1 MJ/kg DM. However, consistent correlations between AA digestibility or AMEn and the physical and chemical characteristics of the grains were not detected. Equations to predict AA digestibility or AMEn based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regressions. The explanatory power (adjusted R2;) of prediction equations was below 0.6 for the majority of AA and AMEn, and, thus, was not sufficiently precise for practical use. Possible explanations for the variation in AA digestibility and AMEn beyond the determined characteristics

  5. Efeito do nível de energia metabolizável da dieta no desempenho e metabolismo energético de frangos de corte Effect of dietary metabolizable energy on energy metabolism and performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, estudar o efeito dos níveis de energia metabolizável (EM da dieta sobre o desempenho e o metabolismo energético de frangos de corte machos na fase de crescimento (22 a 43 dias de idade em condições de temperatura ambiente. Foram utilizadas 288 aves distribuídas aleatoriamente por três níveis de energia da dieta (3.050, 3.200 e 3.350 kcal/kg e três níveis de alimentação (ad libitum, 75 e 50% do ad libitum, com quatro repetições de oito aves, para determinação das exigências de mantença e das eficiências energéticas. Foi utilizado o método do abate comparativo, sendo que 12 aves foram abatidas no início do ensaio experimental, para determinação da composição corporal inicial, e 144 aves foram usadas para determinação da energia metabolizável das dietas experimentais. Os níveis de energia influenciaram na ingestão de energia metabolizável (IEM e, conseqüentemente, a retenção de energia na carcaça (ER e a produção de calor (PC. As exigências de energia metabolizável de mantença (EMm determinadas foram 131,12; 140,96 e 131,78 kcal/kg0,75/dia para os níveis de energia alto, médio e baixo, respectivamente. O nível de energia mais alto (3.350 kcal/kg na dieta dos frangos de corte proporcionou melhores resultados de desempenho, enquanto o médio (3.200 kcal/kg, melhor equilíbrio na eficiência de utilização de energia para deposição de proteína e gordura, conseqüentemente, melhor qualidade da carcaça, em decorrência da menor deposição de gordura.The objective of this work was to study the effect of dietary ME levels on the performance and the energy metabolism of male broilers on growing phase, from 22 to 43 days old. Two hundred and eighty-eight broilers were ramdomly assigned to three energy levels (3,050; 3,200 and 3,350 kcal/kg and three feeding levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% ad libitum, with four replicates of eight birds, to determine the energy maintenance

  6. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of crude glycerines originated from palm oil using fed rooster assay

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    Astiari Tia Legawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the dry matter digestibility, gross energy (GE, the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, and the nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of two crude glycerine from two different sources. The first crude glycerine (CG1 was from a large scale biodiesel producer with high content of glycerol (89.49% and low content of crude fat (1.73%, meanwhile the second crude glycerine (CG2 was from a medium scale biodiesel producer with lower content of glycerol than CG1 (38.36% and high content of crude fat (23.63%. Fed rooster assay based on Sibbald (1976 was used in the experiment. The experimental feed consisted of ground corn and three levels of crude glycerine (0, 10, and 20%. Twenty four Hisex brown roosters were housed in metabolic cages. Roosters were force fed with 30 g experimental feed, after 24 hours of fasting. Excreta collection was performed for two days while the roosters were fasting again. The content values of GE, AMEn, and TMEn of CG1 were 4065.18, 2926.59, and 3068.73 kcal kg-1 and for CG2 were 5928.09, 4010.11, and 4054.52 kcal kg, respectively.

  7. Application of Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machines in Predicting Metabolizable Energy in Compound Feeds for Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In the nutrition literature, there are several reports on the use of artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) approaches for predicting feed composition and nutritive value, while the use of support vector machines (SVM) method as a new alternative approach to MLR and ANN models is still not fully investigated. The MLR, ANN, and SVM models were developed to predict metabolizable energy (ME) content of compound feeds for pigs based on the German energy evaluation system from analyzed contents of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), and starch. A total of 290 datasets from standardized digestibility studies with compound feeds was provided from several institutions and published papers, and ME was calculated thereon. Accuracy and precision of developed models were evaluated, given their produced prediction values. The results revealed that the developed ANN [ R 2  = 0.95; root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.19 MJ/kg of dry matter] and SVM ( R 2  = 0.95; RMSE = 0.21 MJ/kg of dry matter) models produced better prediction values in estimating ME in compound feed than those produced by conventional MLR ( R 2  = 0.89; RMSE = 0.27 MJ/kg of dry matter). The developed ANN and SVM models produced better prediction values in estimating ME in compound feed than those produced by conventional MLR; however, there were not obvious differences between performance of ANN and SVM models. Thus, SVM model may also be considered as a promising tool for modeling the relationship between chemical composition and ME of compound feeds for pigs. To provide the readers and nutritionist with the easy and rapid tool, an Excel ® calculator, namely, SVM_ME_pig, was created to predict the metabolizable energy values in compound feeds for pigs using developed support vector machine model.

  8. Nutritional value and metabolizable energy of wheat by‑products used for feeding growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wesendonck, Willian Rui; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello; Ribeiro, Andrea Machado Leal; Somensi, Marcelo Luiz; Bockor, Luciane; Dadalt, Julio Cezar; Monteiro, Alessandra Nardina Trícia Rigo; Marx, Fábio Ritter

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, c...

  9. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  10. Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and gain and evaluation of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model in Santa Ines sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to estimate efficiencies of the utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (k m and weight gain (k g and to evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS model in predicting dry matter intake and average daily gain of growing Santa Ines sheep. Twenty-four non-castrated Santa Ines sheep, at 50 days of age and with average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were used. After a 10-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as reference for estimating initial empty body weight and body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were distributed in a random block design, with the treatments consisting of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM, with five replicates. The metabolizable energy use efficiencies for maintenance and for weight gain were calculated from the relationship between the dietary net energy for maintenance and gain and ME concentration in the diets. Evaluation of the SRNS model was performed by adjustment of simple linear regression model between the predicted (independent variable and observed (dependent variable values. The estimated energy use efficiency for maintenance (k m was 0.70; and for gain weight (kg it showed to be inversely proportional to the increase of metabolizable energy concentration in the diet. The dry matter intake predicted by the SRNS model did not statistically differ from that observed, but the model overestimated the average daily gain by 5.18%. Those results can contribute to the construction of a database, which could be condensed into several others in a predictive model of performance and feed planning for sheep reared in Brazil.

  11. Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saenphoom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p0.05 among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet was higher (p0.05 FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not different (p>0.05 among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p0.05 among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.

  12. Oxidação lipídica do óleo de vísceras de aves para redução de seu conteúdo de energia metabolizável para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento Lipid oxidation decreases metabolizable energy value of dietary poultry fat for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mondini Calil Racanicci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar os teores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para o nitrogênio (EMAn do óleo de vísceras de aves fresco e oxidado, foi conduzido um ensaio metabólico utilizando-se 48 machos AgRoss com 31 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas metabólicas e o método utilizado foi o de coleta total de excretas. Foi fornecida uma dieta-referência com ou sem substituição de 10% pelo óleo de vísceras de aves fresco ou oxidado, sendo que cada dieta foi oferecida a quatro repetições de quatro aves. O período de coleta foi de quatro dias após três dias de adaptação às dietas e às gaiolas. O óleo de vísceras de aves foi adquirido de um produtor local e armazenado sob congelamento a -18ºC (óleo fresco. O óleo oxidado foi obtido por aquecimento em banho-maria com temperatura entre 80 e 90ºC. Durante o período de aquecimento, a qualidade deste óleo foi controlada por avaliações periódicas da absorbância específica, que indica o acúmulo de compostos de ranço. Os valores de absorbância específica, medidos a 232 e 270 nm, foram, respectivamente, de 4,64 e 0,47 para o óleo fresco e de 18,54 e 3,76 para o óleo oxidado. Os resultados obtidos, expressos na matéria original, para EMA e EMAn foram de 9.240 e 9.150 kcal/kg para o óleo de vísceras fresco e 7.700 e 7.595 kcal/kg para o óleo oxidado, comprovando estatisticamente grande redução no conteúdo de energia metabolizável do óleo decorrente do processo oxidativo.In order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of fresh and oxidized poultry fat a metabolism assay with 48 AgRoss male broilers from 31 to 34 days of age was conducted. The birds were fed a basal diet or this diet replaced by 10% of fresh or oxidized fat and the total excreta collection method was applied. The birds were housed in metabolic cages and each diet was

  13. Avaliação de modelos de predição da energia metabolizável do milho para suínos Evaluating models to predict the metabolizable energy of maize for swine

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    R.N. Pelizzeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos propostos no presente trabalho foram a validação da predição de modelos de regressão linear de 1º grau, dos valores estimados de energia metabolizável (EM em função dos valores observados de EM do milho, obtidos em ensaios biológicos com suínos. Setenta e quatro registros de composição química e energética do milho foram obtidos na literatura e utilizados para estimar a EM de 41 modelos de predição em função da composição química. A significância dos parâmetros (β0 e β1 da regressão foi avaliada pelo teste t parcial, e a validação da predição dos modelos de 1º grau foi obtida pela aceitação da hipótese de nulidade conjunta β0=0 e β1=1. Os modelos EM7 = 1,099 + 0,740EB - 5,5MM - 3,7FDN; EM9 = 16,13 - 9,5FDN + 16EE + 23PB*FDN - 138MM*FDN e EM13 = 5,42 - 17,2FDN - 19,4MM + 0,709EB são os mais adequados para estimar os valores de EM do milho e podem ser utilizados como ferramenta para formulação de rações para suínos.The proposed objective of this study was to validate the prediction of linear regression models of the first degree, the estimated values of metabolizable energy (ME regarding the observed ME values of maize obtained in biological assays with swine. Seventy four records of chemical and energetic composition of maize were obtained from literature and used to estimate the ME of 41 prediction models depending on the chemical composition. The significance of the regression parameters (β0and β1was evaluated by partial t test and the prediction validation of first degree models was obtained by accepting the null hypothesis β0=0 and β1=1. The ME7= 1.099 + 0.740GE - 5.5MM - 3.7NDF; ME9= 16.13 - 9.5NDF + 16EE + 23CP*NDF - 138MM* NDF and ME13= 5.42 - 17.2 NDF - 19.4MM + 0.709GE models are the most adequate to estimate the metabolizable energy of maize and can be used as a tool to formulate diets for swine.

  14. The evaluation of metabolizable energy in traditional Korean food for protein sources

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    Eunmi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The various food ingredients involved in the cooking process of traditional Korean food lead to differences between the energy level attained from chemical analysis and from actual animal testing.

  15. Efeito de níveis de proteína bruta e de energia metabolizável na dieta sobre o desempenho de codornas de postura Dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy levels on laying quails performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Chalegre de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB e de energia metabolizável (EM sobre o desempenho de codornas de postura. Foram utilizadas 672 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica a partir de 42 dias de idade, durante 168 dias de produção, dividido em seis períodos de 28 dias cada, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial de 4 x 4 (proteína x energia, com seis repetições de sete aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis avaliados foram: 16, 18, 20 e 22% de proteína bruta e 2.585, 2.685, 2.785 e 2.885 kcal de energia metabolizável/kg de ração. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a ingestão de energia e a produção de ovos. Entretanto, o aumento do nível de energia da ração promoveu redução linear no consumo de ração, na ingestão diária de proteína bruta, no peso do ovo e na massa de ovos, enquanto o de proteína proporcionou aumento linear na ingestão diária de proteína bruta, na massa de ovos, na conversão alimentar e no ganho de peso corporal e efeito quadrático sobre o peso do ovo, sendo 21,16% o nível de proteína bruta estimado para a obtenção do máximo peso do ovo. Pode-se concluir que as codornas japonesas têm o consumo regulado em função do nível de energia da ração. Para se obter maior produção de ovos e melhor conversão alimentar, a ração de postura deve conter 18% de proteína bruta e 2.585 kcal de EM/kg. Entretanto, se o objetivo for a obtenção de ovos com peso mais elevado, o nível de proteína bruta da ração deve aumentar para 21,16%.This work was developed to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude protein (CP and metabolizable energy (ME on the performance of laying quails. Six hundred and seventy tywo Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica from 42 days to 168 days of age were divided in six periods of 28 days each. The birds were assigned to a completely

  16. Direct and regression methods do not give different estimates of digestible and metabolizable energy of wheat for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

    2012-12-01

    Digestible and metabolizable energy contents of feed ingredients for pigs can be determined by direct or indirect methods. There are situations when only the indirect approach is suitable and the regression method is a robust indirect approach. This study was conducted to compare the direct and regression methods for determining the energy value of wheat for pigs. Twenty-four barrows with an average initial BW of 31 kg were assigned to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 4 diets consisted of 969 g wheat/kg plus minerals and vitamins (sole wheat) for the direct method, corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal reference diet (RD), RD + 300 g wheat/kg, and RD + 600 g wheat/kg. The 3 corn-soybean meal diets were used for the regression method and wheat replaced the energy-yielding ingredients, corn and soybean meal, so that the same ratio of corn and soybean meal across the experimental diets was maintained. The wheat used was analyzed to contain 883 g DM, 15.2 g N, and 3.94 Mcal GE/kg. Each diet was fed to 6 barrows in individual metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation followed by a 5-d total but separate collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME for the sole wheat diet were 3.83 and 3.77 Mcal/kg DM, respectively. Because the sole wheat diet contained 969 g wheat/kg, these translate to 3.95 Mcal DE/kg DM and 3.89 Mcal ME/kg DM. The RD used for the regression approach yielded 4.00 Mcal DE and 3.91 Mcal ME/kg DM diet. Increasing levels of wheat in the RD linearly reduced (P direct method (3.95 and 3.89 Mcal/kg DM) did not differ (0.78 < P < 0.89) from those obtained using the regression method (3.96 and 3.88 Mcal/kg DM).

  17. Níveis de energia metabolizável para codornas japonesas na fase inicial de postura Metabolizable energy levels for Japanese quails in the initial laying phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2007-02-01

    and egg quality of quails was evaluated in this experiment. Two hundred and fifty laying Japanese female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, with 56 days of age, were assigned to a complete randomized design, with five treatments (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal of ME/kg, five replications and ten birds per experimental unit. The corn, soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain 20% of CP, 2.5% of Ca, 1.17% of lysine and 0.802% of methionine+cystine. Feed intake (g/bird/day, energy intake (kcal ME/bird/day, total egg production (%/bird/day, commercial egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg/kg of egg and kg/egg dozen, body weight gain (g, energy efficiency utilization (kcal ME/egg dozen and kcal ME/egg mass, weights of yolk (g, albumen (g and shell (g and yolk cholesterol concentration mg/g were analyzed. Increasing dietary ME levels resulted in linear decreased on feed intake and weights of egg and yolk and quadratic effect on weights of albumen, shell and egg mass. The 2,650 kcal of ME/kg level increased 12.6, 3.9, 15.7, 7.5, and 6.8% respectively the variables above, compared to the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg level. Feed:egg dozen ratio increased as the dietary ME levels increased. No treatment effect on the other studied variables was observed. Diets of Japanese quails in the initial laying phase (from 56 to 112 days of age must contain 2,650 kcal of ME/kg, corresponding to a daily intake of 61.5 kcal of ME/bird or 6.24 kcal of ME/g of egg to obtain good results of egg weight and feed:egg mass ratio, besides greater egg production in absolute value.

  18. Estimation of the total efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and growth by cattle in tropical conditions Estimação da eficiência total de utilização da energia metabolizável para manutenção e crescimento por bovinos em condições tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sampaio Henrique

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of 320 animals were obtained from eight comparative slaughter studies performed under tropical conditions and used to estimate the total efficiency of utilization of the metabolizable energy intake (MEI, which varied from 77 to 419 kcal kg-0.75d-1. The provided data also contained direct measures of the recovered energy (RE, which allowed calculating the heat production (HE by difference. The RE was regressed on MEI and deviations from linearity were evaluated by using the F-test. The respective estimates of the fasting heat production and the intercept and the slope that composes the relationship between RE and MEI were 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 and 0.37. Hence, the total efficiency was estimated by dividing the net energy for maintenance and growth by the metabolizable energy intake. The estimated total efficiency of the ME utilization and analogous estimates based on the beef cattle NRC model were employed in an additional study to evaluate their predictive powers in terms of the mean square deviations for both temperate and tropical conditions. The two approaches presented similar predictive powers but the proposed one had a 22% lower mean squared deviation even with its more simplified structure.Foram utilizadas 320 informações obtidas a partir de 8 estudos de abate comparativo conduzidos em condições tropicais para se estimar a eficiência total de utilização da energia metabolizável consumida, a qual variou de 77 a 419kcal kg-0.75d-1. Os dados também continham informações sobre a energia retida (RE, o que permitiu o cálculo da produção de calor por diferença. As estimativas da produção de calor em jejum e dos coeficientes linear e angular da regressão entre RE e MEI foram respectivamente, 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 e 0,37. Em seguida, a eficiência total foi estimada dividindo-se a energia líquida para mantença e produção pelo consumo de energia metabolizável. A eficiência total de

  19. The Apparent Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibilities of Copra Meal In Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Burhanudin Sundu

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The world’s copra meal production amounted to 1.8 million tonnes in 2002 and most of it was produced in Asia. The Philippines and Indonesia contributed approximately 65% of the world’s copra meal production. The main problems of using copra meal in poultry diets are its physical properties along with its nutritional profiles. This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics and feeding value of copra meal. Physical characteristics were determined by measuring the b...

  20. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was determined as it has been done for other species. The ME of glycerol for adult cats was estimated to be 3,185 kcal/kg DM. Supplementing the diets of the cats

  1. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  2. Composição química e energia metabolizável de híbridos de milho para frangos de corte Chemical composition and metabolizable energy of corn hybrids for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Oliveira Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a composição química e os valores energéticos de 45 híbridos de milho em quatro ensaios de metabolismo com pintos em crescimento. Foram utilizados 1.225 pintos machos com 19 dias de idade (350 nos ensaios 1, 2 e 3 e 175 no ensaio 4. Os ensaios 1, 2 e 3 foram compostos de 14 tratamentos, constituídos, cada um, de 13 dietas-teste com híbridos de milho e uma dieta-referência. O ensaio 4 foi composto de sete tratamentos, constituídos de seis dietas-teste e uma dieta-referência. Em todos os ensaios, os milhos substituíram 40% da dieta-referência. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de 5 aves/parcela. As dietas e a água foram fornecidas à vontade durante sete dias (quatro de adaptação e três de coleta total de excretas. Os valores percentuais de PB variaram em 32% (7,79% vs 11,45%, expressos na MS e os de energia bruta (EB, em 5,2%. O menor valor foi 4.425 kcal e o maior, 4.668 kcal/kg de MS. O valor médio de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn foi de 3.744 kcal/kg e apresentou variação de 15,15% entre os híbridos testados (3.405 a 4.013 kcal/kg. Entretanto, os dois híbridos que apresentaram esta variação de 608 kcal/kg de MS na EMAn tiveram valores de EB semelhantes, diferentes em apenas 0,36% (3.914 e 3.931 kcal de EB/kg de MS, o que possivelmente resultou do coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da EB, que foi de 75% para o híbrido de menor EMAn e de 88% para o de maior EMAn. Apesar de ser um alimento energético, os valores protéicos e energéticos dos diferentes híbridos variaram consideravelmente.The values of chemical composition and metabolizable energy of 45 hybrid corns were determined in four trials with growing chickens. A total of 1,225, nineteen days old male chicks were used: 350 in the trials 1, 2 and 3 and 175 in trial 4. In the trials 1, 2 and 3 the treatments consisted of 13 test diets, being 13 corn varieties, and the reference diet in each trial

  3. Metabolizable energy of corn hybrids for broiler chickens at different ages Energia metabolizável de milhos híbridos para frangos de corte em diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Kanji Kato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the values of apparent metabolizable (AME, apparent corrected (AMEn, true (TME and true corrected (TMEn energy of six corn hybrids for broiler chickens in phases 1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35 and 36-42 day-old birds, using the substitution method (40% of reference diet with the test ingredient. Ross-308 male chicks (1,134 were allotted to metabolism cages and the number of birds per experimental unit was adjusted to suit each bird's density stage in the cage, using six replicates. Simultaneously, birds continue to fast for the determination of metabolic and endogenous losses for each study phase. The birds received water and food ad libitum during the experimental period. The birds were maintained in metabolism cages for seven days, four days for adaptation to the cage and food, and three days for excreta collection. The corn energy values were significantly lower only in the pre-initial phase (1-7 days. Thus, broiler feed formulations of AMEn values for corn of 3563 kcal/kg DM for 1 to 7 days and 3778 kcal/kg DM from 7-day-old birds are recommended.The agronomic characteristics of the corn had no influence on the birds energy levels.Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, aparente corrigida (EMAn, verdadeira (EMV e verdadeira corrigida (EMVn de seis milhos híbridos para frangos de corte nas fases de 1 a 7, 8 a 14, 15 a 21, 22 a 28, 29 a 35 e 36 a 42 dias de idade das aves, usando o método de substituição (40% da ração referência pelo ingrediente em teste. Pintos machos Ross-308 (1.134 foram distribuídos em gaiolas de metabolismo, sendo o número de aves por parcela, ajustado em cada fase para adequação da densidade de aves na gaiola, sendo utilizadas 6 repetições por tratamento. Simultaneamente, foram mantidas aves em jejum para a determinação das perdas endógenas e metabólicas para cada fase do estudo. As aves receberam água e ração à vontade durante todo período experimental

  4. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE

    2015-01-01

    why almonds have a low metabolizable energy content and an attenuated impact on postprandial lipemia. This trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN58438021. PMID:25527747

  5. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam M L; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah E E; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35-40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for why almonds have a low metabolizable energy content and

  6. Efeito do processamento da soja integral sobre a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos para aves Effects of processing on full fat soybean metabolizable energy determined by different methodologies and digestibility of amino acids for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida para se avaliar o valor nutricional da soja integral submetida a diferentes processamentos. Quatro ensaios de metabolismo foram conduzidos para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS, do extrato etéreo (CDEE e dos aminoácidos e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira da soja integral desativada (SID e extrusada (SIE e das misturas de farelo de soja com óleo degomado de soja (FSO ou com óleo ácido de soja (FSOA. Nos ensaios um e dois, utilizou-se a metodologia tradicional de coleta total de excretas com pintos e galos, respectivamente. A metodologia da alimentação forçada com galos adultos intactos foi utilizada no ensaio três, e com galos cecotomizados, no ensaio quatro. Os CDMS e CDEE e a energia metabolizável determinados com galos foram superiores aos determinados com pintos. Os maiores valores de CDMS, CDEE e de energia metabolizável foram obtidos para FSO, seguidos pelos da SIE e FSOA, e os menores, para a SID. O processo de extrusão proporcionou melhores resultados no aproveitamento da gordura do grão de soja e, conseqüentemente, da energia. Entretanto, a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos não foi influenciada pelos processamentos. Os diferentes processamentos conferiram à soja integral características nutricionais que se distinguiram, principalmente quanto ao valor de energia metabolizável, que também variou com a idade das aves.This work was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of whole soybean submitted to different processing. Four trials were conducted to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DCDM, ether extract (DCEE and amino acids and the values of apparent and true metabolizable energy of the whole deactivated soybean processed by steam heated (WDS and whole extruded soybean (WES compared to a mixture of soybean meal plus soybean oil (SMO and soybean meal plus soybean acid oil (SMAO. The trials one and two were

  7. Valor nutricional e energia metabolizável de subprodutos do trigo utilizados para alimentação de suínos em crescimento Nutritional value and metabolizable energy of wheat by‑products used for feeding growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rui Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições. A dieta referência foi substituída em 30% por um dos subprodutos testados: farinheta, farelo fino, farelo de trigo, farelo grosso e farelo grosso moído; este último usado para avaliar a influência da granulometria na digestibilidade. A fibra bruta foi a variável que proporcionou a melhor estimativa da energia metabolizável. O farelo fino foi superior em energia digestível e metabolizável, em comparação ao farelo grosso moído. O farelo grosso moído apresentou os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade, e a diminuição de seu diâmetro geométrico médio não aumentou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da energia. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, a farinheta apresenta maior energia digestível, energia metabolizável e proteína digestível, o que mostra elevado potencial para utilização em dietas para suínos em crescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate nutritional and energy values of wheat by‑products in diets for growing pigs, and to obtain prediction equations for metabolizable energy. Thirty‑six male pigs were housed in individual metabolic cages. Total collection of feces and urine was carried out in two periods of ten days: five days for adaptation and five days for collection. A randomized complete block design was used, considering the sampling period as a block, with six treatments and six replicates. The reference diet was replaced by 30% of one of the tested by

  8. Evaluation of energy digestibility and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical composition of different cottonseed meal sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Li, D F; Zang, J J; Yang, W J; Zhang, W J; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R(2) = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, penergy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy.

  9. Comparação de valores de energia metabolizável de alimentos determinados com frangos de corte e com codornas visando à formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas Comparison of metabolizable energy values of food determined with broilers and quails aiming at formulation of diets for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Santana de Araujo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 648 codornas japonesas com produção de ovos de 91,1% distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com nove repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As dietas foram avaliadas em arranjo fatorial 3 × 3 (alimento × formulação, por meio de medidas de desempenho das aves e de qualidade dos ovos. A interação entre alimento alternativo e formulação influenciou o consumo de ração; as demais variáveis (desempenho e características internas e externas dos ovos não foram influenciadas pelos alimentos alternativos avaliados. O ganho de peso, a taxa de postura, o peso médio de ovo, a massa de ovo, a conversão alimentar por massa e a porcentagem de casca variaram de acordo com a formulação. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do milho, do sorgo, do farelo de soja e das farinhas de vísceras de aves, de carne e ossos e de peixe determinados em frangos de corte e em galinhas poedeiras não são apropriados para formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas.It was used 648 Japanese quails with 91.1% of egg production in a completely randomized experiment design with nine replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The diets were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (food × feed formulation through bird performance measures and egg quality. The interaction among alternative food and formulation influenced feed intake. Both performance and internal and external egg traits were not affected by food alternative. Weight gain, laying rate, egg average weight, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and shell percentage varied according to the formulation. Values of corrected apparent metabolizable energy of corn, sorghum, soybean meal and poultry by product meal, meat and fish bones determined in broilers and laying hens are not suitable for formulation of diets for Japanese quails.

  10. Coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta de diferentes ingredientes para frangos de corte Coefficient of metabolizability of gross energy of different ingredients for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, aparente corrigida (EMAn, verdadeira (EMV e verdadeira corrigida (EMVn de oito ingredientes e seus respectivos coeficientes de metabolizabilidade, foram utilizados 300 frangos de corte machos Ross, com 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em oito tratamentos (alimentos e uma ração-referência, em três blocos com duas repetições por bloco e cinco aves por unidade experimental. Os alimentos avaliados foram: duas amostras de grão de trigo (TI, duas de farelo de trigo (FT, duas de grão de milho (MI, uma de grão de sorgo (SO e uma de farelo de glúten de milho 21% (21% FGM, as quais substituíram 30% da ração-referência. As aves receberam ração à vontade por 12 dias, de modo que os cinco dias finais foram destinados à coleta de excretas. Durante os cinco dias de coleta, 30 aves distribuídas em seis gaiolas foram mantidas em jejum por 72 horas (as 24 horas iniciais para esvaziamento do trato gastrointestinal e as 48 horas restantes para coleta das excretas, que foram quantificadas e extrapoladas para cinco dias. Os valores de EMA e EMAn, em kcal/kg MS, foram em média de 3.391 e 3.275 para o TI, de 2.076 e 1.996 para o FT, de 3.862 e 3.768 para o MI, de 3.551 e 3.464 para o SO e de 1.992 a 1.901 para o 21% FGM. Os valores de EMV e EMV, em nkcal/kg MS, foram em média de 3.495 e 3.496 para o TI, de 2.195 e 2.146 para o FT, de 3.981 e 4.040 para o MI, de 3.652 e 3.680 para o sorgo e de 2.117 a 1.961 para o 21% FGM. Os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade para energia bruta foram em média de 68,94%.With the objective of determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME, corrected apparent (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TMEn and corrected true (TME values of eight feedstuffs and their respective coefficient of metabolizability, 300 male broiler chickens, Ross, averaging 21 days old, were assigned to eight treatment (feeds and one reference diet, in three blocks

  11. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

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    F. Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g. The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p0.05. These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation.

  12. Exigências de energia para mantença e eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável para mantença e ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó Energy requirements for maintenance and net efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and weight gain of Moxotó kids

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    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as exigências líquidas de energia para mantença e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável (EUEM para mantença (km e ganho de peso (kf. Utilizaram-se 26 animais da raça Moxotó, machos não-castrados com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável. No início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência para estimativa da composição corporal e do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. Posteriormente, os animais foram distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso em grupos homogêneos de quatro animais, um para cada nível de consumo: alimentação à vontade (AV e alimentação restrita (85, 70 e 55% do consumido pelo grupo que recebeu alimentação à vontade. No momento em que o PV dos animais que recebiam alimentação à vontade se aproximava de 25 kg, o grupo era abatido. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença foram estimadas pelas relações logarítmica ou exponencial da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM. As km e kf foram calculadas como a relação entre a energia líquida da dieta para ganho ou mantença e a concentração de energia metabolizável das dietas. Posteriormente, estimaram-se as exigências de EM e NDT. A exigência de energia líquida para mantença, de 55,11 kcal/kgPCVZ0,75, foi próxima ao predito pelas normas norte-americanas para essa espécie. Esse valor é considerado baixo se comparado aos reportados na literatura brasileira pesquisada. A km estimada foi de 0,57 e as kf para as concentrações de 2,99; 2,95; 2,56 e 2,5 Mcal/kg de MS foram de 0,22; 0,19; 0,28 e 0,36, respectivamente.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated male kids (averaging 15 kg of initial live weight (LW and 6-8 months old fed a diet with 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy were used to predict the net energy requirements for maintenance and net efficiency of

  13. Diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável para galos reprodutores de corte com ou sem retirada da crista Different levels of metabolizable energy for broiler breeders of cutting with or without the crest cutting

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    Walter Lucca

    2011-03-01

    âmetros reprodutivos dos galos e a presença da crista é fundamental para manter a alta fertilidade em aves de 42 e 43 semanas de idade.The experiment was carried out to evaluate which is the best the diet energy level diet for male broiler breeders of cutting Cobb 500 and the influence of the presence of the crest on parameters such as body weight, semen volume, sperm cell concentration and fertility. Were used 32 roosters for 22 to 44 weeks of age, they were randomly assigned to cages equipped with feeders and drinkers type gutter. The experimental design was entirely casualized in a factorial scheme 2x2 two comb conditions (with and without crest and two levels of metabolizable energy (2600 and 2800kcal kg-1. There was four treatments with eight replications, with one bird per experimental unit. At week 24th began collecting data for statistical analysis, when merging the week weighing the birds to the collection of semen, which was collected through the American method and count of sperm cells, The dilution of semen-based formaldehyde buffered saline and then reading in a Neubauer chamber. We assessed male fertility through artificial insemination of six females per treatment, twice weekly with 0.05mL of semen per female. Eggs were collected four times a day, identified, disinfected and incubated in the same conditions. After 21 of incubation, eggs not hatched were broken and macroscopically examined to calculate the fertility. The energy levels studied revealed no significant difference in body weight and volume of semen of roosters during the experimental period. Since cutting the crest reduced body weight and fertility of 9.5% and 24% respectively in relation to birds crested whole. In the weeks 29th, 35th, 37th and 43th there was a higher concentration of sperm cells in birds fed the diet with 2600kcal kg-1. It is concluded that the level of 2600kcal kg-1 is sufficient to meet the reproductive parameters of roosters and the presence of the crest is needed to maintaining high

  14. Níveis de energia metabolizável para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura Metabolizable energy levels for broiler chicks from 1 to 21 days of age under high environmental temperature

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    Rita Flávia Miranda de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentos e cinqüenta pintos de corte machos, Avian Farms, com peso médio de 48±0,3 g, foram utilizados em um experimento conduzido em câmaras climáticas, para avaliar o efeito dos níveis de energia metabolizável (2850, 2925, 3000, 3075 e 3150 kcal de EM/kg, entre 1 e 21 dias de idade, mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura (34ºC e 60% UR. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, nove repetições e dez aves por unidade experimental. As características estudadas foram desempenho e composição de carcaça, em que a estimativa da exigência de energia metabolizável das aves foi feita por meio de regressão linear ou quadrática, conforme o melhor ajuste. O ganho de peso, o consumo de energia metabolizável e as deposições de proteína e gordura na carcaça aumentaram, enquanto a conversão alimentar dos pintos reduziu de forma linear com os tratamentos. O rendimento de carcaça das aves não foi influenciado pelos níveis de EM da ração. Os níveis de EM da ração modificaram a composição da carcaça e aumentaram o peso de gordura abdominal. Os pintos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade, mantidos sob alta temperatura, exigem, no mínimo, relação energia:proteína de 13,6 para melhor desempenho e deposição de proteína na carcaça.Four hundred and fifty Avian Farms male broilers chicks with 48±0.3g of live weight were used in an experiment carried out at climatic chambers to evaluate the effect of the metabolizable energy levels (2850; 2925; 3000; 3075 and 3150 kcal of ME/kg, from 1 to 21 days, maintained at high environmental temperature (34ºC and 60% RH. A completely randomized design, with five treatments (ME levels, nine replicates and ten birds per experimental unit, was used. Performance and carcass composition were evaluated and the metabolizable energy requirement of the birds were obtained by linear or quadratic regression, according to the best fit. Weight gain

  15. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

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    Li Pengfei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 2,121 growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White were utilized in six experiments conducted to determine the effects of different ratios of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Exps. 1 (30 to 50 kg, 2 (52 to 70 kg and 3 (81 to 104 kg were conducted to find an optimum ME level and then this level was used in Exps. 4 (29 to 47 kg, 5 (54 to 76 kg and 6 (84 to 109 kg to test the response of pigs to different ratios of SID-Lys:ME. In Exps.1 to 3, four treatments were used consisting of diets with a formulated ME content of 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 or 3.4 in Exps. 1 and 2 while Exp. 3 used 3.05, 3.15, 3.25 or 3.35 Mcal/kg. A constant SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.6, 2.3 or 2.0 g/Mcal was used in Exps. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Weight gain was significantly increased with increasing energy level in Exp.1 while weight gain was unaltered in Exps. 2 and 3. For all three experiments, feed intake was decreased (P P P P P P

  16. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

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    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  17. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

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    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Composição química, valores de energia metabolizável e aminoácidos digestíveis de subprodutos do arroz para frangos de corte Chemical composition, metabolizable energy and digestible amino acids values of rice by-products for broilers

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    Otto Mack Junqueira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar a composição química, os valores de energia e os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos, do farelo de arroz integral (FAI e da quirera de arroz (QA. No primeiro estudo, foram utilizadas 144 aves, com 21 dias de idade, machos, linhagem Cobb, que tiveram suas excretas totalmente coletadas para determinação da energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e seis repetições, com oito aves cada. No segundo experimento, foi utilizado o método de alimentação forçada para a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois alimentos e um jejum e seis repetições com um galo cada. Os valores de MS, PB, EE, FB, EMA e EMAn foram, respectivamente, para FAI: 88,6%; 11,8%; 15,3%; 10,2%; 2968kcal kg-1 e 2804kcal kg-1 e para QA: 93,5%; 9,1%; 0,73%; 0,45%; 3338kcal kg-1 e 3239kcal kg-1. Os valores médios encontrados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais foram, respectivamente, de 75,9% e 73,9%, para FAI, e 77,9% e 76,5%, para QA. Embora tenham apresentado níveis inferiores de energia, FAI e a QA podem ser utilizados nas rações de aves em substituição ao milho, uma vez que tiveram níveis maiores de proteína bruta e aminoácidos digestíveis.Two experiments were conducted to determine the chemical composition, energy and the digestibility coefficients of the amino acids of the whole rice meal (WRM and broken rice (BR. In the first trial, one hundred forty four broilers, 21 days of age, male, of Cobb strain had their excreta totally collected in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates with

  19. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

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    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  20. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  1. Desempenho produtivo e biometria das vísceras de codornas francesas alimentadas com diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável e proteína bruta - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1810 Productive performance and biometrics of French quail viscera, fed on different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1810

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    Concepta McManus

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e a biometria de vísceras de codornas francesas na fase inicial (0 a 14 dias, 3.768 codornas com um dia de vida foram submetidas a dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, fatorial 2x4, com dois níveis de energia metabolizável (2.900 e 3.000 kcal EM/kg, e quatro níveis de proteína bruta (20,5; 21,5; 22,5 e 23,5% e, três repetições de 157 codornas por unidade experimental. Aos sete dias, não foi observada diferença significativa nos parâmetros ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar; já aos 14 dias, verificou-se influência da energia metabolizável no consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade. No estudo biométrico, o peso do pâncreas e o peso da moela apresentaram diferenças significativas aos sete dias, e aos 14 dias apenas o peso relativo do fígado foi influenciado pelos níveis de proteína bruta.The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate performance and biometrics of French quails viscera in initial phase (0 to 14 days. A total of 3,768 one day-old quails were submitted to diets in different levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy. The utilized design was entirely randomized in a 2x4 factorial, in two levels of metabolizable energy (2,900 and 3,000 kcal ME/kg, four levels of crude protein (20.5; 21.5; 22.5 and 23.5%, and three replications of 157 quails per experimental unit. Over seven days, no significant differences were verified in parameters of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. However, by 14 days, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were influenced by the metabolizable energy. In the biometric study, pancreas and gizzard weight presented significant differences at seventh and fourteenth days during the treatments. Crude protein levels influenced liver weight.

  2. Dietas de diferentes densidades energéticas mantendo constante a relação energia metabolizável: nutrientes para codornas japonesas em postura Diets of different energetic densities, keeping constant the metabolizable energy: nutrients ratio, for laying Japanese quails

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    Guilherme de Souza Moura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da redução da densidade energética das dietas no desempenho de codornas japonesas em produção mantendo-se constante a relação energia metabolizável (EM:nutrientes. Foram utilizadas 400 codornas japonesas com peso inicial de 155 ± 15,5 g e 76 a 160 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (densidades energéticas: 2.900, 2.800, 2.700, 2.600 e 2.500 kcal de EM/kg, oito repetições e dez aves por unidade experimental. Observou-se diferença no consumo de ração e na conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos relacionada ao nível energético da dieta. Entretanto, as dietas não influenciaram os consumos de EM, proteína bruta, lisina, metionina+cistina e treonina, a produção de ovos, a produção de ovos comercializáveis, o peso e a massa de ovo, a eficiência energética por massa de ovo e por dúzia de ovos, o ganho de peso e a viabilidade das aves. Para codornas japonesas em postura, dietas contendo 2.900 e 2.800 kcal de EM/kg proporcionam melhor conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, respectivamente, quando se mantém a relação EM:nutrientes.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of energetic density reduction in diets in the performance of Japanese quail, keeping constant the metabolizable energy (ME to nutrients ratio. A total of 400 Japanese quails with 155 g ± 5.5 g and 76 to 160 days old were distributes to a complete randomized experimental design with five energetic density, eight replicates and ten birds per experimental unit. Five energetic density in the diets was evaluated (2,900, 2,800, 2,700, 2,600, and 2,500 kcal ME/kg of diet keeping constant the metabolizable energy to nutrients ratio. The birds were fullfed during all experimental period. It was observed difference for feed intake, feed conversion per egg mass and feed conversion per egg dozen related to energy level in the diet. However

  3. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs

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    T. T. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME contents of corn gluten feed (CGF for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial body weight (BW of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%, dehulled soybean meal (21% and premix (3%. The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%, dehulled soybean meal (15.75%, CGF (24.25% and premix (3%. In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30–0.13 neutral detergent fiber–0.22 ether extract, with R2 = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch–0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R2 = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  4. The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and autumn-harvested dried grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, J C; Smith, J S; Dewey, P J; Brewer, A C; Brown, D S; Walker, A

    1985-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted with sheep given spring-harvested dried grass (SHG) and autumn-harvested dried grass (AHG). The first was a calorimetric trial to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) content of each grass and the efficiency with which sheep utilize their extra ME intakes above the maintenance level of intake. The second examined the relative amounts of extra non-ammonia-nitrogen (NAN) and individual amino acids absorbed from the small intestine per unit extra ME intake as the level of feeding was raised from energy equilibrium (M) to approximately 1.5 M. The third was a further calorimetric trial to investigate the effect of an abomasal infusion of 30 g casein/d on the efficiency of utilization of AHG. The ME content of the SHG (11.8 MJ/kg dry matter (DM] was higher than that of AHG (10.0 MJ/kg DM). The efficiency of utilization of ME for productive purposes (i.e. above the M level of intake; kf) was higher when given SHG (kf 0.54 between M and 2 M) than when given AHG (kf 0.43 between M and 2 M). As the level of intake of each grass was raised from M to 1.5 M there was a greater increment in the amounts of NAN (P less than 0.001) and the total amino acid (P less than 0.05) absorbed from the small intestines when sheep were given the SHG (NAN absorption, SHG 5.4 g/d, AHG 1.5 g/d, SED 0.54; total amino acid absorption SHG 31.5 g/d, AHG 14.3 g/d, SED 5.24). Infusion of 30 g casein/d per abomasum of sheep given AHG at M and 1.5 M levels of intake increased (P less than 0.05) the efficiency of utilization of the herbage from kf 0.45 to kf 0.57. Consideration is given to the possibility that the higher efficiency of utilization of ME in sheep given SHG may be related to the amounts of extra glucogenic amino acids absorbed from the small intestine which provide extra reducing equivalents (NADPH) and glycerol phosphate necessary for the conversion of acetate into fatty acids.

  5. Return of reproductive cyclic activity in Morada Nova sheep at metabolizable energy different levels Retorno da atividade cíclica reprodutiva em ovelhas da raça Morada Nova submetidas a diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável

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    Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida Catanho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective, in this work, was to evaluate the effect of metabolizable energy offered on reproductive cyclic activity return of Morada Nova sheep, at different energy levels, during the lactation, since the pregnancy last third, 39 sheep, distributed in three treatments, during the rainy and dry season, were used. Experimental diets were formulated to meet a daily intake of 2.2, 2.8 and 3.4 Mcal of Metabolizable Energy (ME/day and 150 g of crude protein, and the serum levels of progesterone and cortisol regarding, besides the reproductive performance, were evaluated. An entirely casualized design was used in a subdivided scheme for the hormone, and generalized linear models, by the Poisson distribution and binomial distribution in the non-parametric data. There was effect from interaction between period and treatment (P<0,05 for cortisol and progesterone serum, as well as for reproductive performance. The animals went through stress condition, which interfered in the return of reproductive cyclic activity and extended the anoestrus post-partum period, during the dry season. The offer of ME 3.4 Mcal must be recommended for Morada Nova sheep since the pregnancy last third because of the best performance rates and reproductive performance.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da energia metabolizável ofertada sobre o retorno da atividade cíclica reprodutiva de ovelhas da raça Morada Nova, durante a lactação, que receberam diferentes níveis de energia desde o terço final da gestação. Foram utilizadas 39 ovelhas distribuídas em três tratamentos durante a época chuvosa e seca. As dietas experimentais foram formuladas para atender ingestão diária de 2,2; 2,8; e 3,4 Mcal de Energia Metabolizável (EM/dia e 150g de proteína bruta, sendo avaliados os níveis séricos de progesterona e cortisol, além do desempenho reprodutivo. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema de parcelas

  6. A slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assay for determination of relative metabolizable energy values for fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardsma, M P; Parsons, C M

    2017-01-01

    The precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) frequently yields TME n values for fats and oils in excess of their gross energies. Six experiments were conducted to determine if the PFRA could be combined with a slope-ratio type assay to yield more useful lipid TME n values. In experiment (EXP) 1, refined corn oil (RCO) was fed to conventional and cecectomized roosters at zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of a ground corn diet. In EXP 2 through 6, lipids were fed to conventional roosters at zero, 5, and 10% in a ground corn diet. Palomys (a novel lipid), high stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO), 2 animal-vegetable blends (AV1, AV2), a vegetable-based oil blend (VB), and corn oil from an ethanol plant (DDGSCO) were evaluated and compared to refined soybean oil (RSO) or RCO as the reference lipid. Multiple linear regression of diet TME n on supplemental lipid level generated regression coefficients that were used to calculate relative bioavailability values (RBV). In EXP 1, RCO was a suitable reference material as TME n linearly increased up to 20% RCO inclusion. There were some minor differences in TME n of RCO between conventional and cecetomized bird types. In EXP 2, Palomys was found to have a lower (P rooster assay can detect differences among lipids and yields practically useful lipid TME n values. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Determination of Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy of Alfalfa meal for Ostrich via Chromic Oxide Marker and Total Collection Methods

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    Mojtaba Ayaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal for male ostrich at 90 d of age. Experiment was done as a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of 4 replicate and 4 chicks each. Different levels of Alfalfa meal (0, 15, 30 and 40% were replaced to the basal diet. AME and AMEn were determined via chromic oxid marker and total collection methods. The AME and AMEn of alfalfa meal was 2250±274, 2522±110, 2044±268 and 2366±107 kcal/kg at 40 % of replacement that calculated via chromic oxide marker and total collection excreta respectively. Measurement of TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal in this experiment calculated by the different levels of feedstuff and were 3165 and 2877 kcal/kg respectively. The result of this experiment showed that using the ME data which calculated via adult leghorn cockerel to formulating the starter diet of ostrich is not suitable and determination of ME via ostrich to using it in the formulation of their diets is necessary.

  8. Apparent metabolizable energy of by-products from the soybean oil industry for broilers: acidulated soapstock, glycerin, lecithin, and their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsatti, L; Vieira, S L; Stefanello, C; Kindlein, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Angel, C R

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments having 6 replicates of 5 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet from placement to 21 d. Experimental corn-soy diets were composed of four fat sources, added at 3 increasing levels each, and were fed from 21 to 28 d. Fat sources utilized were acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS), glycerol (GLY), lecithin (LEC), and a mixture (MIX) containing 85% ASS, 10% GLY and 5% LEC. A 4 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement was used with 4 by-products (ASS, GLY, LEC, or MIX), 3 inclusion levels and 1 basal diet. Each of the four fat by-product sources was included in the diets as follow: 2% of by-products (98% basal + 2% by-product), 4% (96% basal + 4% by-product), or 6% (94% basal + 6% by-product). Birds were submitted to 94, 96, 98, and 100% of ad libitum feed intake; therefore, the differences in AMEn consumption were only due to the added by-product. Total excreta were collected twice daily for 72 h to determine apparent metabolizable energy contents starting at 25 d. The AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake and the slope was used to estimate AMEn values for each fat source. Linear regression equations (P product were as follow: 7,153X - 451.9 for ASS; 3,916X - 68.2 for GLY; 7,051X - 448.3 for LEC, and 8,515X - 622.3 for MIX. Values of AMEn were 7,153, 3,916, 7,051, and 8,515 kcal/kg DM for ASS, GLY, LEC, and MIX, respectively. The present study generated AMEn for fat by-products data that can be used in poultry feed formulation. It also provides indications that, by adding the 3 by-products in the proportions present in the MIX, considerable economic advantage can be attained. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Effects of multi-carbohydrase and phytase on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and apparent metabolizable energy in canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Dadalt, J C; Kiarie, E; Trindade Neto, M A

    2017-09-01

    Two assays were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of canola meal (CM) fed to broiler chicks without or with a multi-carbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 30,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet). Assay 1 determined apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (AME) by the difference method. Assay 2 determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by the index method. Two reference diets (RD) - an 85% corn based and a 5% casein-cornstarch diet fortified with vitamins and minerals - were made for assays 1 and 2, respectively. For each assay, the test diets were made by mixing RD and CM 7:3 wt/wt basis and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. A total of 245 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) was allocated to 5 treatments to give 7 replicates (7 birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day zero to 10 followed by assay 1 fed from d 11 to 18 and assay 2 fed from d 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on d 15 to18, and all birds were slaughtered on d 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P  0.05) between MC and Phy on AMEn; however, MC and Phy individually improved AMEn retention. Enzymes interacted (P < 0.05) on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Met, Thr, Ala, Asp, Gln, and Gly. In this context, feeding a combination of MC and Phy resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, His, Met, and Thr relative to single activity or control. Both enzymes improved (P < 0.05) SID of Lys independently. The combination of carbohydrase and Phy may be an effective strategy to improve amino acid utilization in CM for poultry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados submetidos a quatro níveis de concentrado na ração Net efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization of purebred and crossbred Nellore young bulls fed diets with different concentrate levels

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    José Antônio de Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para mantença (Km e ganho de peso (Kg de bovinos Nelore puros e mestiços. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos machos, não-castrados, com idade inicial de 10 a 11 meses (18 Nelore, 18 F1 Nelore x Angus, 18 F1 Nelore x Pardo-Suíço e 18 F1 Nelore x Simental e peso médio inicial de 286, 309, 333 e 310 kg, respectivamente. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 m com três animais por grupo genético e quatro níveis de adição de concentrado (30, 40, 60 e 70% na MS. Três animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados no grupo mantença e três foram abatidos no início do experimento. O consumo de energia metabolizável de mantença (CEMm, em kcal/kg0,75, correspondeu ao ponto no qual o coeficiente entre a produção de calor em jejum (PCj e os CEM foram mais próximos de 1. As eficiências de utilização da EM para mantença (Km foram estimadas pela divisão da produção de calor em jejum pelo CEMm. A eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso (kg foi estimada pela regressão entre a energia retida (kcal/kg0,75 e o CEMg. As exigências de EM foram obtidas dividindo-se as exigências líquidas pelo valor de Km. Não houve influência significativa dos grupos genéticos e dos níveis de concentrado na ração sobre Km e Kg, que apresentaram valores de 0,67 e 0,40, respectivamente. As exigências de EM para ganho (EMg e de EM total (EMt aumentaram com a elevação do peso vivo (PV. Por outro lado, as EMt e EMg por unidade de PCV decresceram com o aumento do PV, indicando maior eficiência de utilização da EM com a elevação do peso vivo dos animais.The objective of this trial was to estimate the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy (MEEU for maintenance (Km and weight gain (kg of feedlot purebred and crossbred Nellore. Seventy-two young bulls averaging 10 to 11 months of age from four genetic

  11. Weight and yield of non-carcass components of Morada Nova lambs fed with different levels of metabolizable energyPeso e rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável

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    Danilo de Araújo Camilo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different metabolizable energy (ME levels on weight of gastrointestinal content, weight and yield of the internal organs and gastrointestinal compartments of Morada Nova growing lambs. Thirty-two animals, non-castrated, with average body weight of 12.12 ± 1.69 kg and two months old approximately, were used. The animals were distributed into four different metabolizable energy (1.28; 1.72; 2.18 and 2.62 Mcal/kg DM levels, in randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Tifton 85 hay was used as roughage. There was no effect of energy levels (P > 0.05 on weight of gastrointestinal content. Increased linear effect (P Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável (EM sobre: peso do conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal, peso e rendimento dos órgãos internos e compartimentos gastrintestinais em ovinos Morada Nova em crescimento. Foram utilizados 32 animais, não castrados, com peso corporal médio de 12,12 ± 1,69 kg e, aproximadamente, dois meses de idade. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro diferentes níveis de EM (1,28; 1,72; 2,18 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições por nível de EM. O feno de Tifton 85 foi utilizado como volumoso. Não foi observado efeito (P > 0,05 dos níveis de energia sobre o peso do conteúdo gastrintestinal. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM sobre os pesos do coração, PTEL (pulmões, traqueia, esôfago e língua, fígado e baço, expressos em kg. Em relação aos compartimentos do trato gastrintestinal foi observado efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM somente sobre o rúmen-retículo, em %, e intestino delgado, em kg. As gorduras perirrenal, omental e mesentérica foram influenciadas pelos níveis de EM (P < 0,05, com incremento linear para os pesos em kg e %. O aumento dos níveis de EM das ra

  12. Efeito do nível de energia metabolizável na composição dos tecidos da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês Effect of metabolizable energy level on the carcass tissues composition of Santa Ines lambs

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    T.R.V. Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da energia metabolizável (EM, pela inclusão de percentuais crescentes de fibra em detergente neutro (FDNf, proveniente de forragem, sobre a composição dos tecidos da carcaça de 64 cordeiros Santa Inês. Os tratamentos (dietas foram: dieta A - com 8,7% de FDNf; dieta B - com 17,3%; dieta C - com 26,0% e dieta D - com 34,7% de FDNf na dieta. Quatro animais de cada tratamento foram abatidos aos 43, 83, 123 e 173 dias. Os cordeiros que receberam as dietas A e B apresentaram maiores pesos dos tecidos ósseo (TO, muscular (TM, adiposo (TA e outros (OT na carcaça fria, a partir dos 83 dias de idade. O rendimento de TO na carcaça fria dos animais que receberam as dietas A e B foi menor, enquanto as proporções de TA foram maiores a partir dos 83 dias de idade. A regressão de cada variável, em função do consumo de EM total (Mcal, para cada tratamento, mostrou que a deposição de TA em cordeiros alimentados com a dieta A foi mais intensa.The effect of metabolizable energy level (ME, due to increasing levels of forage nitrogen detergent fiber (fNGF, on the carcass tecidual composition of 64 Santa Inês lambs was evaluated. Four treatments (diets were: diet A- fNDF; diet B- 17.3%; of fNDF; diet C- 26.0% of fNDF; and diet D- 34.7% of 8.7% fNDF in the diet. Four animals of each treatment were slaughtered at 43, 83, 123, and 173 days. Lambs fed diets A and B, showed higher weight of bonne tissue (BT, muscular tissue (MT, fatty tissue (FT, and other tissues (OT in cold carcass at 83 days of age. The percentage of BT in cold carcass of the lambs fed diets A and B was lower, and percentage of FT was higher, after 83 days of age. The regression of each variable on ME total intake (Mcal, for each treatment, suggested higher intensity of deposition of FT for lambs fed diet A.

  13. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes protéicos determinada pelo método de coleta total e por equações de predição Metabolizable energy of proteics feedstuffs, determined by the total collection excreta and prediction equations

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    Márcia Cristina de Mello Zonta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio metabólico com pintos em crescimento (método tradicional de coleta total de excretas foi conduzido para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de alguns alimentos, bem como a determinação dessa energia por equações de predição descritas na literatura. Determinou-se a EMAn de oito alimentos, sendo cinco amostras de farelos de soja de diferentes marcas comerciais e três amostras de soja integral (extrusada, tostada e micronizada. Os valores estimados pelas equações de predição foram comparados com os observados, utilizando-se a correlação de Spearman e intervalos de confiança obtidos a partir dos valores de EMAn determinados no ensaio metabólico. Os valores energéticos das amostras de farelos de soja 1, 2, 3, 4, e 5, sojas integrais extrusada, tostada e micronizada foram 2601, 2650, 2727, 2500, 2426, 3674, 3609, 4296 kcal/kg de MS, respectivamente, para a EMAn determinada com frangos de corte no ensaio metabólico. Entre as equações estudadas, as equações EMAn = -822,33 + 69,54PB - 45,26FDA + 90,81EE e EMAn = 2723,05 - 50,52FDA + 60,40EE foram as que mais se correlacionaram (PA metabolism assay were carried out with broilers in growth phase (traditional method of total collection of excreta to determinate the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of some feedstuffs, as well as the determination of the energy values by prediction equations published in the national and international pappers. It was determined AMEn of eight fedstuffs, five soybean meal samples and three processed full fat samples (extruded, toasted and micronized. The estimated values were compared with observed, using the Spearman correlation and confidence intervals obtained by the metabolic assay. The energy values of soybean meals samples (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, full fat soybean extruded, toasted and micronized were 2601, 2650, 2727, 2500, 2426, 3674, 3609, 4296 kcal/kg DM, respectively. Among the studied

  14. Níveis de energia metabolizável em rações formuladas com base no conceito de proteína ideal e suplementadas com fitase para leitões dos 15 aos 35 kg Metabolizable energy levels in diets formulated according to the ideal protein concept and supplemented with phytase for piglets from 15 to 35 kg

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    Marcelo José Milagres de Almeida

    2008-05-01

    15 to 35 kg to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP formulated according to the ideal protein concept and phytase supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized block design, in a factorial arrangement of treatments 3 × 2 + 1, with three ME levels (3,080, 3,230, and 3,380 kcal/kg, two of CP (14% and 16%, supplemented with synthetic amino acids and 1000 FTU/kg of phytase, with calcium level reduced by 25% and phosphorus by 30%. Additional control treatment was formulated with 18% CP and without phytase, to attend the nutrient requirements of pigs according to Brazilian Feedstuffs Tables recommendations. Therefore, seven treatments, six replications and two animals per experimental unit were used. No treatment effect on daily weight gain, feed conversion, daily ME intake and weight of organs (absolute and relative of pigs was observed.Feed intake was higher and fat deposition rate, lower in pigs fed diet with 3,380 kcal ME/kg. Decreasing nitrogen intake, increasing efficiency of nitrogen utilization for gain and lower blood urea content were observed for pigs fed 14% CP diets compared to those with 18%. The reduction of levels of ME, CP, available phosphorus and calcium to 3,080 kcal/kg, 14%, 0.54% and 0.28%, respectively, in rations for pigs, formulated based on ideal protein concept and phytase, do not affect performance of pigs from 15 to 35 kg.

  15. Características e rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes em ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684 Characteristics and yields of carcass and cuts in Santa Ines sheep fed with different concentrations of metabolizable energy - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684

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    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o ganho de peso (GMD, conversão alimentar (CA, eficiência alimentar (EA, características de carcaça e dos cortes comerciais de ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável (2,08; 2,28; 2,47 e 2,69 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS. Vinte cordeiros, com idade e peso corporal médio de 50 dias e 13,00 ± 0,56 kg, respectivamente, foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (p 0,05 pelos níveis energéticos das rações. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria, e o peso do corpo vazio, expressos em kg, apresentaram efeito quadrático (p This study evaluated the weight gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency (FE, characteristics of carcass and retail cuts of Santa Inês sheep fed different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal kg-1 of DM. Twenty lambs, with age and mean body weight of 50 days and 13 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were distributed in randomized block design with five replications. We verified a linear increase effect (p 0.05 by the energy levels of the rations. Nevertheless, the weights of hot and cold carcass and theempty body , expressed in kg, presented quadratic effect (p < 0.05, as we increase the levels of metabolizable energy in experimental diets. The energy levels influenced the yield of rib and shoulder, as the loin eye area (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the manipulation of the energy level of the ration changes the ADG, the hot and cold carcass weight, the shoulder yield, the rib weight and the loin eye area of Santa Ines sheep.

  16. Effects of particle size and adaptation duration on the digestible and metabolizable energy contents and digestibility of various chemical constituents in wheat for finishing pigs determined by the direct or indirect method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanfang; Guo, Panpan; Yang, Yuyuan; Xia, Tian; Liu, Ling; Ma, Yongxi

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted as a 3×2×2 factorial design to examine the effects of particle size (mean particle size of 331, 640, or 862 μm), evaluation method (direct vs indirect method) and adaptation duration (7 or 26 days) on the energy content and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of various chemical components in wheat when fed to finishing pigs. Forty-two barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight of 63.0±0.8 kg were individually placed in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets with 6 pigs fed each diet. For the indirect method, the pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal based basal diet or diets in which 38.94% of the basal diet was substituted by wheat of the different particle sizes. In the direct method, the diets contained 97.34% wheat with the different particle sizes. For both the direct and indirect methods, the pigs were adapted to their diets for either 7 or 26 days. A reduction in particle size linearly increased the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents as well as the ATTD of gross energy, crude protein, organic matter, ether extract (EE) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (penergy, crude protein, dry matter and organic matter were higher (pdirect method, but the ATTD of ADF, EE, and neutral detergent fiber were higher when determined by the indirect method (pdirect method but quadratic equations (p = 0.073 and p = 0.088, respectively) about ATTD of ADF and EE when determined by the indirect method. Decreasing particle size can improve the DE and ME contents of wheat; both of the direct and indirect methods of evaluation are suitable for evaluating the DE and ME contents of wheat with different particle sizes; and an adaptation duration of 7 d is sufficient to evaluate DE and ME contents of wheat in finishing pigs.

  17. Energia metabolizável do óleo de soja em diferentes níveis de inclusão para frangos de corte nas fases de crescimento e final Metabolizable energy of soybean oil at different inclusion levels for broilers in the growing and final phases

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    Marcelo de Oliveira Andreotti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de metabolismo utilizando-se frangos de corte machos, com o objetivo de determinar o valor de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA do óleo de soja, o coeficiente de metabolização da matéria seca (CMMS e a retenção de nitrogênio (RN em rações isocalóricas, em função de duas idades das aves: crescimento (22 30 dias e final (42 50 dias e quatro níveis de inclusão do óleo de soja: 0; 3,3; 6,6 e 9,9%.Os experimentos tiveram duração de oito dias, sendo três dias para adaptação das aves às rações experimentais e cinco dias para coleta de excretas. O valor energético do óleo de soja foi determinado por diferença. O delineamento utilizado nos dois ensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Os valores de EMA do óleo de soja, de RN e do CMMS das rações obtidos para os níveis de 3,3; 6,6 e 9,9% de óleo de soja no período de crescimento foram, respectivamente, de 9.437 kcal/kg, 68,22 g e 75,47%; 9307 kcal/kg, 74,80 g e 74,69%; e 8.701 kcal/kg, 69,98 g e 74,93% e para o período final, de 9.558 kcal/kg, 54,03 g e 79,33%; 8.659 kcal/kg, 48,18 g e 77,92%; e 8307 kcal/kg, 52,88 g e 76,28%. Os níveis de inclusão do óleo de soja não influenciaram os valores de EMA, de RN e o do CMMS. A RN foi maior para aves no período de crescimento e o CMMS foi maior para as aves no período final. A EMA do óleo de soja não foi influenciada pelas idades.Two experiments of metabolism using broilers were carried out to determine the value for apparent metabolizable energy (AME of soybean oil, the dry matter metabolization coefficient (DMMC, and the nitrogen retention (NR in the isocaloric rations on two differents ages: growing phase (22 30 days old and final phase (42 50 days old and four inclusion levels of soybean oil: 0; 3.3; 6.6 and 9.9%. The experiments lasted eight days, with three days of adaptation period and five days for excreta collection

  18. Uso da metodologia de coleta total de excretas na determinação da energia metabolizável em rações para frangos de corte ajustadas ou não quanto aos níveis de vitaminas e minerais Adjustment of the total excreta collection method for metabolizable energy determination of broiler chicken fedstuffs: consideration of vitamin and micro-minerals levels in the test diet

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    Valdir Silveira de Avila

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste estudo a influência dos teores de vitaminas e microminerais da ração-teste na determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo nitrogênio retido (EMAn do farelo de soja. Foram comparadas rações-teste ajustadas ou não para as quantidades de cloreto de colina e premix de vitaminas e microminerais em relação à ração-referência. Adotou-se o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas utilizando-se 360 pintos de corte machos e fêmeas da linhagem Ross de 15 a 23 dias de idade, alojados em baterias metálicas com bandejas coletoras de excretas. As aves foram distribuídas em esquema de blocos casualizados, de acordo com o andar das baterias, com dois tratamentos e 12 repetições de dez aves (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Em um tratamento, efetuou-se a substituição de 40% da ração-referência por farelo de soja, enquanto no outro, além dessa substituição, ajustaram-se as quantidades de cloreto de colina e dos premixes de vitaminas e microminerais com base na ração-referência. Os valores médios e os respectivos erros-padrão para EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg do farelo de soja, com base na matéria natural, foram 2.462±29,62 e 2.269±25,80 para ração ajustada e 2.353±26,18 e 2.191±23,88 para ração não ajustada. O ajuste das quantidades de cloreto de colina e do premix de vitaminas e microminerais na ração-teste propiciou maiores valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja em relação à ração não-ajustada. É importante ajustar as quantidades de vitaminas e microminerais nas rações-teste em experimentos visando determinar a energia metabolizável de ingredientes para aves.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin and micromineral levels adjustment in the test diet on the total collection method for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (EMA and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retention

  19. AN In vitro ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY EFFECT OF CONCENTRATES CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF GROUND LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum TO HOUSEHOLD WASTES ON ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADABILITY, SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS, MICROBIAL PROTEIN, METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND RELATIVE FEED VALUES

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    Tegene Negesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to assess effect of level of linseed inclusion in feeds on nutritive value, an in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA:mMol l-1, microbial crude protein (MCP:g kg-1 DM, metabolizable energy (MEruminants:MJ kg-1 DM and relative feed values (RFV of household wastes=HW (Areke-Atela=AA, carrot peels=CaP, cabbage leaf=Cle, cabbage leftover=Clef, onion leaf=OL, onion peels=OP, potato peels=PP, Tela-Atela=TA supplemented with linseed (LS containing concentrates=LSC1…LSC5 (39.32, 37.32, 35.32, 33.32, 31.32% noug cake + 58.99% wheat bran + 1.69% salt + 0, 2, 4, 6, 8% LS, as fed basis were estimated via an in vitro gas trial. HWs were mixed with LSC (LSC-HW at 3:1 ratio. Samples were incubated in-vitro with rumen fluid in duplicate and readings recorded at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. LSC-HW mixtures had higher CP, IVDMD, IVOMD, ME and SCFA, MCP and RFV than those of HWs alone. IVDMD and IVOMD of the LSC-HW improved with increasing LS levels, mostly at 2 and 4%LSC; but at higher concentrations they declined.  AA, TA had high IVOMD. However, IVDMD of AA (with the lowest IVDMD was much more influenced than TA (with highest IVDMD by LS levels. Clef had lowest and AA and TA highest ME. SCFA increased over incubation periods and with increasing levels of LS, in Clef improvement (from 0.25 to 0.61 mMol l-1 was significant but in AA (from 0.69 to 0.72 mMol l-1 moderate. Mixing HWs with LSC gave best results at 2%LSC.

  20. Valor nutricional e energia metabolizável de subprodutos do trigo utilizados para alimentação de suínos em crescimento Nutritional value and metabolizable energy of wheat by‑products used for feeding growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    William Rui Wesendonck; Alexandre de Mello Kessler; Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro; Marcelo Luiz Somensi; Luciane Bockor; Julio Cezar Dadalt; Alessandra Nardina Trícia Rigo Monteiro; Fábio Ritter Marx

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, c...

  1. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (pcontent of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (prumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  2. Regression and direct methods do not give different estimates of digestible and metabolizable energy values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    Direct or indirect methods can be used to determine the DE and ME of feed ingredients for pigs. In situations when only the indirect approach is suitable, the regression method presents a robust indirect approach. Three experiments were conducted to compare the direct and regression methods for determining the DE and ME values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs. In each experiment, 24 barrows with an average initial BW of 31, 32, and 33 kg were assigned to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 4 diets consisted of 969 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg plus minerals and vitamins for the direct method; a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD); the RD + 300 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg; and the RD + 600 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg. The 3 corn-soybean meal diets were used for the regression method. Each diet was fed to 6 barrows in individual metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation followed by a 5-d period of total but separate collection of feces and urine in each experiment. Graded substitution of barley or wheat, but not sorghum, into the RD linearly reduced ( direct method-derived DE and ME for barley were 3,669 and 3,593 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The regressions of barley contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of barley DMI in kilograms generated 3,746 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,647 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME for sorghum by the direct method were 4,097 and 4,042 kcal/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression-derived estimates were 4,145 and 4,066 kcal/kg DM. Using the direct method, energy values for wheat were 3,953 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,889 kcal ME/kg DM. The regressions of wheat contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of wheat DMI in kilograms generated 3,960 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,874 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME of barley using the direct method were not different (0.3 direct method-derived DE and ME of sorghum were not different (0.5 direct method- and regression method-derived DE (3,953 and 3

  3. Effects of derived meals from juncea (Brassica juncea, yellow and black seeded canola (Brassica napus and multicarbohydrase enzymes supplementation on apparent metabolizable energy in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Jayaraman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of differently processed meals from Juncea (Brassica juncea, yellow and black seeded canola (Brassica napus, with or without supplementation of multi-carbohydrase enzymes (Enz in diets for broiler chickens. The first experiment was a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the main factors being seed type (yellow [Yellow] or black [B1] canola seeds and Juncea seeds, processed at two temperatures (high temperature desolventized-toasted [HTDT] at 95°C or low temperature desolventized-toasted [LTDT] at 57°C, with or without Enz. In Exp. 1, a total of 384 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 64 battery cages, with 6 birds/cage. The second experiment was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the main factors being seed type (Yellow or black [B2], seed source (Scott, Saskatchewan or Truro, Nova Scotia and Enz (with or without supplementation. A total of 264 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 44 battery cages, with 6 birds per cage. In Exp. 1 and 2, all birds were fed a common starter diet from 1 to 14 days of age. From d 15 to 21, the birds were fed one of the test treatments, a basal grower diet or the basal grower diet replaced with 30% test ingredient with celite (0.8% added as an inert marker. Excreta was collected on d 20 and 21. In Exp. 1, there were no interactions (P > 0.05 among seed type, processing temperature and Enz. Processing temperature and dietary Enz did not affect (P > 0.05 AMEn of different canola meals. The AMEn of prepress solvent extracted canola and juncea meals (PSEM from Yellow (11.2 MJ/kg was higher (P  0.05 among seed color, location and Enz. Supplementation of dietary Enz did not affect (P > 0.05 AMEn of different cold press canola meals. The AMEn of cold press canola meals (CPM from Yellow (14.7 MJ/kg was higher (P < 0.05 compared with B2 (12.2

  4. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  5. Níveis de Energia e Relações Energia: Proteína para Frangos de Corte de 22 a 42 dias de Idade Energy Levels and Metabolizable Energy: Protein Ratio for Male Broiler Chicks from 22 to 42 Days of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Níveis de energia metabolizável (EM de 2900, 3100 e 3300 kcal e relações energia: proteína (EM: PB de 128, 148, 168 e 188 kcal/%PB foram avaliados em frangos de corte machos de 22 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos ao acaso em um esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições de 18 aves por tratamento. O aumento da relação EM: PB apresentou efeito linear decrescente sobre consumo de ração, peso vivo aos 42 dias, ganho de peso, consumo de proteína, consumo de energia metabolizável, peso da carcaça, peso da carne de peito, peso de pernas (coxa+sobrecoxa e elevou linearmente a porcentagem de gordura abdominal na carcaça em todos os níveis de energia. A relação EM: PB de 148 (20,95% PB dentro do nível de EM de 3100 kcal atende às exigências de ótimo crescimento de frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, enquanto a relação EM: PB de 188 dentro de todos os níveis de energia estudados se mostrou inadequada. Em virtude do aumento do custo da ração, a redução da relação EM: PB, em rações práticas, deve ser avaliada para otimizar o modelo de produção em que a qualidade da carcaça também deve ser considerada.Levels of metabolizable energy (ME of 2,900, 3,100 and 3,300 kcal and energy to protein ratio (EM: PB of 128, 148, 168 and 188 kcal/%CP were evaluated with male broiler chicks from 22 to 42 days of age, assigned to a completely randomized 3 x 4 factorial design, where each treatment had four replications of 18 birds. Increasing the ME: CP ratio resulted in linear decreasing effect on feed intake, live weight, weight gain, crude protein intake, energy intake, carcass weight, breast meat weight, drumsticks weight and linearly increased abdominal fat percentage within each level of energy. The 148 ME:CP ratio (20,95% CP in the level of 3100 kcal ME met the broilers requirements to optimum growth from 22 to 42 days of age, while 188 ME:CP ratio was inadequate. Because of the high costs, decreasing EM: PB ratio must be

  6. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  7. Blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balance and gross energy metabolizability in pigs fed with different dietary electrolyte balancesParâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanço de nitrogênio e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes balanços eletrolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Daniel Giusti Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on the blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balances and crude metabolizable energy of swine in the initial phase. Sixteen barrows were used, averaging 27.95 kg of initial weight, allotted individually in metabolic cages in a randomized blocks design with four treatments (DEB of 160, 208, 257 and 305 mEq/kg and 4 replicates. The blood biochemical parameters analyzed were chloride, potassium, sodium and urea in blood. Urine pH was also evaluated, and the parameters evaluated in nitrogen (N balance were N intake, fecal N, N excreted in urine, absorbed N, N retention, retained N/absorbed N and total excretion of N. The gross energy digestibility and metabolizibility coefficients were determined, and the respectives values of digestible and metabolizable energy. The values of urinary pH increased (P 0.05 between the evaluated DEB. A linear increase (P Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar diferentes balanços eletrolíticos das dietas (BED sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanços de nitrogênio e a metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, de suínos na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 16 suínos, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 27,95 kg, distribuídos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas, em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (BED de 160, 208, 257 e 305 mEq/kg e quatro repetições. Os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos avaliados foram cloretos, potássio, sódio e uréia no soro. O pH da urina também foi avaliado, e as variáveis utilizadas no balanço de nitrogênio (N foram o N ingerido, N excretado nas fezes, N excretado na urina, N absorvido, N retido, N retido/N absorvido e excreção total de N. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta e seus respectivos valores de energia digestível e metabolizável. Os valores de pH urinário aumentaram (P 0,05 entre

  8. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  9. Aspects of Energy Metabolism in Mangalitsa Pigs Exposed at Thermic Neutral Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed the energy metabolism determination in Mangalitsa pigs exposed at thermic neutral temperature, compared to Large White pigs. The experimental period was between 80 and 100 kg liveweight. The animals had free access to standard, isoprotein and isocalory diets, with 13.5% crude protein (CP and 3100 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. Feed intake was measured on a daily basis. The energy-protein balance was calculated on the basis of comparative slaughter made at the beginning and end of the experiment. The metabolizable energy (MEc was estimated by chemical analysis (feed and excreta using mathematical modelling and the Whittemore’s formula. The metabolizable energy utilization efficiency was 0.61 at Large White and 0.53 at Mangalitsa.

  10. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  11. Metabolizable energy and amino acids relationships with the soluble fractions of protein and fiber of vegetable feed ingredients Energia metabolizável e relações de aminoácidos com as frações solúveis de proteína e fibra de ingredientes vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate nutrient and energy digestion with animal from in vitro variables it is necessary to control factors that may interfere on digestion such as: source and concentration of digestor substance, as well as the origin and processing of test ingredients. In this study there were performed five laboratory assays, two with poultry and finally regression equations were established based on variables generated with twelve vegetable ingredients. The results showed that there is greater solubility of proteins with NaOH than with KOH. On average, both alkali produced better discrimination of soluble protein with concentration of 0.02% (range of 68.61% in relation to a concentration of 0.2% (range of 37.97%. Considering interaction between alkali and concentration, the best discrimination on protein solubility was reached with NaOH at 0.02%. The methods of protein or fiber solubilization together with the chemical analysis showed significant results variation among ingredients and when they were used to estimate in vivo variables they produced good estimates. It was concluded that reliable digestion estimates for energy or amino acids from vegetable feed ingredients could be obtained from in vitro variables, when considering solubilities of protein and fiber with chemical analysis.Para estimar a digestão de nutrientes e de energia dos animais a partir de variáveis in vitro, é necessário controlar os fatores que interferem na digestão - origem e concentração da substância digestora - e ter conhecimento da fonte e do processo que envolve o ingrediente em teste. Neste trabalho, foram conduzidos cinco ensaios laboratoriais, dois com animais e, por fim, estabelecidas equações de regressão a partir das variáveis geradas com a utilização de 12 ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados mostraram que há maior solubilidade das proteínas com o NaOH que com o KOH e que, na média de ambos os álcalis, a concentração de 0,02% permite maior

  12. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  13. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  14. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  15. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  16. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  17. Energy measurements from betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Thompson, K.

    1989-03-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the electron beam is accelerated from 1--50 GeV in a distance of 3 km. The energy is measured and corrected at the end with an energy feedback loop. There are no bends within the linear accelerator itself, so no intermediate energy measurements are made. Errors in the energy profile due to mis-phasing of the rf, or due to calibration errors in the klystrons' rf outputs are difficult to detect. As the total betatron phase advance down the accelerator is about 30 /times/ 2π, an energy error of a few percent can cause a large error in the total phase advance. This in turn degrades the performance of auto-steering programs. We have developed a diagnostic program which generates and measures several betatron oscillations in the accelerator. It then analyzes this oscillation, looking for frequency changes which indicate energy errors. One can then compensate for or correct these energy errors. 6 refs., 1 fig

  18. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  19. Forward energy measurement with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kheyn, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Energy flow is measured in the forward region of CMS at pseudorapidities up to 6.6 in pp interactions at 13 TeV with forward (HF) and very forward (CASTOR) calorimeters. The results are compared to model predictions. The CMS results at different center-of-mass energies are intercompared using pseudorapidity variable shifted by beam rapidity, thus studying applicability of hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.

  20. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  1. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  2. Exigências de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável para codornas japonesas machos criadas para a produção de carne Energy and protein requirements for male Japanese quails reared for meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T.E. Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou estimar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB e energia metabolizável (EM para máximo desempenho de machos de codornas japonesas criadas para a produção de carne e determinação da idade de abate que resultasse em peso máximo das aves. Quatrocentos e cinqüenta codornas foram utilizadas em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições de seis codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos, de dietas formuladas a partir da combinação de cinco níveis de PB (18, 20, 22, 24 e 26% e três níveis de EM (2800, 3000 e 3200kcal/kg de ração, foram alocados nas parcelas e os quatro períodos experimentais nas sub-parcelas. As variáveis estudadas durante os quatro períodos (5 a 16; 16 a 27; 27 a 38 e 38 a 49 dias de idade foram consumo de ração (CR, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar (CA e peso vivo (PV. No período total (5 a 49 dias de idade foram estudados consumo de ração acumulado (CRA, ganho de peso acumulado (GPA e conversão alimentar acumulada (CAA. As exigências estimadas de PB e EM durante o primeiro (5 a 16 e terceiro (27 a 38 períodos foram 26 e 2800 e 18% e 3200kcal/kg de ração, respectivamente. A exigência de PB no segundo período (16 a 27 dias de idade foi de 26%, não sendo possível estimar a exigência energética. No quarto (38 a 49 dias de idade período experimental a exigência estimada de EM foi de 3200kcal/kg de ração, não sendo possível estimar a exigência protéica. No período total as exigências protéica e energética, estimadas para máximos ganhos de peso acumulados, foram de 26% e 3200kcal/kg de ração, respectivamente. As idades estimadas que resultaram em PV máximo dependeram do nível de PB e de EM da dieta, variando de 57 a 85 e 60 a 74 dias, respectivamente.The experiment aimed to estimate the crude protein (CP and metabolizable energy (ME requirements for maximum performance of male Japanese quails reared for meat production purpose

  3. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  4. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  5. Renewable energy: Method and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Trond Hartvedt

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents various possibilities for renewable energy in Norway. The wind power would give a practical and economic alternative. The external costs for the wind power would be moderate. In chapter 3 the utility cost analysis for renewable alternatives are studied relative to the macroeconomic efficiency. Some methodical problems and how these analyses are used are reviewed. In the practical utility cost analyses wind power is studied relative to gas power which is the non-renewable alternative present in Norway today. A qualitative part is included. It is not possible to determine whether wind power is preferable to gas power in the macroeconomic perspective. Wind power would be the choice if high environmental and CO2 cleaning costs are expected. The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is difficult to decide whether wind power is the best solution based on cost benefit analysis. However, the alternative seems to be quite robust in the analysis. Due to the central position the energy supplies have in the society this business should be heavily regulated. The sector is also overtaxed as a reduction in consumption is desired. The analysis shows that the system does not function perfectly. The thesis surveys various measures for improving the renewable energy supply and focuses on the wind power. A model for and analysis of the measures are carried out and resulted in a second conclusion. The measures have various properties as to the influence on the market. A subsidy is a fine measure for stimulation production of green power while a tax reduces efficiently the production of black power. A system with green licenses in combination with a subsidy and a tax would be preferable as to increasing the part of renewable energy of the total production. It is therefore necessary to have clearly defined goals and use suitable measures for achieving them. The costs of wind power is falling and it would therefore soon be macroeconomic profitable. It is also

  6. Metabolizable Energy Intakes and Nitrogen Balance During Saturation Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    TURKEY BREAST-NO SKIN-ROAST 136.1 GMS GRAVY-CHICKEN 119.0 GMS NOODLES -EGG 160.0 GMS ZUCCHINI SQUASH-FROZEN-BOIL 223.0 GMS CRANBERRY SAUCE 277.0 GMS TEA... INSTANT 474.0 GMS EVENING SNACK ICE CREAM 222.0 GMS 12 0v WIRT otZ" O’ -WIRT J5, V ~6 6 d4 C o :_ C’s) W sC N0 %W Wr W Ch V

  7. Effects of amino acids and metabolizable energy on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... rate. All amino acids are not available in the feedstuffs for maintenance and production. Parts of amino acids are indigestible and can vary among different .... Fertility and hatch- ability are the major economical traits in broiler breeder reproductive performance. Main effects of amino acid of feedstuffs was ...

  8. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  9. Measure for Measure: Urban Water and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, C.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments in the United States account for a majority of the population and, as such, require large volumes of treated drinking water supply and wastewater removal, both of which need energy. Despite the large share of water that urban environments demand, there is limited accounting of these water resources outside of the city itself. In this study, we provide and analyze a database of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy that comprise anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment. We present statistical analyses of the database at an annual, spatial, and intra-annual scale. The average daily per person water flux is estimated as 563 liters of drinking water and 496 liters of wastewater, requiring 340 kWh/1000 m3 and 430 kWh/1000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. This energy demand accounts for 1% of the total annual electricity production of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water (estimated at 15.8% annually) accounts for 9.1 km3of water and 3600 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Through the analysis and benchmarking of the current state of urban water fluxes, we propose the term `blue city,' which promotes urban sustainability and conservation policy focusing on water resources. As the nation's water resources become scarcer and more unpredictable, it is essential to include water resources in urban sustainability planning and continue data collection of these vital resources.

  10. Pengaruh pemberian aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus terhadap kecernaan proein, energi metabolis dan produksi telur burung puyuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Dwi Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid additive red dragon fruit as the addition of drinking water on the digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. Experimental animals used in the research were 200 female quails, 7 day old with average body weight of 13.61 ± 0.49 g. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications : T0 (control, T1 (addition of a liquid additive red dragon fruit about 5 ml twice a day, T2 (once a day and T3 (two days on time. The parameters measured were feed intake, digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and production of quail eggs. Data were analyzed using a variety of F test at the level 5%, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range test when there are significant effects on the treatment. The results showed that liquid additives red dragon fruit was not significant (P>0.05 on the digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. In conclusion, the adition of liquid additives reddragon fruit did not increase digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. Keywords: digestibility of crude protein, quail, quail egg production, red dragon fruit

  11. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  12. Measurement of Missing Tranverse Energy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This note discusses the overall ATLAS detector performance for the reconstruction of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss. Two reconstruction algorithms are discussed and their performance is evaluated for a variety of simulated physics processes which probe different topologies and different total transverse energy regimes. In addition, effects of fake ETmiss, resulting from instrumental effects and from false reconstructions are investigated. Finally, studies with first data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100 pb-1, are suggested which can be used to assess and calibrate the ETmiss performance at the startup of data taking.

  13. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in ... the experimental point of view, there are multiple ways to shed light among the different .... compared to the two metallicity expectations [16]. ..... from the Earth; solar neutrinos; indirect dark matter searches) and GeV physics (pro-.

  14. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND ...

  15. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  16. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  17. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  18. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  19. The evaluation of metabolizable protein content of some indigenous feedstuffs used in ruminant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the metabolizable protein (MP content of common indigenous feedstuffs used in ruminant nutrition using in situ method. Materials and Methods: Nine ruminant feeds such as maize grain (MG, groundnut cake (GNC, mustard oilcake (MOC, cottonseed cake (CSC, deoiled rice bran (DORB, wheat bran (WB, berseem fodder (BF, maize fodder (MF and sorghum fodder (SF were included in this study. Each test feed was dried, ground and chemically analysed for proximate principles (DM, CP, EE, OM, Total ash, fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, NDICP and ADICP. Two adult fistulated bulls were used for evaluating the protein degradation characteristics of each test feed using the nylon bag method. Metabolizable energy (ME content of the test feeds were predicted from their chemical composition data using summative approach of NRC (2001 model. The equations of AFRC (1992 were used to predict the rumen degradable protein (RDP, digestible microbial protein (DMP, digestible undegraded feed protein (DUP and MP content of test feeds. Results: The MP content of MG, GNC, MOC, CSC, DORB, WB, BF, MF and SF was found to be 95.26, 156.41, 135.21, 125.06, 101.68, 107.11, 136.81, 72.01 and 76.65 g/kg DM, respectively. The corresponding ME (MJ/kg DM content of the test feeds was 13.66, 13.12, 13.65, 10.68, 9.08, 11.56, 9.64, 8.33 and 8.03, respectively. Among the test feeds, GNC contained the highest and MF contained the lowest MP per kg DM. Conclusion: It was concluded that the degradability of crude protein (CP of the test feeds can be used in MP determination and diet formulation. Feed CP content is not available as such at intestinal level in ruminants as a definite part of it undergoes extensive microbial degradation in rumen. The pattern and extent of such degradation do influence the amount of protein presented to lower digestive tract (MP for absorption and utilization in ruminants. It was also found that the MP content of a feed is

  20. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  1. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  2. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  3. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  4. Light and energy - daylight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Logadottir, A.; Traberg-Borup, S.; Barrie-Nielsen, K.

    2009-07-01

    All measurements where conducted in the spring of 2007, except the Interpane panel. The solar cell panels have been evaluated by three performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room and the systems ability to maintain view to the outside. In the study, we used two performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room: 1. the daylight factor (overcast sky) 2. the relative work plane illuminance (clear sky condition) Overcast sky: In general, all panels provided less daylight than the recommended requirement in the Danish Building Regulation of 2% on the work plane. This will most likely result in additional need for electric lighting. However, larger window areas and more parts of the facade with clear unobstructed glass may be one solution. Clear sky: In general, all panels provided less interior light levels than the two reference systems in the back of the room. Almost all systems aloud more or less direct sunlight in the window perimeter through the clear openings and additional needs for some kind of shading device is to be expected. Some systems blocked a large portion of the light in the majority of the room, and additional electric light in this part of the room may be needed. Only one performance indicator where used to describe the quality of the panels. View: In general, all panels, except two, obstruct the view significantly and cause figure/background confusion for a view position close to the window and the discrepancies of colour judgements. Only two systems provided a fairly clear view to the outside without to much distortion of the view. (au)

  5. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  6. Measuring and evaluating the soft energy efficiency measures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvilehto, H.-M.; Solid, D. [AaF-Industry Ltd, Solna (Sweden); Rouhiainen, V. [Adato Energia Ltd, Helsinki (Finland); Honkasalo, N.; Sarvaranta, A. [AaF-Consult Ltd, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    This study discusses how to quantify the energy savings related to the companies' aims to enhance their customers' energy efficiency which is one target in the Action Plan for Energy Services in the Energy Efficiency Agreement for the Industries. In Finland, a majority of the energy utilities have signed this action plan and are providing their customers services to improve their energy efficiency. Dissemination of information is the most widely used service to the customers and it is provided in a number of ways including printed material, annual energy report, and an internet tool to access and report hourly measurements. Some of the internet tools cover electricity, district heat and water. The focus of the study is in the evaluation of 'soft' measures; in other words, those measures given by energy utilities that principally rely on communication instruments. However, monitoring the impact of information and communication is far from easy. Carrying out a properly designed evaluation of programmes aiming on enhanced energy efficiency is difficult. Evaluation of the impact of a magazine article on energy efficiency is even more challenging, costly and therefore also rare. Distribution of information as measure to enhance energy efficiency is an important part of EU.s energy policy but what are the ways and even more so, are there ways to actually quantify these savings? There has been excessive work by the member states and research institutes to find a common and robust methodology within the EU to evaluate and quantify energy savings from technical measures. The ex-ante and ex-post results from these evaluations can however differ considerably, e.g. the expected energy savings from installing air to air heat pumps in Denmark did not deliver the expected energy savings. The problems with finding a common robust methodology become even more visible when the 'soft' measures are put under the evaluation loop. The &apos

  7. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  8. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  9. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  10. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  11. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  12. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  13. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  14. Meta-analysis to predict the effects of metabolizable amino acids on dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, I J; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Santos, J E P; Griswold, K E

    2018-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to determine statistical relationships between metabolizable AA supplies and milk protein yield, milk protein percentage, and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-three research publications (258 treatment means) were identified through a search of published literature using 3 search engines and met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) version 6.5 was used to determine dietary nutrient parameters including metabolizable AA. Two approaches were used to analyze the data. First, mixed models were fitted to determine whether explanatory variables predicted responses. Each mixed model contained a global intercept, a random intercept for each experiment, and data were weighted by the inverse of the SEM squared. The second analysis approach used classical effect size meta-analytical evaluation of responses to treatment weighted by the inverse of the treatment variance and with a random effect of treatment nested within experiment. Regardless of the analytical approach, CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Met (g/d) was associated with milk protein percentage and yield. Milk yield was positively associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable His, Leu, Trp, Thr, and nonessential AA (g/d). Milk true protein yield was also associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Leu (g/d). Predicted metabolizable Lysine (g/d) did not increase responses in production outcomes. However, mean metabolizable Lys supply was less than typically recommended and the change with treatment was minimal (157 vs. 162 g; 6.36 vs. 6.38% metabolizable protein). Experiments based solely on Lys or Met interventions were excluded from the study database. It is possible that the inclusion of these experiments may have provided additional insight into the effect of these AA on responses. This meta-analysis supports other research indicating a positive effect of Met and His as co-limiting AA in dairy cows and

  15. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  16. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC's fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  17. Stability of a metabolizable ester bond in radioimmunoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arano, Yasushi; Wakisaka, Kouji; Mukai, Takahiro; Uezono, Takashi; Motonari, Hiroshi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kairiyama, Claudia; Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Chiaki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Sakahara, Harumi; Konishi, Junji; Yokoyama, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Ester bonds have been used as metabolizable linkages to reduce radioactivity levels in non-target tissues following the administration of antibodies labeled with metallic radionuclides. In this radiochemical design of antibodies, while the ester bonds should be cleaved rapidly in non-target tissues, high stability of the ester bonds in plasma is also required to preserve target radioactivity levels. To assess the structural requirements to stabilize the ester bond, a new benzyl-EDTA-derived bifunctional chelating agent with an ester bond, (1-[4-[4-(2-maleimidoethoxy)succinamido]benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid; MESS-Bz-EDTA), was developed. MESS-Bz-EDTA was coupled with a thiolated monoclonal antibody (OST7, IgG 1 ) prepared by reducing its disulfide bonds to introduce the ester bond close and proximal to the antibody molecule. For comparison, 1-[4-(5-maleimidopentyl)aminobenzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EMCS-Bz-EDTA) and meleimidoethyl 3-[ 131 I]iodohippurate (MIH) was coupled to OST7 under the same conjunction chemistry. When incubated in 50% murine plasma or a buffered-solution of neutral pH, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In rapidly released the radioactivity, and more than 95% of the initial radioactivity was liberated after a 24 h incubation in both solutions, due to a cleavage of the ester bond. On the other hand, only about 20% of the radioactivity was released from OST7-MIH- 131 I in both solutions during the same incubation period. In mice biodistribution studies, while a slightly faster radioactivity clearance from the blood with less radioactivity levels in the liver and kidneys was observed with OST7-MIH- 131 I than with OST7-EMCS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In indicated radioactivity clearance from the blood much faster than and almost comparable to that of OST7-MIH- 131 I and succinamidobenzyl-EDTA- 111 In, respectively. These findings as well as previous findings on radiolabeled antibodies with ester bonds

  18. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  19. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  20. CREAM for high energy composition measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, E S; Allison, P S; Beatty, J J; Choi, M J; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Min, K W; Mognet, S I; Nutter, S; Park, H; Schindhelm, E; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based indirect measurements have shown that the cosmic-ray allparticle spectrum extends many orders of magnitude beyond the energy thought possible for supernova acceleration. Our balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is capable of extending direct measurements of cosmic-rays to the supernova energy scale of 1015 eV in a series of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. Identification of Z = 1 - 26 particles will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector. Energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector and a tungsten/scintillating fiber calorimeter. The instrument has been tested with various particles in accelerated beams at the CERN SPS. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004.

  1. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  2. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes ion measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 30 keV observed during the campaigns 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine'. For a clear survey of the physical processes during extraordinary events, sometimes ion measurements of higher energies are also taken into account. Generally, the pitch angle distributions were isotropic during all flights except some remarkable events. In general the ion and electron flux intensities correlated, but sometimes revealed a spectral anti-correlation. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field could be identified accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand deceleration of the ions was observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations pointed to energy dispersion and to the location of the source region at 9 Rsub(E). Furthermore, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons were measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. The integral down-going number and energy flux of the ions contributed to the total particle or energy influx between 65% and less than 7% and did not clearly characterize the geophysical launch conditions or auroral activities. (author)

  3. Kecernaan protein dan energi metabolis akibat pemberian zat aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus pada burung puyuh japonica betina umur 16-50 hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Yuniarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of crude protein and energy is used to measure digestibility in poultry, digestible shows of feed substances absorbed by the body which will affect the productivity of quail. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of red dragon fruit liquid additif (Hylocereus polyrhizus, digestibility protein and metabolizable energy by quail female age 16-50 days. Experiment used 200 japanese quails females, 7 weeks age with average body weight of 13.61±0.49 g. The study was conducted in battery cages. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 5 replications: T0 (control, T1 (Award liquid additives red dragon fruit twice a day, T2 (one a day and T3 (two days. The dose of a liquid additive is 5 ml/quail. Observation of digestibility of crude protein (KcPK and the energy carried by the method of total collection for 3 days, measurements using a bomb calorimeter gross energy and protein analysis using Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using a variety of test F at the level 5%, followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (UJBD there is significant effect of the treatment each treatment was showed liquid additives red dragon fruit was not significant (P> 0.05 on crude protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy. The conclusion, the given of liquid additives red dragon fruit did not increase digestibility of crude protein and apparent metabolizable energy. Keywords: quail, red dragon fruit, digestibility of crude protein

  4. Enermet in the forefront of energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, R.; Suonperae, J.; Alatalo-Korpi, H. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The deregulation of energy markets presents increasing challenges to the traditional measurement business and at the same time puts special demands on system solutions. Power companies are placing emphasis on the remote accessibility of measurement data at customer sites and on a greater variety of rates. Enermet, a member of the IVO Group, is a frontrunner in this business area, investing 8 % of its turnover in product development

  5. Increase of internal energy due to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.

    1991-01-01

    We argue that the internal energy E=(H) of a macroscopic system in thermal equilibrium must increase, if we measure an observable A which does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. We derive an expression for calculating a lower bound for this increase in E. We then generalize the above result, and show that under certain conditions the expectation value (C) of an observable C should increase by the measurement of another observable A, if A and C do not commute. (author)

  6. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  7. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  8. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  9. Measuring Intermolecular Binding Energies by Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmuss, Richard; Maity, Surajit; Féraud, Géraldine; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2017-02-22

    The ground-state dissociation energy, D0(S0), of isolated intermolecular complexes in the gas phase is a fundamental measure of the interaction strength between the molecules. We have developed a three-laser, triply resonant pump-dump-probe technique to measure dissociation energies of jet-cooled M•S complexes, where M is an aromatic chromophore and S is a closed-shell 'solvent' molecule. Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) via the S0→S1 electronic transition is used to precisely 'warm' the complex by populating high vibrational levels v" of the S0 state. If the deposited energy E(v") is less than D0(S0), the complex remains intact, and is then mass- and isomer-selectively detected by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) with a third (probe) laser. If the pumped level is above D0(S0), the hot complex dissociates and the probe signal disappears. Combining the fluorescence or SEP spectrum of the cold complex with the SEP breakoff of the hot complex brackets D0(S0). The UV chromophores 1-naphthol and carbazole were employed; these bind either dispersively via the aromatic rings, or form a hydrogen bond via the -OH or -NH group. Dissociation energies have been measured for dispersively bound complexes with noble gases (Ne, Kr, Ar, Xe), diatomics (N2, CO), alkanes (methane to n-butane), cycloalkanes (cyclopropane to cycloheptane), and unsaturated compounds (ethene, benzene). Hydrogen-bond dissociation energies have been measured for H2O, D2O, methanol, ethanol, ethers (oxirane, oxetane), NH3 and ND3.

  10. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed. (paper)

  11. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  12. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  13. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  14. Energy-loss measurements with heavy ions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.; Gaimard, J.J.; Geissel, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stelzer, H.; Suemmerer; Clerc, H.G.; Hanelt, E.; Steiner, M.; Voss, B.

    1990-03-01

    Using the magnetic spectrometer SPES I at SATURNE, energy-loss measurements have been performed for projectiles of 40 Ar (401 MeV/u), 36 P (362 MeV/u), 15 N (149 MeV/u), 11 Li (131 MeV/u) and 8 Li, 9 Li (130 MeV/u) in carbon, aluminum and lead targets. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on a modified relativistic Bethe formula and to a semi-empirical formula using a Z 2 scaling law for the stopping power and an effective charge parametrization for the heavy ions. (orig.)

  15. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  17. Uncertainty Estimation Improves Energy Measurement and Verification Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Travis; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation measures in buildings can reduce energy costs and environmental impacts, but such measures cost money to implement so intelligent investment strategies require the ability to quantify the energy savings by comparing actual energy used to how much energy would have been used in absence of the conservation measures (known as the baseline energy use). Methods exist for predicting baseline energy use, but a limitation of most statistical methods reported in the li...

  18. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin...... and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division......, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus...

  19. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  20. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  1. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  2. Time-resolved beam energy measurements at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgings, D.W.; Clark, D.A.; Bryant, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    A narrow atomic photodetachment resonance is used to measure the LAMPF beam energy. Energy and time resolution are adequate to permit the use of this method in studying transient changes in accelerated beam energy

  3. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  4. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  5. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  6. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  7. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  8. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  9. Modelos para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável para poedeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Sakomura,Nilva Kazue; Basaglia,Roberta; Sá-Fortes,Cristina M. L.; Fernandes,João Batista K.

    2005-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável (EM) para poedeiras leves da linhagem Lohmann LSL, utilizando-se o método fatorial. Para determinar o efeito da temperatura sobre as exigências de EM para mantença, foram conduzidos experimentos em câmaras climáticas com temperaturas constantes de 12, 22 e 31ºC, utilizando a técnica do abate comparativo. A exigência de energia líquida para o ganho de peso foi determinada por meio da regress...

  10. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  11. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  12. New model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery (W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile) from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is ((98 x FFM) + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)), kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  13. Electron energy measurements in pulsating auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, D.J.; Yee, E.; Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electron spectra were obtained during two rocket flights into pulsating aurora from Southend, Saskatchewan. The first rocket launched at 1143:24 UT on February 15, 1980 flew into an aurora of background intensity 275 R of N 2 + 4278 A and showing regular pulsations with about a 17 s period. Electron spectra of Maxwellian energy distributions were observed with an average E 0 = 1.5 keV, rising to 1.8 keV during the pulsations. There was one-to-one correspondence between the electron energy modulation and the observed optical pulsations. The second rocket, launched at 1009:10 UT on February 23, flew into a diffuse auroral surface of intensity 800 R of N 2 + 4278 A and with somewhat irregular pulsations. The electron spectra were again of Maxwellian energy distribution with an average E 0 = 1.8 keV increasing to 2.1 keV during the pulsations. The results from these flights suggest that pulsating auroras occurring in the morning sector may be quite commonly excited by low energy electrons. The optical pulsations are due to periodic increases in the energy of the electrons with the source of modulation in the vicintiy of the geomagnetic equatorial plane. (auth)

  14. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  15. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  16. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  18. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  19. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  20. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  1. Measuring structure functions at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.; Owens, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include measuring Λ, tests of QCD using hard scattering processes, and measuring parton distributions. In each case, any opportunities and advantages afforded by the unique features of the SSC are emphasized. The working group on structure functions was charged with investigating two specific questions: (1) How well are the various parton distributions known in the kinematic region relevant to calculations for the SSC. (2) What new information can be learned about parton distributions at the SSC. Especially for this working group, the advantages of having a fixed-target facility at the SSC for the measurement of the parton distributions with multi-TeV leptons, were to be examined. 15 references

  2. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  3. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  4. Simultaneous integral measurement of electron energy and charge albedoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

    Results of a series of experiments in which backscattered energy has been determined from precise energy deposition measurements using an improved technique are presented. The fraction of the energy backscattered for electrons incident on Be, Ti, Mo, and Ta is determined as a function of energy and angle of incidence. The improved technique for the absolute measurement of energy deposition using calorimeters involves square-wave (on-off) modulation of the beam. Uncertainties in the measured backscattered energy are 1 to 6 percent, except for Be at normal incidence where they must agree by definition. Experiment and theory agree quite well for Mo and Be at 60 0 . The measured data for Ta and Ti are clearly higher than the calculated results, which is not completely understood. (U.S.)

  5. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-kΩ thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl

  6. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  7. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  8. Jet energy measurements with the ZEUS prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium scintillator calorimeter of the ZEUS detector is designed to achieve an excellent energy calibration and the best possible energy resolution for jets. Therefore the response of the prototype calorimeter to jets has been measured using an interaction trigger. The mean response and energy resolution was measured for jets of 50 GeV - 100 GeV and compared to the one for pions. Within the ZEUS detector dead material is placed in front of the calorimeter. The influence of 4 cm and 10 cm thick aluminium absorbers in front of the calorimeter was measured. The charged multiplicity was measured in front and behind the aluminium absorber. With these multiplicities the energy loss in the absorber is corrected. The correction has been done so that the mean response with absorber is equal to the mean response without absorber. The improvement of the energy resolution is investigated. The measured results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.) [de

  9. Efeito dos níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e desempenho de frangos de corte abatidos tardiamente = Effect of metabolizable energy levels and feeding programs on carcass quality and performance in broilers slaugthered lately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ferreira Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e carne de frangos de corte entre 42 e 57 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.600 pintos machos “Cobb”, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo dois níveis de energia (3.200 e 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 e quatro programas de alimentação (recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram avaliados ascaracterísticas de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, de peito e de coxas + sobrecoxas e carne (cor, pH, perdas por cocção, força de cisalhamento, capacidade de retenção de água e análise sensoriale os dados de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e conversão calórica. Os níveis energéticos ou os diferentes programas de alimentação não determinaram diferenças expressivas na qualidade da carcaça ou de carne que justifiquem a escolha de um nível de energia ou de um programa alimentar, devendo prevalecer o nível energético e as recomendações de aminoácidos que determinem o maior custo-benefício. Observou-se que o nível de 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 proporcionou melhoria no desempenho das aves, enquanto que o fracionamento das exigências de aminoácidos digestíveis em dois períodos determinou piores resultados.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of different energy levels and amino acid recommendations on carcass and meat quality of broilers from 42 to 57 days of age. It was used 1,600 one-day old male broilers (Cobb in a completely randomized design arranged in a factorial scheme 2x4 with 3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME kg-1 and four different feed programs. The experimental period was from 42 to 57 days of age. From 1 to 41 days of age all birds received the same diets based on corn and soybean meal. Data from carcass yield (output carcass, relation weight breast and thigh and overthigh with the carcass weight and muscle quality (color, p

  10. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  11. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  12. Net protein and metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and growth of early-weaned Dorper crossbred male lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ma; Kaidong Deng; Yan Tu; Naifeng Zhang; Bingwen Si; Guishan Xu; Qiyu Diao

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dorper is an important breed for meat purpose and widely used in the livestock industry of the world.However,the protein requirement of Dorper crossbred has not been investigated.The current paper reports the net protein (NP) and metabolizable protein (MP) requirements of Dorper crossbred ram lambs from 20 to 35 kg BW.Methods:Thirty-five Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs weaned at approximately 50 d of age (20.3 ± 2.15 kg of BW) were used.Seven lambs of 25 kg BW were slaughtered as the baseline animals at the start of the trial.An intermediate group of seven randomly selected lambs fed ad libitum was slaughtered at 28.6 kg BW.The remaining 21 lambs were randomly divided into three levels of dry matter intake:ad libitum or 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake.Those lambs were slaughtered when the lambs fed ad libitum reached 35 kg BW.Total body N and N retention were measured.Results:The daily NP and MP requirements for maintenance were 1.89 and 4.52 g/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW0.75).The partial efficiency of MP utilization for maintenance was 0.42.The NP requirement for growth ranged from 12.1 to 43.5 g/d,for the lambs gaining 100 to 350 g/d,and the partial efficiency of MP utilization for growth was 0.86.Conclusions:The NP and MP requirements for the maintenance and growth of Dorper crossbred male lambs were lower than the recommendations of American and British nutritional systems.

  13. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  14. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  15. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  16. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  17. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  18. Measurement of the energy stored in alkalihalogenids by radiation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrey, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy stored in alkali-halogen crystals after X-ray irradiation is studied at 11 K. Using a heat flux calorimeter designed especially for this experiment, single crystals are irradiated and the energy release is recorded as the temperature is increased proportional to time from 10 K to 50 K. The energy release spectra are compared with relevant optical measurements and thus a relation between energy release and tempering of point defects is established. The energy release peaks can be assigned definitly to tempering stages of the Frenkel pairs. For explanation a simple model is proposed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  19. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  20. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  1. RF Phase Scan for Beam Energy Measurement of KOMAC DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Seonggu; Lee, Seokgeun; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The energy gain through the drift tube linac is a function of the synchronous phase, therefore, the output beam energy from DTL can be affected by the RF phase setting in low-level RF (LLRF) system. The DTL at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) consists of 11 tanks and the RF phase setting in each tank should be matched for synchronous acceleration in successive tanks. That means a proper setting of RF phase in each DTL tank is critical for efficient and loss-free operation. The matching RF phase can be determined based on the output energy measurement from the DTL tank. The beam energy can be measured by several methods. For example, we can use a bending magnet to determine the beam energy because the higher momentum of beam means the less deflection angle in the fixed magnetic field. By measuring the range of proton beam through a material with known stopping power also can be utilized to determine the beam energy. We used a well-known time-of-flight method to determine the output beam energy from the DTL tank by measuring beam phase with a beam position monitor (BPM). Based on the energy measurement results, proper RF operating point could be obtained. We performed a RF phase scan to determine the output beam energy from KOMAC DTL by using a time-of-flight method and to set RF operating point precisely. The measured beam energy was compared with a beam dynamics simulation and showed a good agreement. RF phase setting is critical issue for the efficient operation of the proton accelerator, we have a plan to implement and integrate the RF phase measurement system into an accelerator control system for future need.

  2. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  3. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Negative vacuum energy densities and the causal diamond measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arguably a major success of the landscape picture is the prediction of a small, nonzero vacuum energy density. The details of this prediction depend in part on how the diverging spacetime volume of the multiverse is regulated, a question that remains unresolved. One proposal, the causal diamond measure, has demonstrated many phenomenological successes, including predicting a distribution of positive vacuum energy densities in good agreement with observation. In the string landscape, however, the vacuum energy density is expected to take positive and negative values. We find the causal diamond measure gives a poor fit to observation in such a landscape - in particular, 99.6% of observers in galaxies seemingly just like ours measure a vacuum energy density smaller than we do, most of them measuring it to be negative.

  5. Could dark energy be measured in the lab?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The experimentally measured spectral density of current noise in Josephson junctions provides direct evidence for the existence of zero-point fluctuations. Assuming that the total vacuum energy associated with these fluctuations cannot exceed the presently measured dark energy of the universe, we predict an upper cutoff frequency of ν c =(1.69+/-0.05)x10 12 Hz for the measured frequency spectrum of zero-point fluctuations in the Josephson junction. The largest frequencies that have been reached in the experiments are of the same order of magnitude as ν c and provide a lower bound on the dark energy density of the universe. It is shown that suppressed zero-point fluctuations above a given cutoff frequency can lead to 1/f noise. We propose an experiment which may help to measure some of the properties of dark energy in the lab

  6. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  7. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  8. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  9. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a)≠-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c s ≠1), and early presence of dark energy [Ω de (a<<1)≠0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  10. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  11. The effect of intermittent lighting on metabolizable energy intake and heat production of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S; Leeson, S

    2000-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of an intermittent lighting (IL) schedule with repeated cycles of 1 h light and 2 h darkness with a continuous lighting (CL) schedule on the performance, ME intake, and heat production of male broiler chickens. Body weight gain and feed intake were temporarily reduced after the changing from CL to IL; however, they were significantly higher in IL vs CL chickens during the subsequent period of 3 to 6 wk of age. The IL chickens exhibited a higher ME intake at 6 and 8 wk of age than did CL chickens. Total heat production in IL chickens was higher than for CL chickens, although heat production during the dark period was less than that during the light period for IL chickens. The higher feed intake observed in IL chickens appears to explain the superior body weight gain in IL broilers in simple terms.

  12. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  13. 7 key measures for France to enter energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Vandaele, Diane; Richard, Marion; Fink, Meike; Quirion, Philippe; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berthier, Julien; Mossalgue, Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Lenoir, Didier; Vormus, Joel; Charru, Madeleine; Claustre, Raphael; Mathis, Paul; Gauthier, Raphaelle; Couturier, Christian; Mijeon, Charlotte; Gavand, Karine; Majnoni d'Intignano, Sophia; Delcroix, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this report propose, describe and discuss seven measures to be taken to promote and support energy transition in France: to introduce a climate-energy contribution, to adopt a law for a progressive and complete nuclear phasing out, to set local communities at the heart of energy transition, to introduce a mandatory thermal renewal of existing buildings, to develop a less greenhouse gas emitter agricultural model, to enter into a low-carbon and energy efficient transport infrastructure scheme, and to plan the struggle against urban sprawl at the scale of the living area

  14. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  15. The role of energy advisors on adoption of energy efficiency measures in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. Currently, all municipalities offer energy advisers' service. The success of such service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in 2008 summer. We found that majority of owners' of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had actually contacted energy advisers. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy adviser service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  16. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  17. Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat

    1996-12-01

    In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)

  18. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  19. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  20. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro /MWh up to over 100 Euro /MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro /MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro /MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved

  2. Short communication: Prediction of energy requirements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected on metabolizable energy (ME) intake and growth performance of preruminant female kids of the Murciano-Granadina breed was used to assess the accuracy of the latest U. S. National Research Council (NRC) recommendations to predict their energy requirements. Female kids were fed a milk replacer ...

  3. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  4. Measuring energy poverty in Japan, 2004–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okushima, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan from 2004 to 2013, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs various poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also employs a new decomposition technique and identifies the explanatory factors associated with the increase in energy poverty. These results suggest there were major changes in the forces driving the increase in energy poverty before and after the GEJE. After 2011, income alleviates energy poverty in Japan, with energy prices becoming the main driving factor. - Highlights: • This study is the first evaluation of energy poverty in Japan by unique microdata. • Focus on the period of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima accident. • Shows the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households. • Identifies factors accounting for the changes in energy poverty by decomposition. • Major changes in the explanatory factors before and after the Fukushima accident.

  5. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  6. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  7. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  8. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  9. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  10. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  11. The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K.; Babusci, D.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements

  12. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  13. Enhancement of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by the addition of readily metabolizable organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongzhi; Chen Jianmeng; Zhong Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Supplements with readily metabolizable organic substrates were investigated to increase the biomass and enhance degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) due to the low biomass yield of MTBE which has been one of the factors for low-rate MTBE degradation. The influence of various organic substrates on the rate of aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 was investigated, and only yeast extract (YE), beef extract and tryptone exhibited stimulatory effect. With the concentration of each substrate being 100 mg/L, the average MTBE removal rate could increase to 1.29, 1.20 and 1.04 mg/(L h), respectively, in comparison with 0.71 mg/(L h) when carried out in medium without addition. The stimulatory effects of YE addition, as well as induction period required by MTBE degradation, varied dramatically with the storage conditions, pre-culture medium and concentrations of the inoculums. The extent of stimulatory effects of YE might be closely related to the proportion of induction period in the total time of MTBE-degradation. The removal efficiency increased from about 50% to 90.5% with the addition of YE in a packed-bed reactor loaded with calcium alginate immobilized cells.

  14. Pion minus energy measurement by a multilayer semiconductor spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Lapushkin, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for determining π - meson energy by a laminated semiconductor spectrometer is described. Results of experimental test of the technique carried out using beams of meson track of the JINR synchrocyclotron and three Si(Li) detectors are given. A specific feature of the technique is that chi 2 criterium with a functional written through exact thicknesses of semiconductor detectors was used for separating events with disturbance of ionization dependence and determining particle energy. It is shown that the absolute resolution can be not worse than 0.5 MeV in a wide energy range. It is concluded that the technique suggested is suitable for measuring energy of any charged particles with indefinite energy release during stoppage [ru

  15. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France - Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory. ADEME presents you a synthesis of this survey in this document

  16. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  17. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  18. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  19. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Precision cosmological measurements: Independent evidence for dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, Greg; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Murray, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Using recent precision measurements of cosmological parameters, we re-examine whether these observations alone, independent of type Ia supernova surveys, are sufficient to imply the existence of dark energy. We find that best measurements of the age of the Universe t 0 , the Hubble parameter H 0 and the matter fraction Ω m strongly favor an equation of state defined by (w<-1/3). This result is consistent with the existence of a repulsive, acceleration-causing component of energy if the Universe is nearly flat

  1. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  2. Precision measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines and determination of neutron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braumandl, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper first discusses the energy accuracy of the BILL conversion electron spectrometer at the Grenoble high flux reactor. With an improved temperature stabilisation of the magnets, an energy accuracy of ΔE/E -5 can be reached. After this, highly exact measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines of the 200 Hg, 114 Cd, 165 Dy, 168 Er, 239 U nuclei and the 13 C, 28 Al 3 H and 92 Zr photoelectron lines were carried out. Energy calibration of the spectrometer was carried out in the 1.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV range with intensive high-energy transitions of the 200 Hg nucleus. Systematic calibration errors could be investigated by means of combinations between the calibration lines. A calibration for absolute energies was obtained by comparing low-energy gamma transitions of 200 Hg with the 411.8 keV gold standard. (orig.) [de

  3. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  4. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  5. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm 2 of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4√nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 2 2 /c 2 . We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter Λ/sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references

  6. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  7. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  8. submitter Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, J; Gallego, E; Gálvez, J; García Tabares, L; González, E; Jaren, J; López, C; Lorente, A; Martínez Val, J M; Oropesa, J; Rubbia, C; Rubio, J A; Saldana, F; Tamarit, J; Vieira, S

    1996-01-01

    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the First Energy Amplifier Test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade.

  9. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  10. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  11. A Method to Measure the Bracelet Based on Feature Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang

    2017-12-01

    To measure the bracelet automatically, a novel method based on feature energy is proposed. Firstly, the morphological method is utilized to preprocess the image, and the contour consisting of a concentric circle is extracted. Then, a feature energy function, which is relevant to the distances from one pixel to the edge points, is defined taking into account the geometric properties of the concentric circle. The input image is subsequently transformed to the feature energy distribution map (FEDM) by computing the feature energy of each pixel. The center of the concentric circle is thus located by detecting the maximum on the FEDM; meanwhile, the radii of the concentric circle are determined according to the feature energy function of the center pixel. Finally, with the use of a calibration template, the internal diameter and thickness of the bracelet are measured. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the true sizes of the bracelet accurately with the simplicity, directness and robustness compared to the existing methods.

  12. Measurements of the energy spectrum of backscattered fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.

    1976-03-01

    Experimental measurements have been made of the energy spectra of neutrons transmitted through slabs of iron, lead and perspex for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 MeV. The neutron energy measurements were made using a He-3 spectrometer. The dependence of the neutrons energy spectrum as a function of scattering thickness was determined. The neutrons source used was a 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a tritium target using the H 3 (p,n) He 3 reaction. The results obtained by the investigator on energy dependence of transmitted neutrons as a function of thickness of scattering material were compared, where possible, with the results obtained by other workers. The comparisons indicated good agreement. The experiment's results are compared with MORSE Monte Carlo calculated values. It is worthwhile to note that direct comparison between measured cross section values and the recommended ones are very far from satisfactory. In almost all cases the calculated spectrum is harder than the experimental one, a situation common to the penetrating and the back-scattered flux

  13. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  14. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  15. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  16. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  17. Automating Energy Bandgap Measurements in Semiconductors Using LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Sharma, Reena; Dhingra, Vishal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of an automated system for energy bandgap and resistivity measurement of a semiconductor sample using Four-Probe method for use in the undergraduate laboratory of Physics and Electronics students. The automated data acquisition and analysis system has been developed using National Instruments USB-6008 DAQ…

  18. High energy spin waves in iron measured by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.T.; Paul, D.M.; Mook, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present new results for the spin were dispersion relation measured along the [ζζ0] direction in bcc iron (12% silicon) by time-of-flight, neutron inelastic scattering. The excitations were followed to the zone boundary, where they are spread over a range of energies around 300meV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  19. Measurement of the pion form factor at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.J. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    One of the strongest arguments for increasing the nominal CEBAF beam energy to equal or exceed 6 GeV is that one would be able to make quality high Q{sup 2} measurements of the charged pion form factor.

  20. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  1. Measurement of energy deposition near high energy, heavy ion tracks. Progress report, December 1982-April 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.

    1986-08-01

    The microscopic spatial distribution of energy deposition in irradiated tissue plays a significant role in the final biological effect produced. Therefore, it is important to have accurate microdosimetric spectra of radiation fields used for radiobiology and radiotherapy. The experiments desribed here were designed to measure the distributions of energy deposition around high energy heavy ion tracks generated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. A small proportional counter mounted in a large (0.6 by 2.5 m) vacuum chamber was used to measure energy deposition distributions as a function of the distance between detector and primary ion track. The microdosimetric distributions for a homogeneous radiation field were then calculated by integrating over radial distance. This thesis discusses the rationale of the experimental design and the analysis of measurements on 600 MeV/amu iron tracks. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  2. Measurement of energy deposition near high energy, heavy ion tracks. Progress report, December 1982-April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.

    1986-08-01

    The microscopic spatial distribution of energy deposition in irradiated tissue plays a significant role in the final biological effect produced. Therefore, it is important to have accurate microdosimetric spectra of radiation fields used for radiobiology and radiotherapy. The experiments desribed here were designed to measure the distributions of energy deposition around high energy heavy ion tracks generated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. A small proportional counter mounted in a large (0.6 by 2.5 m) vacuum chamber was used to measure energy deposition distributions as a function of the distance between detector and primary ion track. The microdosimetric distributions for a homogeneous radiation field were then calculated by integrating over radial distance. This thesis discusses the rationale of the experimental design and the analysis of measurements on 600 MeV/amu iron tracks. 53 refs., 19 figs

  3. Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: A synthesized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Mukherjee, Ishani

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synthesized, workable framework for analyzing national energy security policies and performance. Drawn from research interviews, survey results, a focused workshop, and an extensive literature review, this article proposes that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. We then break these five dimensions down into 20 components related to security of supply and production, dependency, and diversification for availability; price stability, access and equity, decentralization, and low prices for affordability; innovation and research, safety and reliability, resilience, energy efficiency, and investment for technology development; land use, water, climate change, and air pollution for sustainability; and governance, trade, competition, and knowledge for sound regulation. Further still, our synthesis lists 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators that policymakers and scholars can use to analyze, measure, track, and compare national performance on energy security. The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly. -- Highlights: → Energy security should consist of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. → The dimensions of energy security can be broken down into 20 components. → These components can be distilled into 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators.

  4. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  5. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  6. Distance measurements from supernovae and dark energy constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun

    2009-01-01

    Constraints on dark energy from current observational data are sensitive to how distances are measured from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data. We find that flux averaging of SNe Ia can be used to test the presence of unknown systematic uncertainties, and yield more robust distance measurements from SNe Ia. We have applied this approach to the nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST set of 288 SNe Ia, and the 'Constitution' set of 397 SNe Ia. Combining the SN Ia data with cosmic microwave background anisotropy data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5 yr observations, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, the data of 69 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) , and the Hubble constant measurement from the Hubble Space Telescope project SHOES, we measure the dark energy density function X(z)≡ρ X (z)/ρ X (0) as a free function of redshift (assumed to be a constant at z>1 or z>1.5). Without the flux averaging of SNe Ia, the combined data using the Constitution set of SNe Ia seem to indicate a deviation from a cosmological constant at ∼95% confidence level at 0 98% confidence level for z≤0.75 using the combined data with 288 SNe Ia from nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST, independent of the assumptions about X(z≥1). We quantify dark energy constraints without assuming a flat Universe using the dark energy figure of merit for both X(z) and a dark energy equation-of-state linear in the cosmic scale factor.

  7. Measurements for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Hoek, M.; Aronsson, D.

    1990-05-01

    The report describes measurements performed for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors (two arrays of 16 detectors each one). The calibration procedure determines four calibration parameters for each detector. Results of the calibration measurements are given and test measurements are presented. A relation of the neutron detector calibration parameters to producer's data for the photomulipliers is analysed. Also the tests necessary during normal operation of the TANSY neutron spectrometer are elaborated (passive and active tests). A method how to quickly get the calibration parameters for a spare detector in an array of the neutron detectors is included

  8. Chromaticity measurement during beam energy ramp in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Riyasat; Vats, D.K.; Ghodke, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Chromaticity is one of the important parameters of circular accelerators and plays crucial role in its operation. In Indus-2 storage ring the natural chromaticity is -19 and -12 in horizontal and vertical planes respectively. For the good injection at 550 MeV in Indus-2, chromaticity needs to be kept at (+1, +1). The corrected chromaticity does not remain constant during the energy ramp up to 2.5 GeV. We measured Indus-2 storage ring chromaticity by the conventional RF frequency change method. The measurement method and the result of the measurement are reported in this paper. (author)

  9. The location as an energy efficiency and renewable energy supply measure for data centres in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Victor; Oró, Eduard; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A data centre energy model was developed using TRNSYS. • The potential of direct air free cooling integration was evaluated around Europe. • A set of energy indicators describing the operation of data centres were defined. • The location of a data centre could significantly affect its operation and impact. • Smart management of the IT load can reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The massive data centre energy consumption has motivated significant efforts to use energy efficiency strategies and the implementation of renewable energy sources that reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. Considering that the potential of many of these measures is often closely linked to the climate conditions, the location of data centres can have a major impact on their energy demand. Moreover, from a holistic approach, differences among regions become even more important when accounting for the electricity attributes from the grid. To assess these differences this work compares by the use of energy indicators the behaviour of a data centre located at different representative emplacements in Europe. To do so, a dynamic energy model which incorporates free cooling strategy and photovoltaic energy is developed. The paper concludes by suggesting that future data centre developments could consider site selection as a new strategy to limit the environmental impact attributable to this sector

  10. Measuring and improving the public perceptions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the public's perception on risk and benefit of nuclear power and to find ways to improve the perceptions. Latent Class Analysis is adopted for the perception measures, which quantify people's perception and reveal the perception structure. The measures resulted from Latent Class Analysis show that women perceive risks to be more existent and benefits to be less than men do. Moreover there is a tendency that if education level is high, perceived risk is low and perceived benefit is high. The perception of risk and benefit also depends on different channels through which people get information about nuclear energy. Comparing seven different information channels, the most effective ways of communicating with people to improve the risk and benefit perception of nuclear energy are found to be the visit to nuclear plants and the education through the regular schooling. Information dissemination through mass media is only effective to the benefit perception

  11. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  12. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  13. Considering fluctuation energy as a measure of gyrokinetic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T; Dorland, W

    2012-01-01

    In gyrokinetic theory, there are two quadratic measures of fluctuation energy, left invariant under nonlinear interactions, that constrain turbulence. In a recent work (Plunk and Tatsuno 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003) we reported on the novel consequences that this constraint has for the direction and locality of spectral energy transfer. This paper builds on that previous work. We provide a detailed analysis in support of the results of Plunk and Tatsuno (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003), but significantly broaden the scope and use additional methods to address the problem of energy transfer. The perspective taken here is that the fluctuation energies are not merely formal invariants of an idealized model (two-dimensional gyrokinetics (Plunk et al 2010 J. Fluid Mech. 664 407–35)) but also general measures of gyrokinetic turbulence, i.e. quantities that can be used to predict the behavior of turbulence. Although many questions remain open, this paper collects evidence in favor of this perspective by demonstrating in several contexts that constrained spectral energy transfer governs the dynamics. (paper)

  14. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  15. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... to automatically extract the cyclic motion pattern, in walking and running represented as steps, and analyse the frequency. Experiments are performed with one subject in two different tests, each at 5, 8, 10, and 12 km/h. The results of our proposed video-based method is compared to concurrent measurements...

  16. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  17. Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Restaurant Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Das, Sai Krupa; Saltzman, Edward; Weber, Judith L.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Context National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown. Objective To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of foods purchased in restaurants. Design and Setting A validated bomb calorimetry technique was used to measure dietary energy in food from 42 restaurants, comprising 269 total food items and 242 unique foods. The restaurants and foods were randomly selected from quick-serve and sit-down restaurants in Massachusetts, Arkansas, and Indiana between January and June 2010. Main Outcome Measure The difference between restaurant-stated and laboratory-measured energy contents, which were corrected for standard metabolizable energy conversion factors. Results The absolute stated energy contents were not significantly different from the absolute measured energy contents overall (difference of 10 kcal/portion; 95% confidence interval [CI], −15 to 34 kcal/portion; P=.52); however, the stated energy contents of individual foods were variable relative to the measured energy contents. Of the 269 food items, 50 (19%) contained measured energy contents of at least 100 kcal/portion more than the stated energy contents. Of the 10% of foods with the highest excess energy in the initial sampling, 13 of 17 were available for a second sampling. In the first analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 289 kcal/portion (95% CI, 186 to 392 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents; in the second analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 258 kcal/portion (95% CI, 154 to 361 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents (Prestaurant foods were accurate overall. However, there was substantial inaccuracy for some individual foods, with understated energy contents for those with lower

  18. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this...

  19. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.16 Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. For...

  20. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  1. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  2. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  3. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  4. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  5. Possible Measurable Effects of Dark Energy in Rotating Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss recent laboratory experiments with rotating superconductors and show that three so far unexplained experimentally observed effects (anomalous acceleration signals, anomalous gyroscope signals, Cooper pair mass excess can be physically explained in terms of a possible interaction of dark energy with Cooper pairs. Our approach is based on a Ginzburg-Landau-like model of electromagnetic dark energy, where gravitationally active photons obtain mass in the superconductor. We show that this model can account simultaneously for the anomalous acceleration and anomalous gravitomagnetic fields around rotating superconductors measured by Tajmar et al. and for the anomalous Cooper pair mass in superconductive Niobium, measured by Cabrera and Tate. It is argued that these three different physical effects are ultimately different experimental manifestations of the simultaneous spontaneous breaking of gauge invariance and of the principle of general covariance in superconductive materials.

  6. Emittance measurements in low energy ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Carli, C.; Resta-López, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2018-07-01

    The development of the next generation of ultra-low energy antiproton and ion facilities requires precise information about the beam emittance to guarantee optimum performance. In the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA) the transverse emittances will be measured by scraping. However, this diagnostic measurement faces several challenges: non-zero dispersion, non-Gaussian beam distributions due to effects of the electron cooler and various systematic errors such as closed orbit offsets and inaccurate rms momentum spread estimation. In addition, diffusion processes, such as intra-beam scattering might lead to emittance overestimates. Here, we present algorithms to efficiently address the emittance reconstruction in presence of the above effects, and present simulation results for the case of ELENA.

  7. Neutron dose and energy spectra measurements at Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Soldat, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.; Faust, L.G.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1987-08-01

    Because some workers have a high potential for significant neutron exposure, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to verify the accuracy of neutron dosimetry at the plant. Energy spectrum and neutron dose measurements were made at the SRP calibrations laboratory and at several other locations. The energy spectra measurements were made using multisphere or Bonner sphere spectrometers, 3 He spectrometers, and NE-213 liquid scintillator spectrometers. Neutron dose equivalent determinations were made using these instruments and others specifically designed to determine dose equivalent, such as the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Survey instruments, such as the Eberline PNR-4, and the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo and track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also used. The TEPC, subjectively judged to provide the most accurate estimation of true dose equivalent, was used as the reference for comparison with other devices. 29 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Measurement equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidthoeft Delff Andersen, P.; Rode, C.; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-08-15

    This paper documents the measurement equipment in a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Detailed measurements are being taken on energy consumption, indoor temperatures, floor heating, ventilation, open/closed state of doors and windows, and indoors climate. Equipped with a central control unit, experiments can be designed in order to study heat dynamics of the building. It is described how to plan and execute such experiments in one apartment in the building. The building also features both a solar thermal system and extra buffer tank facilitating testing of storage strategies on the power generated by the solar thermal system. A weather station equipped with thermometer, pyranometer and anemometer is installed on the building as well. Finally, it is described how to retrieve data from an SQL server which is configured to take monthly backups. R functions have been implemented to fetch and prepare the data for time series analysis. Examples are given on the use of these. (Author)

  9. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  10. Measurement of energy deposition near heavy ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Brady, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Rapkin, M.

    1985-01-01

    In November of 1982 work was begun in collaboration with Columbia University and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to use microdosimetric methods to measure energy deposition of heavy ions produced at LBL's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. Last year the authors reported preliminary results indicating that secondary charged particle equilibrium was probably obtained using this experimental setup, but that there seemed to be poor spatial resolution in the solid state position-sensitive detector. Further analysis of the measurements taken in August 1983 shows that because of this electronic noise in the position-sensitive detector, only the 56 Fe data yielded useful microdosimetric spectra

  11. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  12. Marginal costs for intensified energy-efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, J.; Jochem, E.; Christen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The costs and benefits of investments in measures designed to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings (in particular investments in heat insulation) were calculated as a function of increasing energy efficiency for new and renovated buildings and for single-family homes and apartment buildings. These investments in measures to improve efficiency mostly involve with the building envelope and ventilation systems and aim to successively reduce the space-heating needs of the buildings. The measures range from present-day building and renovation methods through to the 'Minergie' and 'Passive House' ('Minergie-P' in Switzerland) standards for low and very-low energy consumption buildings. Cost-benefit ratios were determined for individual building components, individual building concepts and for the whole of Switzerland, using both the average-cost as well as the pure marginal-cost methods (energy-economics level). The collection of empirical data (especially on costs) was an integral and important part of the project. The marginal costs were then compared with the benefits arising from the costs for space heating that were avoided, and, using a few typical cases as examples, with the so-called co-benefits, which are to be implemented in part by private persons and companies. For their quantification, methods were developed and used in case studies; in addition, avoided external costs are also considered. The marginal costs were also calculated for periods of time in the future, whereby they were made dynamic, according to their share of innovation, using the learning-curve method (learning and scaling effects). As far as the findings are concerned, there can be no doubt that the potential to be opened up for increasing energy efficiency using heat insulation measures is high, both for renovations and new construction work. A large portion of this potential is already economically viable and even more so when the possible risks of energy price increases

  13. Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The proximate composition, carbohydrate fraction, minerals and residual ... energy-rich fruits like bread fruit (Artocarpus altilis) that ... samples were dried in an oven at 60°C for 72 h, bulked and milled ... Composition of the reference and test diets used in the apparent metabolizable energy assay (100%).

  14. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  15. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  16. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 μm precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  17. Multiloop atom interferometer measurements of chameleon dark energy in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Chameleon field is one of the promising candidates of dark energy scalar fields. As in all viable candidate field theories, a screening mechanism is implemented to be consistent with all existing tests of general relativity. The screening effect in the chameleon theory manifests its influence limited only to the thin outer layer of a bulk object, thus producing extra forces orders of magnitude weaker than that of the gravitational force of the bulk. For pointlike particles such as atoms, the depth of screening is larger than the size of the particle, such that the screening mechanism is ineffective and the chameleon force is fully expressed on the atomic test particles. Extra force measurements using atom interferometry are thus much more sensitive than bulk mass based measurements, and indeed have placed the most stringent constraints on the parameters characterizing chameleon field. In this paper, we present a conceptual measurement approach for chameleon force detection using atom interferometry in microgravity, in which multiloop atom interferometers exploit specially designed periodic modulation of chameleon fields. We show that major systematics of the dark energy force measurements, i.e., effects of gravitational forces and their gradients, can be suppressed below all hypothetical chameleon signals in the parameter space of interest.

  18. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  19. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  20. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  1. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  2. A gateless charge integrator for Borexino energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomarsino, V.; Testera, G.

    1999-01-01

    A gateless charge integrator designed for the energy measurement in the Borexino experiment is described and the results of various tests performed on prototypes are shown. The circuit integrates always its input taking advantage of the AC coupling to the photomultipliers that equalizes to zero the charge associated with each event signal. A double sampling of the integrator output allows to perform a charge measurement in principle without dead time, avoiding the use of gate signals and baseline restoration networks and permitting a precise detection of the fast correlated events (delayed coincidences due to the decay of a nuclide producing a daughter having a lifetime in the tens of ns time range). The precision of the charge measurement is discussed together with the performances of the front end Borexino board where the integrator is mounted

  3. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  4. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  5. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  6. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  8. Measurement of Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Bairen; Cui, Xiaodong

    Excitonic effects are prominent in monolayer crystal of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) because of spatial confinement and reduced Coulomb screening. Here we use linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE) to measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2. Peaks for excitonic absorptions of the direct gap located at K valley of the Brillouin zone and transitions from multiple points near Γ point of the Brillouin zone, as well as trion side band are shown in the linear absorption spectra of WS2. But there is no gap between distinct excitons and the continuum of the interband transitions. Strong electron-phonon scattering, overlap of excitons around Γ point and the transfer of the oscillator strength from interband continuum to exciton states make it difficult to resolve the electronic interband transition edge even down to 10K. The gap between excited states of the band-edge exciton and the single-particle band is probed by TP-PLE measurements. And the energy difference between 1s exciton and the single-particle gap gives the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 to be about 0.71eV. The work is supported by Area of excellency (AoE/P-04/08), CRF of Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU9/CRF/13G) and SRT on New Materials of The University of Hong Kong.

  9. Response function measurement of plastic scintillator for high energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Takada, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The response function and detection efficiency of 2''φ x 2''L plastic (PilotU) and NE213 liquid (2''NE213) scintillators, which were used for the measurement of secondary neutrons from high energy electron induced reactions, were measured at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). High energy neutrons were produced via 400 MeV/n C beam bombardment on a thick graphite target. The detectors were placed at 15 deg with respect to C beam axis, 5 m away from the target. As standard, a 5''φ x 5''L NE213 liquid scintillator (5''NE213) was also placed at same position. Neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with the beam pickup scintillator in front of the target. In front of the detectors, veto scintillators were placed to remove charged particle events. All detector signals were corrected with list mode event by event. We deduce neutron spectrum for each detectors. The efficiency curves for pilotU and 2''NE213 were determined on the bases of 5 N E213 neutron spectrum and its efficiency calculated by CECIL code. (author)

  10. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.

    2008-10-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10 -4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  11. Measuring and Controlling the Energy Spread in CEBAF

    CERN Document Server

    Krafft, G A; Dickson, R W; Kazimi, R; Lebedev, V A; Tiefenback, M G

    2000-01-01

    As compared to electron storage rings, one advantage of recirculating linear accelerators is that the beam properties at target are no longer dominated by the equilibrium between quantum radiative diffusion and radiation damping because new beam is continually injected into the accelerator. This allows the energy spread from a CEBAF-type machine to be relatively small; the measured energy spread from CEBAF at 4 GeV is less than 100 parts per million accumulated over times of order several days. In this paper, the various subsystems contributing to the energy spread of a CEBAF-type accelerator are reviewed, as well as the machine diagnostics and controls that are used in CEBAF to ensure that a small energy spread is provided during routine running. Examples of relevant developments are (1) stable short bunches emerging from the injector, (2) precision timing and phasing of the linacs with respect to the centroid of the beam bunches on all passes, (3) implementing 2 kHz sampling rate feedback systems for final ...

  12. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  13. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  14. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  15. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  16. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  17. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  18. Polarization Measurements in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam Sarty; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Brendan Fox; Chang, C.; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Crovelli, D.; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Elaine Schulte; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Jordan Hovdebo; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Kevin Fissum; Konrad Aniol; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Moskov Amarian; Nilanga Liyanage; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Olivier Gayou; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; Holt, R.; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Salvatore Frullani; Scott Dumalski; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Stephen Becher; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Xiaodong Jiang; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai; Wang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We present measurements of the recoil proton polarization for the d(polarized y, polarized p)n reaction at thetac.m. = 90 degrees for photon energies up to 2.4 GeV. These are the first data in this reaction for polarization transfer with circularly polarized photons. The induced polarization py vanishes above 1 GeV, contrary to meson-baryon model expectations, in which resonances lead to large polarizations. However, the polarization transfer Cx does not vanish above 1 GeV, inconsistent with hadron helicity conservation. Thus, we show that the scaling behavior observed in the d(y,p)n cross sections is not a result of perturbative QCD. These data should provide important tests of new nonperturbative calculations in the intermediate energy regime

  19. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  20. Predissociation measurements of bond dissociation energies: VC, VN, and VS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Davis, Quincy C.; Morse, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The abrupt onset of predissociation in the congested electronic spectra of jet-cooled VC, VN, and VS has been observed using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. It is argued that because of the high density of electronic states in these molecules, the predissociation threshold occurs at the thermochemical threshold for the production of separated atoms in their ground electronic states. As a result, the measured threshold represents the bond dissociation energy. Using this method, bond dissociation energies of D{sub 0}(V C) = 4.1086(25) eV, D{sub 0}(V N) = 4.9968(20) eV, and D{sub 0}(V S) = 4.5353(25) eV are obtained. From these values, enthalpies of formation are derived as Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V C(g)) = 827.0 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V N(g)) = 500.9 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, and Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V S(g)) = 349.3 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}. Using a thermochemical cycle and the well-known ionization energies of V, VC, and VN, our results also provide D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–C) = 3.7242(25) eV and D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–N) = 4.6871(20) eV. These values are compared to previous measurements and to computational results. The precision of these bond dissociation energies makes them good candidates for testing computational chemistry methods, particularly those that employ density functional theory.

  1. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  2. Energy saving measures in the Netherlands. Options to save 2% energy per year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.W.; Van Dril, A.W.N.; Boerakker, Y.H.A.; Godfroij, P.; Van der Hilst, F.; Kroon, P.; Menkveld, M.; Seebregts, A.J.; Tigchelaar, C.; De Wilde, H.P.J.

    2006-12-01

    This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in order to address the will of the parliament to investigate policies and measures in order to improve energy efficiency. The analysis is targeted at increasing the annual energy efficiency improvement in the Netherlands from 1% to 2%. It shows that the following policies and measures are necessary to achieve 2%. Regulation has been defined for improving energy efficiency in dwellings and commercial buildings, to be implemented when ownership changes. EU regulation is required for appliances, office equipment and cars, delivery vans and efficient tires. Financial incentives are added for the purchase of efficient cars, the reduction of mileage and for intra-European air transport. Taxation is suggested for industry, the energy sector and horticulture, where less efficient plants have to pay and efficient ones benefit. Total costs for the Dutch economy amount to 3.5 billion euros annually. Implementing the proposed policy packages will require a considerable effort of governments, citizens and companies to overcome societal barriers. In many cases, introduction of the necessary policies and measures depends on European legislation [nl

  3. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  4. Charge, mass and energy measured in the Plastic Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.

    1984-01-01

    In relativistic nuclear collisions the multiplicity of charged particles reflects the violence of the reaction and, presumably, the impact parameter. Furthermore, the total transverse energy in a collision might be a signature of compression. Both quantities are global features that can be measured in the Plastic Ball. The total mass in an event in light charge fragments can be detected (with assumptions made in certain kinematic regions) through particle identification. In addition, the neutron detection efficiency is quite high because of the large thickness of the plastic scintillator in the Plastic Ball. Here the authors present several global quantities for the reaction of 400 MeV/nucleon Nb + Nb

  5. Energy transfer efficiency measurements in a theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, G.H.; Luna, F.R.T.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    An increase in energy transfer efficiency of the capacitor bank to the plasma was obtained when the electrical system of a theta-pinch was changed so that the ratio of total inductance to coil inductance was switched of 1/6 to 1/2. A further increase about 20% was obtained for 16/1 ratio. The measurements were made through the current discharge decay, and the spectral analysis of the emitted light from theta-pinch shows a correspondent efficiency increase. (author)

  6. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  7. ENERGY-REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLT IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, MW; DAAN, S; MASMAN, D

    1992-01-01

    We estimated energy requirements for plumage replacement in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by comparing O2 consumption Vo2 and metabolizable energy intake during molt and nonmolt. The energy expenditure for feather synthesis (S) as derived from the regression of basal metabolic rate (BMR) on molt

  8. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  9. Energy Approach to Measure the Region’s Assimilative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Stepanovna Belik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of the environmental economics is the development of methodology for quantifying the assimilative capacity (AC of a territory. The article analyzes the existing approaches to determining and assessing the AC of a territory. We justify the advantages of using the energy approach. The authors’ method consists in using the maximum permissible energy load (MPEL for quantitative assessment of the AC of a territory. MPEL is a value that the ecological and economic system can withstand for a long time without changing its properties. We determine MPEL on the basis of data on the ability of various categories of land to absorb greenhouse gases (GHG, as well as the specific GHG emissions per ton of conventional fuel. Further, we compare the calculated value of MPEL in fuel equivalents with the actual consumption of fuel resources for the needs of the national economy. These values ratio can serve as a standard for measuring and balancing the environmental and economic system. The authors have validated the described method on the example of the Sverdlovsk region, which is characterized by a high level of man’s impact. Calculations show that the actual consumption of fossil fuels in the region exceeds MPEL. That indicates an imbalance in the ecological and economic system and may lead to further deterioration of the environmental quality in the region. The proposed methodological approach and calculations can be used when developing strategic planning documents for a territory, including its energy strategy

  10. Calculation and Measurement of Low-Energy Radiative Moller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Charles; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A number of current nuclear physics experiments have come to rely on precise knowledge of electron-electron (Moller) and positron-electron (Bhabha) scattering. Some of these experiments, having lepton beams on targets containing atomic electrons, use these purely-QED processes as normalization. In other scenarios, with electron beams at low energy and very high intensity, Moller scattering and radiative Moller scattering have such enormous cross-sections that the backgrounds they produce must be understood. In this low-energy regime, the electron mass is also not negligible in the calculation of the cross section. This is important, for example, in the DarkLight experiment (100 MeV). As a result, we have developed a new event generator for the radiative Moller and Bhabha processes, with new calculations that keep all terms of the electron mass. The MIT High Voltage Research Laboratory provides us a unique opportunity to study this process experimentally and compare it with our work, at a low beam energy of 2.5 MeV where the effects of the electron mass are significant. We are preparing a dedicated apparatus consisting of a magnetic spectrometer in order to directly measure this process. An overview of the calculation and the status of the experiment will be presented.

  11. Resting Energy Expenditure in Anorexia Nervosa: Measured versus Estimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE measured by the Douglas bag method with the REE estimated with the FitMate method, the Harris-Benedict equation, and the Müller et al. equation for individuals with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 in a severe group of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. Methods. 15 subjects with AN participated in the study. The Douglas bag method and the FitMate method were used to measure REE and the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition after one day of refeeding. Results. FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation gave an accurate REE estimation, while the Harris-Benedict equation overestimated the REE when compared with the Douglas bag method. Conclusion. The data support the use of the FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation, but not the Harris-Benedict equation, to estimate REE in AN patients after short-term refeeding.

  12. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  13. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  14. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  15. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  16. Cosmic shear measurements with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper

  17. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  18. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  19. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  20. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  1. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  2. Exploring the range of energy savings likely from energy efficiency retrofit measures in Ireland's residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential energy savings in the Irish residential sector by 2020 due to the introduction of an ambitious retrofit programme. We estimate the technical energy savings potential of retrofit measures targeting energy efficiency of the space and water heating end uses of the 2011 stock of residential dwellings between 2012 and 2020. We build eight separate scenarios, varying the number of dwellings retrofitted and the depth of retrofit carried out in order to investigate the range of energy savings possible. In 2020 the estimated technical savings potential lies in the range from 1713 GWh to 10,817 GWh, but is more likely to fall within the lower end of this range, i.e. between 1700 and 4360 GWh. When rebound effects are taken into account this reduces further to 1100 GWh and 2800 GWh per annum. The purpose of this paper was to test the robustness of the NEEAP target savings for residential retrofit, i.e. 3000 GWh by 2020. We conclude that this target is technically feasible but very challenging and unlikely to be achieved based on progress to date. It will require a significant shift towards deeper retrofit measures compared to what has been achieved by previous schemes. - Highlights: • Paper estimates range of energy savings likely from Irish residential retrofit. • Achieving NEEAP target savings of 3000 GWh by 2020 is feasible but very challenging. • Likely savings of 1100–2800 GWh per annum in 2020, including rebound. • NEEAP target unlikely to be achieved based on current trends.

  3. Defining energy vulnerability in mobility. Measuring energy vulnerability in mobility. Acting against energy vulnerability in mobility. Discussing energy vulnerability in mobility. Task no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffe, Yves; Massot, Marie-Helene; Noble, Cyprien

    2015-01-01

    Extensive expansion of urban areas generates transportation needs and energy expenses for mobility. Households already impacted by fuel poverty also suffer from energy vulnerability in their mobility. This report was prepared in the framework of the study of fuel poverty in France in the light of several indicators from existing inquiries, databases and modeling tools. The report is organised in 4 parts dealing with: the definition of energy vulnerability in mobility, its measurement, the possible remedial actions, and the discussions about energy vulnerability in mobility through working group meetings, respectively

  4. Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.

  5. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  6. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lease, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials

  7. Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49

  8. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  9. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  11. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  12. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, W.K.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay π + → π 0 e + vε is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.3999±0.0005 s -1 . The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.394 ± 0.015 s -1 . A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required

  13. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be...

  14. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.; Todyshev, K.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2×10 -5 . The relative uncertainty of the beam's energy spread is about 6%.

  16. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e + e - collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e + e - →ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb -1 and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The jet energy resolution

  17. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-15

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e{sup +}e{sup -} collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e{sup +}e{sup -}→ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb{sup -1} and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The

  18. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  19. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs—An empirical analysis based on energy audit data from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schleich, Joachim; Ravivanpong, Ployplearn

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates factors driving the adoption of energy-efficiency measures by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Our analyses are based on cross-sectional data from SMEs which participated in a German energy audit program between 2008 and 2010. In general, our findings appear robust to alternative model specifications and are consistent with the theoretical and still scarce empirical literature on barriers to energy-efficiency in SMEs. More specifically, high investment costs, which are captured by subjective and objective proxies, appear to impede the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, even if these measures are deemed profitable. Similarly, we find that lack of capital slows the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, primarily for larger investments. Hence, investment subsidies or soft loans (for larger investments) may help accelerating the diffusion of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. Other barriers were not found to be statistically significant. Finally, our findings provide evidence that the quality of energy audits affects the adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Hence, effective regulation should involve quality standards for energy audits, templates for audit reports or mandatory monitoring of energy audits. - Highlights: ► We empirically analyze barriers to the adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. ► We focus on firms participating in the German energy audit program for SMEs. ► The program overcomes information related barriers. ► High investment costs still impede the adoption even for profitable measures. ► Low audit quality also impedes the adoption of profitable measures.

  20. Support compass energy. BINE database. Support programs for energy saving measures and renewable energies; Foerderkompass Energie. Eine BINE-Datenbank. Foerderprogramme fuer Energie sparende Massnahmen und erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    With respect to energy saving measures and renewable energies, BINE Informationsdienst (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a database with a comprehensive description of supply information. These information are fast in access, available at any time and up to date by an internet actualization service. The database contains: (a) actual support programs for private, commercial and institutional investors; (b) support conditions and references to the filling of an application; (c) filling of an application, sheets of instruction, original texts of the regulations, addresses, internet links; (d) information with respect to the ability of accumulation of different support programs. The functions of the database under consideration are: (a) comfortable search according to projects and target group; (b) daily actualization service via internet; (c) assumption and processing of the results in usual office applications; (d) printout of all results of search, individually or completely; (e) fast overview of all changes of the last four weeks. The advantages are: time-saving fast search; actual and carefully inquired knowledge as well as adhoc availability on your personal computer.

  1. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  2. Grenelle Environnement: passing the energy transition with success; 50 measures for developing renewable energies with a high environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Grenelle Environnement Forum conclusions is to double the contribution of renewable energies in France by 2020, and reach the level of 20 percent of the final energy consumption. 50 measures have been decided by the French government in order to meet this objective while ensuring a high environmental quality. The 50 measures are detailed: heat production (biomass, geothermal and solar energy, wastes, biogas) and electric power generation (hydroelectricity, terrestrial and marine wind turbines, biomass, photovoltaic solar energy, geothermal and marine energies) are concerned

  3. Efeito dos níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e desempenho de frangos de corte abatidos tardiamente - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.250 Effect of metabolizable energy levels and feeding programs on carcass quality and performance in broilers slaugthered lately - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.250

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasilva Borba Alves de Souza

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e carne de frangos de corte entre 42 e 57 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.600 pintos machos “Cobb”, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo dois níveis de energia (3.200 e 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 e quatro programas de alimentação (recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram avaliados as características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, de peito e de coxas + sobrecoxas e carne (cor, pH, perdas por cocção, força de cisalhamento, capacidade de retenção de água e análise sensorial e os dados de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e conversão calórica. Os níveis energéticos ou os diferentes programas de alimentação não determinaram diferenças expressivas na qualidade da carcaça ou de carne que justifiquem a escolha de um nível de energia ou de um programa alimentar, devendo prevalecer o nível energético e as recomendações de aminoácidos que determinem o maior custo-benefício. Observou-se que o nível de 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 proporcionou melhoria no desempenho das aves, enquanto que o fracionamento das exigências de aminoácidos digestíveis em dois períodos determinou piores resultados.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of different energy levels and amino acid recommendations on carcass and meat quality of broilers from 42 to 57 days of age. It was used 1,600 one-day old male broilers (Cobb in a completely randomized design arranged in a factorial scheme 2x4 with 3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME kg-1 and four different feed programs. The experimental period was from 42 to 57 days of age. From 1 to 41 days of age all birds received the same diets based on corn and soybean meal. Data from carcass yield (output carcass, relation weight breast and thigh and overthigh with the carcass weight and muscle quality (color

  4. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  5. Three blind men and elephant: The Case of energy indices to measure energy security and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Narula; B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    An 'Energy Index', which is aggregated from energy indicators is a rich source of information and is helpful in providing an assessment of a country's performance. This has, however, resulted in mushrooming of a plethora of indices, which claim to quantify the performance of a country in attaining the goal of energy security and energy sustainability. The paper attempts to compare three different indices, viz., 'Energy Sustainability Index', 'International Index of Energy Security Risk', 'Ene...

  6. Measuring the benefits from an innovation: an application to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, G

    1979-01-01

    Market imperfections mean that the public has to finance research related to improving technologies of energy usage and the finding of new energy sources. The decision to invest in research has to be based on economic criteria and one such criterion is cost--benefit analysis. Four types of innovation are presented and a way outlined in which to evaluate their social benefits. Specific characteristics, such as exhaustibility of energy resources, are explicitly included in the evaluation framework. 15 references.

  7. Measurement of the energy balance in ATC Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Ellis, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Gross properties of the energy balance in the ATC tokamak have been investigated. During the quasi-steady state phase of a normal discharge, the major part of the energy loss was found to be the limiters. Radiation and charge-exchange play minor roles during this quasi-steady state phase, but are nevertheless the dominant loss mechanisms at the termination of a discharge; and account for a substantial portion of the stored poloidal magnetic energy associated with the plasma current. (auth)

  8. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  9. Exigências nutricionais de proteína, energia e macrominerais de bovinos Nelore de três classes sexuais Nutrient requirements of protein, energy and macrominerals of Nellore cattle of three genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências de energia metabolizável para mantença, as exigências líquidas de proteína, energia e macrominerais para ganho de peso e a eficiência de transformação de exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho em exigências de proteína metabolizável em bovinos Nelore. Foram utilizados 27 animais (nove machos castrados, nove machos não-castrados e nove fêmeas. Três animais de cada classe foram abatidos ao início do experimento como grupo referência. Os 18 animais remanescentes receberam concentrado (1 ou 1,25% do peso vivo durante 112 dias e foram abatidos ao final, para determinação de sua composição corporal. As exigências líquidas para ganho de peso foram obtidas derivando-se a equação de predição do conteúdo corporal de cada nutriente em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio. As exigências de energia metabolizável para mantença foram estimadas a partir da regressão linear da energia retida em relação ao consumo de energia metabolizável, enquanto a eficiência de uso da proteína metabolizável para ganho de peso foi estimada pela equação da proteína bruta retida em relação ao consumo de proteína metabolizável. As exigências líquidas de minerais estão de acordo com os valores encontrados na literatura. As exigências líquidas de energia para ganho aumentam de acordo com o peso vivo e as exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho diminuem com o aumento do peso. A eficiência de conversão das exigências líquidas de proteína em exigências de proteína metabolizável é de aproximadamente 50%.The objective of this study was to determine the metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and net requirements of crude protein, energy and macrominerals for weight gain, and also the conversion efficiency of net protein requirements to metabolizable protein requirements in Nellore cattle. Twenty seven Nellore animals (nine bulls, nine steers and nine heifers were

  10. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  11. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report here progress made during the three year period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, for the Department of Energy Three-Year Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER40446, third year. A major part of the work has been associated with nucleon-nucleon (N-N) research carried out at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). During this period they also completed data acquisition and analyses of a TRIUMF experiment, but they have no further plans for experimental work at TRIUMF. Other research has been and will be continued to be carried out at BNL, and involves two rare kaon decay experiments, BNL E791, now completed, and a second generation rare kaon decay experiment, E871, which has just this summer completed an engineering test run. The authors are now also members of a proposed experiment, STAR, (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) to be carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility, RHIC, at BNL. The past three years have been a time of rapid change in the focus of the experimental program. A LAMPF experiment, E1097, in which they spent a large amount of effort during the past three years, was terminated due to funding shortages after they had fabricated the detector, but before data acquisition, and consequently they increased their participation in the rare kaon experiment at BNL, E871. It now appears that there will be no LAMPF N-N program after 1993, so that the research efforts will concentrate on the BNL rare kaon decay measurement, E871, and on STAR. The authors expect that STAR, which requires the fabrication of a large colliding beam detector facility, will use an increasing amount of their research efforts during the next few years. In what follows they describe recent progress on the LAMPF and TRIUMF N-N measurements, on the BNL rare kaon decay work, and on the initial work with the STAR group

  12. Influence of diet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility, and nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggum, B O; Thorbek, G; Beames, R M

    1982-01-01

    -55 kg. Measurements were made on the influence of microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility and nitrogen and energy metabolism. Dietary inclusion of the antibiotic Nebacitin was the method used to reduce the microbial population. 2. The microbial activity in the hind-gut (mumol ATP....../g air-dry contents) of antibiotic-treated rats was reduced to approximately one-tenth of that of untreated rats. 3. Live-weight gain was not significantly affected in either species by a reduction in the microbial activity, in spite of a reduction in dry matter digestibility in animals with reduced...... microflora. 4. For rats on low-crude-fibre diets, a reduction in microflora reduced digestibility of all nutrients and energy and metabolizability of digestible energy by approximately 5.4%. All differences were highly significant. On high-crude-fibre diets the decrease was approximately 5.9%. In pigs...

  13. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  14. An Energy based Method to Measure the Crowd Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Li, D.; Zheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    How to evaluate crowd safety in crowded areas is a tough, but important, problem. According to accident-causing theory, uncontrolled release of hazardous energy among overcrowded pedestrians is the basic cause of crowd disaster. Therefore, crowd energy is modeled in this paper, which takes both

  15. Energy poverty: have we got the measure of it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Mohlakoana, Nthabiseng; Matinga, Margaret Njirambo

    2013-01-01

    At the macro-level it has long been accepted that there is a strong relationship between energy and economic growth (IDS, 2003). In the 1990s, the development discourse began to focus on the effects that economic growth has had on poverty. However, an interest in the links between energy and poverty

  16. Valor nutricional e energia metabolizável de subprodutos do trigo utilizados para alimentação de suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rui Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições. A dieta referência foi substituída em 30% por um dos subprodutos testados: farinheta, farelo fino, farelo de trigo, farelo grosso e farelo grosso moído; este último usado para avaliar a influência da granulometria na digestibilidade. A fibra bruta foi a variável que proporcionou a melhor estimativa da energia metabolizável. O farelo fino foi superior em energia digestível e metabolizável, em comparação ao farelo grosso moído. O farelo grosso moído apresentou os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade, e a diminuição de seu diâmetro geométrico médio não aumentou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da energia. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, a farinheta apresenta maior energia digestível, energia metabolizável e proteína digestível, o que mostra elevado potencial para utilização em dietas para suínos em crescimento.

  17. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  18. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  19. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  20. Towards measurement and verification of energy performance under the framework of the European directive for energy performance of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Esfand; Mumovic, Dejan; Kimpian, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the Energy Performance of Buildings has led to major developments in energy policies followed by the EU Member States. The national energy performance targets for the built environment are mostly rooted in the Building Regulations that are shaped by this Directive. Article 3 of this Directive requires a methodology to calculate energy performance of buildings under standardised operating conditions. Overwhelming evidence suggests that actual energy performance is often significantly higher than this standardised and theoretical performance. The risk is national energy saving targets may not be achieved in practice. The UK evidence for the education and office sectors is presented in this paper. A measurement and verification plan is proposed to compare actual energy performance of a building with its theoretical performance using calibrated thermal modelling. Consequently, the intended vs. actual energy performance can be established under identical operating conditions. This can help identify the shortcomings of construction process and building procurement. Once energy performance gap is determined with reasonable accuracy and root causes identified, effective measures could be adopted to remedy or offset this gap. - Highlights: • Building energy performance gap is a negative externality that must be addressed. • A method is proposed to link actual performance to building compliance calculation. • Energy performance gap is divided into procurement and operational gaps. • This framework enables policy makers to measure and address procurement gap. • Building fine-tuning by construction teams could also narrow operational gap

  1. Measurements of actinometry and ions energy in a microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril, F.; Camps, E.; Villagran, M.; Muhl, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work it is showed the implementation of the plasma diagnostic technique through actinometry which allows to determine the absolute density of excited species. It is showed the range of the technique application, for the case of N 2 -H 2 mixtures plasmas used for the metals nitridation. The effects of magnetic field and the work pressure over ions energy were determined, using a Faraday cup type energy analyser. The results showed that in our device it is possible to vary such energy in a range between 10-45 eV, which amplify the range of applications perceptibly in comparison with another type of discharges. (Author)

  2. Enhancing China’s energy security: Determining influential factors and effective strategic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most influential factors affecting China’s energy security are identified. • Fuzzy AHP is used to quantify the importance of influential factors. • Strategic measures for enhancing China’s energy security are prioritized. • Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures. - Abstract: This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies and improving energy efficiency is the most salient, positive, and necessary strategic measure

  3. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O.; Lehnen, M.; Xu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  4. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  5. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2⋅10 -5 .

  6. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  7. An approach for holistic energy retrofitting based on assessment of economic viability and durability of energy saving measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    saving measures and forget to consider, whether it is more prudent to demolished the building and erect a new building. An evaluation approach is presented to assess whether to retrofit an existing building or to demolish and replace it. The primary concept of the method is to develop a retrofitting...... as constraint to determine the amount of building retrofitting for implementation. The approach includes also durability assessments of the energy saving measures. An example is carried out to illustrate the application of the approach. The example highlights the importance of including risk assessment...... and durability evaluation of the energy saving measures when performing holistic energy retrofitting of buildings....

  8. Relationship between protein molecular structural makeup and metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from new cool-season forage corn cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Khan, Nazir A.; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-01

    Protein solubility, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility are strongly related to their inherent molecular makeup. This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate protein digestion in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle, and estimate the content of truly metabolizable protein (MP) in newly developed cool-season forage corn cultivars. The second objective was to quantify protein inherent molecular structural characteristics using advance molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR) and correlate it to protein metabolic characteristics. Six new cool-season corn cultivars, including 3 Pioneer (PNR) and 3 Hyland (HL), coded as PNR-7443R, PNR-P7213R, PNR-7535R, HL-SR06, HL-SR22, HL-BAXXOS-RR, were evaluated in the present study. The metabolic characteristics, MP supply to dairy cattle, and energy synchronization properties were modeled by two protein evaluation models, namely, the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Both models estimated significant (P contents of microbial protein (MCP) synthesis and truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein (ARUP) among the cultivars. The NRC-2001 model estimated significant (P content and degraded protein balance (DPB) among the cultivars. The contents MCP, ARUP and MP were higher (P < 0.05) for cultivar HL-SR06, resulting in the lowest (P < 0.05) DPB. However, none of the cultivars reached the optimal target hourly effective degradability ratio [25 g N g/kg organic matter (OM)], demonstrating N deficiency in the rumen. There were non-significant differences among the cultivars in molecular-spectral intensities of protein. The amide I/II ratio had a significant correlation with ARUP (r = - 0.469; P < 0.001) and absorbable endogenous protein (AECPNRC) (P < 0.001; r = 0.612). Similarly, amide-II area had a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.299; P < 0.001) with RUP and ARUP, and with AECPNRC (P < 0.001; r = 0.411). Except total digestible nutrients and AECPNRC, the amide-I area did not show significant

  9. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  11. Measuring excess free energies of self-assembled membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizoe, Yuki; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Müller, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Using computer simulation of a solvent-free, coarse-grained model for amphiphilic membranes, we study the excess free energy of hourglass-shaped connections (i.e., stalks) between two apposed bilayer membranes. In order to calculate the free energy by simulation in the canonical ensemble, we reversibly transfer two apposed bilayers into a configuration with a stalk in three steps. First, we gradually replace the intermolecular interactions by an external, ordering field. The latter is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system in this field closely resembles the structure of the original, interacting system in the absence of the external field. The absence of structural changes along this path suggests that it is reversible; a fact which is confirmed by expanded-ensemble simulations. Second, the external, ordering field is changed as to transform the non-interacting system from the apposed bilayer structure to two-bilayers connected by a stalk. The final external field is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system resembles the structure of the stalk in the interacting system without a field. On the third branch of the transformation path, we reversibly replace the external, ordering field by non-bonded interactions. Using expanded-ensemble techniques, the free energy change along this reversible path can be obtained with an accuracy of 10(-3)k(B)T per molecule in the n VT-ensemble. Calculating the chemical potential, we obtain the free energy of a stalk in the grandcanonical ensemble, and employing semi-grandcanonical techniques, we calculate the change of the excess free energy upon altering the molecular architecture. This computational strategy can be applied to compute the free energy of self-assembled phases in lipid and copolymer systems, and the excess free energy of defects or interfaces.

  12. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  13. Optimizing the energy measurement of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampl, W.

    2005-12-01

    This PhD-thesis addresses the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. ATLAS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is currently under construction at CERN in Geneva. LHC and ATLAS are foreseen to start up in 2007. In summer 2004, an extensive beam-test was carried out. This means that individual detector modules are exposed to a particle beam of known energy in order to verify the detector performance. At this occasion, all ATLAS subdetectors where operated together for the first time. The thesis contains a comprehensive description of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, the reconstruction software and the test-beam experiment that was carried out at CERN in 2004. Furthermore, the physics of the electromagnetic shower is discussed in detail. Data from the test beam as well as a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation are used to develop a novel energy-reconstruction method for the ATLAS EM calorimeter that achieves an excellent energy resolution (sampling term ∼ 11 %) as well as a very good linearity (< 0.4 %). Data taken during the beam test is also used to verify the accuracy of the simulation and to test the new energy-reconstruction method. (author)

  14. Exploring energy saving policy measures by renewable energy supplying cooperatives (REScoops)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Hoppe, Thomas; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Akasiadis, Charilaos

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives for renewable energy supply (REScoops) provide their members renewably generated energy within a cooperative model that enables members to co-decide on the cooperative’s future. REScoops do not only collectively own renewable energy production facilities and supply this to their

  15. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  16. The non-metabolizable sucrose analog sucralose is a potent inhibitor of hormogonium differentiation in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, Samantha D; Risser, Douglas D

    2016-03-01

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium which forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several different plants and fungi. Establishment of these symbioses requires the formation of motile hormogonium filaments. Once infected, the plant partner is thought to supply a hormogonium-repressing factor (HRF) to maintain the cyanobacteria in a vegetative, nitrogen-fixing state. Evidence implies that sucrose may serve as a HRF. Here, we tested the effects of sucralose, a non-metabolizable sucrose analog, on hormogonium differentiation. Sucralose inhibited hormogonium differentiation at a concentration approximately one-tenth that of sucrose. This result implies that: (1) sucrose, not a sucrose catabolite, is perceived by the cell and (2) inhibition is not due to a more general osmolarity-dependent effect. Additionally, both sucrose and sucralose induced the accrual of a polysaccharide sheath which bound specifically to the lectin ConA, indicating the presence of α-D-mannose and/or α-D-glucose. A ConA-specific polysaccharide was also found to be expressed in N. punctiforme colonies from tissue sections of the symbiotically grown hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. These findings imply that plant-derived sucrose or sucrose analogs may have multiple effects on N. punctiforme, including both repression of hormogonia and the induction of a polysaccharide sheath that may be essential to establish and maintain the symbiotic state.

  17. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dayan, I; Gasperini, M; Marozzi, G; Nugier, F; Veneziano, G

    2013-01-11

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux being minimally affected by perturbations at large z is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on Ω(Λ)(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  18. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Marozzi, Giovanni; Nugier, Fabien; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux, being minimally affected by perturbations at large z, is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on \\Omega_{\\Lambda}(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  19. Numerical simulation of energy efficiency measures: control and operational strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardehali, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The inherent limitation in performance of building envelop components and heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment necessitates the examination of operational strategies for improvement in energy-efficient operation of buildings. Due to the ease of installation and increasing availability of electronic controllers, operational strategies that could be programmed are of particular interest. The Iowa Energy Center in the US has taken the initiative to conduct the necessary assessment of current HVAC technology and the commonly-used operational strategies for commercial and industrial buildings, as applied to the midwestern part of the country, with weather and energy cost data for Des Moines, Iowa. The first part of this study focused on the energy consumption and cost effectiveness of HVAC systems. The objectives of the second part is concerned with examination of various operational strategies, namely, night purge (NP), fan optimum start and stop (OSS), condenser water reset (CWR), and chilled water reset (CHWR) applied to order and newer-type commercial office buildings. The indoor air quality requirement are met and the latest applicable energy rates from local utility companies are used. The results show that, in general, NP is not an effective strategy in buildings with low thermal mass storage, OSS reduced fan energy, and CWR and CHWR could be effective and require chillers with multi-stage unloading characteristics. The most operationally efficient strategies are the combination of OSS, CWR, and CHWR for the older-type building, and OSS for the newer-type building. Economically, the most effective is the OSS strategy for the older-type building and the CHWR strategy for the newer-type building.(Author)

  20. Screening of Energy Renovation Measures for Schools – Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Paulsen, Anton; Stiger, Simone

    2013-01-01

    ‘School of the Future’ is a collaborative project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union in the energy sector. It started in February 2011 and will run for 5 years. The aim of the “School of the Future” project is to design, demonstrate, evaluate and communicate shining examples...... of how to reach the future high performance building level. School buildings and their primary users: pupils – the next generations – are in the focus of the project. Both, the energy and indoor environment performance of 4 demo buildings in 4 European countries and climates will be greatly improved due...

  1. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  2. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  3. Measures for sustainable energy in the livestock farming industry; Maatregelen duurzame energie veehouderijsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellekens, J. [DLV Bouw Milieu en Techniek, Uden (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    The sectors of pig farming, poultry farming and veal farming have been examined for sustainable energy deployment options in agricultural businesses. These are systems are ready for practice and to be used by individual businesses. Background information is provided on energy saving, deployment of photovoltaic energy, solar collectors, biomass incineration, heat pumps, air conditioning with ground water, and practical experiences in the deployment of sustainable energy systems. Moreover, an overview is given of subsidies and fiscal opportunities for sustainable energy deployment by agricultural businesses [Dutch] Voor de sectoren varkenshouderij, pluimveehouderij en vleeskalverhouderij is onderzocht wat de toepassingsmogelijkheden zijn van duurzame energie (DE) op agrarische bedrijven. Het betreft systemen welke praktijkrijp zijn en te gebruiken op individuele bedrijven. Er wordt achtergrondinformatie gegeven over energiebesparing, toepassen van photovoltaische energie, zonnecollectoren, verbranden van biomassa, warmtepompen, luchtconditionering met grondwater, praktijkervaringen in de toepassing van duurzame energiesystemen. Ook wordt een overzicht geven van subsidies en fiscale mogelijkheden voor toepassen van DE-systemen op agrarische bedrijven.

  4. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurement of surface energy balance over a land surface in an open area in Bangalore is reported. Measurements of all variables needed to calculate the surface energy balance on time scales longer than a week are made. Components of radiative fluxes are measured while sensible and latent heat fluxes are ...

  5. Measuring energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies using a latent class stochastic frontier approach: An application to Chinese energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2014-01-01

    The importance of technology heterogeneity in estimating economy-wide energy efficiency has been emphasized by recent literature. Some studies use the metafrontier analysis approach to estimate energy efficiency. However, for such studies, some reliable priori information is needed to divide the sample observations properly, which causes a difficulty in unbiased estimation of energy efficiency. Moreover, separately estimating group-specific frontiers might lose some common information across different groups. In order to overcome these weaknesses, this paper introduces a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies. An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. Results show that the overall energy efficiency of China's provinces is not high, with an average score of 0.632 during the period from 1997 to 2010. - Highlights: • We introduce a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency. • Ignoring technological heterogeneity would cause biased estimates of energy efficiency. • An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. • There is still a long way for China to develop an energy efficient regime

  6. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway 2006. Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU15 and Norway (Odyssee-Mure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2006-12-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU-15 and Norway - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 192 TWh in 1990 to a present maximum of 219 TWh in 1999. From then it has been a slight decrease and in 2005 the final energy consumption was 215 TWh. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 11 percent from 1990 to 2004, and in the period 1998-2004 it seems to be steadying at approximately 78 TWh. Final energy use in households has increased from 41 TWh in 1990 to a maximum of 46.6 TWh in 1996 and 2002. In 2005 44.1 TWh was used, which is almost the same as the consumption in 1994. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 10 percent, or 0.7 percent per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 10 percent higher in 2004 (or approximately 19 TWh) (author) (ml)

  7. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements

  8. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  9. Measuring and controlling unfairness in decentralized planning of energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Vasirani, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Aberer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side energy management improves robustness and efficiency in Smart Grids. Load-adjustment and load-shifting are performed to match demand to available supply. These operations come at a discomfort cost for consumers as their lifestyle is influenced when they adjust or shift in time their

  10. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  11. White House science council ponders measures to improve energy funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "The business strategy of the Energy Department's Office of Science is largely based on its 20-year plan for constructing or upgrading 28 facilities, most of them at department laboratories, DOE science chief Raymond Orbach told members of a White House advisory panel last week" (1 page).

  12. Measuring scientific research in emerging nano-energy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiancheng; Liu, Na

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively explore scientific research profiles in the field of emerging nano-energy during 1991-2012 based on bibliometrics and social network analysis. We investigate the growth pattern of research output, and then carry out across countries/regions comparisons on research performances. Furthermore, we examine scientific collaboration across countries/regions by analyzing collaborative intensity and networks in 3- to 4-year intervals. Results indicate with an impressively exponential growth pattern of nano-energy articles, the world share of scientific "giants," such as the USA, Germany, England, France and Japan, display decreasing research trends, especially in the USA. Emerging economies, including China, South Korea and India, exhibit a rise in terms of the world share, illustrating strong development momentum of these countries in nano-energy research. Strikingly, China displays a remarkable rise in scientific influence rivaling Germany, Japan, France, and England in the last few years. Finally, the scientific collaborative network in nano-energy research has expanded steadily. Although the USA and several major European countries play significantly roles on scientific collaboration, China and South Korea exert great influence on scientific collaboration in recent years. The findings imply that emerging economies can earn competitive advantages in some emerging fields by properly engaging a catch-up strategy.

  13. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  14. Measurement of acoustic emission signal energy. Calibration and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, N.; Bernard, P.; Fayolle, J.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using an Audimat W device for analyzing the electric energy of signals delivered by a piezo-electric sensor for acoustic emission was investigated. The characteristics of the prototype device could be improved. The tests performed revealed that the 7075-T651 aluminium alloy can be used as a reference material [fr

  15. Direct measurement of superdiffusive energy transport in disordered granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Martínez, Alejandro J; Phenisee, Sean E; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Yang, Jinkyu

    2018-02-13

    Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals. In line with prior theoretical studies, we observe in our experiments that disorder and nonlinearity-which individually favor energy localization-can effectively cancel each other out, resulting in the destruction of wave localization. We also show that the combined effect of disorder and nonlinearity can enable manipulation of energy transport speed in granular crystals. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate superdiffusive transport. Furthermore, our numerical computations suggest that subdiffusive transport should be attainable by controlling the strength of the system's external precompression force.

  16. Measurements of VBS (and other diboson processes at high energy)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bing; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The talk gives a broad overview of the progress in the VBS analyses and the projected improvements for both ATLAS and CMS for the HL-LHC program, with luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at center-of-mass energy at 14 TeV.

  17. Measuring sustainability by Energy Efficiency Analysis for Korean Power Companies: A Sequential Slacks-Based Efficiency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency has been widely regarded as one of the most cost-effective ways to improve sustainability and mitigate climate change. This paper presents a sequential slack-based efficiency measure (SSBM application to model total-factor energy efficiency with undesirable outputs. This approach simultaneously takes into account the sequential environmental technology, total input slacks, and undesirable outputs for energy efficiency analysis. We conduct an empirical analysis of energy efficiency incorporating greenhouse gas emissions of Korean power companies during 2007–2011. The results indicate that most of the power companies are not performing at high energy efficiency. Sequential technology has a significant effect on the energy efficiency measurements. Some policy suggestions based on the empirical results are also presented.

  18. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  19. Fast and Precise Beam Energy Measurement using Compton Backscattering at e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminskiy, V V; Muchnoi, N Yu; Zhilich, V N

    2017-01-01

    The report describes a method for a fast and precise beam energy measurement in the beam energy range 0.5-2 GeV and its application at various e+e- colliders. Low-energy laser photons interact head-on with the electron or positron beam and produce Compton backscattered photons whose energy is precisely measured by HPGe detector. The method allows measuring the beam energy with relative accuracy of ∼2-5.10-5. The method was successfully applied at VEPP-4M, VEPP-3, VEPP-2000 (BINP, Russia) and BEPC-II (IHEP, China).

  20. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  1. Effect of wheat cultivar and enzyme addition to broiler chicken diets on nutrient digestibility, performance, and apparent metabolizable energy content.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 5,000 one-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 8 different treatments in a 4 x 2 factorial design. Four wheat cultivars (Amiro, Guadalupe, Isengrain, and Horzal) and 2 levels (0 or 1 kg/t of feed) of an enzyme cocktail (Avizyme 1300, xylanase, 2,500 U/kg and protease, 800 U/kg)

  2. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  3. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy value for growing lambs of the Mucuna pruriens seed and the whole pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galván, Adan; Belmar-Casso, Roberto; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Whole pod and seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were included in diets for growing sheep used to validate previously estimated ME values of 9.7 MJ and 12.6 MJ for whole pod and seed respectively. Twenty-four lambs, 15 females and nine males of 18.7 ± 2.4 kg average weight, were allocated in three treatments using a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Each group was given a diet with a ratio of 60% of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 40% of a supplement with the addition of 0%, 50% whole pod or 66% of M. pruriens seeds, for TI, TII and TIII respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for 100-g daily live weight gain (LWG). The total dry matter intake (836 g a(-1) d(-1), forage + supplement), LWG (90 g a(-1) d(-1)) and feed conversion (9.66 kg DM/kg LWG) of lambs from TIII were lower (P 0.05) between TI and TII in the three evaluated variables. The ME values of whole pod and seeds of M. pruriens used in this work were validated. It was concluded that M. pruriens can be included as a component in diets for growing sheep, as a partial replacement of conventional feedstuffs.

  4. Medium Energy measurements on N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1992-12-01

    Research is reported on the following topics: Spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; pp elastic differential cross section measurements; single pion production in np scattering; and a new search for rare kaon decays (K L →μμ and K L →ee). 68 refs., 33 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: pp elastic absolute cross section measurement; spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; single pion production in np scattering; photoproduction of high P t jets in the wide band beam of the tevatron; and search for K L 0 → μe, K L 0 → ee

  6. Tools and measures for stimulation the efficient energy consumption. Integrated resource planning in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripcariu, Daniela; Scripcariu, Mircea; Leca, Aureliu

    1996-01-01

    The integrated resource planning is based on analyses of the energy generation and energy consumption as a whole. Thus, increasing the energy efficiency appears to be the cheapest, the most available and the most cost-effective energy resource. In order to stimulate the increase of efficiency of energy consumption, besides economic efficiency criteria for selecting technical solutions, additional tools and measures are necessary. The paper presents the main tools and measures needed to foster an efficient energy consumption. Actions meant to stimulate DSM (Demand-Side Management) implementation in Romania are proposed. The paper contains 5 sections. In the introduction, the main aspects of the DSM are considered, namely, where the programs are implemented, who is the responsible, which are the objectives and finally, how the DSM programs are implemented. The following tools in management of energy use are examined: the energy prices, the regulation in the field of energy efficiency, standards and norms, energy labelling of the products and energy education. Among the measures for managing the energy use, the paper takes into consideration the institutions responsible for DSM, for instance, the Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation (ARCE), decentralization of decision making, the program approaches and financing the actions aiming at improving the energy efficiency. Finally, the paper analyses the criteria in choosing adequate solutions of improving the energy efficiency

  7. Measurement of adhesion properties between topcoat paint and metallized/galvanized steel with surface energy measurement equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) Compare the adhesion properties of NEPCOAT-approved topcoat paint over : metallized or galvanized steel. Use surface-energy measuring technique to characterize the wetting properties of the liqui...

  8. Evaluating airline energy efficiency: An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Cui, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating airline energy efficiency, which is firstly divided into four stages: Operations Stage, Fleet Maintenance Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage. The new four-stage network structure of airline energy efficiency is a modification of existing models. A new approach, integrated with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure, is applied to assess the overall energy efficiency and divisional efficiency of 19 international airlines from 2008 to 2014. The influencing factors of airline energy efficiency are analyzed through the regression analysis. The results indicate the followings: 1. The integrated model can identify the benchmarking airlines in the overall system and stages. 2. Most airlines' energy efficiencies keep steady during the period, except for some sharply fluctuations. The efficiency decreases mainly centralized in the year 2008–2011, affected by the financial crisis in the USA. 3. The average age of fleet is positively correlated with the overall energy efficiency, and each divisional efficiency has different significant influencing factors. - Highlights: • An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure is developed. • 19 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Garuda Indonesia has the highest overall energy efficiency.

  9. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  10. What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.

    2006-05-01

    We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of ∝ 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of ∝ 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)

  11. Factors which influence Nova Scotia farmers in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy use can reduce farm operating costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Responses (n=224, representing a 32% response rate) from a mail survey were used to assess use and interest in energy efficient and renewable energy options on farms in Nova Scotia, Canada. Energy efficiency options used the most were behavior, insulation, and lighting. Few farms used renewable energy options. Approximately 78% of farmers indicated an interest in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. Interest varied by farm type and size. Interest increased with farm size. The two main efficiency options of interest were lighting (60.8%) and insulation (43.7%), while wind power development (55.5%) and solar water heating (24.5%) were the main renewable options of interest. Farmers concerned about power and equipment reliability were less likely to be interested in implementing options. Farmers concerned about the environment were more likely to be interested in implementing options. Current use of certain energy efficiency technologies, such as efficient lighting, influenced implementation interest

  12. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  13. Relativistic Calculations and Measurements of Energies, Auger Rates, and Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Research and Industry, Denton, Texas, 8-10 November 1982. 7. B. Crasemann: "Efectos Relativ’sticos y de QED Sobre las Transiciones Rayos - X y Auger Entre...INNER-SHELL IONIZATION BY PROTONS X -RAY EMISSION BREIT INTERACTION AUGER TRANSITIONS DIRAC-HARTREE-SLATER COMPUTATIONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESONANT...computations, including relativistic and quantum- electrodynamic effects, of atomic energy levels and of x -ray and Auger transitions in atoms with one or

  14. Do the Czech Production Plants Measure the Performance of Energy Processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tučková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused to the actual situation in Performance Measurement of the energy processes in Czech production plants. The results are back – upped by the previous researches which were aimed to performance measurement methods usage in the whole organizational structure of the plants. Although the most of big industrial companies declared using of modern Performance Measurements methods, the previous researches shown that it is not purely true. The bigger differences were found in the energy area – energy processes. The authors compared the Energy concepts of European Union (EU and Czech Republic (CZ which are very different and do not create any possibilities for manager’s clear decision in the process management strategy of energy processes in their companies. Next step included the Energy department’s analysis. The significant part of energy processes in the production plants is still not mapped, described and summarized to one methodical manual for managing and performance measurement.

  15. Application of economic principles in energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A

    1976-01-01

    The point of departure for the selection of any energy-conserving policy is the availability of (at least) two practical options or alternatives for policy maker at enterprise level. In real life, in the same point of time, or in the same geographical location, there could be several energy conservation options for the same industrial process. One need only set up a pairwise comparison of two options at a time and answer the question: which option is the most desirable from the energy conservation standpoint. Which option is the most desirable from the purchaser's point of view. If one takes both these factors into account, which option is socially the most desirable. We have explained two economic techniques (Life Cycle Cost (LCC), Market Acceptance) and their integration to compare two systems at a time. To begin with, a policy maker at enterprise level can carry out LCC. As technology progresses over time, Market Acceptance estimation may be warranted. Finally, Cost-Benefit Analysis may be applied to overall evaluation of competing projects which have involvement of large social groups, and wider foreign exchange implications.

  16. Earth formation porosity log using measurement of neutron energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are described for measuring the porosity of subsurface earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole by means of neutron well logging techniques. All the commercial techniques for measuring porosity currently available are not as accurate as desirable due to variations in the borehole wall diameter, in the borehole fluids (e.g. with chlorine content) in the casings of the borehole etc. This invention seeks to improve accuracy by using a measurement of the epithermal neutron population at one detector and the fast neutron population at a second detector, spaced approximately the same distance from a neutron source. The latter can be detected either by a fast neutron detector or indirectly by an inelastic gamma ray detector. Background correction can be made, and special detectors used, to discriminate against the detection of thermal neutrons or their resultant capture gamma rays. These fluctuations affect the measurement of thermal neutron populations. (U.K.)

  17. Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author)

  18. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero.

  19. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero. (paper)

  20. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  1. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  2. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, Kok Heong; Nguyen, Chau; Riley, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the effort was devoted to the study of nucleon-nucleon interactions, specifically, spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering at LAMPF, pp elastic differential cross section measurements at LAMPF, and single-pion production in np scattering. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers are shown for np→ppπ - interactions. A new search for rare K L 0 decays to μe, μμ, and ee is being undertaken. Collaborative work has been begun on a very large, complex collider detector STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC). STAR is envisioned as a combination of a silicon vertex tracker, a time projection chamber, a set of trigger scintillators, and time-of-flight counters. It would allow measurements of spin dependence at p T above 10 GeV/c

  3. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  4. A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, Christian; Buzzi, Adeline

    2010-11-25

    Observations indicate that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, which is attributed to a ‘dark energy’ component that opposes gravity. There is a purely geometric test of the expansion of the Universe (the Alcock–Paczynski test), which would provide an independent way of investigating the abundance (Ω(X)) and equation of state (W(X)) of dark energy. It is based on an analysis of the geometrical distortions expected from comparing the real-space and redshift-space shape of distant cosmic structures, but it has proved difficult to implement. Here we report an analysis of the symmetry properties of distant pairs of galaxies from archival data. This allows us to determine that the Universe is flat. By alternately fixing its spatial geometry at Ω(k)≡0 and the dark energy equation-of-state parameter at W(X)≡-1, and using the results of baryon acoustic oscillations, we can establish at the 68.3% confidence level that and -0.85>W(X)>-1.12 and 0.60<Ω(X)<0.80.

  5. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  6. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  7. Penumbral measurements in water for high-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.J.; Schroeder, N.J.; Hoya, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ionization chambers of varying inside diameter have been used to investigate the penumbral region of 60 Co, 6-MV, and 31-MV x-ray beams. Measurements were made in water at varying depths up to 25 cm for a square field of side length 10 cm. The dependence of the penumbral widths on both the inside diameter of the ionization chamber and the depth in water is established along with the asymmetry of the penumbral distributions about the 50% level. A standard correction is indicated to eliminate the dependence of the measured penumbral widths on the inside diameter of the ionization chamber

  8. Tailoring cross-sectional energy-efficiency measures to target groups in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, Katharina; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Schlomann, Barbara; Worrell, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The improvement of energy efficiency in industrial companies plays a crucial role for the energy transition. Although significant economic potentials have been identified, the concerned actors are still struggling to realize them fully. To support the implementation of energy efficiency measures by

  9. Assessing energy techniques and measures in residential buildings: a multidisciplinary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    Many Energy Techniques and Measures (ETMs) are available to reduce the fossil energy use of residential buildings. However, the rate at which these ETMs are implemented is relatively low. Bram Entrop (1980) addresses, in this design-oriented research, the influence that ETMs have on the energy

  10. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  11. Measurements of energy losses, distributions of energy loss and additivity of energy losses for 50 to 150 keV protons in hydrogen and nine hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    Measurements of energy-loss distributions were made for 51, 102, and 153 keV protons traversing hydrogen, methane, ethyne (acetylene), ethene (ethylene), ethane, propyne (methyl acetylene), propadiene (allene), propene (propylene), cyclopropane and propane. The objectives were to test the theories of energy-loss distribution in this energy range and to see if the type of carbon bonding in a hydrocarbon molecule affects the shape of the distribution. Stopping powers and stopping cross sections were also measured at these energies and at 76.5 and 127.5 keV to determine effects of chemical binding. All of the measurements were made at the gas density required to give a 4 percent energy loss. The mean energy, second central moment (a measure of the width of the distribution), and the third central moment (a measure of the skew) were calculated from the measured energy-loss distributions. Stopping power values, calculated using the mean energy, compared reasonably well with those calculated from the Bethe stopping power theory. For the second and third central moments, the best agreement between measurement and theory was when the classical scattering probability was used for the calculations, but even these did not agree well. In all cases, variations were found in the data that could be correlated to the type of carbon binding in the molecule. The differences were statistically significant at a 99 percent confidence interval for the stopping powers and second central moments measured with 51 keV protons. Similar trends were noted at other energies and for the third central moment, but the differences were not statistically significant at the 99 percent confidence interval

  12. Measuring improvement in energy efficiency of the US cement industry with the ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Zhang, G. [Department of Economics, Duke University, Box 90097, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The lack of a system for benchmarking industrial plant energy efficiency represents a major obstacle to improving efficiency. While estimates are sometimes available for specific technologies, the efficiency of one plant versus another could only be captured by benchmarking the energy efficiency of the whole plant and not by looking at its components. This paper presents an approach used by ENERGY STAR to implement manufacturing plant energy benchmarking for the cement industry. Using plant-level data and statistical analysis, we control for factors that influence energy use that are not efficiency, per se. What remains is an estimate of the distribution of energy use that is not accounted for by these factors, i.e., intra-plant energy efficiency. By comparing two separate analyses conducted at different points in time, we can see how this distribution has changed. While aggregate data can be used to estimate an average rate of improvement in terms of total industry energy use and production, such an estimate would be misleading as it may give the impression that all plants have made the same improvements. The picture that emerges from our plant-level statistical analysis is more subtle; the most energy-intensive plants have closed or been completely replaced and poor performing plants have made efficiency gains, reducing the gap between themselves and the top performers, whom have changed only slightly. Our estimate is a 13 % change in total source energy, equivalent to an annual reduction of 5.4 billion/kg of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

  13. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...... to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies...

  14. An apparatus to measure stopping powers for low-energy antiprotons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, H H; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, U

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments to be performed under the ASACUSA collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator is a measurement of the energy loss of low energy antiprotons in thin foils. An electrostatic spectrometer has been developed for this task. We describe the design and initial tests of the apparatus with protons. By changing a high-voltage applied on the target the energy of the projectile ions at impact on the target can easily be varied. In this way we have measured the stopping-power and the energy-loss straggling for protons over a wide energy range to below one keV.

  15. Measuring economy-wide energy efficiency performance: A parametric frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric frontier approach to estimating economy-wide energy efficiency performance from a production efficiency point of view. It uses the Shephard energy distance function to define an energy efficiency index and adopts the stochastic frontier analysis technique to estimate the index. A case study of measuring the economy-wide energy efficiency performance of a sample of OECD countries using the proposed approach is presented. It is found that the proposed parametric frontier approach has higher discriminating power in energy efficiency performance measurement compared to its nonparametric frontier counterparts.

  16. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  17. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  18. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  19. Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimei; Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu

    2017-10-01

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

  20. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of...

  2. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs...

  3. Measurement of the stored energy in the NRX reactor reflector graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, H. B.; Larson, E. A.G.

    1959-07-15

    With the co-operation of workers at Windscale and Harwell, whose assistance is hereby gratefully acknowledged, the stored energy content of the inner reflector graphite of NRX has been measured. Measurements made at three different elevations and at different positions through the reflector show that there is, at present, no danger to NRX from an accidental release of the energy. The energy stored in the reflector in 1958 is less by a factor five to ten than the stored energy as measured in 1953. It appears that there has been a continual release of stored energy since 1954 when, after the rehabilitation, the maximum power was raised to 40 MW. Additional thermocouples have been installed in the inner reflector, and future stored energy measurements are being scheduled. (author)

  4. Secondary electrons monitor for continuous electron energy measurements in UHF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Bulka, Sylwester; Mirkowski, Jacek; Roman, Karol

    2001-01-01

    Continuous energy measurements have now became obligatory in accelerator facilities devoted to radiation sterilization process. This is one of several accelerator parameters like dose rate, beam current, bean scan parameters, conveyer speed which must be recorded as it is a required condition of accelerator validation procedure. Electron energy measurements are rather simple in direct DC accelerator, where the applied DC voltage is directly related to electron energy. High frequency linacs are not offering such opportunity in electron energy measurements. The analyzing electromagnet is applied in some accelerators but that method can be used only in off line mode before or after irradiation process. The typical solution is to apply the non direct method related to control and measurements certain accelerator parameters like beam current and microwave energy pulse power. The continuous evaluation of electron energy can be performed on the base of calculation and result comparison with calibration curve

  5. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  6. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  7. Diferentes niveles de energía metabolizable y aminoácidos azufrados en dietas para gallinas Bovans blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Tepox Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de la gallina Bovans blanca de primer ciclo alimentadas con dietas con niveles diferentes de energía metabolizable (EM y de metionina+cistina digestible (AAD, para lograr disminuir el porcentaje de huevo pequeño (<42 g, al inicio de la producción se utilizaron 384 gallinas de 19 semanas de edad. Se usó un diseño completamente al azar, en un arreglo factorial de 4 X 2, donde el primer factor fueron los niveles de EM (2700, 2800, 2900, 3000 Kcal/kg y el segundo factor fue la inclusión de diferentes porcentajes de AAD (0.45, 0.61. Cada tratamiento, contó con cuatro repeticiones de 12 gallinas cada uno. Durante ocho semanas se llevaron registros semanales, del porcentaje de postura, peso promedio del huevo, consumo de alimento; masa de huevo/ave/día y conversión alimenticia; además, se clasificó el huevo de acuerdo al peso. Los resultados obtenidos, no mostraron respuesta a los factores de estudio ni a la interacción entre nivel de EM y AAD, para ninguna de las variables productivas. Se encontró un efecto sobre el consumo de alimento del nivel de energía y aminoácidos azufrados (P<0.05. Se disminuyó el porcentaje de huevo pequeño en los niveles más altos de EM de 2900 y 3000 Kcal/Kg (29.6 y 30.4 % respectivamente. Se incrementó (P<0.05 el porcentaje de huevo grande en 3 % al usar dietas con el nivel de AAD de 0.61 %.

  8. Examining Student Ideas about Energy Measurements on Quantum States across Undergraduate and Graduate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function…

  9. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Lawrance, Warren D, E-mail: m.buntine@curtin.edu.a [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  10. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A; Lawrance, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  11. Photoemission measurements for low energy x-ray detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photoemission has been studied for nearly 100 years as both a means of investigating quantum physics, and as a practical technique for transducing optical/x-ray photons into electrical currents. Numerous x-ray detection schemes, such as streak cameras and x-ray sensitive diodes, exploit this process because of its simplicity, adaptability, and speed. Recent emphasis on diagnostics for low temperature, high density, and short-lived, plasmas for inertial confinement fusion has stimulated interest in x-ray photoemission in the sub-kilovolt regime. In this paper, a review of x-ray photoemission measurements in the 50 eV to 10 keV x-ray region is given and the experimental techniques are reviewed. A semiempirical model of x-ray photoemission is discussed and compared to experimental measurements. Finally, examples of absolutely calibrated instruments are shown

  12. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  13. The measure system of thermion energy switch over in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing

    1999-01-01

    The system is the application of VI in the field of reactor, to use LabWINDOW/CVI and currency PC collection card, the system can measure and analyse the speciality of V-I and temperature. It is perfectly and high rate performance system, it can be expand to 128 channels for get dissimilitude signal. It can be used in M and C of all kinds field

  14. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  15. Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses - perception of homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The results of a questionnaire surveying of 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Hence, economic incentives could be used to increase the adoption of such measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt energy efficiency measures

  16. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  17. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  18. Alpha Beam Energy Determination Using a Range Measuring Device for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Byeon Gil; Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The threshold energy of the {sup 209}Bi(α,3n){sup 210} At reaction is at about 30MeV. Our laboratory suggested an energy measurement method to confirm the proton-beam's energy by using a range measurement device. The experiment was performed energy measurement of alpha beam. The alpha beam of energy 29 MeV has been extracted from the cyclotron for the production of {sup 211}At. This device was composed of four parts: an absorber, a drive shaft, and a servo motor and a Faraday cup. The drive shaft was mounted on the absorber and connects with the axis of the servo motor and rotates linearly and circularly by this servo motor. A Faraday cup is for measuring the beam flux. As this drive shaft rotates, the thickness of the absorber varies depending on the rotation angle of the absorber. The energy of the alpha particle accelerated and extracted from MC-50 cyclotron was calculated with the measurement of the particle range in Al foil and using ASTAR, SRIM, MCNPX software. There were a little discrepancy between the expected energy and the calculated energy within the 0.5MeV error range. We have a plan to make an experiment with various alpha particle energies and another methodology, for example, the cross section measurement of the nuclear reaction.

  19. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  20. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....