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Sample records for measured longitudinal deformation

  1. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup;

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...... and showed that ND obtained during quiet standing could not predict the MLAD during gait. The 3D method, or alternatively the 2D method, may be used in clinical settings as reliable methods for easy estimation of the foot longitudinal stability....

  2. [Longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mami, Z; Monsegu, J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal stent deformation is defined as a compression of stent length after its implantation. It's a rare complication but dangerous seen with several stents. We reported a case of longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment with a Promus Element(®) and we perform a short review of this complication.

  3. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    ). There was no correlation between medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in either of the 2 groups (r .653). The subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome in this study demonstrated increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  4. Longitudinal Deformation of Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseinsabet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:: In this study, pulmonary artery longitudinal deformation was evaluated and attempted to clarify pulmonary artery deformation. Methods:: Eight healthy men and seven healthy women with structurally normal hearts were enrolled. In the parasternal short axis view at the aortic valve level, longitudinal axis of pulmonary artery was obtained and color coded Doppler myocardial imaging applied. Results:: The systolic strain was positive in most the pulmonary segments, velocity and strain rate waves had three defined peaks, one positive in systole and two negative in diastole. Conclusions:: This study revealed for first time, deformation pattern of pulmonary artery by color coded Doppler myocardial imaging and can be basis for future researches in cardiopulmonary diseases.

  5. Regional Longitudinal Myocardial Deformation Provides Incremental Prognostic Information in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Biering-Sørensen

    Full Text Available Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS has recently been demonstrated to be a superior prognosticator to conventional echocardiographic measures in patients after myocardial infarction (MI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regional longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to GLS, conventional echocardiography and clinical information.In total 391 patients were admitted with ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequently examined by echocardiography. All patients were examined by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI and two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE.During a median-follow-up of 5.3 (IQR 2.5-6.1 years the primary endpoint (death, heart failure or a new MI was reached by 145 (38.9% patients. After adjustment for significant confounders (including conventional echocardiographic parameters and culprit lesion, reduced longitudinal performance in the anterior septal and inferior myocardial regions (but not GLS remained independent predictors of the combined outcome. Furthermore, inferior myocardial longitudinal deformation provided incremental prognostic information to clinical and conventional echocardiographic information (Harrell's c-statistics: 0.63 vs. 0.67, p = 0.032. In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region was significantly associated with an adverse outcome (p<0.05 for all deformation parameters.Regional longitudinal myocardial deformation measures, regardless if determined by TDI or 2DSE, are superior prognosticators to GLS. In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation in the inferior myocardial segment provides prognostic information over and above clinical and conventional echocardiographic risk factors. Furthermore, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region seems to be a paramount marker of adverse outcome.

  6. Airborne Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Otten, M.; Halsema, E. van

    2000-01-01

    In ground engineering the need for deformation measurements is urgent. SAR interferometry can be used to measure small (sub-wavelength) deformations. An experiment to investigate this for dike deformations was set up, using the C-band SAR system PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal SAR). This paper descri

  7. Campaigned GPS on Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Northernmost Longitudinal Valley Preliminary Results, Hualien Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan sits at the collision suture between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Based on repeated GPS campaigned measurements from 25 stations six times in 2007 - 2009, we characterize the surface deformation in the northernmost Longitudinal Valley where the Coastal Range of the Philippine Sea plate turns northward diving under the Eurasian plate producing two major active faults: the Milun fault and the Longitudinal Valley fault. We reconstructed a GPS velocity field and conducted strain analyses and elastic block modeling. Our results suggest a rapid clockwise rotation of 33° Myr-1 and an eastward tectonic escape in the small Hualien City block (HUAL area of ~10 × 10 km, which is apparently detached from the regional rotating RYUK block defined by previous studies. We interpret it as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the HUAL block to move upward and eastward. According to our strain analyses, the HUAL block shows a significant internal elastic strain inside the Milun Tableland, the hanging wall of the Milun fault. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the fault, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. The deformation in the footwall of the fault was accommodated by pure-shear strain with a major NNW-compression and a minor ENE-extension. The deformation in the hanging wall is characterized by simple-shear strain with ENE-extension in its northern part and little deformation in the southern part, separated by a little known NW-trending active fault zone (Dongmingyi fault, which needs further investigation.

  8. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  9. The effect of the abdomen deformation on the longitudinal stability of flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we derive longitudinal nonlinear equations of motion of a hovering insect with deformable abdomen to investigate the effect of the abdominal motion to the longitudinal dynamics. The blade-element theory, which is based on experimentally obtained aerodynamic coefficients, is used for the periodic force and moment excitation to the system. Here, we focus on the role of the deformable abdomen to investigate whether or not the flexible body is a decisive factor to the longitudinal flight dynamic stability. Three cases: 1) rigid connection between the thorax and abdomen, 2) flexible connection, and 3) active connection with a feedback control, are compared to check the role of the abdomen deformation on the longitudinal flight dynamic stability, by examining eigenvalues of the linearized system model of each case. The results show that an active control of the abdominal angle can stabilize the longitudinal flight dynamics of the insect modeled in this study.

  10. The character of elastic deformations on the interface by the passing of longitudinal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, Nadezhda; Grinyaev, Yurii

    2016-11-01

    The problem of longitudinal wave passing through the interface of two elastic media is considered. The reflection and refraction coefficients obtained by solving this problem can be used to study the character of dynamic deformation on the interface. Expressions for various deformation modes and rotation at the interface revealing their dependences on the angle of incidence of a longitudinal wave and on the elastic properties of the contacting media have been analyzed.

  11. Assessment of Right Ventricular Free Wall Longitudinal Myocardial Deformation Using Speckle Tracking Imaging in Normal Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun TONG; Chunlei LI; Jialin SONG; Hongyun LIU; Youbin DENG

    2008-01-01

    To assess right ventricular free wall longitudinal myocardium deformation and examine the changes with normal age by speckle tracking imaging (STI), myocardial systolic peak strain (ε), systolic peak strain rate (SRs), early diastolic peak strain rate (Sre), late diastolic peak strain rate (Sra), the ratio of Sre/Sra were measured in the basal, middle and apical segments of right ventricular free wall in 75 healthy volunteers (age range: 21-71 y) by STI from the apical 4-chamber view. RV longitudinal strain and strain rate were highest in the basal segment of the free wall. Older subjects had lower early diastolic strain rate (Sre) than younger subjects, but they had higher late diastolic strain rate (Sra). A negative correlation between age and the ratio of Sre/Sra was found in all RV free wall segments (r=-0.466 - -0.614, P<0.01). It is concluded that RV diastolic strain rate changes with age and STI can be used for the study of RV myocardial deformation.

  12. Robust Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Planetary Rovers While Climbing up Deformable Slopes with Longitudinal Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengcai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobility control is one of the most essential parts of planetary rovers’ research and development. The goal of this research is to let the planetary rovers be able to achieve demand of motion from upper level with satisfied control performance under the rough and deformable planetary terrain that often lead to longitudinal slip. The longitudinal slip influences the mobility efficiency obviously, especially on the major deformable slopes. Compared with the past works on normal stiff terrains, properties of soil and interaction between wheels and soil should be considered additionally. Therefore, to achieve the final goal, in this paper, wheel-soil dynamic model for six-wheel planetary rovers while climbing up deformable slopes with longitudinal slip is first built and control based in order to account for slip phenomena. These latter effects are then taken into account within terramechanics theory, relying upon nonlinear control techniques; finally, a robust adaptive fuzzy control strategy with longitudinal slip compensation is developed to reduce the effects induced by slip phenomena and modeling error. Capabilities of this control scheme are demonstrated via full scale simulations carried out with a six-wheel robot moving on sloped deformable terrain, whose real time was computed relying uniquely upon RoSTDyn, a dynamic software.

  13. Optical dynamic deformation measurements at translucent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Katrin; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Kuschmierz, Robert; Leithold, Christoph; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-02-15

    Due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio, glass fiber-reinforced polymers are an attractive material for rotors, e.g., in the aerospace industry. A fundamental understanding of the material behavior requires non-contact, in-situ dynamic deformation measurements. The high surface speeds and particularly the translucence of the material limit the usability of conventional optical measurement techniques. We demonstrate that the laser Doppler distance sensor provides a powerful and reliable tool for monitoring radial expansion at fast rotating translucent materials. We find that backscattering in material volume does not lead to secondary signals as surface scattering results in degradation of the measurement volume inside the translucent medium. This ensures that the acquired signal contains information of the rotor surface only, as long as the sample surface is rough enough. Dynamic deformation measurements of fast-rotating fiber-reinforced polymer composite rotors with surface speeds of more than 300 m/s underline the potential of the laser Doppler sensor.

  14. Measurement of transient deformation by color encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, C; Barrientos, B; Blanco, A

    2011-12-05

    We present a method based on color encoding for measurement of transient 3D deformation in diffuse objects. The object is illuminated by structured light that consists of a fringe pattern with cyan fringes embedded in a white background. Color images are registered and information on each color channel is then separated. Surface features appear on the blue channel while fringes on the red channel. The in-plane components of displacement are calculated via digital correlation of the texture images. Likewise, the resulting fringes serve for the measuring of the out-of-plane component. As crossing of information between signals is avoided, the accuracy of the method is high. This is confirmed by a series of displacement measurements of an aluminum plate.

  15. Assessment of global longitudinal strain using standardized myocardial deformation imaging: a modality independent software approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Johannes H; Keller, Marius G P; Aurich, Matthias; Sander, Yannick; Andre, Florian; Giusca, Sorin; Aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Seitz, Sebastian; Galuschky, Christian; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Mereles, Derliz; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial deformation measurement is superior to left ventricular ejection fraction in identifying early changes in myocardial contractility and prediction of cardiovascular outcome. The lack of standardization hinders its clinical implementation. The aim of the study is to investigate a novel standardized deformation imaging approach based on the feature tracking algorithm for the assessment of global longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) in echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). 70 subjects undergoing CMR were consecutively investigated with echocardiography within a median time of 30 min. GLS and GCS were analyzed with a post-processing software incorporating the same standardized algorithm for both modalities. Global strain was defined as the relative shortening of the whole endocardial contour length and calculated according to the strain formula. Mean GLS values were -16.2 ± 5.3 and -17.3 ± 5.3 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GLS did not differ significantly between the two imaging modalities, which showed strong correlation (r = 0.86), a small bias (-1.1 %) and narrow 95 % limits of agreement (LOA ± 5.4 %). Mean GCS values were -17.9 ± 6.3 and -24.4 ± 7.8 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GCS was significantly underestimated by echocardiography (p windows in echocardiography. GCS assessment revealed only a strong correlation (r = 0.87) when echocardiographic image quality was good. No significant differences for GLS between two different echocardiographic vendors could be detected. Quantitative assessment of GLS using a standardized software algorithm allows the direct comparison of values acquired irrespective of the imaging modality. GLS may, therefore, serve as a reliable parameter for the assessment of global left ventricular function in clinical routine besides standard evaluation of the ejection fraction.

  16. Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Agreement between Different Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Techniques for the Assessment of Longitudinal Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Left ventricular (LV longitudinal deformation can be assessed with new echocardiographic techniques like triplane echocardiography (3PE and four-dimensional echocardiography (4DE. We aimed to assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and agreement between these different speckle-tracking techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation. Methods. 101 consecutive subjects underwent echocardiographic examination. 2D cine loops from the apical views, a triplane view, and an LV 4D full volume were acquired in all subjects. LV longitudinal strain was obtained for each imaging modality. Results. 2DE analysis of LV strain was feasible in 90/101 subjects, 3PE strain in 89/101, and 4DE strain in 90/101. The mean value of 2DE and 3PE longitudinal strains was significantly higher with respect to 4DE. The relationship between 2DE and 3PE derived strains (r=0.782 was significantly higher (z=3.72, P<0.001 than that between 2DE and 4DE (r=0.429 and that between 3PE and 4DE (r=0.510; z=3.09, P=0.001. The mean bias between 2DE and 4DE strains was -6.61±7.31% while -6.42±6.81% between 3PE and 4DE strains; the bias between 2DE and 3PE strain was of 0.21±4.16%. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were acceptable among the techniques. Conclusions. Echocardiographic techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation are not interchangeable, and further studies are needed to assess specific reference values.

  17. Regional Longitudinal Myocardial Deformation Provides Incremental Prognostic Information in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) has recently been demonstrated to be a superior prognosticator to conventional echocardiographic measures in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regional longitudinal...... myocardial deformation in comparison to GLS, conventional echocardiography and clinical information. METHOD: In total 391 patients were admitted with ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequently examined by echocardiography. All...... patients were examined by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE). RESULTS: During a median-follow-up of 5.3 (IQR 2.5-6.1) years the primary endpoint (death, heart failure or a new MI) was reached by 145 (38.9%) patients. After adjustment for significant confounders...

  18. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the longitudinal and lateral channel deformations in alluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Junqiang; WANG Guangqian; WU Baosheng

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of bank erosion mechanisms were analyzed, including fluvial and non-fluvial controlled mechanisms, and mechanical methods of simulating the erosion processes of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks were improved. Then a two-dimensional numerical model of the channel deformation was developed, consisting of a 2D flow and sediment transport submodel and bank-erosion submodels of different soil riverbanks. In the model, a new technique for updating the bank geometry during the bed evolution was presented, which combines closely two kinds of submodels. The proposed model is capable of not only predicting the processes of flood routing and longitudinal channel deformation in natural rivers, but also simulating the processes of lateral channel deformation, especially the processes of lateral erosion and failure of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks.

  19. Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A; Jones, R.M.; Jones, R M; Pasini, M; Posocco, P A; Voulot, D; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.34 ± 0.08 π ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.36 ± 0.04π ns keV/u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.48 ± 0.2 and 1.55 ± 0.12π ns keV/u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rig...

  20. Sufficient dimension reduction for longitudinally measured predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Forzani, Liliana; Bura, Efstathia

    2012-09-28

    We propose a method to combine several predictors (markers) that are measured repeatedly over time into a composite marker score without assuming a model and only requiring a mild condition on the predictor distribution. Assuming that the first and second moments of the predictors can be decomposed into a time and a marker component via a Kronecker product structure that accommodates the longitudinal nature of the predictors, we develop first-moment sufficient dimension reduction techniques to replace the original markers with linear transformations that contain sufficient information for the regression of the predictors on the outcome. These linear combinations can then be combined into a score that has better predictive performance than a score built under a general model that ignores the longitudinal structure of the data. Our methods can be applied to either continuous or categorical outcome measures. In simulations, we focus on binary outcomes and show that our method outperforms existing alternatives by using the AUC, the area under the receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve, as a summary measure of the discriminatory ability of a single continuous diagnostic marker for binary disease outcomes.

  1. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  2. Early Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Release for Correction of Sagittal Imbalance in Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen R. Deukmedjian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate a novel surgical technique in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis and present our early experience with the minimally invasive lateral approach for anterior longitudinal ligament release to provide lumbar lordosis and examine its impact on sagittal balance. Methods. All patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD treated with the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion (MIS LIF for release of the anterior longitudinal ligament were examined. Patient demographics, clinical data, spinopelvic parameters, and outcome measures were recorded. Results. Seven patients underwent release of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALR to improve sagittal imbalance. All cases were split into anterior and posterior stages, with mean estimated blood loss of 125 cc and 530 cc, respectively. Average hospital stay was 8.3 days, and mean follow-up time was 9.1 months. Comparing pre- and postoperative 36′′ standing X-rays, the authors discovered a mean increase in global lumbar lordosis of 24 degrees, increase in segmental lumbar lordosis of 17 degrees per level of ALL released, decrease in pelvic tilt of 7 degrees, and decrease in sagittal vertical axis of 4.9 cm. At the last followup, there was a mean improvement in VAS and ODI scores of 26.2% and 18.3%. Conclusions. In the authors’ early experience, release of the anterior longitudinal ligament using the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach may be a feasible alternative in correcting sagittal deformity.

  3. Global longitudinal strain: a useful everyday measurement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A King

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Herceptin (Trastuzumab is a widely used and effective drug for the treatment of Her2+ breast cancer but its cardiotoxic side effects require regular monitoring by echocardiography. A 10% reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction can lead to suspension of treatment and therefore has significant implications for patient prognosis in terms of cardiac and cancer outcomes. Assessment of LV function by conventional 2D biplane method of discs (2DEF has limitations in accuracy and reproducibility. Global longitudinal strain (GLS is becoming more widely available and user friendly. It has been shown to demonstrate myocardial damage earlier in treatment than 2DEF, allowing the option of pharmacological intervention at a pre-clinical stage and preventing the interruption of Herceptin. This study compares the reproducibility of GLS with that of 2DEF in a routine clinical environment. Fifty echocardiograms performed on female patients undergoing Herceptin treatment were used to measure both 2DEF and GLS within the recommended standard appointment time of 40 min. The data were re-measured (blind by the same operator a minimum of 14 days later to determine intra-operator variation. These data were also measured by a second operator (blind, to assess inter-operator variation. Analysis by direct comparison, intra-class correlation (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV and Bland–Altman plots demonstrated that GLS is a more reproducible measurement than 2DEF. This is important to prevent clinical decisions being erroneously based on variation in operator measurement. The investigation also shows that with advances in machine software this is a practical addition to routine assessment rather than merely a research tool.

  4. Measuring High Speed Deformation for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry) has proven to be a reliable and versatile technique to observe rapid deformation of frangible joints. It will be a valuable technique in order to understand the physics of two-stage light gas guns and the material response to hypervelocity impact.

  5. A Reference Optical System of Laser Doppler Longitudinal Displacement Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存满; 赵洋; 李达成

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new reference optical system is put forward to achieve longitudinal displacement measurement. An optical grating is used for frequency mixing and getting high SNR signals in the measurement. Conditions and methods for getting Doppler beat signals are presented.The experiments indicate that this optical syetem can be used to measure the longitudinal displacement with high accuracy.

  6. Biomechanical deformable image registration of longitudinal lung CT images using vessel information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazoulat, Guillaume; Owen, Dawn; Matuszak, Martha M.; Balter, James M.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-07-01

    Spatial correlation of lung tissue across longitudinal images, as the patient responds to treatment, is a critical step in adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this work is to expand a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm (Morfeus) to achieve accurate registration in the presence of significant anatomical changes. Six lung cancer patients previously treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Exhale CT scans were obtained at treatment planning and following three weeks of treatment. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the follow-up CT using Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm. To model the complex response of the lung, an extension to Morfeus has been developed: an initial deformation was estimated with Morfeus consisting of boundary conditions on the chest wall and incorporating a sliding interface with the lungs. It was hypothesized that the addition of boundary conditions based on vessel tree matching would provide a robust reduction of the residual registration error. To achieve this, the vessel trees were segmented on the two images by thresholding a vesselness image based on the Hessian matrix’s eigenvalues. For each point on the reference vessel tree centerline, the displacement vector was estimated by applying a variant of the Demons registration algorithm between the planning CT and the deformed follow-up CT. An expert independently identified corresponding landmarks well distributed in the lung to compute target registration errors (TRE). The TRE was: 5.8+/- 2.9 , 3.4+/- 2.3 and 1.6+/- 1.3 mm after rigid registration, Morfeus and Morfeus with boundary conditions on the vessel tree, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of boundary conditions on the vessels significantly improved the accuracy in modeling the response of the lung and tumor over the course of radiotherapy. Minimizing and modeling these geometrical uncertainties will enable

  7. The estimate and measurement of longitudinal wave intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisen, Ming

    1996-08-01

    Quasi-longitudinal waves are one type of structural waves, which are important at high frequencies. This paper studies the estimate theory and measurement technique of quasi-longitudinal waves, analyzes the bias error due to the effect of bending waves. In a two-dimensional quasi-longitudinal wave field, the intensity vector is the sum of the effective intensity vector and the intensity variation vector. Its axial component is proportional to two imaginary parts of cross spectral densities and in the measurement, it is measured by a pair of two-transducer arrays. In a onedimensional quasi-longitudinal wave field, the intensity variation is zero, the intensity is proportional to only one imaginary part of a cross spectral density and it can be measured using a two-transducer array. If bending and quasi-longitudinal waves coexist and the contribution from bending waves cannot be eliminated or reduced to a certain extent, the measured quasi-longitudinal wave intensity will contain a large error. The results measured on the three-beam structure show that quasi-longitudinal wave intensity can be accurately measured using the intensity technique when bending waves are negligible in comparison with quasi-longitudinal waves.

  8. Lifetime measurements of Triaxial Strongly Deformed bands in $^{163}$Tm

    CERN Document Server

    wang, X; Moore, E F; Garg, U; Gu, Y; Frauendorf, S; Carpenter, M P; Ghugre, S S; Hammond, N J; Lauritsen, T; Li, T; Mukherjee, G; Pattabiraman, N S; Seweryniak, D; Zhu, S

    2007-01-01

    With the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, quadrupole transition moments, $Q_t$, were determined for the two recently proposed Triaxial Strongly Deformed (TSD) bands in $^{163}$Tm. The measured $Q_t$ moments indicate that the deformation of these bands is larger than that of the yrast, signature partners. However, the measured values are smaller than those predicted by theory. This observation appears to be valid for TSD bands in several nuclei of the region

  9. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a videogrammetric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of Image Time Series with Diffeomorphic Deformations: A Computational Framework Based on Stationary Velocity Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Hamou, Mehdi; Lorenzi, Marco; Ayache, Nicholas; Pennec, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We propose and detail a deformation-based morphometry computational framework, called Longitudinal Log-Demons Framework (LLDF), to estimate the longitudinal brain deformations from image data series, transport them in a common space and perform statistical group-wise analyses. It is based on freely available software and tools, and consists of three main steps: (i) Pre-processing, (ii) Position correction, and (iii) Non-linear deformation analysis. It is based on the LCC log-Demons non-linear symmetric diffeomorphic registration algorithm with an additional modulation of the similarity term using a confidence mask to increase the robustness with respect to brain boundary intensity artifacts. The pipeline is exemplified on the longitudinal Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database and all the parameters values are given so that the study can be reproduced. We investigate the group-wise differences between the patients with Alzheimer's disease and the healthy control group, and show that the proposed pipeline increases the sensitivity with no decrease in the specificity of the statistical study done on the longitudinal deformations.

  11. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  12. Predicting Welding Distortion in a Panel Structure with Longitudinal Stiffeners Using Inherent Deformations Obtained by Inverse Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  13. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  14. A time-dependent measuring system for welding deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志鹏; 赵海燕; 鹿安理; 史清宇; 施光凯

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the establishment and application of a time-dependent measuring system for welding deformation are presented which is established with high quality sensors shielded from strong welding interference. By using this system, vertical and horizontal displacements of the high temperature area are surveyed at the same time. And this system is also used for monitoring and controlling the deformation of real welded structures.

  15. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Danny A.

    2006-01-01

    Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.

  16. 6. International FIG-symposium on deformation measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.; Heer, R. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the diversified fields of specialization of the authors, the papers span a very wide spectrum of theories, applications and case studies, concerning various problems of deformation studies in structural, geotechnical and mining engineering, in rock mechanics and earth crustal movements, covering such topics as: Design and analysis of deformations surveys; Integration of terrestrial, and space measurement techniques; New instrumental developements for automatic, continuous and telemetric data-acquisition with respect to geotechnical and geodetic applications; Monitoring and prediction of ground subsidence in mining areas, land slides and tectonic movements; Modeling and computation of deformations by Kalman-filtering techniques, finite element analysis and a special view to continuum mechanics; Application of expert systems and artificial intelligence; Description and analysis of dynamical deformation problems; special views in rock- and groundmechanics; Demonstration of mechanical engineering problems with respect to the supervision of industrial production and quality control. (orig.)

  17. Spherical polystyrene particle deformation measured with the AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Size measurements of sub-micrometre spherical particles are quite easily performed with an atomic force microscope. The diameter is typically evaluated as the apex of the particle relative to a flat surface. However, some interaction effects may modify the expected results, such as the adhesive forces between the particle and the substrate or the tip–particle interface. In this paper, both effects were experimentally investigated for polystyrene particles with sizes ranging from 150 nm to 700 nm deposited on mica. Additionally, the experimental findings were compared with theoretical models of adhesion, describing both elastic and plastic deformation at the particle–substrate interface. While no clear indication of particle deformation due to the tip–particle interaction was obtained, the deformation due to adhesive forces between the particle and the substrate could be quantified. Contrary to certain theoretical models, the deformation was found to be proportional to the particle size.

  18. Deformation-phase measurement by digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ping

    2016-10-01

    A novel algorithm which extracts the out-of-plane component of deformation phase from two continuous fringe patterns is proposed. The velocity field between two consecutive frames is estimated by digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). After that, according to the optical flow constrained equation, the whole-field deformation-phase map is obtained by the estimations of the velocity field and the local frequency of the original image. The operation of the proposed method is simple compared with other phase demodulation methods. Moreover, the new method works perfectly at the areas with dense fringes. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is introduced. Meanwhile, in order to verify the effectiveness, the new algorithm is applied to simulated interferogram and real fringe pattern with a centrally loaded and edge-clamped plate. The results of simulation and experiment show that the new method can demodulate the out-of-plane component of deformation phase from the visible in-plane velocity field without unwrapping process. Further, dynamic deformation-phase extraction will be realized when we know the time interval of two continuous images. The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for whole-field deformation-phase measurement and dynamic deformation measurement.

  19. Traction Force Measurement Using Deformable Microposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianfa; Hawkins, Jamar; Sun, Yubing

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that mechanical forces strongly influence wound repair and fibrosis across multiple organ systems. Traction force is vital to the characterization of cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. Using hydrogel-based traction force microscopy, a FRET-based tension sensor, or microengineered cantilevers, the magnitude of traction forces can be measured. Here, we describe a traction force measurement methodology using a dense array of elastomeric microposts. This platform can be used to measure the traction force of a single cell or a colony of cells with or without geometric confinement.

  20. Process factors influencing spinning deformation of thin-walled tubular part with longitudinal inner ribs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江树勇; 薛克敏; 宗影影; 喻林

    2004-01-01

    As a successively and locally plastic deformation process, ball backward spinning is applied for the purpose of producing thin-walled tubular parts with longitudinal inner ribs. By simplifying ball backward spinning as forward extrusion mechanics model, slab method is used in order to solve spinning force. Based on plastic mechanics, the influence of the process parameters involved on formability of inner ribs as well as the quality defects of spun parts is analyzed so as to present an approach to acquire the desired parts. The quality of inner ribs is one of the critical tasks in obtaining the desired spun workpieces and the height of inner rib depends greatly on spinning material,ball diameter, feed ratio, and wall thickness of tubular blank. The knowledge of the influence of process variables such as ball diameter, feed ratio, and wall thickness of tubular blank on the spinning process is essential to prevent the quality defects of the spun parts and obtain the desired spun parts.

  1. Spinning Deformation Criteria of Thin-walled Tubular Part with Longitudinal Inner Ribs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shuyong; XUE Kemin; LI Chunfeng; REN Zhengyi

    2006-01-01

    As a successive and local plastic delormation process, backward ball spinning was applied for the purpose of producing thin-walled tubular parts with longitudinal inner ribs. According to the local plastic deformation theory, the application of yield criterion to the spinning process and the influence of the radial spinning force component on the formability of inner ribs were analyzed. Based on yield criterion and plastic mechanics, the stable flow rude of metal material and forming criteria of the inner ribs were obtained and conformed to the experimental results so as to contribute greatly to improving the ball spinning process and optimizing the process variables, such as the diameter of ball, the reduction in a pass and the wall thickness of tubular blank, which have a significant influence on the formability of the inner ribs. The knowledge of the influence of the process variables such as the diameter of ball, the reduction in a pass and the wall thickness of tubular blank on the spinning process is essential to preventing the quality defects of the spun parts and obtaining the desired spun parts.

  2. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  3. Measurement of Longitudinal Electron Diffusion in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yichen; Thorn, Craig; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Joshi, Jyoti; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, Jim; Tang, Wei; Viren, Brett

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients in liquid argon for electric fields between 100 and 2000 V/cm with a gold photocathode as a bright electron source. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. Our results, which are consistent with previous measurements in the region between 100 to 350 V/cm [1] , are systematically higher than the prediction of Atrazhev-Timoshkin[2], and represent the world's best measurement in the region between 350 to 2000 V/cm. The quantum efficiency of the gold photocathode, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion coefficients in gas argon are also presented.

  4. Two-dimensional (2-D) deformation measurements with ASAR and PHARUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S.; Halsema, D. van; Maarseveen, R.A. van; Blommaart, P.J.L.; Kruse, G.A.M.; Loon, D. van; Hanssen, R.F.; Samson, J.; Striegel, A.J.; Visser, J.M.P.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Deformation measurements are important in the field of ground engineering. Deformation can have a non-natural cause (e.g., surface deformation due to tunnel construction) or a natural one (e.g., dike deformation due to a high water level). Radar interferometry can in principle provide deformations w

  5. Measurement of deformation in rolling and sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasan, Yusuf Caner

    2005-01-01

    In this work, mechanisms behind micro-scale changes on the surfaces in rolling and sliding contacts are studied both experimentally and numerically. For the experimental study a wear and deformation measurement system is designed and produced. This system is composed of an interference microscope, a

  6. Roughness parameters and surface deformation measured by coherence radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Peter; Schmidt, Berthold E.; Schenk, M.; Laszlo, Ildiko; Haeusler, Gerd

    1998-09-01

    The 'coherence radar' was introduced as a method to measure the topology of optically rough surfaces. The basic principle is white light interferometry in individual speckles. We will discuss the potentials and limitations of the coherence radar to measure the microtopology, the roughness parameters, and the out of plane deformation of smooth and rough object surfaces. We have to distinguish objects with optically smooth (polished) surfaces and with optically rough surfaces. Measurements at polished surfaces with simple shapes (flats, spheres) are the domain of classical interferometry. We demonstrate new methods to evaluate white light interferograms and compare them to the standard Fourier evaluation. We achieve standard deviations of the measured signals of a few nanometers. We further demonstrate that we can determine the roughness parameters of a surface by the coherence radar. We use principally two approaches: with very high aperture the surface topology is laterally resolved. From the data we determine the roughness parameters according to standardized evaluation procedures, and compare them with mechanically acquired data. The second approach is by low aperture observation (unresolved topology). Here the coherence radar supplies a statistical distance signal from which we can determine the standard deviation of the surface height variations. We will further discuss a new method to measure the deformation of optically rough surfaces, based on the coherence radar. Unless than with standard speckle interferometry, the new method displays absolute deformation. For small out-of-plane deformation (correlated speckle), the potential sensitivity is in the nanometer regime. Large deformations (uncorrelated speckle) can be measured with an uncertainty equal to the surface roughness.

  7. Real-time deformation measurement using a transportable shearography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, A. L.; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.

    1997-03-01

    A new system for deformation visualization has been developed, being a real time phase stepped shearing speckle interferometer. This system provides the possibility to measure quantitatively deformations of diffusely reflecting objects in an industrial environment. The main characteristics of this interferometer are its speed of operation and its reduced sensitivity to external disturbances. Apart from its semiconductor laser source, this system has a shoe-box size and is mounted on a tripod for easy handling during inspection. This paper describes the shearing speckle interferometry set-up, as it is developed at our laboratory and its potential for detecting defects.

  8. Bam earthquake: Surface deformation measurement using radar interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ye

    2005-01-01

    On the 26th December 2003 an earthquake with Mw=6.5 shook a large area of the Kerman Province in Iran. The epicenter of the devastating earthquake was located near the city of Bam. This paper described the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (D-INSAR) and ENVISAT ASAR data to map the coseismic surface deformation caused by the Bam earthquake including the interferometric data processing and results in detail. Based on the difference in the coherence images before and after the event and edge search of the deformation field, a new fault ruptured on the surface was detected and used as a data source for parameter extraction of a theoretical seismic modeling. The simulated deformation field from the model perfectly coincides with the result derived from the SAR interferometric measurement.

  9. Exploring Intensive Longitudinal Measures of Student Engagement in Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrie, Curtis R.; Bodily, Robert; Manwaring, Kristine C.; Graham, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we used an intensive longitudinal approach to measure student engagement in a blended educational technology course, collecting both self-report and observational data. The self-report measure included a simple survey of Likert-scale and open-ended questions given repeatedly during the semester. Observational data were…

  10. Measurement error in longitudinal film badge data

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, J L

    2002-01-01

    Initial logistic regressions turned up some surprising contradictory results which led to a re-sampling of Sellafield mortality controls without the date of employment matching factor. It is suggested that over matching is the cause of the contradictory results. Comparisons of the two measurements of radiation exposure suggest a strongly linear relationship with non-Normal errors. A method has been developed using the technique of Regression Calibration to deal with these in a case-control study context, and applied to this Sellafield study. The classical measurement error model is that of a simple linear regression with unobservable variables. Information about the covariates is available only through error-prone measurements, usually with an additive structure. Ignoring errors has been shown to result in biased regression coefficients, reduced power of hypothesis tests and increased variability of parameter estimates. Radiation is known to be a causal factor for certain types of leukaemia. This link is main...

  11. Dynamic measurement of deformation using Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinya; Wu, Sijin; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a well-established optical technique for measurement of nano-scale deformations. It has become more and more important due to the rapid development of applications in aerospace engineering and biomedicine. Traditionally, phase shift technique is used to quantitatively measure the deformations in DHI. However, it cannot be applied in dynamic measurement. Fourier transform phase extraction method, which can determine the phase distribution from only a single hologram, becomes a promising method to extract transient phases in DHI. This paper introduces a digital holographic interferometric system based on 2D Fourier transform phase extraction method, with which deformations of objects can be measured quickly. In the optical setup, the object beam strikes a CCD via a lens and aperture, and the reference beam is projected on the CCD through a single-mode fiber. A small inclination angle between the diverging reference beam and optical axial is introduced in order to physically separate the Fourier components in frequency domain. Phase maps are then obtained by the utilization of Fourier transform and windowed inverse Fourier transform. The capability of the Fourier transform DHI is discussed by theoretical discussion as well as experiments.

  12. Measurement error in longitudinal film badge data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, J.L

    2002-04-01

    The classical measurement error model is that of a simple linear regression with unobservable variables. Information about the covariates is available only through error-prone measurements, usually with an additive structure. Ignoring errors has been shown to result in biased regression coefficients, reduced power of hypothesis tests and increased variability of parameter estimates. Radiation is known to be a causal factor for certain types of leukaemia. This link is mainly substantiated by the Atomic Bomb Survivor study, the Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients study, and studies of various other patients irradiated for therapeutic purposes. The carcinogenic relationship is believed to be a linear or quadratic function of dose but the risk estimates differ widely for the different studies. Previous cohort studies of the Sellafield workforce have used the cumulative annual exposure data for their risk estimates. The current 1:4 matched case-control study also uses the individual worker's film badge data, the majority of which has been unavailable in computerised form. The results from the 1:4 matched (on dates of birth and employment, sex and industrial status) case-control study are compared and contrasted with those for a 1:4 nested (within the worker cohort and matched on the same factors) case-control study using annual doses. The data consist of 186 cases and 744 controls from the work forces of four BNFL sites: Springfields, Sellafield, Capenhurst and Chapelcross. Initial logistic regressions turned up some surprising contradictory results which led to a re-sampling of Sellafield mortality controls without the date of employment matching factor. It is suggested that over matching is the cause of the contradictory results. Comparisons of the two measurements of radiation exposure suggest a strongly linear relationship with non-Normal errors. A method has been developed using the technique of Regression Calibration to deal with these in a case-control study

  13. TOMOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF LONGITUDINAL EMITTANCE GROWTH DUE TO STRIPPING FOILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; AHRENS, L.; THIEBERGER, P.

    2005-05-16

    During beam acceleration in the Brookhaven accelerator complex, heavy ions are stripped of their electrons in several steps. Depending on the properties of the stripping foils, this process results in an increased energy spread and longitudinal emittance growth. A tomographic phase space reconstruction technique has been applied to measure the associated emittance growth for different stripping foil materials.

  14. Measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yichen, E-mail: yichen@bnl.gov [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tsang, Thomas [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 N. Technology St., Building 535B, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Thorn, Craig; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Joshi, Jyoti; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rao, Triveni [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 N. Technology St., Building 535B, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Stewart, James; Tang, Wei; Viren, Brett [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    We report the measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients in liquid argon for electric fields between 100 and 2000 V/cm with a gold photocathode as a bright electron source. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. In the region between 100 and 350 V/cm, our results show a discrepancy with the previous measurement [1]. In the region between 350 and 2000 V/cm, our results represent the world's best measurement. Over the entire measured electric field range, our results are systematically higher than the calculation of Atrazhev‐Timoshkin [2]. The quantum efficiency of the gold photocathode, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion coefficients in gas argon are also presented.

  15. How many longitudinal covariate measurements are needed for risk prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Tolonen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiologic follow-up studies, many key covariates, such as smoking, use of medication, blood pressure, and cholesterol, are time varying. Because of practical and financial limitations, time-varying covariates cannot be measured continuously, but only at certain prespecified time points. We study how the number of these longitudinal measurements can be chosen cost-efficiently by evaluating the usefulness of the measurements for risk prediction. The usefulness is addressed by measuring the improvement in model discrimination between models using different amounts of longitudinal information. We use simulated follow-up data and the data from the Finnish East-West study, a follow-up study, with eight longitudinal covariate measurements carried out between 1959 and 1999. In a simulation study, we show how the variability and the hazard ratio of a time-varying covariate are connected to the importance of remeasurements. In the East-West study, it is seen that for older people, the risk predictions obtained using only every other measurement are almost equivalent to the predictions obtained using all eight measurements. Decisions about the study design have significant effects on the costs. The cost-efficiency can be improved by applying the measures of model discrimination to data from previous studies and simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Li, Kai

    2011-07-01

    Fast and high-accuracy deformation analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) has been increasingly important and highly demanded in recent years. In literature, the DIC method using the Newton-Rapshon (NR) algorithm has been considered as a gold standard for accurate sub-pixel displacement tracking, as it is insensitive to the relative deformation and rotation of the target subset and thus provides highest sub-pixel registration accuracy and widest applicability. A significant drawback of conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method, however, is its extremely huge computational expense. In this paper, a fast DIC method is proposed deformation measurement by effectively eliminating the repeating redundant calculations involved in the conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. Specifically, a reliability-guided displacement scanning strategy is employed to avoid time-consuming integer-pixel displacement searching for each calculation point, and a pre-computed global interpolation coefficient look-up table is utilized to entirely eliminate repetitive interpolation calculation at sub-pixel locations. With these two approaches, the proposed fast DIC method substantially increases the calculation efficiency of the traditional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. The performance of proposed fast DIC method is carefully tested on real experimental images using various calculation parameters. Results reveal that the computational speed of the present fast DIC is about 120-200 times faster than that of the traditional method, without any loss of its measurement accuracy

  17. Rapid Measurement of Tectonic Deformation Using Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; DeLong, S.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Hecker, S.; Prentice, C. S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Sickler, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid collection and distribution of accurate surface slip data after earthquakes can support emergency response, help coordinate scientific response, and constrain coseismic slip that can be rapidly overprinted by postseismic slip, or eliminated as evidence of surface deformation is repaired or obscured. Analysis of earthquake deformation can be achieved quickly, repeatedly and inexpensively with the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Traditional methods of measuring surface slip (e.g. manual measurement with tape measures) have proven inconsistent and irreproducible, and sophisticated methods such as laser scanning require specialized equipment and longer field time. Here we present a simple, cost-effective workflow for rapid, three-dimensional imaging and measurement of features affected by earthquake rupture. As part of a response drill performed by the USGS and collaborators on May 11, 2016, geologists documented offset cultural features along the creeping Hayward Fault in northern California, in simulation of a surface-rupturing earthquake. We present several photo collections from smart phones, tablets, and DSLR cameras from a number of locations along the fault collected by users with a range of experience. Using professionally calibrated photogrammetric scale bars we automatically and accurately scale our 3D models to 1 mm accuracy for precise measurement in three dimensions. We then generate scaled 3D point clouds and extract offsets from manual measurement and multiple linear regression for comparison with collected terrestrial scanner data. These results further establish dense photo collection and SfM processing as an important, low-cost, rapid means of quantifying surface deformation in the critical hours after a surface-rupturing earthquake and emphasize that researchers with minimal training can rapidly collect three-dimensional data that can be used to analyze and archive the surface effects of damaging earthquakes.

  18. The long-term influence of repetitive cellular cardiac rejections on left ventricular longitudinal myocardial deformation in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Eiskjaer, Hans; Høyer, Søren; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term influence of repeated acute cellular rejections on left ventricular longitudinal deformation in heart transplantation (HTX) patients. One hundred and seventy-eight HTX patients were included in the study. Rejections were classified according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) classification (0R-3R). Patients were divided into three groups according to rejection scores (RSs). Group 1: longitudinal strain (GLS) comparing to rejection groups (GLS group 1: -16.8 ± 2.4 (%); GLS group 2: -15.9 ± 3.3 (%); GLS group 3: -14.5 ± 2.9 (%), P = 0.0003). After excluding patients with LVEF cardiac rejections lead to impaired graft function as detected by decreasing magnitude of GLS. In contrast, traditional systolic graft function surveillance by LVEF did not correlate to rejection burden.

  19. Measurement of terrace deformation and crustal shortening of some renascent fold zones within Kalpin nappe structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoPing; RAN YongKang; CHENG JianWu; CHEN LiChun; XU XiWei

    2007-01-01

    The Kalpin nappe structure is a strongest thrust and fold deformation belt in front of the Tianshan Mountains since the Cenozoic time. The tectonic deformation occurred in 5-6 striking Mesozoic-Cenozoic fold zones, and some renascent folds formed on the recent alluvial-proluvial fans in front of the folded mountains. We used the total station to measure gully terraces along the longitudinal topographic profile in the renascent fold zones and collected samples from terrace deposits for age determination. Using the obtained formation time and shortening amount of the deformed terraces, we calculated the shortening rate of 4 renascent folds to be 0.1±0.03 mm/a, 0.12±0.04 mm/a, 0.59±0.18 mm/a, and 0.26±0.08 mm/a, respectively. The formation time of the renascent folds is some later than the major tectonic uplift event of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 0.14 Ma ago. It may be the long-distance effect of this tectonic event on the Tianshan piedmont fold belt.

  20. Deformation Measurement Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbesoglu, M. O.; Bakirman, T.; Gokbayrak, O.

    2016-10-01

    Historical structures are one of the most essential element of cultural heritage. They reflect history, lifestyle and tradition of a country and society. However, they are damaged through the years due to human activities and natural hazards. Therefore, digital documentation of structures and monuments is critical for preservation, sustainability and protection of cultural heritage. Terrestrial laser scanner is a widespread used tool for obtaining 3D representation of real world. In this study, we aimed to measure deformation of deformed minaret of a historical mosque using terrestrial laser scanner. In order to represent the geometry of the deformed minaret with high accuracy, 31 horizontal sections were created from the transition segment to the spire of the minaret with 30 cm intervals. The changing curvatures of the minaret were analysed in three parts; cylindrical part, balcony part and upper part. The offsets from the vertical axes for the parts of the minaret were found as 10.14 cm, 13.97 cm and 16.51 cm, respectively.

  1. Low rate of Sinabung deformation inferred by GPS measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriswati, Estu; Kuncoro, Henri; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    A series of Sinabung volcano eruption occurred on August 27, 2010 for the first time after dormain probably several hundred years, continued until September 7, 2010. Ash plumes from the new eruption at Sinabung volcano reached at least 8 km above sea level. In September 15th, 2013, a new phase of Sinabung volcano eruption forces peoples surrounding the volcano to evacuate homes. The eruption is still continuing, ash plume are reaching 10 kilometer above summit. The eruptions also generate pyroclastic flows and lahars. A month before the eruption, seismicity of Sinabung volcano increased especially increased on number of deep volcanic earthquakes. GPS have been installed in 4 stations in the slope of Sinabung volcano in the distance of 2 - 8 km from summit. GPS data is recorded continuously and analyzed automatically to obtain the baseline between two points in Sinabung network. In this paper, GAMIT/GLOBK software is using to get the coordinates and baseline solutions precisely. Time-series show some periods of increased volcanic activity with low rate of deformation since August 2012. Rapid deformation occur after June 2013, the horizontal displacement is ranged 8 - 11.3 mm in the period of 2013 June - October. After first eruption on September 15 the inflation still continuing. Linear strain at a triangulation of GPS stations in the slope of Sinabung volcano during the period show an inflation in summit area.Long period of deformation measurement show inflation due to magmatic process beneath summit. Since no other significant precursor to the eruption, the information is important for early warning especially for volcanic activity with low rate deformation like Sinabung volcano.

  2. Universal digital strain gauge measurement system of aeroelastic deformation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents description of the universal digital strain gauge system developed to measure the static and dynamic aeroelastic deformations of elasticity-scale models during the tests in aerodynamic tube and during in-flight tests of an experimental air vehicles. The main requirements for such devices are small size and possibility of operation in a wide temperature range. The article considers the dependence of zero offset from temperature. Functional diagram block and logic diagram of the build system are shown.

  3. Investigation of the longitudinal magnetic field effect on dynamic response of viscoelastic graphene sheet based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Jalaei, M. H.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field on the dynamic response of single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) resting on viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation theory. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanoplate, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of graphene sheet are assumed orthotropic viscoelastic using Kelvin-Voigt model. Utilizing Hamilton's principle governing equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The parametric study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of the magnetic field, structural damping, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the dynamic response of the SLGS. Results indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field exerted on the SLGS decreases the amplitude of dynamic response. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field effect on the dynamic response is more distinguished as the nonlocal parameter increases while by increasing the foundation and structural damping coefficients, this effect diminishes. The results of this study can be used in design and manufacturing of nanomechanical devices in the presence of magnetic field as a parametric controller.

  4. Investigation of the longitudinal magnetic field effect on dynamic response of viscoelastic graphene sheet based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour, E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaei, M.H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field on the dynamic response of single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) resting on viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation theory. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanoplate, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of graphene sheet are assumed orthotropic viscoelastic using Kelvin-Voigt model. Utilizing Hamilton's principle governing equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The parametric study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of the magnetic field, structural damping, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the dynamic response of the SLGS. Results indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field exerted on the SLGS decreases the amplitude of dynamic response. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field effect on the dynamic response is more distinguished as the nonlocal parameter increases while by increasing the foundation and structural damping coefficients, this effect diminishes. The results of this study can be used in design and manufacturing of nanomechanical devices in the presence of magnetic field as a parametric controller.

  5. Longitudinal Impedance Measurements of the Components for the BEPCII

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Demin; Kang, Wen; Wang Jiu Qing; Zhou, Lijuan

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal impedance measurement system was established for the BEPCII. The measurements, done in the frequency domain, are based on the coaxial wire method using HP/Agilent 8720ES network analyzer. The applications of the TRL calibration technique and absorbers were investigated to find a good approach for impedance measurements. The impedance, larger than 20 Ohm and below 6 GHz, can be measured using the TRL calibration technique in the experiment. And better measurement results were got using the reference pipes with the absorbers. So, this system satisfies the requirements of the BEPCII. This paper gives a review on this impedance measurements system for the BEPCII. The measurements results show that there are no serious impedance problems for BEPCII bellows and injection kickers, agreeing well with the numerical simulations. More improvements on this system are in progress.

  6. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  7. First measurements results of the LHC longitudinal density monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff , A; Bravin, E; Boccardi, A; Bozyigit, S; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Welsch, C P; Fisher, A S

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the longitudinal distribution of particles is important for various aspects of accelerator operation, for example to check the injection quality and to characterize the development of ghost bunches before and during the physics periods. A new detector, the LHC Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) is a single-photon counting system measuring synchrotron light by means of an avalanche photodiode detector. The unprecedented energies reached in the LHC allow synchrotron light diagnostics to be used with both protons and heavy ions. The LDM is able to longitudinally profile the whole ring with a resolution close to the target of 50 ps. On-line correction for the effects of the detector deadtime, pile-up and afterpulsing allow a dynamic range of 105 to be achieved. The LDM operated during the 2010 lead ion run and during 2011 with protons. Measurements from both runs are presented in this contribution along with an analysis of the LDM performance and an outlook for future upgrades.

  8. Unscented Particle Filtering for Estimation of Shipboard Deformation Based on Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shipboard is not an absolute rigid body. Many factors could cause deformations which lead to large errors of mounted devices, especially for the navigation systems. Such errors should be estimated and compensated effectively, or they will severely reduce the navigation accuracy of the ship. In order to estimate the deformation, an unscented particle filter method for estimation of shipboard deformation based on an inertial measurement unit is presented. In this method, a nonlinear shipboard deformation model is built. Simulations demonstrated the accuracy reduction due to deformation. Then an attitude plus angular rate match mode is proposed as a frame to estimate the shipboard deformation using inertial measurement units. In this frame, for the nonlinearity of the system model, an unscented particle filter method is proposed to estimate and compensate the deformation angles. Simulations show that the proposed method gives accurate and rapid deformation estimations, which can increase navigation accuracy after compensation of deformation.

  9. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sakaie

    Full Text Available To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF. Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO.40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD, transverse diffusivity (TD, mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA. Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI.LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03. FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004. LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05 as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02.This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity.

  10. Longitudinal measurement invariance, stability and change of anger and cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Merjonen, Päivi; Raitakari, Olli T; Hintsanen, Mirka

    2014-06-01

    Anger and hostility are key concepts in behavioral medicine, but little is known about their stability over life course. A sample of 3,074 individuals from six age groups (aged 15-30 at the baseline) were selected from a population-based study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance, stability and change in anger and cynicism from early to middle adulthood over 15 years. Cynicism, a facet of hostility, and anger were measured 4 times in 1992, 1997, 2001 and 2007. Final longitudinal measurement invariance models achieved partial strict measurement invariance, indicating good measurement consistency over time. Rank-order stability of anger and cynicism was found to be moderate. Mean levels of anger and cynicism decreased over time, but in anger the decline was faster among women. The variance of anger and cynicism also increased over time, but in cynicism the rate of change was higher among men. Altogether, anger and cynicism show measurement invariance and moderate stability from early adulthood to middle adulthood.

  11. Supernova energy measurement with longitudinal gravitational memory effect

    CERN Document Server

    Kodwani, Darsh; Yang, I-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the gravitational memory effect when a spherically symmetric shell of energy passes through a spacetime region. In particular, this effect includes a longitudinal component, such that two radially separated geodesics pick up a relative velocity proportional to their separation. Such a measurement will allow us to obtain the total energy released by a supernova explosion in the form of neutrinos. We study the possibility to measure such an effect by space-based interferometers such as LISA and BBO, and also by astrophysical interferometers such as pulsar scintillometry.

  12. Measurement of large deformation of nylon cord-rubber composite and effects of perpendicular loads on its stress-strain behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰发; 杜星文; 于增信

    2003-01-01

    Effects of transverse loads on longitudinal stress-strain behaviors and longitudinal constant tensile loads on transverse stress-strain behaviors of single ply of nylon cord-rubber composite are studied respectively under biaxial tensile condition with cruciform specimen. Effects of transverse constant tensile load on longitudinal tensile mechanical properties are indistinctive compared with corresponding uniaxial longitudinal tensile mechanical properties. It can be relative to larger difference between longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties. Its dominating failure mode is typical fiber-dominated mode; However, Experiment results indicate that transverse mechanical properties of nylon cord-rubber composite with longitudinal constant tensile loads are distinct from its uniaxial transverse tensile mechanical properties. It can be attribute to action of longitudinal tension that makes material rigidify in the direction perpendicular to fiber, Mode of failure is representative of matrix-dominated failure. For the measurement of large deformation up to 50 percent, a special CCD imaging method is employed in the experimental investigation that makes measurement of large deformations more precise.

  13. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Longitudinal deformation models, spatial regularizations and learning strategies to quantify Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Raguet, Hugo; Risser, Laurent; Cohen, Laurent D; Fripp, Jurgen; Vialard, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Alzheimer's disease, two challenging issues are (1) the characterization of local hippocampal shape changes specific to disease progression and (2) the identification of mild-cognitive impairment patients likely to convert. In the literature, (1) is usually solved first to detect areas potentially related to the disease. These areas are then considered as an input to solve (2). As an alternative to this sequential strategy, we investigate the use of a classification model using logistic regression to address both issues (1) and (2) simultaneously. The classification of the patients therefore does not require any a priori definition of the most representative hippocampal areas potentially related to the disease, as they are automatically detected. We first quantify deformations of patients' hippocampi between two time points using the large deformations by diffeomorphisms framework and transport these deformations to a common template. Since the deformations are expected to be spatially structured, we perform classification combining logistic loss and spatial regularization techniques, which have not been explored so far in this context, as far as we know. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of regularization techniques enforcing the coefficient maps to be spatially smooth (Sobolev), piecewise constant (total variation) or sparse (fused LASSO) with standard regularization techniques which do not take into account the spatial structure (LASSO, ridge and ElasticNet). On a dataset of 103 patients out of ADNI, the techniques using spatial regularizations lead to the best classification rates. They also find coherent areas related to the disease progression.

  15. Measuring the longitudinal bunch profile at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, A E; Bettoni, S; Braun†, H H; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Shaker, H; Soby, L; Skowronski, P K; Tecker, F; Velasco, M

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration in order to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration scheme. The monitoring and control of the bunch length throughout the CTF3 complex is important since this affects the efficiency and the stability of the final RF power production process. Bunch length diagnostics therefore form an essential component of the beam instrumentation at CTF3. This paper presents longitudinal profile measurements based on Streak camera and non-destructive RF power and microwave spectrometry techniques.

  16. Longitudinal deformation models, spatial regularizations and learning strategies to quantify Alzheimer's disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Fiot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Alzheimer's disease, two challenging issues are (1 the characterization of local hippocampal shape changes specific to disease progression and (2 the identification of mild-cognitive impairment patients likely to convert. In the literature, (1 is usually solved first to detect areas potentially related to the disease. These areas are then considered as an input to solve (2. As an alternative to this sequential strategy, we investigate the use of a classification model using logistic regression to address both issues (1 and (2 simultaneously. The classification of the patients therefore does not require any a priori definition of the most representative hippocampal areas potentially related to the disease, as they are automatically detected. We first quantify deformations of patients' hippocampi between two time points using the large deformations by diffeomorphisms framework and transport these deformations to a common template. Since the deformations are expected to be spatially structured, we perform classification combining logistic loss and spatial regularization techniques, which have not been explored so far in this context, as far as we know. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of regularization techniques enforcing the coefficient maps to be spatially smooth (Sobolev, piecewise constant (total variation or sparse (fused LASSO with standard regularization techniques which do not take into account the spatial structure (LASSO, ridge and ElasticNet. On a dataset of 103 patients out of ADNI, the techniques using spatial regularizations lead to the best classification rates. They also find coherent areas related to the disease progression.

  17. Regional ground deformation and its controlling measures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhifang; Zhu, Haisheng; Huang, Yong

    2006-12-01

    With the development of construction of China Cities, there exist a lot of environmental geological problems involved in the geofracture, land subsidence, collapse, landslide, devolution, mudrock flow, floating sand, piping and soft ground deformation. Of big cities whose population is over one million in China, about 30 cities appears the land subsidence region. Other cities locate in the regions of collapse yellow earth or expand soil of strong swell-shrink charasteristic, soft ground and karst. In the paper, the cause and hazard of regionality ground deformation is summed up. The causes of regional land deformation caused by the natural geological effect and activities of human being are analyzed. According to the length of deformation course and endanger of society, economy and life, land deformation involves three types, that is, the delay, rapid and break land deformation. And the concrete countermeasure and method are provided.

  18. Myocardial Integrated Backscatter in Obese Adolescents: Associations with Measures of Adiposity and Left Ventricular Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Xie

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis has been proposed to play an important pathogenetic role in left ventricular (LV dysfunction in obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that calibrated integrated backscatter (cIB as a marker of myocardial fibrosis is altered in obese adolescents and explored its associations with adiposity, LV myocardial deformation, and metabolic parameters.Fifty-two obese adolescents and 38 non-obese controls were studied with conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography. The average cIB of ventricular septum and LV posterior wall was measured. In obese subjects, insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and glucose tolerance were determined. Compared with controls, obese subjects had significantly greater cIB of ventricular septum (-16.8±7.8 dB vs -23.2±7.8 dB, p<0.001, LV posterior wall (-20.5±5.6 dBvs -25.0±5.1 dB, p<0.001 and their average (-18.7±5.7 dB vs -24.1±5.0 dB, p<0.001. For myocardial deformation, obese subjects had significantly reduced LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (SR (p = 0.045 and early diastolic SR (p = 0.015, and LV circumferential systolic strain (p = 0.008, but greater LV longitudinal late diastolic SR (p<0.001, and radial early (p = 0.037 and late (p = 0.002 diastolic SR than controls. For the entire cohort, myocardial cIB correlated positively with body mass index (r = 0.45, p<0.001 and waist circumference (r = 0.45, p<0.001, but negatively with LV circumferential systolic strain (r = -0.23, p = 0.03 and systolic SR (r = -0.25, p = 0.016. Among obese subjects, cIB tended to correlate with HOMA-IR (r = 0.26, p = 0.07.Obese adolescents already exhibit evidence of increased myocardial fibrosis, which is associated with measures of adiposity and impaired LV circumferential myocardial deformation.

  19. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, A.; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck SSSE coefficient of 2.8 × 10 - 7 V K-1.

  20. Control x-ray deformable mirrors with few measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Idir, Mourad

    2016-09-01

    After years of development from a concept to early experimental stage, X-ray Deformable Mirrors (XDMs) are used in many synchrotron/free-electron laser facilities as a standard x-ray optics tool. XDM is becoming an integral part of the present and future large x-ray and EUV projects and will be essential in exploiting the full potential of the new sources currently under construction. The main objective of using XDMs is to correct wavefront errors or to enable variable focus beam sizes at the sample. Due to the coupling among the N actuators of a DM, it is usually necessary to perform a calibration or training process to drive the DM into the target shape. Commonly, in order to optimize the actuators settings to minimize slope/height errors, an initial measurement need to be collected, with all actuators set to 0, and then either N or 2N measurements are necessary learn each actuator behavior sequentially. In total, it means that N+1 or 2N+1 scans are required to perform this learning process. When the actuators number N is important and the actuator response or the necessary metrology is slow then this learning process can be time consuming. In this work, we present a fast and accurate method to drive an x-ray active bimorph mirror to a target shape with only 3 or 4 measurements. Instead of sequentially measuring and calculating the influence functions of all actuators and then predicting the voltages needed for any desired shape, the metrology data are directly used to "guide" the mirror from its current status towards the particular target slope/height via iterative compensations. The feedback for the iteration process is the discrepancy in curvature calculated by using B-spline fitting of the measured height/slope data. In this paper, the feasibility of this simple and effective approach is demonstrated with experiments.

  1. Joint measurement of height and deformation by radar Interferometry: the example of the Eiffel Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Weissgerber, Flora; Nicolas, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The measurement of altitude and ground movements are well-known problems in InSAR. With the refinement of the resolution, the same techniques can be considered for monitoring individual buildings. Since the measure of the height and the deformations are interlinked in the interferometric phase, a measure of the height is necessary to obtain the deformations. In this article, we monitor the deformations of the Eiffel Tower using 50 images acquired by TerraSAR-X, with a ...

  2. Nanoscale deformation measurements for reliability assessment of material interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gollhardt, Astrid; Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    With the development and application of micro/nano electronic mechanical systems (MEMS, NEMS) for a variety of market segments new reliability issues will arise. The understanding of material interfaces is the key for a successful design for reliability of MEMS/NEMS and sensor systems. Furthermore in the field of BIOMEMS newly developed advanced materials and well known engineering materials are combined despite of fully developed reliability concepts for such devices and components. In addition the increasing interface-to volume ratio in highly integrated systems and nanoparticle filled materials are challenges for experimental reliability evaluation. New strategies for reliability assessment on the submicron scale are essential to fulfil the needs of future devices. In this paper a nanoscale resolution experimental method for the measurement of thermo-mechanical deformation at material interfaces is introduced. The determination of displacement fields is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. In-situ SPM scans of the analyzed object (i.e. material interface) are carried out at different thermo-mechanical load states. The obtained images are compared by grayscale cross correlation algorithms. This allows the tracking of local image patterns of the analyzed surface structure. The measurement results are full-field displacement fields with nanometer resolution. With the obtained data the mixed mode type of loading at material interfaces can be analyzed with highest resolution for future needs in micro system and nanotechnology.

  3. Multilayer Steel Materials Deformation Resistance and Roll Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To create new types of cars, raise their reliability, gain operational life, and decrease in metal consumption of products it is necessary to improve mechanical, physical, and also special properties of the constructional materials applied in mechanical engineering. Presently, there are intensive researches and developments under way to create materials with ultrafine-grained structure (the sizes of grains in their crystal lattice make less than 1 micron in one of the measurements.BMSTU developed a manufacturing technology of multilayer steel sheets with steady ultrafine-grained structure based on the multiple hot rolling of billet as a composition consisting of the alternating metal sheets. A principled condition for implementation of such technology is existence of different crystallographic modifications in the adjoining sheets of the composition at specified temperature of rolling.Power parameters of rolling are important technical characteristics of the process. Usually, to determine a deformation resistance value when rolling the diverse multilayer materials, is used the actual resistance value averaging in relation to the components of the composition. The aim of this work is a comparative analysis of known calculated dependences with experimental data when rolling the 100-layer samples. Objects of research were the 100-layer compositions based on the alternating layers of steel 08H18N10 and U8.Experimental samples represented the vacuumized capsules with height, width, and length of 53 mm x 53 mm x 200 mm, respectively, in which there were the 100-layer packs from sheets, each of 0.5 mm, based on the composition of steels (U8+08H18N10. Rolling was made on the double-high mill with rolls of 160 mm in diameter during 19 passes to the thickness of 7 mm with the speed of 0,1 m/s. Relative sinking in each pass was accepted to be equal 10±2,5%. Rolling forces were measured by the strain-gauging method using the measuring cells, located under

  4. 20 years of SAR measurements along the NAFS: interseismic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, S.; Walter, T. R.; Ergintav, S.; Diao, F.; Wang, R.; Polcari, M.; Serpelloni, E.; Devoti, R.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the earthquake cycle is a key issue for the definition of the hazard in seismic areas. Advanced SAR Interferometry (A-InSAR) techniques have today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to the capability to detect and measure slow surface movements along wide areas, and to follow the evolution of signal along a certain time periods. A-InSAR techniques have been applied to large datasets of SAR images spanning long time intervals and, together with in-situ surveys and ground measurements, can provide suitable information about the causes of post seismic (deformation rebound or residual strain release) and interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. In the framework of FP7 MARSITE (Marmara Supersite) project we have investigated the Western sector of North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) from Istanbul toward Duzce area. From West toward the Marmara Sea region (Mudurnu/Akyaz) the NAFS begins to lose its single fault line character and splays into a complex fault system. The main Marmara Fault is argued to be a very young structure and exhibits typical characteristics of a major strike slip fault. In 1999 the August 17th Izmit earthquake was followed few months later by the Duzce mainshock. We compare the A-InSAR results to permanent GPS stations installed in the region after the Izmit/Duzce earthquakes. These observations allow studying the post-seismic deformation of the 1999 Izmit/Düzce earthquake. We investigate the response of the eastern Marmara Fault to the quasi-static loading caused by Izmit/Düzce earthquakes. Overlapped post-seismic processes of fault creep (or afterslip) and viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and the upper mantle were investigated. We firstly estimated the viscoelastic relaxation effect using well covered long-term GPS data. This relaxation effect was subtracted from the InSAR data and the remaining InSAR data was inverted to identify localized slip variation along the MMF. Our inversion results imply that part

  5. Deformation of the left and right ventricular longitudinal myocardium in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dong-mei; WANG Chao-hong; WANG Yue-heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord around neck,a common obstetric complication,affects fetal hemodynamics.Does it influence fetal cardiac functions? The purpose of this study was to investigate the left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of fetuses with umbilical cord around neck in the third trimester by applying velocity vector imaging (VVI).Methods Thirty-five cases of fetuses with umbilical cord around neck whose gestational ages from 35 to 40 weeks were selected,including 20 cases of umbilical artery ratio of the highest systolic velocity (S) to the lowest diastolic velocity (D) (S/D) <3.0 and 15 cases of umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0,while 20 cases of normal fetuses of 35-40 gestational weeks were selected as the control group.The changes in longitudinal velocity,strain,and strain rate of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole in two groups,and the changes in fetal cardiac function under the situation of umbilical cord around neck were analyzed.Results Longitudinal strain and strain rate overall of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole were less in fetuses with umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0 and umbilical cord around neck than those in fetuses with umbilical artery S/D <3.0and those in control group (P <0.05); there was no significant difference (P >0.05) in longitudinal strain and strain rate overall of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole between fetuses with umbilical artery S/D <3.0 and those in control group.Conclusions Left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was detected in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck and umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0.WI could sensitively respond to cardiac function changes in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck,which provides another valuable method in the evaluation of fetal cardiac function.

  6. Intelligent Tires Based on Measurement of Tire Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a ‘safe’ reference value.

  7. Normal stress measurement via image analysis of interfacial deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Brian; Höpfl, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    The first coefficient of normal stress in polymer solutions is determined via image analysis. The method measures pointwise normal stresses along a sheared liquid-liquid interface. In the case of a steady rotating liquid bridge, the deformation of the interface is strictly due to normal stress swelling effects. In our experiments, a cylindrical liquid bridge of polystyrene solution rotates in a cylindrical bath filled with a glycerol-water solution of similar density. The shape of the interface and the jump in normal stress across the interface are determined using pressure-stress image analysis (P-SIA) from high resolution digital images. The stress resolution is better than 0.1 Pa at the free interface. The polystyrene solution exhibits a normal stress at the interface which grows with the square of the rotation rate. This effect is absent for Newtonian liquids, and is in excellent agreement with the ideal low shear behaviour of polymer solutions. Small density differences between the liquids are taken into consideration, showing that centrifugal effects are negligible. This method is potentially an excellent alternative to classical rheometry at low shear rates.

  8. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  9. Measurement of dynamic deformations using a path unbalance Michelson interferometer based optical fiber sensing device

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret, S.; P. Rastogi; Thévenaz, Luc; Inaudi, D.

    2003-01-01

    A novel demodulation technique for performing dynamic deformation measurements using a path-unbalanced Michelson interferometer is reported, The method is based on the rf amplitude modulation of a low-coherence source, and demodulation Is achieved by tracking in the frequency domain the position of the minimum of the detected intensity. This technique is particularly suitable for deformation measurements in civil engineering structures where deformations of the order of few millimeters over t...

  10. Videometric research on deformation measurement of large-scale wind turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of wind energy is a promising way to generate power,and wind turbine blades play a key role in collecting the wind energy effectively.This paper attempts to measure the deformation parameter of wind turbine blades in mechanics experiments using a videometric method. In view that the blades experience small buckling deformation and large integral deformation simultaneously, we proposed a parallel network measurement(PNM) method including the key techniques such as camera network construction,c...

  11. Model Attitude and Deformation Measurements at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently participating in an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored Model Attitude and Deformation Working Group. This working group is chartered to develop a best practices document dealing with the measurement of two primary areas of wind tunnel measurements, 1) model attitude including alpha, beta and roll angle, and 2) model deformation. Model attitude is a principle variable in making aerodynamic and force measurements in a wind tunnel. Model deformation affects measured forces, moments and other measured aerodynamic parameters. The working group comprises of membership from industry, academia, and the Department of Defense (DoD). Each member of the working group gave a presentation on the methods and techniques that they are using to make model attitude and deformation measurements. This presentation covers the NASA Glenn Research Center s approach in making model attitude and deformation measurements.

  12. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  13. Validation of Continuously Tagged MRI for the Measurement of Dynamic 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    A SPAMM tagged MRI methodology is presented allowing continuous (3.3-3.6 Hz) sampling of 3D dynamic soft tissue deformation using non-segmented 3D acquisitions. The 3D deformation is reconstructed by the combination of 3 mutually orthogonal tagging directions, thus requiring only 3 repeated motion cycles. In addition a fully automatic post-processing framework is presented employing Gabor scale-space and filter-bank analysis for tag extrema segmentation and triangulated surface fitting aided by Gabor filter bank derived surface normals. Deformation is derived following tracking of tag surface triplet triangle intersections. The dynamic deformation measurements were validated using indentation tests (~20 mm deep at 12 mm/s) on a silicone gel soft tissue phantom containing contrasting markers which provide a reference measure of deformation. In addition, the techniques were evaluated in-vivo for dynamic skeletal muscle tissue deformation measurement during indentation of the biceps region of the upper arm in a ...

  14. A simple and inexpensive vertical deformation measurement system for soil compression tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawita, Riska; Nawir, Hasbullah; Suprijadi, Khairurrijal

    2014-03-01

    A simple and low cost system to measure vertical deformations during soil compression tests was successfully developed. It consisted of a vertical deformation sensor, a signal conditioner, an analog to digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller, and a display. The vertical deformation sensor was made from a rotary potentiometer. The deformation was converted to an analog voltage output by the rotary potentiometer. A signal conditioner was required to make the analog voltage output ready for being used by the ADC. The ADC then converts the analog voltage output into digital one. The digital data was later processed by the microcontroller and finally readout by the display. The resolution of the developed system was about 0.038 mm. The calibration was done by comparing the vertical deformations obtained from the potentiometer with those measured by a micrometer. It was found that the developed system can measure a maximum vertical deformation of about 40 mm.

  15. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  16. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, A., E-mail: a.sola@inrim.it; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); Kikkawa, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Uchida, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.

  17. Problems in Different Measuring and Assessment the Modulus of Deformation Using the Czech and German Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative laboratory and in-situ measurements were used to establish the relationships between the static moduli of deformation calculated under the ED methodology and the DB methodology. The measurements proved that the moduli of deformation determined in accordance with the two methodologies cannot be substituted for each other. 

  18. Measurement of Microscopic Deformations Using Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry and the Fourier Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.

  19. Measurement and calculation of PZT thin film longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, J. A.; Kim, S.-H.; Kingon, A. I.; Maiwa, H.; Maria, J.-P.; Streiffer, S. K.

    1999-04-26

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of 2000 {angstrom} thick chemical solution deposited Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1{minus}x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated. Several Zr/Ti ratios were studied: 30/70, 50/50 and 65/35, which correspond to tetragonal, near-morphotropic, and rhombohedral symmetries. In all samples, a {l_brace}111{r_brace}-texture is predominant. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients and their dc field dependence were measured using the contact AFM method. The expected trend of a maximum piezoelectric coefficient at or near to the MPB was not observed. The composition dependence was small, with the maximum d{sub 33} occurring in the tetragonal material. To explain the results, crystallographic texture and film thickness effects are suggested. Using a modified phenomenological approach, derived electrostrictive coefficients, and experimental data, d{sub 33} values were calculated. Qualitative agreement was observed between the measured and calculated coefficients. Justifications of modifications to the calculations are discussed.

  20. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  1. Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to measurement forces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Tran, Hy D.

    2012-01-01

    Significant deformation of thin films occurs when measuring thickness by mechanical means. This source of measurement error can lead to underestimating film thickness if proper corrections are not made. Analytical solutions exist for Hertzian contact deformation, but these solutions assume relatively large geometries. If the film being measured is thin, the analytical Hertzian assumptions are not appropriate. ANSYS is used to model the contact deformation of a 48 gauge Mylar film under bearing load, supported by a stiffer material. Simulation results are presented and compared to other correction estimates. Ideal, semi-infinite, and constrained properties of the film and the measurement tools are considered.

  2. Measurement of Rotorcraft Blade Deformation Using Projection Moiré Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Fleming

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Projection Moiré Interferometry (PMI has been used to obtain near instantaneous, quantitative blade deformation measurements of a generic rotorcraft model at several test conditions. These laser-based measurements provide quantitative, whole field, dynamic blade deformation profiles conditionally sampled as a function of rotor azimuth. The instantaneous nature of the measurements permits computation of the mean and unsteady blade deformation, blade bending, and twist. The PMI method is presented, and the image processing steps required to obtain quantitative deformation profiles from PMI interferograms are described. Experimental results are provided which show blade bending, twist, and unsteady motion. This initial proof-of-concept test has demonstrated the capability of PMI to acquire accurate, full field rotorcraft blade deformation data.

  3. Optical coherence elastography for measuring the deformation within glass fiber composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been applied to the study of microscopic deformation in biological tissue under compressive stress for more than a decade. In this paper, OCE has been extended for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to deformation measurement in a glass fiber

  4. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling

    2004-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeatpass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV).

  5. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B;

    2014-01-01

    remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...... routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements....

  6. Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of dielectric-coated mirror surface by Michelson interferometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Wahid; S Kundu; J S B Singh; A K Singh; A Khattar; S K Maurya; J S Dhumal; K Dasgupta

    2014-02-01

    AMichelson interferometer-based technique has been used to measure the deformation of dielectric-coated mirror, caused by an incident repetitive pulsed laser beam with high average power. Minimum measurable deformation of 17 nm is reported.

  7. Measuring Deformation in the Mouse Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cathy; Midgett, Dan; Kimball, Elizabeth C.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary E.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an ex vivo explant system using multiphoton microscopy and digital volume correlation to measure the full-field deformation response to intraocular pressure (IOP) change in the peripapillary sclera (PPS) and in the optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytic structure. Methods Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-glutamate transporter-GLT1 (GLT1/GFP) mouse eyes were explanted and imaged with a laser-scanning microscope under controlled inflation. Images were analyzed for regional strains and changes in astrocytic lamina and PPS shape. Astrocyte volume fraction in seven control GLT1/GFP mice was measured. The level of fluorescence of GFP fluorescent astrocytes was compared with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) labeled astrocytes using immunohistochemistry. Results The ONH astrocytic structure remained stable during 3 hours in explants. Control strain—globally, in the central one-half or two-thirds of the astrocytic lamina—was significantly greater in the nasal-temporal direction than in the inferior-superior or anterior-posterior directions (each P ≤ 0.03, mixed models). The PPS opening (perimeter) in normal eye explants also became wider nasal-temporally than superior-inferiorly during inflation from 10 to 30 mm Hg (P = 0.0005). After 1 to 3 days of chronic IOP elevation, PPS area was larger than in control eyes (P = 0.035), perimeter elongation was 37% less than controls, and global nasal-temporal strain was significantly less than controls (P = 0.007). Astrocyte orientation was altered by chronic IOP elevation, with processes redirected toward the longitudinal axis of the optic nerve. Conclusions The explant inflation test measures the strain response of the mouse ONH to applied IOP. Initial studies indicate regional differences in response to both acute and chronic IOP elevation within the ONH region. PMID:28146237

  8. Longitudinal measurement of physical activity following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontje, M L; de Greef, M H G; Krijnen, W P; Corpeleijn, E; Kok, T; Bakker, S J L; Stolk, R P; van der Schans, C P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal observational study was to (i) examine the change of daily physical activity in 28 adult kidney transplant recipients over the first 12 months following transplantation; and (ii) to examine the change in metabolic characteristics and renal function. Accelerometer-based daily physical activity and metabolic- and clinical characteristics were measured at six wk (T1), three months (T2), six months (T3) and 12 months (T4) following transplantation. Linear mixed effect analyses showed an increase in steps/d (T1 = 6326 ± 2906; T4 = 7562 ± 3785; F = 3.52; p = 0.02), but one yr after transplantation only 25% achieved the recommended 10 000 steps/d. There was no significant increase in minutes per day spent on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (T1 = 80.4 ± 63.6; T4 = 93.2 ± 55.1; F = 1.71; p = 0.17). Body mass index increased over time (T1 = 25.4 ± 3.2; T4 = 27.2 ± 3.8; F = 12.62; p physical activity, the majority did not meet the recommended levels of physical activity after one yr. In addition to the weight gain, this may result in negative health consequences. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to support kidney transplant recipients to comply with healthy lifestyle recommendations, including regular physical activity.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  10. Lifetime measurements of normally deformed and superdeformed states in {sup 82}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Baktash, C.; Brinkman, M.J.; Jin, H.; Rudolph, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gross, C.J. [Oak Ridge Associate Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.G. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Sylvan, G.N.; Tabor, S.L. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F.; Wood, V.Q. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wells, J.C. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Petrovici, A. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Schmid, K.W.; Faessler, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Lifetimes of a superdeformed band in {sup 82}Sr were measured with the centroid shift method. The measured average quadrupole moment of this band corresponds to a quadrupole deformation of {beta}{sub 2}{approx}0.49, which is slightly smaller than both the theoretical prediction, and the measured deformation of the SD band in the neighboring isotone {sup 84}Zr. Lifetimes of high spin states of three normally deformed rotational bands in {sup 82}Sr were also measured with the Doppler shift attenuation method technique. The quadrupole moments of these normally deformed bands show a decrease at the highest spins, supporting the predicted band terminations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Application of color structured light pattern to measurement of large out-of-plane deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Lü; Jun-Hong Zhou; Dong-Dong Liu; Jue Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of out-of-plane deformation is significant to understanding of the deflection mechanisms of the plate and tube structures.In this study,a new surface contouring technique with color structured light is applied to measure the out-of-plane deformation of structures with one-shot projection.Through color fringe recognizing,decoding and triangulation processing for the captured images corresponding to each deformation state,the feasibility of the method is testified by the measurement of elastic deflections of a flexible square plate,showing good agreement with those from the calibrated displacement driver.The plastic deformation of two alloy aluminum rectangular tubes is measured to show the technique application to surface topographic evaluation of the buckling structures with large displacements.

  12. Longitudinal transport measurements in an energy recovery accelerator with triple bend achromat arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Saveliev, Y. M.; Williams, P. H.; Wolski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Longitudinal properties of electron bunches (energy spread and bunch length) and their manipulation are of importance in free electron lasers (FELs), where magnetic bunch length compression is a common feature of beam transport. Recirculating accelerators and energy recovery linac accelerators (ERLs) have been used as FEL drivers for several decades and control of longitudinal beam transport is particularly important in their magnet lattices. We report on measurements of longitudinal transport properties in an ERL-FEL, the ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments) accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory. ALICE is an energy recovery research accelerator that drives an infrared free electron laser. By measuring the time of arrival of electron bunches, the canonical longitudinal transport quantities were measured in the beam transport and bunch compression sections of the lattice. ALICE includes a four-dipole bunch compression chicane providing fixed longitudinal transport, and triple bend achromat arcs including sextupole magnets where the first and second order longitudinal transport can be adjusted. The longitudinal transport properties in these lattice sections were measured and compared with the theoretical model of the lattice. A reasonable level of agreement has been found. The effect of sextupoles in second order, as well as first order, longitudinal correction is considered, with the measurements indicating the level of alignment of the beam to the center of the sextupole.

  13. Measurement of Three-Dimensional Deformations by Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-plane deformations of a cantilever were measured using phase-shifting digital holographicinterferometry (PSDHI and the Fourier transform method (FTM. The cantilever was recorded in twodifferent states, and holograms were stored electronically with a charge-coupled device (CCD camera.When the holograms are superimposed and reconstructed jointly, a holographic interferogram results.The three-dimensional (3D surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM toholographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. Theprocessing time for the digital reconstruction and visualization of 3D deformation took about 1 minute.The technique was calibrated using Michelson interferometry setup.

  14. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  15. A simplified algorithm for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Yurchuk, Yu S [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    The possibility of measuring the dispersion of red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry) is analysed theoretically. A diffraction pattern parameter is found, which is sensitive to the dispersion of erythrocyte deformability and to a lesser extent – to such parameters as the level of the scattered light intensity, the shape of red blood cells, the concentration of red blood cells in the suspension, the geometric dimensions of the experimental setup, etc. A new algorithm is proposed for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by using data of laser ektacytometry. (laser applications in medicine)

  16. Lifetime measurements of triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 163}Tm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Moore, E. F.; Garg, U.; Gu, Y.; Frauendorf, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ghugre, S. S.; Hammond, N. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Li, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Notre Dame; Kolkata Center

    2007-06-21

    With the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, quadrupole transition moments Qt were determined for the two recently proposed triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) bands in {sup 163}Tm. The measured Qt values indicate that the deformation of these bands is larger than that of the yrast signature partners. However, the measured values are smaller than those predicted by theory. This observation appears to be valid for TSD bands in several nuclei of the region.

  17. Longitudinal measurement of physical activity following kidney transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, M.L.; Greef, M.H. de; Krijnen, W.P.; Corpeleijn, E.; Kok, T.; Bakker, S.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    purpose of this longitudinal observational study was to (i) examine the change of daily physical activity in 28 adult kidney transplant recipients over the first 12 months following transplantation; and (ii) to examine the change in metabolic characteristics and renal function. Accelerometer-based d

  18. On Fitting Nonlinear Latent Curve Models to Multiple Variables Measured Longitudinally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozis, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how nonlinear latent curve models may be fitted for simultaneous analysis of multiple variables measured longitudinally using Mx statistical software. Longitudinal studies often involve observation of several variables across time with interest in the associations between change characteristics of different variables measured…

  19. Equipment for measuring autogenous RH-change and autogenous deformation in cement paste and concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1997-01-01

    Equipment for measuring autogenous RH-change and autogenous deformation in cement paste and concrete are presented. The equipment consists of a Rotronic Hygroskop DT including a measuring chamber for measuring autogenous RH-change in cement paste and concrete, a paste dilatometer for measuring...

  20. Thermal image analysis of plastic deformation and fracture behavior by a thermo-video measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Nobuaki

    2016-12-01

    The visualization of the plastic region and the measurement of its size are necessary and indispensable to evaluate the deformation and fracture behavior of a material. In order to evaluate the plastic deformation and fracture behavior in a structural member with some flaws, the authors paid attention to the surface temperature which is generated by plastic strain energy. The visualization of the plastic deformation was developed by analyzing the relationship between the extension of the plastic deformation range and the surface temperature distribution, which was obtained by an infrared thermo-video system. Furthermore, FEM elasto-plastic analysis was carried out with the experiment, and the effectiveness of this non-contact measurement system of the plastic deformation and fracture process by a thermography system was discussed. The evaluation method using an infrared imaging device proposed in this research has a feature which does not exist in the current evaluation method, i.e. the heat distribution on the surface of the material has been measured widely by noncontact at 2D at high speed. The new measuring technique proposed here can measure the macroscopic plastic deformation distribution on the material surface widely and precisely as a 2D image, and at high speed, by calculation from the heat generation and the heat propagation distribution.

  1. Measurements of Active Tectonic Deformation on the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T.; Cundy, A.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    The study of tectonic deformation rates using displaced shoreline features is relatively well-established, and has provided much useful information on seismic hazard. Such studies have frequently been complemented by analysis of the coastal sedimentary record, where past marine to terrestrial environmental changes (and vice versa) may be recorded by clear changes in stratigraphy. Studies of this type are particularly valuable for tectonically-active areas where the preservation of former shoreline features is poor, or where long-term subsidence has resulted in their erosion, drowning or burial. The specific objective of this study is to derive rates of tectonic deformation from geomorphic and stratigraphic studies of the Guerrero coastal area, and to examine the feasibility of this stratigraphic approach in the coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific coast, in the Guerrero gap. The Guerrero gap coastal area, where a major earthquake is expected to occur, parallels the Cocos plate subduction zone. Here convergence rates vary from 5.2 cm/yr to 5.8 cm/yr. The Guerrero gap has experienced several historical earthquakes, notably the 1911 (7.8 Ms). However, no large magnitude events since the 1911 earthquake and only a few Ms~6 events have occurred near the Guerrero gap edges. It is expected that a major interplate earthquake of estimated magnitude Mw=8.1 to 8.4 has a high probability to occur. Landforms within the Guerrero gap indicate that the coast is subsiding. A series of key indicators such as elongated islands reminiscent of ancient barriers, submerged barriers island, extensive marshy environments, increased depths in the lagoons, and submerged anthropogenic features (shell mounds), among others, suggest active tectonic subsidence of the coast. In contrast, the adjacent northwest area off the Guerrero gap exhibits landforms characteristic of tectonic uplift (marine terraces and uplifted beach ridges), indicating a different seismo-tectonic regime northwest of the

  2. Measurement of conversion coefficients in normal and triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 167}Lu.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurdal, G.; Beausang, C. W.; Brenner, D. S.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Crider, B.; Heinz, A.; Williams, E.; Hartley, D. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Raabe, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Saladin, J. X.; Physics; Yale Univ.; Clark Univ.; Univ. of Richmond; United States Naval Academy; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Pittsburgh

    2008-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients have been measured for transitions in both normal deformed and triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 167}Lu using the Gammasphere and ICE Ball spectrometers. The results for all in-band transitions are consistent with E2 multipolarity. Upper limits are determined for the internal conversion coefficients for linking transitions between TSD Band 2 and TSD Band 1, the n{sub w} = 1 and n{sub w} = 0 wobbling bands, respectively.

  3. First Measurement of Charged Current Cross Sections at HERA with Longitudinally Polarised Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Antunovic, B; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Goettlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peng, H; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Reisert, B; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, K; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2006-01-01

    Data taken with positrons of different longitudinal polarisation states in collision with unpolarised protons at HERA are used to measure the total cross sections of the charged current process, e^+ p \\to \\bar{\

  4. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations.

  5. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-06-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin\\'s mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  6. Measurement of depth-resolved thermal deformation distribution using phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou

    2015-10-19

    An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers.

  7. Neutron-diffraction measurement of the evolution of strain for non-uniform plastic deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogge, R B; Boyce, D

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons are particularly adept for the validation of modeling predictions of stress and strain. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to model the evolution of both the macroscopic stresses and the intergranular stress during plastic deformation. These have had broad implications with regard to understanding the evolution of residual stress and to diffraction-based measurements of strain. Generally the modeling and associated measurements have been performed for simple uniaxial tension, leaving questions with regard to plastic deformation under multi-axial stress and non-uniform stress. Extensive measurements of the strain profile across a plastic hinge for each of a series of loading and unloading cycles to progressively higher degrees of plastic deformation are presented. These measurements are used to assess multiple-length-scale finite-element modeling (FEM) of the plastic hinge, in which the elements will range in size from single crystallites (as used in successful simulations of uniaxia...

  8. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival;

    2009-01-01

    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure...... the shape and deformation of 3D objects from the sequential intensity measurements of volume speckle field and phase retrieval based on angular-spectrum propagation technique is described here. The shape of a convex spherical surface was measured directly from the calculated phase map, and micrometer......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  9. A Feasible Approach for Improving Accuracy of Ground Deformation Measured by D-InSAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zhan-qiang; GONG Hui-li; ZHANG Jing-fa; GONG Li-xia

    2007-01-01

    D-InSAR is currently one of the most popular research tools in the field of Microwave Remote Sensing. It is unrivaled in its aspect of measuring ground deformation due to its advantages such as high resolution, continuous spatial-coverage and dynamics. However, there are still a few major problems to be solved urgently as a result of the intrinsic complexity of this technique. One of the problems deals with improving the accuracy of measured ground deformation. In this paper, various factors affecting the accuracy of ground deformation measured by D-InSAR are systematically analyzed and investigated by means of the law of measurement error propagation. At the same time, we prove that the ground deformation error not only depends on the errors of perpendicular baselines as well as the errors of the interferometric phase for topographic pair and differential pair, but also on the combination of the relationship of perpendicular baselines for topographic pairs and differential pairs. Furthermore, a feasible approach for improving the accuracy of measured ground deformation is proposed, which is of positive significance in the practical application of D-InSAR.

  10. Can We Measure the Heel Bump? Radiographic Evaluation of Haglund's Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstra, Gythe H; van Rheenen, Thijs A; Scholtes, Vanessa A B

    2015-01-01

    Haglund's deformity is a symptomatic posterosuperior deformity of the heel. The lateral radiograph of the ankle will show a prominent, large, posterosuperior part of the calcaneus, which can be measured using the Fowler and Philips angle (FPA, the angle between the posterior and plantar surface of the calcaneus) and the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA, the angle between the sole of the foot and the plantar part of the calcaneus). Although these angles are commonly used, these radiographic angle measurements have never shown a relationship with Haglund's deformity. In 78 patients (51% male) with symptomatic Haglund's deformity and a control group of 100 patients (41% male) with no heel complaints, we measured the FPA and CPA on weightbearing lateral radiographs of the foot. Using an unpaired t tests, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the FPA (p = .40). We measured a significant difference in the CPA between the Haglund group and the control group (p = .014). Subgroup analysis showed that this difference was mainly found in females (p position results in extra traction on the Achilles tendon and can eventually cause tendinitis and bursitis. Radiographic measurement should be used as an auxiliary tool. If the calcaneus tends to change position, it would be interesting to understand this process, which could eventually lead to improvement in the treatment of Haglund's deformity.

  11. MR image analysis: Longitudinal cardiac motion influences left ventricular measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovic, Patrick [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Cardiology (Belgium)], E-mail: pberko17@hotmail.com; Hemmink, Maarten [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Cardiology (Belgium)], E-mail: maartenhemmink@gmail.com; Parizel, Paul M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology (Belgium)], E-mail: paul.parizel@uza.be; Vrints, Christiaan J. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Cardiology (Belgium)], E-mail: chris.vrints@uza.be; Paelinck, Bernard P. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Cardiology (Belgium)], E-mail: Bernard.paelinck@uza.be

    2010-02-15

    Background: Software for the analysis of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass using border detection in short-axis images only, is hampered by through-plane cardiac motion. Therefore we aimed to evaluate software that involves longitudinal cardiac motion. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent 1.5-Tesla cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the entire heart in the long-axis and short-axis orientation with breath-hold steady-state free precession imaging. Offline analysis was performed using software that uses short-axis images (Medis MASS) and software that includes two-chamber and four-chamber images to involve longitudinal LV expansion and shortening (CAAS-MRV). Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was assessed by using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Compared with MASS software, CAAS-MRV resulted in significantly smaller end-diastolic (156 {+-} 48 ml versus 167 {+-} 52 ml, p = 0.001) and end-systolic LV volumes (79 {+-} 48 ml versus 94 {+-} 52 ml, p < 0.001). In addition, CAAS-MRV resulted in higher LV ejection fraction (52 {+-} 14% versus 46 {+-} 13%, p < 0.001) and calculated LV mass (154 {+-} 52 g versus 142 {+-} 52 g, p = 0.004). Intraobserver and interobserver limits of agreement were similar for both methods. Conclusion: MR analysis of LV volumes and mass involving long-axis LV motion is a highly reproducible method, resulting in smaller LV volumes, higher ejection fraction and calculated LV mass.

  12. Adaptive filtering for deformation parameter estimation in consideration of geometrical measurements and geophysical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There are two kinds of methods in researching the crust deformation: geophysical method and geometrical (or observational) method. Considerable differences usually exist between the two kinds of results, because of the datum differences, geophysical model errors, observational model errors, and so on. Thus, it is reasonable to combine the two kinds of information to collect the crust deformation information. To use the reliable geometrical and geophysical information, we have to control the observational and geophysical model error influences on the estimated deformation parameters, and to balance their contributions to the evaluated parameters. A hybrid estimation strategy is proposed here for evaluating the deformation parameters employing an adaptively robust filtering. The effects of measurement outliers on the estimated parameters are controlled by robust equivalent weights. Adaptive factors are introduced to balance the contribution of the geophysical model information and the geometrical measurements to the model parameters. The datum for the local deformation analysis is mainly determined by the highly accurate IGS station velocities. The hybrid estimation strategy is applied in an actual GPS monitoring network. It is shown that the hybrid technique employs locally repeated geometrical displacements to reduce the displacement errors caused by the mis-modeling of geophysical technique, and thus improves the precision of the estimated crust deformation parameters.

  13. A thermal comparator sensor for measuring autogenous deformation in hardening Portland cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2003-01-01

    of the thermal comparator is based on thermal expansion of aluminium. A particular characteristic of the measuring system is the fixation of the thermal comparator sensor to the deforming specimen. The modular system ensures effective thermostatic control of the hydrating cement paste samples. The technique......This paper describes a simple and accurate experimental device specially developed to measure autogenous deformation in hardening cement-based materials. The measuring system consists of a so-called thermal comparator sensor and a modular thermostatically controlled system. The operating principle...

  14. Single-pulse and multipulse longitudinal phase space and temperature measurements of an intense ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. E.; Seidl, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Vay, J. L.; Waldron, W. L.; Grote, D. P.; Welch, D. R.

    2012-07-01

    Longitudinal phase space and temperature measurements were conducted on a 2-3μs long, singly charged K+ ion bunch with an ion energy of ˜0.3MeV and current of 30 mA. The principal objective of these experiments was to measure the longitudinal beam dynamics and study the limits of axial compression. The differences between the measured beam energy, longitudinal beam dynamics, and the amplitude and time history of the Marx voltage waveform were all quantified. Longitudinal phase space measurements indicate a slight chromaticity (<1%) in the beam from head to tail. Record low longitudinal temperatures of Tz=2-4×10-2eV were measured for a beam bunch of this intensity with negligible effects from neutralizing the beam space charge with a background plasma. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, which include time resolved longitudinal distributions, and phase space of the beam at 430 cm.

  15. Calibration of stereo-digital image correlation for deformation measurement of large engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxing; Dai, Xiangjun; Chen, Zhenning; Dai, Yuntong; Dong, Shuai; He, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    The development of stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) enables the application of vision-based technique that uses digital cameras to the deformation measurement of materials and structures. Compared with traditional contact measurements, the stereo-DIC technique allows for non-contact measurement, has a non-intrusive characteristic, and can obtain full-field deformation information. In this paper, a speckle-based calibration method is developed to calibrate the stereo-DIC system when the system is applied for deformation measurement of large engineering components. By combining speckle analysis with the classical relative orientation algorithm, relative rotation and translation between cameras can be calibrated based on analysis of experimental speckle images. For validation, the strain fields of a four-point bending beam and an axially loaded concrete column were determined by the proposed calibration method and stereovision measurement. As a practical application, the proposed calibration method was applied for strain measurement of a ductile iron cylindrical vessel in the drop test. The measured results verify that the proposed calibration method is effective for deformation measurement of large engineering components.

  16. Measurement of the Kinetic Energy of a Body by Means of a Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pedro J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a technique that measures the deformation produced in a plastic material by a falling ball in order to compute the ball's kinetic energy. Varying the parameters produces accurate results and gives students a good understanding of the measurement of energy. Combines various mechanical concepts that students have learned separately in…

  17. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  18. Deformation measurements of the wing with elastic operating control in wind tunnel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarova, M. V.; Kulesh, V. P.

    2016-10-01

    A non-contact surface deformation measurement technique is presented, applying a stereoscopic method for high vibration conditions, in which digital cameras cannot stay motionless relative to each other. A theoretical principal of formal transformation for spatial points' coordinates calculation in stereoscopic image pair processing is observed. One of the key elements of the suggested method is the independent auto-calibration of each of the two channels for each stereoscopic pair, carried out during all measurement operations. Auto-calibration was performed using a set of markers on the surface area considered non-deformable. Tests of the developed method and measurement system were conducted while investigating the deformations of elastic elements of a full-scale wing demonstrator in T-104 wind tunnel within the SARISTU project, as part of the 7th European Framework Program.

  19. Multichannel measuring device of deformation for research materials of constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of Atmel ATMega microcontrollers use was shown for the interfacing of sensors devices with the modern computer systems. On the basis of Atmel ATMega16 microcontroller the multichannel system of treatment of information was developed for strain gauges, in which the amount of measuring channels is substantially increased.

  20. Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fraštia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.

  1. Quantitative imaging and measurement of cell-substrate surface deformation by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Cross, Michael; Liu, Changgeng; Clark, David C.; Haynie, Donald T.; Kim, Myung K.

    2012-10-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy by digital holography (DH-QPM) is introduced to study the cell-substrate interactions and migratory behavior of adhesive cells. A non-wrinkling elastic substrate, collagen-coated polyacrylamide (PAA) has been employed and its surface deformation due to cell adhesion and motility has been visualized as certain tangential and vertical displacement and distortion. The surface deformation on substrates of different elasticity and thickness has been quantitatively imaged and the corresponding cellular traction force of motile fibroblasts has been measured from phase profiles by DH-QPM. DH-QPM is able to yield quantitative measures directly and provide efficient and versatile means for quantitatively analyzing cellular motility.

  2. Measurement of Slopes of a Deformed Object Corresponding to Different Directions with Digital Holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng(刘诚); LI Liangyu(李良钰); LI Yinzhu(李银柱); CHEN Xiaotian(程笑天); LIU Zhigang(刘志刚); BO Feng(薄锋); ZHU Jianqiang(朱健强)

    2002-01-01

    A digital holographic method that can be used for the simultaneous measurement of slopes of a deformed object in different directions is described in this paper. In this method, two holograms are recorded numerically under the normal and deformed states of the specimen, and two object waves are numerically calculated from these two holograms. The slopes corresponding to different directions are measured by superposing the two object waves with appropriate shifts. It is a superior method in regard to the simple experiment setup, the flexibility in handing the data, and the high quality phase maps.

  3. DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT USING DUAL-FREQUENCY PROJECTION GRATING PHASE-SHIFT PROFILOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming Chen; Yuming He; Eryi Hu; Hongmao Zhu

    2008-01-01

    2π phase ambiguity problem is very important in phase measurement when a deformed object has a large out of plane displacement. The dual-frequency projection grating phaseshifting profilometry (PSP) can be used to solve such an issue. In the measurement, two properchosen frequency gratings are utilized to synthesize an equivalent wavelength grating which ensures the computed phase in a principal phase range. Thus, the error caused by the phase unwrapping process with the conventional phase reconstruct algorithm can be eliminated. Finally, experimental result of a specimen with large plastic deformation is given to prove that the proposed method is effective to handle the phase discontinuity.

  4. Measurement of Local Deformations in Steel Monostrands Using Digital Image Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2014-01-01

    , difficulties with the placement of strain gauges in the vicinity of the anchorage, and, most importantly, the relatively small magnitude of deformation occurring in the monostrand. This paper focuses on the measurement of localized deformations in high-strength steel monostrands using the digital image...... correlation (DIC) technique. The presented technique enables the measurement of individual wire strains along the length of the monostrand and also provides quantitative information on the relative movement between individual wires, leading to a more in-depth understanding of the underlying fatigue mechanisms...

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems measures in pediatric chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Carle, Adam; Barnett, Kimberly; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Sherry, David D; Mara, Constance A; Cunningham, Natoshia; Farrell, Jennifer; Tress, Jenna; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2016-02-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative is a comprehensive strategy by the National Institutes of Health to support the development and validation of precise instruments to assess self-reported health domains across healthy and disease-specific populations. Much progress has been made in instrument development, but there remains a gap in the validation of PROMIS measures for pediatric chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and responsiveness to change of 7 PROMIS domains for the assessment of children (ages: 8-18) with chronic pain--Pain Interference, Fatigue, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity Function, and Peer Relationships. The PROMIS measures were administered at the initial visit and 2 follow-up visits at an outpatient chronic pain clinic (CPC; N = 82) and at an intensive amplified musculoskeletal pain day-treatment program (N = 63). Aim 1 examined construct validity of PROMIS measures by comparing them with corresponding "legacy" measures administered as part of usual care in the CPC sample. Aim 2 examined sensitivity to change in both CPC and amplified musculoskeletal pain samples. Longitudinal growth models showed that PROMIS' Pain Interference, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity, and Peer Relationship measures and legacy instruments generally performed similarly with slightly steeper slopes of improvement in legacy measures. All 7 PROMIS domains showed responsiveness to change. Results offered initial support for the validity of PROMIS measures in pediatric chronic pain. Further validation with larger and more diverse pediatric pain samples and additional legacy measures would broaden the scope of use of PROMIS in clinical research.

  6. Application of longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in peritoneal dialysis at 50 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L.; Doñate, T.; Casañas, R.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    More relevant information of the fluid changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be obtained with segmental bioimpedance measurements rather than whole-body measurement, who hidden information of body composition. Whole-body and segmental bioimpedance measurements were obtained using 5 configurations (whole-body or right-side (RS), longitudinal-leg (L-LEG), longitudinal-abdomen (L-AB), transversal-abdomen (T-AB), and transversal-leg (T-LEG)) in 20 patients: 15 males (56.5 ± 9.4 yr, 24.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 5 females (58.4 ± 7.1 yr, 28.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2) in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between whole-body, longitudinal-segmental (L-LEG and L-AB) and transversal-segmental (TAB and TLEG) bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, with clinical parameters of cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia, nutrition and hydration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. Longitudinal bioimpedance parameters were normalized by the height of the patients. The Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between bioimpedance and clinical parameters. The statistical significance was considered with P bioimpedance measurements have higher correlation with clinical parameters than longitudinal measurements.

  7. Transient and microscale deformations and strains measured under exogenous loading by noninvasive magnetic resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deva D Chan

    Full Text Available Characterization of spatiotemporal deformation dynamics and material properties requires non-destructive methods to visualize mechanics of materials and biological tissues. Displacement-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has emerged as a noninvasive and non-destructive technique used to quantify deformation and strains. However, the techniques are not yet applicable to a broad range of materials and load-bearing tissues. In this paper, we visualize transient and internal material deformation through the novel synchrony of external mechanical loading with rapid displacement-encoded MRI. We achieved deformation measurements in silicone gel materials with a spatial resolution of 100 µm and a temporal resolution (of 2.25 ms, set by the repetition time (TR of the rapid MRI acquisition. Displacement and strain precisions after smoothing were 11 µm and 0.1%, respectively, approaching cellular length scales. Short (1/2 TR echo times enabled visualization of in situ deformation in a human tibiofemoral joint, inclusive of multiple variable T(2 biomaterials. Moreover, the MRI acquisitions achieved a fivefold improvement in imaging time over previous technology, setting the stage for mechanical imaging in vivo. Our results provide a general approach for noninvasive and non-destructive measurement, at high spatial and temporal resolution, of the dynamic mechanical response of a broad range of load-bearing materials and biological tissues.

  8. Evaluation of longitudinal myocardial deformation by 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in heart transplant recipients: relation to coronary allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Eiskjær, Hans; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2015-02-01

    Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in heart transplant (HTx) recipients is characterized by diffuse affection of epicardial and intramyocardial coronary vessels. Despite significant CAV and anticipated affected myocardial function, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often within the normal range, indicating the need of more sophisticated non-invasive methods to detect impaired myocardial function caused by CAV. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) represents a new echocardiographic measurement of systolic myocardial deformation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between GLS measured by 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and CAV in HTx patients. The study included 178 HTx patients and 20 healthy, age-matched individuals. All patients had an extensive echocardiographic evaluation and coronary angiography assessing CAV. CAV was classified according to International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation classification (CAV0-3). CAV was seen in 38.8% of patients. Compared with controls (-20.6% ± 1.4%), GLS was significantly reduced according to the degree of CAV (CAV0, -16.7% ± 2.4%; CAV1, -15.2% ± 2.9%; CAV2-3, -14.0% ± 3.8%; controls, -20.6% ±1.4%; pTREND < 0.0001). In addition, we found decreasing peak systolic mitral annular velocities (pTREND = 0.0040), tissue-tracking values (pTREND = 0.0002), and LVEF according to CAV class (CAV0, 65.3% ± 5.4%; CAV2-3, 56.9% ± 11.7%; pTREND < 0.0001). The HTx population showed significant restrictive physiology compared with the control population, but no significant correlation was seen between CAV class and traditional diastolic parameters such as E/A ratio (pTREND = 0.38) or E-deceleration time (pTREND = 0.14). In contrast to LVEF and conventional pulsed mitral Doppler flow parameters used in the CAV classification, GLS relates to the presence and degree of CAV. The present results suggest GLS as a new method to be included in the monitoring of graft function in relation to CAV

  9. Role of the interface between distributed fibre optic strain sensor and soil in ground deformation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre–soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre–soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre–soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation.

  10. Measuring the Object Deformation by Real Time Holographic Interferometry with Automatically Calculating Hologram①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGWensheng; XUBin

    1997-01-01

    Used Ar+ laser as a light source,BSO(Bi12SiO20)crystal as a hologram recording material,CCD camera as a detector,and a holographic setup controlled by a computer,we have realized real time holographic interferometry in terms of 3-interferogram method.The deformation of a plate is measured under a pressure.

  11. Reproducibility of anthropometric measurements in children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reproducibility of a series of anthropometric measures performed twice during one week during a three year period in boys and girls. The subjects of this investigation were 39 children (21 boys and 18 girls), 9-10 year of age at the beginning of the study. Children were measured three times with one year interval. Children were classified by Tanner stage 1-2 during the first measurements, stage 1-3 during the second measurements and stage 1-4 during the third measurements. Body height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. All anthropometric parameters were measured according to the protocol recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (Norton & Olds 1996). Nine skinfolds, 13 girths, eight lengths and eight breadths/lengths were measured. The reproducibility of body height (r = 0.995-0.999), body weight (r = 0.990-0.999) and BMI (r = 0.969-0.999) was very high in boys and girls. The intraclass correlations (ICC), technical errors (TE) and coefficients of variation (CV) were quite different depending on the measurement site of the skinfold thickness. It was surprising that the ICCs were highest and TEs and CVs were lowest during the second year of the measurement. The computed ICC was high, and TE and CV values were quite similar and relatively low in girth, length and breadth/length measurements. It was concluded that the reproducibility of girths, lengths and breadths/lengths in children is very high and the reproducibility of skinfolds is high. Specifically, the reproducibility is very high immediately before puberty in boys and girls.

  12. Dew Measurements along a Longitudinal Sand Dune Transect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a desert environment dew can serve as an important source of moisture for plants, biological crusts, insects and small animals. A measurement programme was carried out within a sand dune belt situated in the northwestern Negev desert, Israel, to measure daily amounts of dew deposition as well as

  13. Analysis of balance beam deformation in the inertial mass measurement experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhuang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Zhengkun; Li, Shisong

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of mechanical balance beam deformation in the inertial mass measurement experiment since 2012. The relation between the applied test masses and three types of mechanical elastic deformation of the balance beam, i.e. the changes of rotational inertia, beam length and mass center, are discussed. It is found that changes in the rotational inertia and beam length are high order small quantities of the test mass, and a mechanically optimized balance beam which has good mechanical strength and a light structure is adopted to decrease the influence of the two types of deformation. The mass center change, being proportional to the test mass, has the most impact and can be compensated by a novel mass center compensation approach. Simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness of the new balance beam and the mass center compensation method. It is emphasized that the analysis of the beam deformation in this paper can also be applied in other experiments where mechanical deformation of the balance beam needs to be considered.

  14. Measurement of deforming mode of lattice truss structures under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lattice truss structures, which are used as a core material in sandwich panels, were widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. However, explanation of the deforming mechanism using reliable experimental results is almost rarely reported, particularly for the dynamic deforming mechanism. The present work aimed at the measurement of the deforming mode of lattice truss structures. Indeed, quasi-static and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB tests have been performed on the tetrahedral truss cores structures made of Aluminum 3003-O. Global values such as crushing forces and displacements between the loading platens are obtained. However, in order to understand the deforming mechanism and to explain the observed impact strength enhancement observed in the experiments, images of the truss core element during the tests are recorded. A method based on the edge detection algorithm is developed and applied to these images. The deforming profiles of one beam are extracted and it allows for calculating the length of beam. It is found that these lengths diminish to a critical value (due to compression and remain constant afterwards (because of significant bending. The comparison between quasi-static and impact tests shows that the beam were much more compressed under impact loading, which could be understood as the lateral inertia effect in dynamic bucking. Therefore, the impact strength enhancement of tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel can be explained by the delayed buckling of beam under impact (more compression reached, together with the strain hardening of base material.

  15. Correlation study between ground motion intensity measure parameters and deformation demands for bilinear SDOF systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between ground motion intensity measures (IM) and single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) deformation demands is described in this study. Peak ground acceleration (APG), peak ground velocity (VPG), peak ground displacement (DPG), spectral acceleration at the first-mode period of vibration [As(T1)] and ratio of VPG to APG are used as IM parameters, and the correlation is characterized by correlation coefficients ρ. The numerical results obtained by nonlinear dynamic analyses have shown good correlation between As(T1) or VPG and deformation demands. Furthermore, the effect of As(T1) and VPG as IM on the dispersion of the mean value of deformation demands is also investigated for SDOF systems with three different periods T=0.3 s, 1.0 s, 3.0 s respectively.

  16. Development of a pattern to measure multiscale deformation and strain distribution via in situ FE-SEM observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Naito, K; Kishimoto, S; Kagawa, Y

    2011-03-18

    We investigated a method for measuring deformation and strain distribution in a multiscale range from nanometers to millimeters via in situ FE-SEM observations. A multiscale pattern composed of a grid as well as random and nanocluster patterns was developed to measure the localized deformation at the specimen surface. Our in situ observations of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite with a hierarchical microstructure subjected to loading were conducted to identify local deformation behaviors at various boundaries. We measured and analyzed the multiscale deformation and strain localizations during various stages of loading.

  17. Development of a pattern to measure multiscale deformation and strain distribution via in situ FE-SEM observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y; Naito, K; Kishimoto, S; Kagawa, Y, E-mail: TANAKA.Yoshihisa@nims.go.jp [The National Institute of Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-03-18

    We investigated a method for measuring deformation and strain distribution in a multiscale range from nanometers to millimeters via in situ FE-SEM observations. A multiscale pattern composed of a grid as well as random and nanocluster patterns was developed to measure the localized deformation at the specimen surface. Our in situ observations of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite with a hierarchical microstructure subjected to loading were conducted to identify local deformation behaviors at various boundaries. We measured and analyzed the multiscale deformation and strain localizations during various stages of loading.

  18. Measurement of Out-of-plane Dynamic Deformations by Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kurnar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, measurement of dynamic deformations in a rectangular plate fixed at one end, using digital speckle pattem interferometry (DSPI, has been prese,nted. To improve the measurement accuracy,a new filtering scheme has been developed. This scheme is based on the combination of average/ median filtering and Symlet wavelet filtering which enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in the speckleinterferogram obtained from the DSPI. Experimental results show that this filtering scheme is quite effective in improving signal-to-noise ratio of the speckle .interferogram. The measurements by DSPIand accelerometer are in good agreement. The DSPI technique can be implemented for measuring the large deformations as well.

  19. Comparison of Brazed Residual Stress and Thermal Deformation between X-Type and Pyramidal Lattice Truss Sandwich Structure: Neutron Diffraction Measurement and Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Wei, Zhiquan; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Weiya; Woo, Wanchuck

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses finite element method and neutron diffraction measurement to study the residual stress in lattice truss sandwich structure. A comparison of residual stress and thermal deformation between X-type and pyramidal lattice truss sandwich structure has been carried out. The residual stresses are concentrated in the middle joint and then decreases gradually to both the ends. The residual stresses in the X-type lattice truss sandwich structure are smaller than those in pyramidal structure. The maximum longitudinal and transverse stresses of pyramidal structure are 220 and 202 MPa, respectively, but they decrease to 190 and 145 MPa for X-type lattice truss sandwich structure, respectively. The thermal deformation for lattice truss sandwich panel structure is of wave shape. The X-type has a better resistance to thermal deformation than pyramidal lattice truss sandwich structure. The maximum wave deformation of pyramidal structure (0.02 mm) is about twice as that of X-type (0.01 mm) at the same brazing condition.

  20. A subharmonic detrending or data-smoothing approach for longitudinal road profile measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used figure-of-merits for longitudinal road profiles such as the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Ride Number (RN) are based on statistical properties. Raw measured longitudinal road profile data may contain large trending components especially when the measurements are made...... without significantly corrupting the short wavelength content of the profile data. The method called sub-harmonic detrending works by fitting sub-harmonic sinusoids to the data followed by circular filtering in order to remove the trend. The method is also well suited for data-smoothing....

  1. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Skibsted Clemmensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case displays limited utility of left ventricular ejection fraction to detect acute graft failure due to microvascular vasculopathy and suspected humoral rejection. Despite severe and progressive graft failure, clinically and by right heart catheterizations, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements.

  2. Theory of non-equilibrium force measurements involving deformable drops and bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C; Klaseboer, Evert; Manica, Rogerio

    2011-07-11

    Over the past decade, direct force measurements using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) have been extended to study non-equilibrium interactions. Perhaps the more scientifically interesting and technically challenging of such studies involved deformable drops and bubbles in relative motion. The scientific interest stems from the rich complexity that arises from the combination of separation dependent surface forces such as Van der Waals, electrical double layer and steric interactions with velocity dependent forces from hydrodynamic interactions. Moreover the effects of these forces also depend on the deformations of the surfaces of the drops and bubbles that alter local conditions on the nanometer scale, with deformations that can extend over micrometers. Because of incompressibility, effects of such deformations are strongly influenced by small changes of the sizes of the drops and bubbles that may be in the millimeter range. Our focus is on interactions between emulsion drops and bubbles at around 100 μm size range. At the typical velocities in dynamic force measurements with the AFM which span the range of Brownian velocities of such emulsions, the ratio of hydrodynamic force to surface tension force, as characterized by the capillary number, is ~10(-6) or smaller, which poses challenges to modeling using direct numerical simulations. However, the qualitative and quantitative features of the dynamic forces between interacting drops and bubbles are sensitive to the detailed space and time-dependent deformations. It is this dynamic coupling between forces and deformations that requires a detailed quantitative theoretical framework to help interpret experimental measurements. Theories that do not treat forces and deformations in a consistent way simply will not have much predictive power. The technical challenges of undertaking force measurements are substantial. These range from generating drop and bubble of the appropriate size range to controlling the

  3. A method for longitudinal relaxation time measurement in inhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) plays a crucial role in the study of spin dynamics, signal optimization and data quantification. However, the measurement of chemical shift-specific T1 constants is hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity due to poorly shimmed external magnetic fields or intrinsic magnetic susceptibility heterogeneity in samples. In this study, we present a new protocol to determine chemical shift-specific T1 constants in inhomogeneous fields. Based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences, the new method can resolve overlapped peaks in inhomogeneous fields. The measurement results are in consistent with the measurements in homogeneous fields using the conventional method. Since spatial encoding technique is involved, the experimental time for the new method is very close to that for the conventional method. With the aid of T1 knowledge, some concealed information can be exploited by T1 weighting experiments.

  4. New measurement technology for diagnostic evaluation of stress and deformation states in building objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollataj, Robert; Kollataj, Jerzy

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a new wireless measurement method for static and dynamic examination of buildings, bridges, masts, towers, steel structures, silos etc. by using new generation telemetric modules operating in intelligent radio network. The system provides a possibility of steel and reinforced concrete structures evaluation by measurement of mechanical stresses, deformation and temperature - depending on used sensor. Developed and built prototype system can be used for the on line monitoring, quality assessment and the usefulness of the building objects over long time periods.

  5. The comparison of measured deformation indicators of mining area with theoretical values calculated using Knothe's formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, Justyna; Mielimaka, Ryszard

    2016-06-01

    The article demonstrates the comparison of prognosed values of deformation indicators with their values obtained from geodetic measurements. The value of correlation coefficient R between its theoretical and practical values was calculated for each indicator. Following the measured values as basic ones, the evaluation of efficiency of prognosis via the use of Knothe`s theory (a mathematical model, in which lowering of point is calculated as a double integral from Gauss error function with adequate parameters).

  6. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  7. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The reduced cross sections for ep deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV. From the cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken x and the virtuality, Q{sup 2}, the proton structure functions F{sub L} and F{sub 2} have been extracted in the region 5 x 10{sup -4}

  8. Experimental investigations of electric current under transverse and longitudinal electric field in uniaxially deformed p-Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. A.; Akimov, V. I.; Dalakyan, A. T.; Tulupenko, Victor N.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Danilov, S. N.; Firsov, D. A.; Shalygin, V. A.

    1999-11-01

    Comparison between cases of longitudinal and transverse directions of uniaxial pressure and strong electric field, affected the bulk hole germanium, to use it for lasting in far IR region has been carried out. Conclusion about preference of crossed directions is made. Threshold pressure, at which stimulated radiation arises, independence of crystallographic direction, along which external influences are applied, is also discussed. The results of experimental investigations of the crossed directions of uniaxial pressure and electric current are given.

  9. Damage detection of concrete masonry structures by enhancing deformation measurement using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhassani, Mohammad; Rajaram, Satish; Hamid, Ahmad A.; Kontsos, Antonios; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on deformability and damage detection of a concrete masonry wall. It employed point-to-point traditional strain gages and full-field measurement technique using digital image correlation (DIC) to investigate the damage and deformability of a partially grouted (PG) reinforced masonry wall. A set of ungrouted and grouted assemblages and full-scale concrete masonry shear wall were constructed and tested under displacement control loading. The wall was constructed according with masonry standards joint committee (MSJC 2013) and tested under constant vertical compression load and horizontal lateral load using quasi-static displacement procedure. The DIC method was used to determine non-uniform strain contours on the assemblages. This method was verified by comparing strains along the selected directions with traditional TML gage results. After a successful comparison, the method was used to investigate the state of damage and deformability of the wall specimen. Panel deformation, crack pattern, displacement at the top, and the base strain of the wall were captured using full-field measurement and results were in a good agreement with traditional strain gages. It is concluded that full-filed measurements using DIC is promising especially when the test specimens experience inelastic deformation and high degree of damage. The ability to characterize and anticipate failure mechanisms of concrete masonry systems by depicting strain distribution, categorizing structural cracks and investigating their effects on the behavior of the wall were also shown using DIC. In addition to monitoring strains across the gage length, the DIC method provided full-field strain behavior of the test specimens and revealed strain hotspots at locations that corresponded to failure.

  10. Temporal trajectory and progression score estimation from voxelwise longitudinal imaging measures: Application to amyloid imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgel, Murat; Jedynak, Bruno; Wong, Dean F.; Resnick, Susan M.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical β-amyloid deposition begins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) years before the onset of any clinical symptoms. It is therefore important to determine the temporal trajectories of amyloid deposition in these earliest stages in order to better understand their associations with progression to AD. A method for estimating the temporal trajectories of voxelwise amyloid as measured using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is presented. The method involves the estimation of a score for each subject visit based on the PET data that reflects their amyloid progression. This amyloid progression score allows subjects with similar progressions to be aligned and analyzed together. The estimation of the progression scores and the amyloid trajectory parameters are performed using an expectation-maximization algorithm. The correlations among the voxel measures of amyloid are modeled to reflect the spatial nature of PET images. Simulation results show that model parameters are captured well at a variety of noise and spatial correlation levels. The method is applied to longitudinal amyloid imaging data considering each cerebral hemisphere separately. The results are consistent across the hemispheres and agree with a global index of brain amyloid known as mean cortical DVR. Unlike mean cortical DVR, which depends on a priori defined regions, the progression score extracted by the method is data-driven and does not make assumptions about regional longitudinal changes. Compared to regressing on age at each voxel, the longitudinal trajectory slopes estimated using the proposed method show better localized longitudinal changes. PMID:26221692

  11. The Virtual Fields Method Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierron, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is the first book on the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), a technique to identify materials mechanical properties from full-field measurements. Firmly rooted with extensive theoretical description of the method, the book presents numerous examples of application to a wide range of materials (composites, metals, welds, biomaterials) and situations (static, vibration, high strain rate). The authors give a detailed training section with examples of progressive difficulty to lead the reader to program the VFM and include a set of commented Matlab programs as well as GUI Matlab-based software for more general situations. The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and students interested in applying the VFM to new situations motivated by their research.  

  12. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Yakhot, Victor; Ekinci, Kamil L.

    2013-11-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure drop in test sections of a rigid micro-channel is a challenging task. In a micro-channel with compliant walls, however, it is possible to determine the pressure field under flow from the local deflection of the channel walls. Here, we present a robust analytical approach for determining the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. In this method, we first measure the channel deflection profile as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure; this initial measurement provides the constitutive curves for the deformable channel. We then match the deflection profile under flow to the constitutive curves, obtaining the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. We have tested and validated the developed mapping on planar micro-fluidic channels. This method remains accurate in a broad parameter space, and can find possible applications in microfluidics and for characterizing biological flows. We acknowledge generous support from the US NSF through Grant No. CMMI-0970071.

  13. Laser-diffraction slit rheometer to measure red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Ku, Y. H.; Park, M. S.; Moon, S. Y.; Jang, J. H.; Suh, J. S.

    2004-02-01

    The laser-diffraction technique has been applied to design a slit rheometer for measuring red blood cell deformability over a range of shear stress. Flow-rate and pressure-drop measurements are replaced with a measurement of pressure variation with time. Using a precision pressure transducer, one can measure the variation of pressure in the vacuum chamber, p(t), from which the shear stress and shear rate are mathematically calculated. In addition, a laser beam traverses a diluted blood suspension and is diffracted by red blood cells (RBCs) in the volume. The diffraction patterns are captured by a charge coupled device-video camera, linked to a frame grabber integrated with a computer. When deforming under decreasing shear stress, RBCs change gradually from the prolate ellipsoid towards a circular biconcave morphology. The elongation index as a measure of RBC deformability is determined from an isointensity curve in the diffraction pattern using an ellipse-fitting program. The advantages of this design are simplicity, i.e., ease of operation and no moving parts, low cost, short operating time, and the disposable kit which is in contact with the blood sample.

  14. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  15. Localized measurement of longitudinal and transverse flow velocities in colloidal suspensions using optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.G.; Kalkman, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on localized measurement of the longitudinal and transverse flow velocities in a colloidal suspension using optical coherence tomography. We present a model for the path-length resolved autocorrelation function including diffusion and flow, which we experimentally verify. For flow that is

  16. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ozsun, O; Ekinci, K L

    2013-01-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure distribution in test sections of a micro-channel is a challenging, if not an impossible, task. Here, we present an analytical method for extracting the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. Our method is based on a measurement of the channel deflection profile as a function of applied \\emph{hydrostatic} pressure; this initial measurement generates "constitutive curves" for the deformable channel. The deflection profile under flow is then matched to the constitutive curves, providing the \\emph{hydrodynamic} pressure distribution. The method is validated by measurements on planar micro-fluidic channels against analytic and numerical models. The accuracy here is independent of the nature of the wall deformations and is not degraded even in the limit of large deflections, $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}/2h_{0}= {\\cal{O}}(1)$, with $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}$ and $2h_0$ being the maximum deflection and the unperturbed height of the channel, respectively. We dis...

  17. Full-field Measurement of Deformation and Vibration using Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chih Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this study was to investigate the full-field measurement of de-formation and vibration using a program we developed for digital image correlation. Digital image correlation is a measuring method that can calculate the displacement of each point on an object by using recorded images. By capturing continuous images of the object in deformation or in motion, the displacements of feature points on the object can be tracked and used in calculations to determine the full-field deformation, strain and vibration of the object. We used the fast and simple algorithm in our program as the core, and conducted non-contact full-field displacement measurement by tracking feature points from images taken after motion. The measuring accuracy can be up to 0.1 pixel. Our experimental results show the technique to be very accurate and useful. We also applied this technique under conditions where an ordinary sensor could not be used.

  18. Deformation of the Augustine Volcano, Alaska, 1992-2005, measured by ERS and ENVISAT SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Won, Joong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    The Augustine Volcano is a conical-shaped, active stratovolcano located on an island of the same name in Cook Inlet, about 290 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Augustine has experienced seven significant explosive eruptions - in 1812, 1883, 1908, 1935, 1963, 1976, 1986, and in January 2006. To measure the ground surface deformation of the Augustine Volcano before the 2006 eruption, we applied satellite radar interferometry using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from three descending and three ascending satellite tracks acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 and 2 and the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT). Multiple interferograms were stacked to reduce artifacts caused by atmospheric conditions, and we used a singular value decomposition method to retrieve the temporal deformation history from several points on the island. Interferograms during 1992 and 2005 show a subsidence of about 1-3 cm/year, caused by the contraction of pyroclastic flow deposits from the 1986 eruption. Subsidence has decreased exponentially with time. Multiple interferograms between 1992 and 2005 show no significant inflation around the volcano before the 2006 eruption. The lack of a pre-eruption deformation signal suggests that the deformation signal from 1992 to August 2005 must have been very small and may have been obscured by atmospheric delay artifacts. 

  19. LOCAL DEFORMATION AND RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS BY MEASUREMENTS IN TALAYA STATION GALLERY (BAIKAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Timofeev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tilt measurements have been taken in the underground gallery at Talaya Seismological Station for almost three decades, from March 1985 till 2014. Based on such data, deformation curves were constructed and analysed in the frame of elastic and viscous-elastic models of the geological medium. From estimated annual deformation rates, it became possible to reveal deformation cycles ranging from 3 to 18 years with amplitudes up to 5 arc-seconds (2·10–5. For the bedrock in the Talaya stream valley, the elastic modulus was estimated at 20 GPa. In frame of the Kelvin viscoelastic model, the apparent viscosity of the medium was estimated at 1019 Pa·sec by deformation delay curve for 1989–2014 epoch. Observed vertical rates were used to estimate the size of the studied area (from 0.1 km to 6.0 km. The values estimated in our experimental investigation are used in a wide range of geophysical studies: modelling tectonic, co-seismic and post-seismic processes.

  20. Improved measurement of brain deformation during mild head acceleration using a novel tagged MRI sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Andrew K; Magrath, Elizabeth; McEntee, Julie E; Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Bayly, Philip V; Butman, John A; Pham, Dzung L

    2014-11-07

    In vivo measurements of human brain deformation during mild acceleration are needed to help validate computational models of traumatic brain injury and to understand the factors that govern the mechanical response of the brain. Tagged magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, noninvasive technique to track tissue motion in vivo which has been used to quantify brain deformation in live human subjects. However, these prior studies required from 72 to 144 head rotations to generate deformation data for a single image slice, precluding its use to investigate the entire brain in a single subject. Here, a novel method is introduced that significantly reduces temporal variability in the acquisition and improves the accuracy of displacement estimates. Optimization of the acquisition parameters in a gelatin phantom and three human subjects leads to a reduction in the number of rotations from 72 to 144 to as few as 8 for a single image slice. The ability to estimate accurate, well-resolved, fields of displacement and strain in far fewer repetitions will enable comprehensive studies of acceleration-induced deformation throughout the human brain in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and deformation in flows through compliant diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, D. M.; Longmire, E. K.

    2010-02-01

    Flow through a circular orifice in a deformable diaphragm mounted in a pipe was studied experimentally as a simple yet suitable case for validating numerical fluid/structure interaction (FSI) codes including structures with significant deformation and strain. The flow was characterized using pressure taps, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and hot-film anemometry while deformation of the compliant diaphragm was determined directly from PIV images. The diaphragm material properties were measured independently by a uniaxial tensile testing machine. The diaphragm material modulus, orifice diameter, and pipe Reynolds number were varied over ranges appropriate for simulations of flows through heart valves. Pipe Reynolds numbers ranged from 600 (laminar upstream condition) to 8800 (turbulent upstream condition). The pressure drop across the diaphragm resulted in a concave deformation for all cases studied. For the range of Reynolds number tested, the Euler number decreased with increasing Reynolds number as a result of orifice expansion. The flow immediately downstream of compliant diaphragms was jet-like with strong inward radial velocity components and vena contracta. Laminar low Reynolds number flow (Re=600) through both rigid and compliant diaphragms yielded early and regular roll up of coherent vortex rings at a fixed frequency in contrast to turbulent higher Reynolds number flow (Re=3900), which yielded a broad range of vortex passage frequencies. Expansion of the compliant orifice for Re=3900 resulted in an initially broader slower jet with delayed shear layer development compared with the equivalent rigid case.

  2. Factorial Invariance within Longitudinal Structural Equation Models: Measuring the Same Construct across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widaman, Keith F.; Ferrer, Emilio; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    Charting change in behavior as a function of age and investigating longitudinal relations among constructs are primary goals of developmental research. Traditionally, researchers rely on a single measure (e.g., scale score) for a given construct for each person at each occasion of measurement, assuming that measure reflects the same construct at each occasion. With multiple indicators of a latent construct at each time of measurement, the researcher can evaluate whether factorial invariance holds. If factorial invariance constraints are satisfied, latent variable scores at each time of measurement are on the same metric and stronger conclusions are warranted. In this paper we discuss factorial invariance in longitudinal studies, contrasting analytic approaches and highlighting strengths of the multiple-indicator approach to modeling developmental processes. PMID:20369028

  3. Longitudinal emittance measurements in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC gold run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-18

    This note describes longitudinal emittance measurements that were made in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC Gold run. It also contains an overview of the longitudinal aspects of their setup during this run. Each bunch intended for RHIC is composed of beam from 4 Booster cycles, and there are two of them per AGS cycle. For each of the 8 Booster cycles required to produce the 2 bunches in the AGS, a beam pulse from EVIS is injected into the Booster and captured in four h=4 buckets. Then those bunches are accelerated to a porch where they are merged into 2 bunches and then into 1 bunch.

  4. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, W; Guermazi, A; Hitzl, W; Hunter, D J; Eckstein, F

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8% to 29.9% (SRM -0.82; p quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. • First longitudinal MRI-based measurements of change of meniscus position and size. • Quantitative longitudinal evaluation of meniscus change in knee osteoarthritis. • Improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional facial scanners measurement accuracy for facial deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Sun, Yu-chun; Yang, Hui-fang; Lyu, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) facial scanners for facial deformity patients from oral clinic. Methods: 10 patients in different types of facial deformity from oral clinical were included. Three 3D digital face models for each patient were obtained by three facial scanners separately (line laser scanner from Faro for reference, stereophotography scanner from 3dMD and structured light scanner from FaceScan for test). For each patient, registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was executed to align two test models (3dMD data & Facescan data) to the reference models (Faro data in high accuracy) respectively. The same boundaries on each pair models (one test and one reference models) were obtained by projection function in Geomagic Stuido 2012 software for trimming overlapping region, then 3D average measurement errors (3D errors) were calculated for each pair models also by the software. Paired t-test analysis was adopted to compare the 3D errors of two test facial scanners (10 data for each group). 3D profile measurement accuracy (3D accuracy) that is integrated embodied by average value and standard deviation of 10 patients' 3D errors were obtained by surveying analysis for each test scanner finally. Results: 3D accuracies of 2 test facial scanners in this study for facial deformity were 0.44+/-0.08 mm and 0.43+/-0.05 mm. The result of structured light scanner was slightly better than stereophotography scanner. No statistical difference between them. Conclusions: Both test facial scanners could meet the accuracy requirement (0.5mm) of 3D facial data acquisition for oral clinic facial deformity patients in this study. Their practical measurement accuracies were all slightly lower than their nominal accuracies.

  6. Optic-electronic systems for measuring angle deformations of a fully rotateable radiotelescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyakhin, I A; Timofeev, A N; Vorona, A M [Department. of Optic-electronics Devices and Systems, Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 49 Kronverksky Avenue, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    The construction of new large radio telescope RT-70 Suffa requires controlling the element angular deformation. Following issues dealing with this problem are described in this article: 1) the possibility of the design of deformation measurement system based on autoreflection scheme, 2) the new vignetting error compensation method. The great attention during the research was paid to the experimental approval of the theoretical results. The model of the described system had the following characteristics: infrared emission diode AL107B by power 15 mWt as sources of radiation; the focal length of receiver objective by the focal length 500 mm as aperture of receiver videocamera, the CMOS matrix receiver by type OV05610 Color CMOS QSXGA with 2592 * 1944 pixels and one pixel size (2.8 * 2.8) {mu}m{sup 2} produced OmniVision as image analyzer. The experimental error measurement was 1.5 arc seconds at the angular range 20 arc. minutes, that allows measure the angle deformation of radiotelescope with the mirror diameter 70 m.

  7. Instrument Design for Rebar Deformation Measurement%钢筋形变测量仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朴顺善

    2012-01-01

    电阻式引伸计在微小形变下,电桥的输出电压变化量是毫伏级,为了保证形变测量精度在1μm以内,采用双ADC通道的AD7705来完成形变量的测量和数据转换,同时提出了分段线性化的形变标定方法,试验表明:该方法可以有效控制其测量误差,满足JB/T 6146-2007标准要求.%In small deformation of resistive extensometer.the output voltage of electric bridge stays at a millivolt level. In order to keep the measuring precision within lμm,the AD7705 converter with dual ADC channel was used to measure rebar deformation and to convert the data, and meanwhile, the piecewise linear deformation calibration approach was proposed. Experimental results show that this method can control measurement error as the JB/T 6146-2007 standards required.

  8. Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang

    2011-12-31

    We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

  9. Measuring anterior trunk deformity in scoliosis: development of asymmetry parameters using surface topography (a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Knott

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians who assess and treat patients for scoliosis typically use parameters that are all visible from the posterior view. Radiographs assess the internal spinal deformity, but do not directly evaluate body shape, either posterior or anterior. This is problematic, as the patient is most concerned about the way they appear in the mirror. An objective set of anterior measurements is needed to help quantify the anterior asymmetry that is present in scoliosis. Methods The design of this system of assessment was developed as a consensus of thinking from four points of view. A spine surgeon provided the musculoskeletal structural perspective. A plastic surgeon specializing in breast reconstruction provided the aesthetic and soft tissue perspective. A surface topography researcher provided the imaging perspective, and a scoliosis patient provided the self-perception and emotional perspective. Using an iterative process, a series of potential measurement parameters using surface topography measurements were considered, debated, and ultimately selected to be part of a system of measurement that provides an overall assessment of anterior trunk asymmetry. Results An anterior surface topography scan in the relaxed, standing position was taken of the scoliosis patient. The computer provides a 3D topographical model that is used to complete measurements that can be combined to achieve an Anterior Aesthetic Deformity Score. Shoulder parameters, including shoulder height difference and shoulder slope difference, make up 40 % of the total score. Breast asymmetry, including nipple height difference and sternal notch-to-nipple distance, make up 30 % of the total score. Waist asymmetry makes up the final 30 % of the score, providing an objective and quantifiable measure of anterior trunk deformity. Conclusions These measurements provide an objective, systematic evaluation of anterior trunk asymmetry that can be used in the assessment of

  10. Residence-time dependent cell wall deformation of different Staphylococcus aureus strains on gold measured using surface-enhanced-fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jiuyi; Busscher, Henk J.; Swartjes, Jan J. T. M.; Chen, Yun; Harapanahalli, Akshay K.; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C.; Sjollema, Jelmer

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is accompanied by cell wall deformation that may extend to the lipid membrane with an impact on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms. Nanoscale cell wall deformation upon adhesion is difficult to measure, except for Delta pbp4 mutants, deficient in peptido

  11. Fully automatic measurements of axial vertebral rotation for assessment of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans; Knutsson, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Reliable measurements of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis are vital, since they are used for assessing the degree of scoliosis, deciding upon treatment and monitoring the progression of the disease. However, commonly used two dimensional methods (e.g. the Cobb angle) do not fully capture the three dimensional deformity at hand in scoliosis, of which axial vertebral rotation (AVR) is considered to be of great importance. There are manual methods for measuring the AVR, but they are often time-consuming and related with a high intra- and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for estimating the AVR in images from computed tomography. The proposed method is evaluated on four scoliotic patients with 17 vertebrae each and compared with manual measurements performed by three observers using the standard method by Aaro-Dahlborn. The comparison shows that the difference in measured AVR between automatic and manual measurements are on the same level as the inter-observer difference. This is further supported by a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.971-0.979), obtained when comparing the automatic measurements with the manual measurements of each observer. Hence, the provided results and the computational performance, only requiring approximately 10 to 15 s for processing an entire volume, demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed method.

  12. Bayesian joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data using robust distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghfalaki, T; Ganjali, M; Hashemi, R

    2014-01-01

    Distributional assumptions of most of the existing methods for joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data cannot allow incorporation of outlier robustness. In this article, we develop and implement a joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data using some powerful distributions for robust analyzing that are known as normal/independent distributions. These distributions include univariate and multivariate versions of the Student's t, the slash, and the contaminated normal distributions. The proposed model implements a linear mixed effects model under a normal/independent distribution assumption for both random effects and residuals of the longitudinal process. For the time-to-event process a parametric proportional hazard model with a Weibull baseline hazard is used. Also, a Bayesian approach using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is adopted for parameter estimation. Some simulation studies are performed to investigate the performance of the proposed method under presence and absence of outliers. Also, the proposed methods are applied for analyzing a real AIDS clinical trial, with the aim of comparing the efficiency and safety of two antiretroviral drugs, where CD4 count measurements are gathered as longitudinal outcomes. In these data, time to death or dropout is considered as the interesting time-to-event outcome variable. Different model structures are developed for analyzing these data sets, where model selection is performed by the deviance information criterion (DIC), expected Akaike information criterion (EAIC), and expected Bayesian information criterion (EBIC).

  13. Real-time setup to measure radon emission during rock deformation: implications for geochemical surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccimei, P.; Mollo, S.; Soligo, M.; Scarlato, P.; Castelluccio, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory experiments can represent a valid approach to unravel the complex interplay between the geochemical behaviour of radon and rock deformation mechanisms. In light of this, we present a new real-time experimental setup for analysing in continuum the alpha-emitting 222Rn and 220Rn daughters over variable stress-strain regimes. The most innovative segment of this setup consists of the radon accumulation chamber obtained from a tough and durable material that can host large cylindrical rock samples. The accumulation chamber is connected, in a closed-loop configuration, to a gas-drying unit and to a RAD7 radon monitor. A recirculating pump moves the gas from the rock sample to a solid-state detector for alpha counting of radon and thoron progeny. The measured radon signal is enhanced by surrounding the accumulation chamber with a digitally controlled heating belt. As the temperature is increased, the number of effective collisions of radon atoms increases favouring the diffusion of radon through the material and reducing the analytical uncertainty. The accumulation chamber containing the sample is then placed into a uniaxial testing apparatus where the axial deformation is measured throughout a linear variable displacement transducer. A dedicated software allows obtaining a variety of stress-strain regimes from fast deformation rates to long-term creep tests. Experiments conducted with this new real-time setup have important ramifications for the interpretation of geochemical anomalies recorded prior to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  14. Experimental measurement and elaborate analysis of strain hardening exponent in tensile deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a set of formulae for measuring strain hardeningexponent n in different typical deforming routes by using experimental parameters p (forming load), v (velocity of cross-head) and l (gauge length of specimen). With them the uniform method for measuring n (strain hardening exponent at constant strain rate), nv (strain hardening exponent under constant velocity) and np (strain hardening exponent under constant load) is established when , v or p is constant distinctively. Furthermore, the deviation among n values via different typical deformation route is analyzed. The results indicate that there exists structural sensitivity under superplastic and plastic deformation. In addition, the experimental results also prove that the values of n, nv and np obtained with different sets of constant , v or p curves are different too, even if the formulae are the same. Thus a more profound understanding of the relation between the experimental results and the mathematic expressions of n, nv and np is reached and the parameter n is more subtly analyzed by experiment.

  15. Nuclear moments and deformation changes in the lightest Pt isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Ibrahim, F; Krieg, M; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Putaux, J C; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Lettry, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements are performed with the lightest neutron-deficient platinum isotopes using the experimental setup COMPLIS installed at the ISOLDE-Booster facility. The hyperfine spectra of /sup 182-178/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt are recorded for the first time from the optical transition 5d/sup 9/6s/sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p/sup 3/P/sub 2/. The variation in the mean-square charge radius of these nuclei and the magnetic and quadrupole (for I>or=1) moments of the odd isotope nuclei are found. A large deformation change between the /sup 183g/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt nuclei, quite large inverted odd-even staggering of the charge radius around the neutron midshell N=104, and a nuclear deformation drop in the region A=179 are revealed. All the results are discussed in terms of nuclear shape variation and are compared with the results of Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov calculations involving the Gogny force. Comparison of the deformation measured from /sup 183g, m/Pt to the odd-odd isotone /sup 184g, m/Au shows that...

  16. Interseismic deformation of the Central Tibetan Plateau measured using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthwaite, M. C.; Wright, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Contrasting models have been proposed to describe the ongoing deformation of the Tibetan plateau as a result of the shortening imposed by the India-Asia Collision. One extreme involves rigid rotations of coherent blocks bounded by major faults which penetrate the entire lithosphere. The rigidity of each block implies that there is minimal internal deformation. This description implies relatively high slip rates on block bounding faults separated by narrow shear zones. In the alternative extreme, the bulk continental lithosphere is considered to deform continuously as a viscous fluid. Deformation in the brittle upper crust is driven by tractions imparted on its base from the viscous layer beneath, and distributed on a large number of shallow faults throughout the deforming zone. As a result, slip rates on faults are lower, and the number of discrete crustal blocks is larger. Geodetic observations of interseismic deformation around locked faults often show concentrated strain. If crustal blocks are separated by distances less than or equal to the locking depth (i.e. many small blocks), their straining zones will merge together. If a few large blocks exist, their strain zones should be distinct. There are very few GPS measurements of surface velocity in the plateau interior, therefore it has been difficult to verify either of the proposed models. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique which dramatically increases the spatial density of velocity measurements. By combining multiple interferograms, interseismic strain can be measured using InSAR with an accuracy of approximately 6 millimetres per year (Wang et. al. GRL, 2009). We use 32 Envisat ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 on descending track 176 in the plateau centre. The swath length of ~1500 km spans the entire plateau including the four major east-west trending strike-slip faults of Tibet - the Altyn Tagh, Kunlun, Jiali, and Xianshuihe. Interferograms are processed

  17. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the southern Alps and Provence, France, 1947-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Feigl, Kurt L.; Ritz, Jean-François; Souriau, Annie

    1998-06-01

    Active deformation at the boundary between the Eurasia and Africa plates varies in style. The belt between the Alpine mountain range and the Mediterranean Sea, for example, differs markedly in its western and eastern parts. In the western part, around southeast France, the mountains are higher, but the seismicity lower, than in the eastern part, around northern Italy and Greece. Yet the inter-plate convergence rate of 6 mm/yr varies by less than 15% between these two areas. To better understand the behaviour of this complex plate boundary, we use geodesy to map the spatial distribution of the deformation. In this paper, we focus on southeast France, a tectonic crossroads between three different domains (Alps, Ligurian Sea, and Massif Central) which exhibits a moderate level of seismicity. Here, the geodetic measurements imply low rates of horizontal deformation. By combining historical triangulation measurements mostly from 1947 to 1983 with Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in 1993 and 1994, we estimate the rate of angular shear in triangular subnetworks covering the study area. The estimated strain rates in thirteen of nineteen triangles are smaller than their (1 standard deviation) uncertainties of about 0.1 microradian/yr. This value bounds the rate of deformation for a 100-km wide zone in Provence, between Marseilles to the south and the Ventoux massif to the north. The geodetic estimates place an upper bound of 1 to 2 mm/yr on the slip rates of two seismically active structures, the Durance fault and the Nı̂mes fault, assuming a fault zone ˜20 km wide in each case. We also find strain rates as high as 0.20±0.07 microradian/yr in three subnetworks near the epicentre of the magnitude 5.3 Haute-Ubaye earthquake in 1959, in a region which includes the higher summits. This may be interpreted either as pure shear with compression oriented NE-SW across this region or right-lateral simple shear along NNW-SSE-trending faults. Given that this earthquake is

  18. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanila Nawaz

    Full Text Available The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components.

  19. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  20. High-Frequency CTD Measurements for Accurate GPS/acoustic Sea-floor Crustal Deformation Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Uemura, Y.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement system has developed as a useful tool to observe tectonic deformation especially at subduction zones. One of the factors preventing accurate GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement is horizontal heterogeneity of sound speed in the ocean. It is therefore necessary to measure the gradient directly from sound speed structure. We report results of high-frequency CTD measurements using Underway CTD (UCTD) in the Kuroshio region. We perform the UCTD measurements on May 2nd, 2015 at two stations (TCA and TOA) above the sea-floor benchmarks installed across the Nankai Trough, off the south-east of Kii Peninsula, middle Japan. The number of measurement points is six at each station along circles with a diameter of 1.8 nautical miles around the sea-floor benchmark. The stations TCA and TOA are located on the edge and the interior of the Kuroshio current, respectively, judging from difference in sea water density measured at the two stations, as well as a satellite image of sea-surface temperature distribution. We detect a sound speed gradient of high speeds in the southern part and low speeds in the northern part at the two stations. At the TCA station, the gradient is noticeable down to 300 m in depth; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 5 m/s. The sound speed difference is as small as +/- 1.3 m/s at depths below 300 m, which causes seafloor benchmark positioning error as large as 1 m. At the TOA station, the gradient is extremely small down to 100 m in depth. The maximum difference in sound speed is less than +/- 0.3 m/s that is negligible small for seafloor benchmark positioning error. Clear gradient of high speed is observed to the depths; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 0.8-0.9 m/s, causing seafloor benchmark positioning error of several tens centimeters. The UCTD measurement is effective tool to detect sound speed gradient. We establish a method for accurate sea

  1. Measurement of the diffractive longitudinal structure function F{sub L}{sup D} at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-07-15

    First measurements are presented of the diffractive cross section {sigma}{sub ep{yields}}{sub eXY} at centre-of-mass energies {radical}(s) of 225 and 252 GeV, together with a precise new measurement at {radical}(s) of 319 GeV, using data taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007. Together with previous H1 data at {radical}(s) of 301 GeV, the measurements are used to extract the diffractive longitudinal structure function F{sub L}{sup D} in the range of photon virtualities 4.0{<=} Q{sup 2} {<=}44.0 GeV{sup 2} and fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss 5.10{sup -4}{<=}x{sub P}{<=}3.10{sup -3}. The measured F{sub L}{sup D} is compared with leading twist predictions based on diffractive parton densities extracted in NLO QCD fits to previous measurements of diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering and with a model which additionally includes a higher twist contribution derived from a colour dipole approach. The ratio of the diffractive cross section induced by longitudinally polarised photons to that for transversely polarised photons is extracted and compared with the analogous quantity for inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. (orig.)

  2. High-speed deformation measurement using spatially phase-shifted speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Tobias; Fratz, Markus; Bertz, Alexander; Carl, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a powerful technique for differential shape measurement with submicron resolution. Using spatial phase-shifting (SPS), no moving parts are required, allowing frame acquisition rates limited by camera hardware. We present ESPI images of 1 megapixel resolution at 500 fps. Analysis of SPS data involves complex, time-consuming calculations. The graphics processing units found in state-of-the-art personal computers have exceptional parallel processing capabilities, allowing real-time SPS measurements at video frame rates. Deformation analysis at this frame rate can be used to analyze transient phenomena such as transient temperature effects in integrated circuit chips or during material processing.

  3. On the suitability of longitudinal profile measurements using Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation for high current proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, Joanna; Vieille-Grosjean, Mélissa; Kittelmann, Irena Dolenc; Thomas, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    The use of Smith-Purcell radiation to measure electrons longitudinal profiles has been demonstrated at several facilities in the picosecond and sub-picosecond range. There is a strong interest for the development of non intercepting longitudinal profile diagnostics for high current proton beams. We present here results of simulations on the expected yield of longitudinal profile monitors using Smith-Purcell radiation for such proton beams.

  4. Wireless Measurement of Elastic and Plastic Deformation by a Metamaterial-Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbey, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Kurc, Ozgur; Erturk, Vakur B.; Altintas, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    We report remote strain and displacement measurement during elastic and plastic deformation using a metamaterial-based wireless and passive sensor. The sensor is made of a comb-like nested split ring resonator (NSRR) probe operating in the near-field of an antenna, which functions as both the transmitter and the receiver. The NSRR probe is fixed on a standard steel reinforcing bar (rebar), and its frequency response is monitored telemetrically by a network analyzer connected to the antenna across the whole stress-strain curve. This wireless measurement includes both the elastic and plastic region deformation together for the first time, where wired technologies, like strain gauges, typically fail to capture. The experiments are further repeated in the presence of a concrete block between the antenna and the probe, and it is shown that the sensing system is capable of functioning through the concrete. The comparison of the wireless sensor measurement with those undertaken using strain gauges and extensometers reveals that the sensor is able to measure both the average strain and the relative displacement on the rebar as a result of the applied force in a considerably accurate way. The performance of the sensor is tested for different types of misalignments that can possibly occur due to the acting force. These results indicate that the metamaterial-based sensor holds great promise for its accurate, robust and wireless measurement of the elastic and plastic deformation of a rebar, providing beneficial information for remote structural health monitoring and post-earthquake damage assessment. PMID:25333292

  5. Wireless Measurement of Elastic and Plastic Deformation by a Metamaterial-Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ozbey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report remote strain and displacement measurement during elastic and plastic deformation using a metamaterial-based wireless and passive sensor. The sensor is made of a comb-like nested split ring resonator (NSRR probe operating in the near-field of an antenna, which functions as both the transmitter and the receiver. The NSRR probe is fixed on a standard steel reinforcing bar (rebar, and its frequency response is monitored telemetrically by a network analyzer connected to the antenna across the whole stress-strain curve. This wireless measurement includes both the elastic and plastic region deformation together for the first time, where wired technologies, like strain gauges, typically fail to capture. The experiments are further repeated in the presence of a concrete block between the antenna and the probe, and it is shown that the sensing system is capable of functioning through the concrete. The comparison of the wireless sensor measurement with those undertaken using strain gauges and extensometers reveals that the sensor is able to measure both the average strain and the relative displacement on the rebar as a result of the applied force in a considerably accurate way. The performance of the sensor is tested for different types of misalignments that can possibly occur due to the acting force. These results indicate that the metamaterial-based sensor holds great promise for its accurate, robust and wireless measurement of the elastic and plastic deformation of a rebar, providing beneficial information for remote structural health monitoring and post-earthquake damage assessment.

  6. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS , ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR , SCOTT E.; SITEK , AREK; FENG, BING; YANG , YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-04-04

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p<0.001for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets.

  7. Measurement of elastic constants by simultaneously sensing longitudinal and shear waves as an overlapped signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data.

  8. Status of a UAV SAR Designed for Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Hoffman, Jim; Miller, Tim; Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ron; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Rosen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Under the NASA ESTO sponsored Instrument Incubator Program we have designed a lightweight, reconfigurable polarimetric L-band SAR designed for repeat pass deformation measurements of rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes. This radar will be installed on an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) or a lightweight, high-altitude, and long endurance platform such as the Proteus. After a study of suitable available platforms we selected the Proteus for initial development and testing of the system. We want to control the repeat track capability of the aircraft to be within a 10 m tube to support the repeat deformation capability. We conducted tests with the Proteus using real-time GPS with sub-meter accuracy to see if pilots could fly the aircraft within the desired tube. Our results show that pilots are unable to fly the aircraft with the desired accuracy and therefore an augmented autopilot will be required to meet these objectives. Based on the Proteus flying altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and 16 km range swath. This radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry (RPI). This paper will present are design criteria, current design and expected science applications.

  9. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Rosen, Paul; Wheeler, Kevin; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Miller, Tim; Hoffman, Jim; Farra, Don

    2003-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV). Upon surveying the capabilities and availabilities of such aircraft, the Proteus aircraft and the ALTAIR UAV appear to meet our criteria in terms of payload capabilities, flying altitude, and endurance. To support the repeat pass deformation capability it is necessary to control flight track capability of the aircraft to be within a specified 10 m tube with a goal of 1 m. This requires real-time GPS control of the autopilot to achieve these objectives that has not been demonstrated on these aircraft. Based on the Proteus and ALTAIR's altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and a 16 km range swath. The radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve a Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry. This paper presents some of the trade studies for the platform, instrument and the expected science.

  10. Ultrasound Velocity Measurements in High-Chromium Steel Under Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunev, Aleksey; Bochkareva, Anna; Barannikova, Svetlana; Zuev, Lev

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the variation of the propagation velocity of ultrasound in the plastic deformation of corrosion-resistant high-chromium steel 40X13 with ferrite-carbide (delivery status), martensitic (quenched) and sorbitol (after high-temperature tempering) structures have beem studied/ It is found that each state shows its view of the loading curve. In the delivery state diagram loading is substantially parabolic throughout, while in the martensitic state contains only linear strain hardening step and in the sorbitol state the plastic flow curve is three-step. The velocity of ultrasonic surface waves (Rayleigh waves) was measured simultaneously with the registration of the loading curve in the investigated steel in tension. It is shown that the dependence of the velocity of ultrasound in active loading is determined by the law of plastic flow, that is, the staging of the corresponding diagram of loading. Structural state of the investigated steel is not only changing the type of the deformation curve under uniaxial tension, but also changes the nature of ultrasound speed of deformation.

  11. Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").

  12. Measurement of the beam longitudinal profile in a storage ring bynon-linear laser mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-05-03

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of untrapped particles and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets (''ghostbunches'').

  13. Measurement of Strain in the Left Ventricle during Diastole withcine-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2005-07-20

    The assessment of regional heart wall motion (local strain) can localize ischemic myocardial disease, evaluate myocardial viability and identify impaired cardiac function due to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. The objectives of this research were to develop and validate a technique known as Hyperelastic Warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle from clinical cine-MRI image datasets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image datasets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target image. To validate the technique, MRI image datasets representing two deformation states of a left ventricle were created such that the deformation map between the states represented in the images was known. A beginning diastoliccine-MRI image dataset from a normal human subject was defined as the template. A second image dataset (target) was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a forward FE model of diastolic filling. Fiber stretch and strain predictions from Hyperelastic Warping showed good agreement with those of the forward solution. The technique had low sensitivity to changes in material parameters, with the exception of changes in bulk modulus of the material. The use of an isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model in the Warping analyses degraded the predictions of fiber stretch. Results were unaffected by simulated noise down to an SNR of 4.0. This study demonstrates that Warping in conjunction with cine-MRI imaging can be used to determine local ventricular strains during diastole.

  14. DTAF dye concentrations commonly used to measure microscale deformations in biological tissues alter tissue mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer E Szczesny

    Full Text Available Identification of the deformation mechanisms and specific components underlying the mechanical function of biological tissues requires mechanical testing at multiple levels within the tissue hierarchical structure. Dichlorotriazinylaminofluorescein (DTAF is a fluorescent dye that is used to visualize microscale deformations of the extracellular matrix in soft collagenous tissues. However, the DTAF concentrations commonly employed in previous multiscale experiments (≥2000 µg/ml may alter tissue mechanics. The objective of this study was to determine whether DTAF affects tendon fascicle mechanics and if a concentration threshold exists below which any observed effects are negligible. This information is valuable for guiding the continued use of this fluorescent dye in future experiments and for interpreting the results of previous work. Incremental strain testing demonstrated that high DTAF concentrations (≥100 µg/ml increase the quasi-static modulus and yield strength of rat tail tendon fascicles while reducing their viscoelastic behavior. Subsequent multiscale testing and modeling suggests that these effects are due to a stiffening of the collagen fibrils and strengthening of the interfibrillar matrix. Despite these changes in tissue behavior, the fundamental deformation mechanisms underlying fascicle mechanics appear to remain intact, which suggests that conclusions from previous multiscale investigations of strain transfer are still valid. The effects of lower DTAF concentrations (≤10 µg/ml on tendon mechanics were substantially smaller and potentially negligible; nevertheless, no concentration was found that did not at least slightly alter the tissue behavior. Therefore, future studies should either reduce DTAF concentrations as much as possible or use other dyes/techniques for measuring microscale deformations.

  15. Onsets of nuclear deformation from measurements with the Isoltrap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Naimi, Sarah

    Mass measurements provide important information concerning nuclear structure. This work presents results from the pioneering Penning trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich manganese ($^{58−66}$Mn) and krypton isotopes ($^{96,97}$Kr) are presented, of which the $^{66}$Mn and $^{96,97}$Kr masses are measured for the first time. In particular, the mass of $^{97}$Kr was measured using the preparation trap and required the definition of a new fit function. In the case of the manganese isotopes, the N = 40 shell closure is addressed. The two-neutron-separation energies calculated from the new masses show no shell closure at N = 40 but give an estimation of the proton-neutron interaction (around 0.5 MeV) responsible for the increase of collectivity and nuclear deformation in this mass region. The new krypton masses show behavior in sharp contrast with heavier neighbors where sudden and intense deformation is present, interpreted as the establishment of a nuclea...

  16. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Beran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

  17. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B. B.; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  18. Analysis of Phase Evaluation Algorithms in an Interferometric Method for Static Deformation Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyses an interferometric method for measuring displacements and deformation. The method can be used for a very accurate evaluation of the change in the surface shape of structures used in industry. The paper proposes several multistep phase calculation algorithms and describes an automatic evaluation process using the measurement technique. A complex analysis is also performed of various factors that can have a negative effect on the practical measurement and evaluation process. An analysis is made of the proposed multistep phase calculation algorithms using the proposed error model. It is shown that the resulting phase measurement errors can be effectively reduced by using suitable phase calculation algorithms. The analysis can be applied for a complex comparison of the accuracy and stability of such algorithms.

  19. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm × 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  20. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elmar STRASSBURGER; Steffen BAUER; Gregor POPKO

    2014-01-01

    Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm ? 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  1. Modelling of the measured longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of single ceramic fibres with annular electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pientschke, Christoph; Steinhausen, Ralf; Kern, Sabine; Beige, Horst

    2011-05-01

    A method for the measurement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d33 of single ceramic fibres with diameters 100-500 µm was recently developed. The voltage was applied using annular electrodes and the resulting displacement was measured by a capacitive method. In this paper, a number of calculations regarding the field distribution and the resulting piezoelectric displacement are presented for a typical lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. Provided that the fibres are ideally poled in the longitudinal direction, they can be modelled using the finite element method taking into account linear constitutive equations. The deviation of the measured and the actual d33 was modelled for a broad range of heights and diameters of the fibres and different electrode dimensions. The electric field distribution was analysed for typical examples and the influence of the mechanical stress on the measured d33 was studied. For sufficiently long and thin fibres the field distribution of the electric field is quite uniform and the d33 can be measured with high accuracy. Moreover, it was shown that for such fibres the measured piezoelectric coefficient d33 is determined by no other material parameter of the ceramics. The found trends of preferable geometries for the measurement can apparently be transferred to other piezoceramics.

  2. Measurement of Surface Displacement and Deformation of Mass Movements Using Least Squares Matching of Repeat High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganu Debella-Gilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Displacement and deformation are fundamental measures of Earth surface mass movements such as glacier flow, rockglacier creep and rockslides. Ground-based methods of monitoring such mass movements can be costly, time consuming and limited in spatial and temporal coverage. Remote sensing techniques, here matching of repeat optical images, are increasingly used to obtain displacement and deformation fields. Strain rates are usually computed in a post-processing step based on the gradients of the measured velocity field. This study explores the potential of automatically and directly computing velocity, rotation and strain rates on Earth surface mass movements simultaneously from the matching positions and the parameters of the geometric transformation models using the least squares matching (LSM approach. The procedures are exemplified using bi-temporal high resolution satellite and aerial images of glacier flow, rockglacier creep and land sliding. The results show that LSM matches the images and computes longitudinal strain rates, transverse strain rates and shear strain rates reliably with mean absolute deviations in the order of 10−4 (one level of significance below the measured values as evaluated on stable grounds. The LSM also improves the accuracy of displacement estimation of the pixel-precision normalized cross-correlation by over 90% under ideal (simulated circumstances and by about 25% for real multi-temporal images of mass movements.

  3. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  4. Bayesian Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Data with Random Effects Covariates from Longitudinal Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2010-09-28

    We consider nonparametric regression analysis in a generalized linear model (GLM) framework for data with covariates that are the subject-specific random effects of longitudinal measurements. The usual assumption that the effects of the longitudinal covariate processes are linear in the GLM may be unrealistic and if this happens it can cast doubt on the inference of observed covariate effects. Allowing the regression functions to be unknown, we propose to apply Bayesian nonparametric methods including cubic smoothing splines or P-splines for the possible nonlinearity and use an additive model in this complex setting. To improve computational efficiency, we propose the use of data-augmentation schemes. The approach allows flexible covariance structures for the random effects and within-subject measurement errors of the longitudinal processes. The posterior model space is explored through a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler. The proposed methods are illustrated and compared to other approaches, the "naive" approach and the regression calibration, via simulations and by an application that investigates the relationship between obesity in adulthood and childhood growth curves. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Bayesian nonparametric regression analysis of data with random effects covariates from longitudinal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Duchwan; Li, Erning; Mallick, Bani K

    2011-06-01

    We consider nonparametric regression analysis in a generalized linear model (GLM) framework for data with covariates that are the subject-specific random effects of longitudinal measurements. The usual assumption that the effects of the longitudinal covariate processes are linear in the GLM may be unrealistic and if this happens it can cast doubt on the inference of observed covariate effects. Allowing the regression functions to be unknown, we propose to apply Bayesian nonparametric methods including cubic smoothing splines or P-splines for the possible nonlinearity and use an additive model in this complex setting. To improve computational efficiency, we propose the use of data-augmentation schemes. The approach allows flexible covariance structures for the random effects and within-subject measurement errors of the longitudinal processes. The posterior model space is explored through a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler. The proposed methods are illustrated and compared to other approaches, the "naive" approach and the regression calibration, via simulations and by an application that investigates the relationship between obesity in adulthood and childhood growth curves.

  6. New insights on fractures deformation from tiltmeter data measured inside the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Boudin, Frédérick; Champollion, Cédric; Chéry, Jean; Danquigny, Charles; Seat, Han Cheng; Cattoen, Michel; Lizion, Françoise; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Tilt fluctuations can potentially reflect the response of hydrosystems to important rainfall. In this context, long baseline tiltmeters have been installed in an underground tunnel penetrating the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst to study the medium deformation related to solicitations exerted by water infiltrating the hydrosystem. The instruments monitor the tilt as well as its spatial variation. Northward tilts reaching a 1 μrad amplitude are observed consecutively to rainfalls. The tilt amplitude is highly correlated with the Fontaine de Vaucluse outlet flow fluctuations. The measured tilt signal is also relatively homogeneous over a 150 m length. Different types of structure likely to produce such observations are tested in order to identify their location with respect to the tiltmeters, their dimension as well as the amount of water level variation in the structure. Following rainfalls, the infiltration of water modifies the pore pressure, inducing a medium deformation. The hypothesis of an homogeneous surface loading on the Vaucluse plateau is first refuted since the related tilt is much lower than the one measured. The water supplied by rainfalls has to accumulate in discontinuities in order to generate a higher tilt. So, the deformation related to a pressure exerted on a fracture filled by water is assessed. A first study reveals the interest of the tilt homogeneity information that constrains strongly the fracture properties. Thus, the fracture must be located at a distance more than a few hundreds metres from the tiltmeters in order to produce a tilt homogeneous in space. If the fracture is initially dry, it must also be filled on a height higher than 150 m consecutive to a rainfall in order to generate a tilt amplitude in the same magnitude as the one measured. Then, we explore the influence of water level variations on the tilt produced by a fracture located at the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones, which are thereby permanently flooded

  7. New insights on fractures deformation from tiltmeter data measured inside the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Boudin, Frédérick; Champollion, Cédric; Chéry, Jean; Danquigny, Charles; Seat, Han Cheng; Cattoen, Michel; Lizion, Françoise; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Tilt fluctuations can potentially reflect the response of hydrosystems to important rainfall. In this context, long baseline tiltmeters have been installed in an underground tunnel penetrating the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst to study the medium deformation related to solicitations exerted by water infiltrating the hydrosystem. The instruments monitor the tilt as well as its spatial variation. Northward tilts reaching a 1 μrad amplitude are observed consecutively to rainfalls. The tilt amplitude is highly correlated with the Fontaine de Vaucluse outlet flow fluctuations. The measured tilt signal is also relatively homogeneous over a 150 m length. Different types of structure likely to produce such observations are tested in order to identify their location with respect to the tiltmeters, their dimension as well as the amount of water level variation in the structure. Following rainfalls, the infiltration of water modifies the pore pressure, inducing a medium deformation. The hypothesis of a homogeneous surface loading on the Vaucluse plateau is first refuted since the related tilt is much lower than the one measured. The water supplied by rainfalls has to accumulate in discontinuities in order to generate a higher tilt. So, the deformation related to a pressure exerted on a fracture filled by water is assessed. A first study reveals the interest of the tilt homogeneity information that constrains strongly the fracture properties. Thus, the fracture must be located at a distance more than a few hundred metres from the tiltmeters in order to produce a tilt homogeneous in space. If the fracture is initially dry, it must also be filled on a height higher than 150 m consecutive to a rainfall in order to generate a tilt amplitude in the same magnitude as the one measured. Then, we explore the influence of water level variations on the tilt produced by a fracture located at the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones, which are thereby permanently flooded

  8. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloecker, Katja [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); BHS Linz, Department of Orthopaedics, Linz (Austria); Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring (Germany); Guermazi, A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), Boston, MA (United States); Hitzl, W. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg, Research Office, Salzburg (Austria); Hunter, D.J. [University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  9. Multimodal optical measurement in vitro of surface deformations and wall thickness of the pressurized aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Katia; Humphrey, Jay D

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling of arterial mechanics continues to progress, even to the point of allowing the study of complex regions such as the aortic arch. Nevertheless, most prior studies assign homogeneous and isotropic material properties and constant wall thickness even when implementing patient-specific luminal geometries obtained from medical imaging. These assumptions are not due to computational limitations, but rather to the lack of spatially dense sets of experimental data that describe regional variations in mechanical properties and wall thickness in such complex arterial regions. In this work, we addressed technical challenges associated with in vitro measurement of overall geometry, full-field surface deformations, and regional wall thickness of the porcine aortic arch in its native anatomical configuration. Specifically, we combined two digital image correlation-based approaches, standard and panoramic, to track surface geometry and finite deformations during pressurization, with a 360-deg fringe projection system to contour the outer and inner geometry. The latter provided, for the first time, information on heterogeneous distributions of wall thickness of the arch and associated branches in the unloaded state. Results showed that mechanical responses vary significantly with orientation and location (e.g., less extensible in the circumferential direction and with increasing distance from the heart) and that the arch exhibits a nearly linear increase in pressure-induced strain up to 40%, consistent with other findings on proximal porcine aortas. Thickness measurements revealed strong regional differences, thus emphasizing the need to include nonuniform thicknesses in theoretical and computational studies of complex arterial geometries.

  10. Reference ranges for 2-dimensional sonographic lung measurements in healthy fetuses: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bussamra, Luiz Cláudio Silva; Deter, Russell L; Belfort, Michael A; Lee, Wesley; Ruano, Rodrigo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference ranges for 2-dimensional sonographic measurements of fetal lungs from longitudinal data. A total of 214 fetal lung measurements were longitudinally evaluated in 62 healthy fetuses between 20 and 36 weeks' menstrual age. Both right and left lung areas were measured in the heart 4-chamber view using lung area tracing and axis diameter methods. Multilevel modeling was used to evaluate the expected values and variability with respect to menstrual age and to generate reference ranges for the lung area, lung-to-head ratio, quantitative lung index, and observed-to-expected lung-to-head ratio for both lungs. The expected values varied with menstrual age for all parameters. Variance was menstrual age dependent for all parameters except the longest diameter area measurements and their lung-to-head ratios. Models are presented for expected 2-dimensional sonographic lung size parameters and their variance as a function of menstrual age. These data have been used to generate age-specific reference ranges for both measurements and indices. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Concordance correlation coefficients estimated by generalized estimating equations and variance components for longitudinal repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2017-04-15

    The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a commonly accepted measure of agreement between two observers for continuous responses. This paper proposes a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach allowing dependency between repeated measurements over time to assess intra-agreement for each observer and inter- and total agreement among multiple observers simultaneously. Furthermore, the indices of intra-, inter-, and total agreement through variance components (VC) from an extended three-way linear mixed model (LMM) are also developed with consideration of the correlation structure of longitudinal repeated measurements. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performance of the GEE and VC approaches for repeated measurements from longitudinal data. An application of optometric conformity study is used for illustration. In conclusion, the GEE approach allowing flexibility in model assumptions and correlation structures of repeated measurements gives satisfactory results with small mean square errors and nominal 95% coverage rates for large data sets, and when the assumption of the relationship between variances and covariances for the extended three-way LMM holds, the VC approach performs outstandingly well for all sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Plantar measurements to determine success of surgical correction of Stage IIb adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Erika A; Spratley, E Meade; Hayes, Curtis W; Adelaar, Robert S; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    demonstrated that surgical treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity can be accurately assessed using patient-reported outcome measures and plantar pressures.

  13. Moiré fringe method of using warping deformation measurement of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Huang, Biaobing; Xu, Hongji; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Wenpeng

    2010-10-01

    Computers, mobile phones, cameras and video equipment and other electronic products, Moving in the light, thin, small, high speed, high reliability, multi-functional aspects of development, Namely, 3G technology and the SOC of. Therefore, the various components of the packaging technology have become increasingly demanding, Electronic components of residual stress after encapsulation and the use of temperature changes during, Body will be made electronic packaging warpage, Seriously affect the quality of the product. Therefore, to establish a set of micron, sub-micron-level detection method for testing. In this paper, Moiré fringe method to measure warpage of electronic packages body volume, Was first proposed application of Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, Proof presented in this paper with a small spacing diffraction grating problems arising from the assumption can be overcome, Greatly improved the precision deformation measurement of electronic components.

  14. Nuclear fuel assemblies' deformations measurement by optoelectronic methods in cooling ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchenko, E. S.; Zavyalov, P. S.; Finogenov, L. V.; Khakimov, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing the reliability and life-time of nuclear fuel is actual problems for nuclear power engineering. It takes to provide the high geometric stability of nuclear fuel assemblies (FA) under exploitation, since various factors cause FA mechanical deformation (bending and twisting). To obtain the objective information and make recommendations for the FA design improvement one have to fulfill the post reactor FA analysis. Therefore it takes measurements of the FA geometric parameters in cooling ponds of nuclear power plants. As applied to this problem we have developed and investigated the different optoelectronic methods, namely, structured light method, television and shadow ones. In this paper effectiveness of these methods has been investigated using the special experimental test stand and fulfilled researches are described. The experimental results of FA measurements by different methods and recommendation for their usage is given.

  15. Autocollimation system for measuring angular deformations with reflector designed by quaternionic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phong V.; Konyakhin, Igor A.

    2017-06-01

    Autocollimators are widely used for angular measurements in instrument-making and the manufacture of elements of optical systems (wedges, prisms, plane-parallel plates) to check their shape parameters (rectilinearity, parallelism and planarity) and retrieve their optical parameters (curvature radii, measure and test their flange focusing). Autocollimator efficiency is due to the high sensitivity of the autocollimation method to minor rotations of the reflecting control element or the controlled surface itself. We consider using quaternions to optimize reflector parameters during autocollimation measurements as compared to the matrix technique. Mathematical model studies have demonstrated that the orthogonal positioning of the two basic unchanged directions of the tetrahedral reflector of the autocollimator is optimal by the criterion of reducing measurement errors where the axis of actual rotation is in a bisecting position towards them. Computer results are presented of running quaternion models that yielded conditions for diminishing measurement errors provided apriori information is available on the position of rotation axis. A practical technique is considered for synthesizing the parameters of the tetrahedral reflector that employs the newly-retrieved relationships. Following the relationships found between the angles of the tetrahedral reflector and the angles of the parameters of its initial orientation, an applied technique was developed to synthesize the control element for autocollimation measurements in case apriori information is available on the axis of actual rotation during monitoring measurements of shaft or pipeline deformation.

  16. Measuring flow-mediated dilation through transverse and longitudinal imaging: comparison and validation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroz, Marianne J; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-11-07

    Three-dimensional ultrasound images (3DUS), having two spatial and one temporal dimension, were taken of the brachial artery during baseline conditions, in the transverse and longitudinal planes. The transverse images were analyzed by three different techniques used to quantify flow-mediated dilation (FMD): (1) measuring vessel area manually (TIMA), (2) measuring vessel area semi-automatically (TISA) and (3) measuring vessel diameter (TID). The inter- and intra-observer variability and transducer repositioning variability of each method were compared to each other and to the variability of measurements taken using the traditional method of measuring vessel FMD through measuring vessel diameter on longitudinal images (LID). The percent coefficient-of-variation describing the inter-observer variability (COV(inter)) was similar for the methods, indicating that each method was equally reproducible by the different observers. The percent coefficient-of-variation describing the intra-observer variability (COV(intra)) and the smallest detectable percent change in diameter (Δd(intra)) for each method indicated that TID was the most precise at measuring vessel diameter, and could measure the smallest changes in diameter between successive measurements (COV(intra) = 0.31%, Δd(intra) = 0.87%). LID performed the poorest (COV(intra) = 0.57%, Δd(intra) = 1.59%). The percent coefficient-of-variation describing transducer repositioning (COV(rep)) and the smallest detectable percent change in FMD over time (ΔFMD) for each method indicated that TIMA was the most reproducible method (COV(rep) = 2.35%, ΔFMD = 6.52%) closely followed by TISA. TID performed the poorest (COV(rep) = 5.37%, ΔFMD = 14.89%). TIMA and TISA were found not to be statistically different so we suggest TISA as the method of choice to maximize reproducibility between measurements over time, as it is faster and simpler to perform. In each experiment it was clear that transverse imaging introduced equal or less

  17. Study of effect of quenching and deformation on KCl: Gd3+ crystals by using conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saibabu; A Ramachandra Reddy; D Srikanth

    2004-10-01

    The study of ionic conductivity vs reciprocal temperature of pure KCl and KCl crystal doped with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mole% gadolinium has been carried out in as grown, quenched from elevated temperatures (100, 350 and 500°C) and annealed at various timings i.e. 2–3 h and deformed by different percentages. The plots exhibit three well-known regions, II, III and IV (extrinsic regions). The intrinsic region I was not observed in the plots as the conductivity measurements were taken up to 575°C. From the analysis of these plots, activation energies for the migration of cation vacancy and the association of gadolinium ion with cation vacancy in the lattice of KCl crystals are calculated. These values are compared with previously reported values. Further, an attempt is made to explain the existence of oxidation state of gadolinium ion in + 3 state rather than in + 2 state as reported earlier. The variation in conductivity with effect of concentration of impurity ion, quenching and annealing and deformation with various percentages are explained on the basis of formation of impurity vacancy dipoles, vacancy – vacancy pairs (which appear in the form of precipitation), storage of cation vacancies in the form of defects, introduction of fresh dislocations, etc.

  18. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  19. Measurability of the tidal deformability by gravitational waves from coalescing binary neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Combining new gravitational waveforms derived by long-term (14--16 orbits) numerical-relativity simulations with waveforms by an effective-one-body (EOB) formalism for coalescing binary neutron stars, we construct hybrid waveforms and estimate the measurability for the dimensionless tidal deformability of the neutron stars, $\\Lambda$, by advanced gravitational-wave detectors. We focus on the equal-mass case with the total mass $2.7M_\\odot$. We find that for an event at a hypothetical effective distance of $D_{\\rm eff}=200$ Mpc, the distinguishable difference in the dimensionless tidal deformability will be $\\approx 100$, 400, and 800 at 1-$\\sigma$, 2-$\\sigma$, and 3-$\\sigma$ levels, respectively, for advanced LIGO. If the true equation of state is stiff and the typical neutron-star radius is $R \\gtrsim 13 $ km, our analysis suggests that the radius will be constrained within $\\approx 1$ km at 2-$\\sigma$ level for an event at $D_{\\rm eff}=200$ Mpc. On the other hand, if the true equation of state is soft and t...

  20. Deformation Studies and Elasticity Measurements of Hydrophobic Silica Aerogels using Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikode, Prashant; Sabale, Sandip; Chavan, Sugam

    2017-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is mainly used for the non-destructive testing of various materials and metals in industry, engineering and technological fields. This technique may used to study the elastic properties of materials. We have used the double exposure holographic interferometry (DEHI) to study the surface deformation and elastic constant such as Young's modulus of mechanically stressed aerogel samples. Efforts have been made in the past to use non-destructive techniques like sound velocity measurements through aerogels. Hydrophobic Silica aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel process followed by supercritical methanol drying. The molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane: methyltrimethoxysilane: H2O constant at 1.2:0.8:6 while the methanol / tetramethoxysilane molar ratio (M) was varied systematically from 14 to 20 to obtain hydrophobic silica aerogels. After applying the weights on the sample in grams, double exposure holograms of aerogel samples have been successfully recorded. Double exposure causes localization of interference fringes on the aerogel surface and these fringes are used to determine the surface deformation and elastic modulus of the aerogels and they are in good agreement with the experiments performed by using four point bending. University Grants Commission for Minor Research Project and Department of Science and Technology for FIST Program.

  1. Characterisation of polycrystal deformation by numerical modelling and neutron diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.

    1997-09-01

    The deformation of polycrystals are modelled using three micron mechanic models; the Taylor model, the Sachs model and Hutchinson`s self-consistent (SC) model. The predictions of the rigid plastic Taylor and Sachs models are compared with the predictions of the SC model. As expected, the results of the SC model is about half-way between the upper- and lower-bound models. The influence of the elastic anisotropy is investigated by comparing the SC predictions for aluminium, copper and a hypothetical material (Hybrid) with the elastic anisotropy of copper and the Young`s modulus and hardening behaviour of aluminium. It is concluded that the effect of the elastic anisotropy is limited to the very early stages of plasticity, as the deformation pattern is almost identical for the three materials at higher strains. The predictions of the three models are evaluated by neutron diffraction measurements of elastic lattice strains in grain sub-sets within the polycrystal. The two rigid plastic models do not include any material parameters and therefore the predictions of the SC model is more accurate and more detailed than the predictions of the Taylor and Sachs models. The SC model is used to determine the most suitable reflection for technological applications of neutron diffraction, where focus is on the volume average stress state in engineering components. To be able to successfully to convert the measured elastic lattice strains for a specific reflection into overall volume average stresses, there must be a linear relation between the lattice strain of the reflection and the overall stress. According to the model predictions the 311-reflection is the most suitable reflection as it shows the smallest deviations from linearity and thereby also the smallest build-up of residual strains. The model predictions have pin pointed that the selection of the reflection is crucial for the validity of stresses calculated from the measured elastic lattice strains. (au) 14 tabs., 41

  2. Energy measurement and longitudinal beam emittance reconstruction in L4T line

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, C; Garoby, R; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Tang, J Y; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2013-01-01

    LINAC4 is a new linear accelerator for H- ion which will replace proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. LINAC4 accelerates H− ions from 45 keV to 160 MeV in a sequence of normal conducting structures. Then, H- ions with a kinetic energy of 160 MeV will be sent to the PS Booster. This note describes two energy measurement methods and a improved method that will be used for longitudinal emittance reconstruction with space charge by multi-particle tracking code and the expected results.

  3. Feasibility study on longitudinal phase-space measurements at GSI UNILAC using charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosic, Timo

    2014-04-14

    Accelerator facilities require access to many beam parameters during operation. The field of beam instrumentation serves this crucial role in commissioning, setup and optimisation of the facility. An important information is contained in the phase-space distribution of the accelerated particles. In case of GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) those are ions from protons to uranium. If established methods to access certain beam parameters do not exist, new approaches have to emerge. This is the case for the presented measurement setup which has been designed and realised by Forck et al. to support commissioning of the GSI high-current injector. It is aiming at an experimental method to access the longitudinal phase-space distribution at low energies of 1.4 AMeV. Established methods for higher energies and based on the measurement of the electric field distribution are not feasible at non-relativistic velocities. The presented method is based on a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between two particle detectors. A modification allows, alternatively, the direct measurement of the kinetic energy using a mono-crystalline (MC) diamond detector. Currently, besides others, the focus of the optimisation of the injector is put on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. It allows for a systematic optimisation of the matching into the accelerator cavities and, thus, an improved transmission as well as lower emittance values. The new accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a large-scale upgrade at GSI, requires an improved beam quality at the existing injector. In this work the experimental setup is investigated for its feasibility to measure the longitudinal phase-space distribution. To this end, the phase and momentum of the single ions along the beam axis have to be determined with high precision. Finally, the longitudinal phase-space distribution is identified with the measured ensemble. The setup is presented in detail

  4. Longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in addition to diagnosis of heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, N.; Nescolarde, L.; Domingo, M.; Gastelurrutia, P.; Bayés-Genis, A.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterised by signs of systemic and pulmonary fluid retention, shortness of breath and/or fatigue. There is a lack of reliable indicators of disease state. Benefits and applicability of non-invasive bioimpedance measurement in the hydration state of soft tissues have been validated, fundamentally, in dialysis patients. Four impedance configurations (2 longitudinal and 2 transversal) were analyzed in 48 HF patients (M=28, F=20) classified according to a clinical disease severity score (CDSS) derived from the Framingham criteria: CDSS2 (G2: M = 5, F = 6). The aim of this study is to analyze longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, in addition to clinical diagnosis parameters of heart failure, including: clinical disease severity score (CDSS) and a biomarker concentrations (NT-proBNP). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. The CDSS, NTproBNP and impedance parameters between groups (G1 and G2) were compared by mean of Mann Withney U-test. The statistical significance was considered with P measured was analyzed using RXc graph.

  5. Biomechanics of the mandible part I: measurement of mandibular functional deformation using custom-fabricated displacement transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Helenius, Miia; Lindqvist, Christian; Kelleway, John

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure corporal approximation, dorsoventral shear, and corporal rotation in edentulous subjects treated with dental implants, during normal mandibular movements. Three patterns of jaw deformation (corporal approximation [CA], corporal rotation [CR], and dorsoventral [DV] shear) were measured using custom-fabricated displacement transducers in 12 edentulous subjects who had been treated with dental implants. Measurements were made in real time using a multichannel analogue/digital converter and a personal computer for data storage and analysis. Corporal approximation was measured as the linear change in the orientation of the 2 implants in the horizontal plane. Corporal rotation was recorded as a relative rotation of the right and left mandibular bodies projected into the frontal plane, and dorsoventral shear as the relative rotation of the 2 implants projected onto the median sagittal plane. All 3 patterns of mandibular deformation occurred concurrently and immediately on commencement of jaw movement. Different jaw movements produced different patterns of mandibular deformation. The highest values of jaw deformation were recorded during protrusion. CA ranged between 11.0 microm and 57.8 microm. Corporal rotation and DV shear ranged between 0.4 degrees and 2.8 degrees . This clinical study shows and measures 3 different and concurrent patterns of jaw deformation, during normal mandibular movements, using custom fabricated displacement transducers. The transducers may have a potential for routine clinical applications.

  6. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  7. InSAR and GPS measurements of crustal deformation due to seasonal loading of Tehri reservoir in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Yadav, Rajeev K.; Sreejith, K. M.; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Bürgmann, Roland; Agrawal, Ritesh; Sati, S. P.; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We report unique observations of crustal deformation caused by the seasonal water level changes of Tehri reservoir in the Garhwal region of NW Himalaya from GPS measurements and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. All GPS sites along the Himalaya are strongly influenced by seasonal hydrological and atmospheric loading. However, the GPS site KUNR located near the reservoir additionally exhibits anomalous variations due to seasonal water loading and unloading by the reservoir. Our InSAR analysis confirms that the seasonal filling of the reservoir causes measurable subsidence in its neighbourhood. In addition to the elastic deformation caused by the seasonal reservoir loading and the negligible poroelastic deformation caused by associated fluid pressure changes, there is an unaccounted for biannual deformation in the east component of the GPS time series which we suspect to be caused by altered hydrological conditions due to the reservoir operations. Understanding crustal deformation processes due to such anthropogenic sources helps in separating deformation caused by tectonic, hydrological and atmospheric effects from that caused by these activities.

  8. Measurement of Thermo-Elastic Deformation of an Optic using a Polarization Based Shearing Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Beyersdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A shearing interferometer is presented which uses polarization control to shear the wavefront and to modulate the interference pattern. The shear is generated by spatial walk-off in a birefringent crystal. By adjusting the orientation of the birefringent crystal, the components of the wavefront gradient can be independently measured to allow determination of the full wavefront vector gradient as well as reconstruction of the wavefront. Further, the monolithic nature of the crystal used for shearing allows the interferometer to be setup without need for precise alignment of any components. An algorithm incorporating homodyne detection is presented which analyzes the modulated interferograms to determine the components of the wavefront gradient, from which the wavefront is reconstructed. The thermal deformation of a mirror subject to heating from absorption of a Gaussian pump beam was accurately observed with a sensitivity better than \\lambda/160. We show that this sensitivity is scale invariant, and present a ...

  9. Holographic measurement on deformation of mandible with dental implants due to occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Tamamura, Kentaro; Sugimura, Tadataka; Inada, Joji

    1996-12-01

    To consider the dynamic response of implant bridge caused by occlusion, the deformation of the bridge and the near mandible subjected to occlusional force was measured by holographic interferometry. In the study, the mandibles of Japanese monkeys were used. A screw type ceramic implant was placed in the site of the second molar, when it was about one year since the mandibular first and second molars were extracted. An implant bridge was then fabricated and placed between the implant and the first and second premolars. After the mandibular bone was extracted, double exposure holographic interferograms were recorded under various loads for the mandible. It was found that the stress on the implant bridge concentrated on the mesial of the pontic when the vertical load was applied to the second premolar. This shows that the mandible near the implant receives most of stress and suffers frequent damage such as the bone resorption, when the loads were applied to its mesial side.

  10. Laboratory measurement of longitudinal wave velocity of artificial gas hydrate under different temperatures and pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal wave velocity and attenuation measurements of artificial gas hy- drate samples at a low temperature are reported. And the temperature and pressure dependence of longitudinal wave velocity is also investigated. In order to under- stand the acoustic properties of gas hydrate, the pure ice, the pure tetrahydrofuran (THF), the pure gas hydrate samples and sand sediment containing gas hydrate are measured at a low temperature between 0℃ and –15℃. For the pure ice, the pure THF and the pure gas hydrate samples, whose density is 898 kg/m3, 895 kg/m3 and 475 kg/m3, the velocity of longitudinal wave is respectively 3574 m/s, 3428 m/s and 2439 m/s. For synthesized and compacted samples, the velocity of synthesized samples is lower than that of compacted samples. The velocities increase when the densities of the samples increase, while the attenuation decreases. Under the con- dition of low temperature, the results show that the velocity is slightly affected by the temperature. The results also show that wave velocities increase with the in- crease of piston pressures. For example, the velocity of one sample increases from 3049 up to 3337 m/s and the other increases from 2315 up to 2995 m/s. But wave velocity decreases from 3800 to 3546 m/s when the temperature increases from –15℃ to 5℃ and changes significantly close to the melting point. Formation con- ditions of the two samples are the same but with different conversion ratios of wa- ter. The results of the experiment are important for exploration of the gas hydrate resources and development of acoustic techniques.

  11. Measurement of the longitudinal phase space at the photo injector test facility at DESY Zeuthen

    CERN Document Server

    Lipka, D; Bähr, J; Flöttmann, K; Richter, D; Stephan, F; Zhao, Q

    2002-01-01

    The photo injector test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) has been developed with the aim to deliver low emittance electron beams and study its characteristics for future applications at free electron lasers and linear accelerators. The energy of the electron beam varies in the range between 4 and 5 MeV. One of the important properties of the delivered beam is the longitudinal phase space of the electron beam. Measurements of the momentum distributions show a small energy spread. The principle of the measurement of the bunch length will be discussed, time resolutions will be shown and preliminary results will be given. The design to measure the correlation between momentum and time distribution of the electron bunch will be shown with calculated resolutions.

  12. Automated measurement of parameters related to the deformities of lower limbs based on x-rays images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Wadim; Molka, Adrian; Tabor, Zbisław

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of the deformation of the lower limbs in the current standard full-limb X-rays images presents significant challenges to radiologists and orthopedists. The precision of these measurements is deteriorated because of inexact positioning of the leg during image acquisition, problems with selecting reliable anatomical landmarks in projective X-ray images, and inevitable errors of manual measurements. The influence of the random errors resulting from the last two factors on the precision of the measurement can be reduced if an automated measurement method is used instead of a manual one. In the paper a framework for an automated measurement of various metric and angular quantities used in the description of the lower extremity deformation in full-limb frontal X-ray images is described. The results of automated measurements are compared with manual measurements. These results demonstrate that an automated method can be a valuable alternative to the manual measurements.

  13. Inventory of anthropogenic surface deformation measured by InSAR in the western U.S./Mexico and possible impacts on GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, A.; Pritchard, M. E.; Taylor, H.

    2014-12-01

    The western US and Mexico are deforming at several spatial scales that can be measured by ground and satellite observations like GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). Many GPS stations have been installed throughout this area to monitor ground deformation caused by large scale tectonic processes; however, several studies have noted that the data recorded at a GPS station can be contaminated by local, non-tectonic ground deformation. In this study, we use InSAR to examine deformation from various sources in the western US and Mexico. We chose this method due to the spatially large study area and the availability and temporal coverage of SAR imagery. We use SAR images acquired by the satellites Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 over a time period from 1992-2010 to create several time series. Data from the ALOS satellite between 2006-2011 are also used in some areas. We use these time series analysis along with previously published results to observe and catalogue various sources of surface deformation in the western US and Mexico - from groundwater pumping, geothermal activity, mining, hydrocarbon production, and other sources. We then use these results to identify GPS stations that have potentially been contaminated by non-tectonic deformation signals. We document more than 150 distinct regions of non-tectonic and likely anthropogenic deformation. We have located 82 GPS stations within 20km of the center of at least one of the non-tectonic deformation signals we have identified. It is likely that the data from these 82 GPS stations have been contaminated by local anthropogenic deformation. Some examples of previously unpublished non-tectonic deformation we have seen in this study include but are not limited to, subsidence due to groundwater extraction in Jesus Garcia, Mexico, both uplift and subsidence due to natural gas extraction at Jonah Field in Sublette County, WY, and uplift due to a water recharge project in Tonopah, AZ.

  14. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Failure mechanism and supporting measures for large deformation of Tertiary deep soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhibiao; Wang Jiong; Zhang Yuelin

    2015-01-01

    The Shenbei mining area in China contains typical soft rock from the Tertiary Period. As mining depths increase, deep soft rock roadways are damaged by large deformations and constantly need to be repaired to meet safety requirements, which is a great security risk. In this study, the characteristics of deformation and failure of typical roadway were analyzed, and the fundamental reason for the roadway deformation was that traditional support methods and materials cannot control the large deformation of deep soft rock. Deep soft rock support technology was developed based on constant resistance energy absorption using constant resistance large deformation bolts. The correlative deformation mechanisms of surrounding rock and bolt were analyzed to understand the principle of constant resistance energy absorption. The new technology works well on-site and provides a new method for the excavation of roadways in Tertiary deep soft rock.

  16. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.E. Verdam; F.J. Oort

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: - Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. - A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. - Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data

  17. Photogrammetrical deformation measurements at structures located in the vicinity of surface mine slopes, and forecasting of expected deformation values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, O. (Ingenieurschule fuer Geodaesie und Kartographie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-02-01

    Discusses measurement of equipment stability in brown coal surface mines. A long conveyor belt system installed parallel to the spoil bank slope and a spoil belt conveyor bridge were surveyed for movements of position. Photogrammetrical measuring instrument was the UMK 10/1318 unit of Carl Zeiss Jena; for data analysis the Stecometer G and the TEBIT program systems were used. Measurement results are provided. Forecasting possible future movement of belt conveyor supports was further carried out using a mathematical collocation model and the empirical Moeser auto-covariance function of the bell shaped cosinus type. Results of mathematical forecasting are compared to repeated measurements carried out after 6 months, proving suitability of the mathematical method. 3 refs.

  18. Reliability of anthropometric measures in a longitudinal cohort of patients initiating ART in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag Aboubacrine Souleymane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropometric measurements are a non invasive, inexpensive, and suitable method for evaluating the nutritional status in population studies with relatively large sample sizes. However, anthropometric techniques are prone to errors that could arise, for example, from the inadequate training of personnel. Despite these concerns, anthropometrical measurement error is seldom assessed in cohort studies. We describe the reliability and challenges associated with measurement of longitudinal anthropometric data in a cohort of West African HIV+ adults . Methods In a cohort of patients initiating antiretroviral treatment in Mali, we evaluated nutritional status using anthropometric measurements(weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and triceps skinfold. Observers with no prior experience in the field of anthropometry were trained to perform anthropometrical measurements. To assess the intra- and inter-observer variability of the measurements taken in the course of the study, two sub-studies were carried out: one at the beginning and one at the end of the prospective study. Twelve patients were measured twice on two consecutive days by the same observer on both study occasions. The technical error of measurement (TEM (absolute and relative value, and the coefficient of reliability (R were calculated and compared across reliability studies. Results According to the R and relative TEM, inter-observer reliabilities were only acceptable for height and weight. In terms of intra-observer precision, while the first and second anthropometrists demonstrated better reliability than the third, only height and weight measurements were reliable. Looking at total TEM, we observed that while measurements remained stable between studies for height and weight, circumferences and skinfolds lost precision from one occasion to the next. Conclusions Height and weight were the most reliable measurements under the study

  19. Measurability of the tidal deformability by gravitational waves from coalescing binary neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    Combining new gravitational waveforms derived by long-term (14 to 16 orbit) numerical-relativity simulations with waveforms by an effective-one-body (EOB) formalism for coalescing binary neutron stars, we construct hybrid waveforms and estimate the measurability for the dimensionless tidal deformability of the neutron stars, Λ , by advanced gravitational-wave detectors. We focus on the equal-mass case with the total mass 2.7 M⊙. We find that for an event at a hypothetical effective distance of Deff=200 Mpc , the distinguishable difference in the dimensionless tidal deformability will be ≈100 , 400, and 800 at 1 σ , 2 σ , and 3 σ levels, respectively, for Advanced LIGO. If the true equation of state is stiff and the typical neutron-star radius is R ≳13 km , our analysis suggests that the radius will be constrained within ≈1 km at 2 σ level for an event at Deff=200 Mpc . On the other hand, if the true equation of state is soft and the typical neutron-star radius is R ≲12 km , it will be difficult to narrow down the equation of state among many soft ones, although it is still possible to discriminate the true one from stiff equations of state with R ≳13 km . We also find that gravitational waves from binary neutron stars will be distinguished from those from spinless binary black holes at more than 2 σ level for an event at Deff=200 Mpc . The validity of the EOB formalism, Taylor-T4, and Taylor-F2 approximants as the inspiral waveform model is also examined.

  20. A Hierarchical Multi-Temporal InSAR Method for Increasing the Spatial Density of Deformation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Point-like targets are useful in providing surface deformation with the time series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images using the multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology. However, the spatial density of point-like targets is low, especially in non-urban areas. In this paper, a hierarchical MTInSAR method is proposed to increase the spatial density of deformation measurements by tracking both the point-like targets and the distributed targets with the temporal steadiness of radar backscattering. To efficiently reduce error propagation, the deformation rates on point-like targets with lower amplitude dispersion index values are first estimated using a least squared estimator and a region growing method. Afterwards, the distributed targets are identified using the amplitude dispersion index and a Pearson correlation coefficient through a multi-level processing strategy. Meanwhile, the deformation rates on distributed targets are estimated during the multi-level processing. The proposed MTInSAR method has been tested for subsidence detection over a suburban area located in Tianjin, China using 40 high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between 2009 and 2010, and validated using the ground-based leveling measurements. The experiment results indicate that the spatial density of deformation measurements can be increased by about 250% and that subsidence accuracy can reach to the millimeter level by using the hierarchical MTInSAR method.

  1. Longer-Term Postcure Measurement of Cuspal Deformation Induced by Dimensional Changes in Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Falsafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper presents a simple, versatile in vitro methodology that enables indirect quantification of shrinkage and expansion stresses under clinically relevant conditions without the need for a dedicated instrument. Methods. For shrinkage effects, resulting cusp deformation of aluminum blocks with MOD type cavity, filled with novel filling compositions and commercial cements, has been measured using a bench-top micrometer and a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, a displacement transducer based instrument. Results. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed simple methodology. The technique was successfully used in longer-term measurements of shrinkage and expansion stress for several dental compositions. Conclusions. In contrast to in situ techniques where a measuring instrument is dedicated to the sample and its data collection, the proposed simple methodology allows for transfer of the samples to the environment of choice for storage and conditioning. The presented technique can be reliably used to quantify stress development of curing materials under clinically relevant (oral conditions. This enables direct examination and comparison of structural properties corresponding to the final stage of formed networks. The proposed methodology is directly applicable to the study of self-curing systems as they require mouth-type conditions (temperature and humidity to achieve their designed kinetics and reactions.

  2. Longer-Term Postcure Measurement of Cuspal Deformation Induced by Dimensional Changes in Dental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafi, A.; Oxman, J. D.; Tse, P.-H.; Ton, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This paper presents a simple, versatile in vitro methodology that enables indirect quantification of shrinkage and expansion stresses under clinically relevant conditions without the need for a dedicated instrument. Methods. For shrinkage effects, resulting cusp deformation of aluminum blocks with MOD type cavity, filled with novel filling compositions and commercial cements, has been measured using a bench-top micrometer and a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, a displacement transducer) based instrument. Results. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed simple methodology. The technique was successfully used in longer-term measurements of shrinkage and expansion stress for several dental compositions. Conclusions. In contrast to in situ techniques where a measuring instrument is dedicated to the sample and its data collection, the proposed simple methodology allows for transfer of the samples to the environment of choice for storage and conditioning. The presented technique can be reliably used to quantify stress development of curing materials under clinically relevant (oral) conditions. This enables direct examination and comparison of structural properties corresponding to the final stage of formed networks. The proposed methodology is directly applicable to the study of self-curing systems as they require mouth-type conditions (temperature and humidity) to achieve their designed kinetics and reactions. PMID:26257783

  3. Monitoring and analysis of thermal deformation waves with a high-speed phase measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lucas; Talghader, Joseph

    2015-10-20

    Thermal effects in optical substrates are vitally important in determining laser damage resistance in long-pulse and continuous-wave laser systems. Thermal deformation waves in a soda-lime-silica glass substrate have been measured using high-speed interferometry during a series of laser pulses incident on the surface. Two-dimensional images of the thermal waves were captured at a rate of up to six frames per thermal event using a quantitative phase measurement method. The system comprised a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, along with a high-speed camera capable of up to 20,000 frames-per-second. The sample was placed in the interferometer and irradiated with 100 ns, 2 kHz Q-switched pulses from a high-power Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. Phase measurements were converted to temperature using known values of thermal expansion and temperature-dependent refractive index for glass. The thermal decay at the center of the thermal wave was fit to a function derived from first principles with excellent agreement. Additionally, the spread of the thermal distribution over time was fit to the same function. Both the temporal decay fit and the spatial fit produced a thermal diffusivity of 5×10-7  m2/s.

  4. An automated in vitro model for the evaluation of ultrasound modalities measuring myocardial deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigö Albin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is the method of choice when one wishes to examine myocardial function. Qualitative assessment of the 2D grey scale images obtained is subjective, and objective methods are required. Speckle Tracking Ultrasound is an emerging technology, offering an objective mean of quantifying left ventricular wall motion. However, before a new ultrasound technology can be adopted in the clinic, accuracy and reproducibility needs to be investigated. Aim It was hypothesized that the collection of ultrasound sample data from an in vitro model could be automated. The aim was to optimize an in vitro model to allow for efficient collection of sample data. Material & Methods A tissue-mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin powder, psyllium fibers and a preservative. Sonomicrometry crystals were molded into the phantom. The solid phantom was mounted in a stable stand and cyclically compressed. Peak strain was then measured by Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry. Results We succeeded in automating the acquisition and analysis of sample data. Sample data was collected at a rate of 200 measurement pairs in 30 minutes. We found good agreement between Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry in the in vitro model. Best agreement was 0.83 ± 0.70%. Worst agreement was -1.13 ± 6.46%. Conclusions It has been shown possible to automate a model that can be used for evaluating the in vitro accuracy and precision of ultrasound modalities measuring deformation. Sonomicrometry and Speckle Tracking Ultrasound had acceptable agreement.

  5. SU-F-BRF-13: Investigating the Feasibility of Accurate Dose Measurement in a Deforming Radiochromic Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, T [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Adamovics, J [Rider University, Skillman, NJ (United States); Oldham, M [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Presage-Def, a deformable radiochromic 3D dosimeter, has been previously shown to have potential for validating deformable image registration algorithms. This work extends this effort to investigate the feasibility of using Presage-Def to validate dose-accumulation algorithms in deforming structures. Methods: Two cylindrical Presage-Def dosimeters (8cm diameter, 4.5cm length) were irradiated in a water-bath with a simple 4-field box treatment. Isocentric dose was 20Gy. One dosimeter served as control (no deformation) while the other was laterally compressed during irradiation by 21%. Both dosimeters were imaged before and after irradiation with a fast (∼10 minutes for 1mm isotropic resolution), broad beam, high resolution optical-CT scanner. Measured dose distributions were compared to corresponding distributions calculated by a commissioned Eclipse planning system. Accuracy in the control was evaluated with 3D gamma (3%/3mm). The dose distribution calculated for the compressed dosimeter in the irradiation geometry cannot be directly compared via profiles or 3D gamma to the measured distribution, which deforms with release from compression. Thus, accuracy under deformation was determined by comparing integral dose within the high dose region of the deformed dosimeter distribution versus calculated dose. Dose profiles were used to study temporal stability of measured dose distributions. Results: Good dose agreement was demonstrated in the control with a 3D gamma passing rate of 96.6%. For the dosimeter irradiated under compression, the measured integral dose in the high dose region (518.0Gy*cm3) was within 6% of the Eclipse-calculated integral dose (549.4Gy*cm3). Elevated signal was noted on the dosimeter edge in the direction of compression. Change in dosimeter signal over 1.5 hours was ≤2.7%, and the relative dose distribution remained stable over this period of time. Conclusion: Presage-Def is promising as a 3D dosimeter capable of accurately

  6. Multi-axial load application and DIC measurement of advanced composite beam deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berggreen C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For the validation of a new beam element formulation, a wide set of experimental data consisting of deformation patterns obtained for a number of specially designed composite beam elements, have been obtained. The composite materials applied in the beams consist of glass-fiber reinforced plastic with specially designed layup configurations promoting advanced coupling behavior. Furthermore, the beams are designed with different cross-section shapes. The data obtained from the experiments are also used in order to improve the general understanding related to practical implementation of mechanisms of elastic couplings due to anisotropic properties of composite materials. The knowledge gained from these experiments is therefore essential in order to facilitate an implementation of passive control in future large wind turbine blades. A test setup based on a four-column MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine with a maximum capacity of 100 kN was developed, see Figure 1. The setup allows installing and testing beams of different cross-sections applying load cases such as axial extension, shear force bending, pure bending in two principal directions as well as pure torsion, see Figure 2. In order to apply multi-axial loading, a load application system consisting of three hydraulic actuators were mounted in two planes using multi-axial servo-hydraulic control. The actuator setup consists of the main actuator on the servo-hydraulic test machine working in the vertical axis (depicted on Figure 1 placed at the testing machine crosshead and used for application of vertical forces to the specimens. Two extra actuators are placed in a horizontal plane on the T-slot table of the test machine in different positions in order to apply loading at the tip of the specimen in various configurations. In order to precisely characterize the global as well as surface deformations of the beam specimens tested, a combination of different measurement systems were used during

  7. Reactivity in rapidly collected hygiene and toilet spot check measurements: a cautionary note for longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Khush, Ranjiv S; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Measurements of the longitudinal structure function and |$V_{cs}$| in the CCFR experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, U K; Arroyo, C G; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Budd, H S; Conrad, J; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Lamm, M J; Lefmann, W C; Marsh, W; McFarland, K S; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Quintas, P Z; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino nucleon interactions in the CCFR detector are used to extract the structure functions, F_2, xF_3(nu), xF_3(nubar) and R(longitudinal) in the kinematic region 0.01measurements of R in the x<0.1 region provide a constraint on the level of the gluon distribution. The x and Q^2 dependence of R is compared with a QCD based fit to previous data. The CKM matrix element |V_cs| is extracted from a combined analysis of xF_3 and dimuon data.

  9. Micro-deformation measurement on the concrete roadway surface slabs using Fiber Bragg Grating and analysis by computational simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, C M; Gomez, N D [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano Institucion Universitaria (ITM), Medellin A. A. 54954 (Colombia); Velez, F J, E-mail: claudiaserpa@itm.edu.co [Universidad EAFIT, Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This work shows a non-invasive method for micro-deformation measurements on concrete structures using Bragg grating sensors in optical fibers adhered to the surface. We present the measurements on roadway slabs under a load of 10 kN, and we find an approximated ratio of 2:1 between the deformation registered by the sensors and the values from a computational simulation with the finite element method. We propose the use of these sensors for structural monitoring of the slabs and this installation shape for avoiding bends that can damage the edges in the optical fiber in embebed sensors in vertical shape.

  10. Multiple imputation for harmonizing longitudinal non-commensurate measures in individual participant data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Juned; Reiter, Jerome P; Brincks, Ahnalee; Gibbons, Robert D; Crespi, Catherine M; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-11-20

    There are many advantages to individual participant data meta-analysis for combining data from multiple studies. These advantages include greater power to detect effects, increased sample heterogeneity, and the ability to perform more sophisticated analyses than meta-analyses that rely on published results. However, a fundamental challenge is that it is unlikely that variables of interest are measured the same way in all of the studies to be combined. We propose that this situation can be viewed as a missing data problem in which some outcomes are entirely missing within some trials and use multiple imputation to fill in missing measurements. We apply our method to five longitudinal adolescent depression trials where four studies used one depression measure and the fifth study used a different depression measure. None of the five studies contained both depression measures. We describe a multiple imputation approach for filling in missing depression measures that makes use of external calibration studies in which both depression measures were used. We discuss some practical issues in developing the imputation model including taking into account treatment group and study. We present diagnostics for checking the fit of the imputation model and investigate whether external information is appropriately incorporated into the imputed values.

  11. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  12. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  13. Longitudinal association of anthropometric measures of adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Van Horn, Linda V; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Getaneh, Asqual; Ard, Jamy; Vitolins, Mara Z; Waring, Molly E; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    Some studies suggest that anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity may be superior to body mass index (BMI) for the prediction of cardiometabolic risk factors; however, most studies have been cross-sectional. Our aim was to prospectively examine the association of change in BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (WCHtR) with change in markers of cardiometabolic risk in a population of postmenopausal women. We used a subsample of participants in the Women's Health Initiative aged 50 to 79 years at entry with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements obtained at multiple time points over 12.8 years of follow-up (n = 2672). The blood samples were used to measure blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides at baseline, and at years 1, 3, and 6. We conducted mixed-effects linear regression analyses to examine associations at baseline and longitudinal associations between change in anthropometric measures and change in cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for covariates. In longitudinal analyses, change in BMI, WC, and WCHtR robustly predicted change in cardiometabolic risk, whereas change in WHR did not. The strongest associations were seen for change in triglycerides, glucose, and HDL-C (inverse association). Increase in BMI, WC, and WCHtR strongly predicted increases in serum triglycerides and glucose, and reduced HDL-C. WC and WCHtR were superior to BMI in predicting serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides. WCHtR was superior to WC only in predicting serum glucose. BMI, WC, and WCHtR were all superior to WHR.

  14. The wet refractivity tomography for improving the InSAR deformation measurements on Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetti, Claudia; Aranzulla, Massimo; Guglielmino, Francesco; Cannavo', Flavio; Romaniello, Vito; Briole, Pierre; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project, we carried out a study to improve the accuracy of the ground deformation monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano (Italy) by modelling of the tropospheric delays. We use GPS and multispectral satellite data to reduce the atmospheric artefacts in the SAR interferometry. Among various effects affecting interferograms, atmospheric artefacts are among the most significant and the most difficult to model. Due to the orography of Mt. Etna and the space-time variability weather conditions, it has been shown that the atmospheric heterogeneities can affect GPS and InSAR measurements at a vey high level, with extreme values of anomalies with respect to a standard model that can reach 100 mm (or 4 C-band fringes) in some cases. For these reasons the estimation of Mt. Etna atmospheric anomalies is crucial to calibrate the InSAR measurements. Nowadays the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (INGV-OE) monitors the ground deformations at Mt. Etna with a network of 42 GPS permanent stations spread over and around the entire volcano edifice. Data collected by the GPS monitoring network have been processed by the GAMIT software, by adopting the Vienna Mapping Functions (VMF1) to improve the modelling of the tropospheric delays. A specific software has been developed in order to derive the tomographic imagery of the troposphere over Etna volcano starting from the tropospheric delays calculated by GPS in all the stations of the network. The algorithm developed has been validated by using synthetic tests. They consist in assuming different structures of atmospheric anomalies in the input data and verifying that the algorithm is able to reproduce them. The test results confirmed the capability of the software to return the simulated anomalies faithfully. With the aim of applying the tomography algorithm to a real case, we introduce the water vapour content estimated by the MODIS instrument on board of the satellites Terra

  15. Feasibility study on longitudinal phase-space measurements at GSI UNILAC using charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosic, Timo

    2014-04-14

    Accelerator facilities require access to many beam parameters during operation. The field of beam instrumentation serves this crucial role in commissioning, setup and optimisation of the facility. An important information is contained in the phase-space distribution of the accelerated particles. In case of GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) those are ions from protons to uranium. If established methods to access certain beam parameters do not exist, new approaches have to emerge. This is the case for the presented measurement setup which has been designed and realised by Forck et al. to support commissioning of the GSI high-current injector. It is aiming at an experimental method to access the longitudinal phase-space distribution at low energies of 1.4 AMeV. Established methods for higher energies and based on the measurement of the electric field distribution are not feasible at non-relativistic velocities. The presented method is based on a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between two particle detectors. A modification allows, alternatively, the direct measurement of the kinetic energy using a mono-crystalline (MC) diamond detector. Currently, besides others, the focus of the optimisation of the injector is put on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. It allows for a systematic optimisation of the matching into the accelerator cavities and, thus, an improved transmission as well as lower emittance values. The new accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a large-scale upgrade at GSI, requires an improved beam quality at the existing injector. In this work the experimental setup is investigated for its feasibility to measure the longitudinal phase-space distribution. To this end, the phase and momentum of the single ions along the beam axis have to be determined with high precision. Finally, the longitudinal phase-space distribution is identified with the measured ensemble. The setup is presented in detail

  16. Status of a UAVSAR designed for repeat pass interferometry for deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Paul, Rose

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently implementing a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data, also known as differential interferometric measurements. Differential interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for the scientific studies of Earthquakes and volcanoes. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar wilI be designed to operate on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a minimally piloted vehicle (MPV), such as the Proteus buitt by Scaled Composites or on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar design is a fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and 16 km range swath. The antenna is an electronically steered along track to assure that the actual antenna pointing can be controlled independent of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include an elevation monopulse option and a pulse-to-pulse resteering capability that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began out as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  17. Investigating 2010 Northern Cascadia ETS Processes With Absolute Gravity & Deformation Measurements Near Port Renfrew, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.; Lambert, A.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of subduction zone Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) has been carried out primarily using seismic data for tremor and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and strain- or tilt-meter observations for transient slip. The regularity of ETS episodes in the forearc of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone has recently allowed us to schedule a series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to augment these other data and thereby help in understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of ETS. High-precision AG observations are sensitive to vertical motion of the observation site as well as mass redistribution during transient deformation. For the 2010 ETS event in the northern Cascadia, AG observations were carried out at Port Renfrew, British Columbia. The Port Renfrew region was targeted since it has typically had large (~7mm) vertical displacements measured at a nearby GPS site. Additionally this region has experienced large strains during past ETS episodes. The closest PBO borehole strainmeter to Port Renfrew, B004 (Sekiu, WA), typically experiences ETS shear strain transients exceeding 100 nanostrain. In this contribution, we focus on the analysis of the multiple epoch series of AG observations at Port Renfrew during the 2010 ETS event. The ratio of the change of surface gravity (Δg) to vertical displacement (Δh) during the ETS event will also be examined. This ratio provides unique constraints on processes involved in generating observed gravity signals and will help us explore the mechanism of ETS.

  18. Coordinates calibration in precision detection of 3D optical deformation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang; Wu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    In order to validate the detection precision of a three Dimensions Optical Deformation Measure System (3D-OMS), a calibration method of auxiliary coordinate and the optical coordinate base on theodolites has been proposed. The installation method by using theodolites to calibrate the auxiliary coordinate and the optical coordinate has been proposed. Specifically, after the auxiliary mirrors installed, the installation accuracy is detected, then we analyzed the influence of Axis-Error of theodolite under the practical condition of our experiment. Furthermore, the influence of validation precision for the 3D-OMS caused by the misalignment of auxiliary coordinate and optical coordinate is analyzed. According to our theoretical analysis and experiments results, the validation precision of the 3D-OMS can achieve an accuracy of 1″ at the conditions of the coordinate alignment accuracy is no more than 10' and the measuring range of 3D-OMS within +/-3'. Therefore, the proposed method can meet our high accuracy requirement while not sensitive to the installation error of auxiliary mirrors. This method is also available for other similar work.

  19. Measurements of the Separated Longitudinal Structure Function F_L from Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets at Low Q^2

    CERN Document Server

    Tvaskis, V; Niculescu, I; Abbott, D; Adams, G S; Afanasev, A; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Brash, E; Breuer, H; Chang, G; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Khayari, N El; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gaskell, D; Garrow, K; Gilman, R; Gueye, P; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Jackson, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Joo, K; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, J; Kinney, E; Klein, A; Kubarovsky, V; Liang, M; Liang, Y; Lolos, G; Lung, A; Mack, D; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; Mbianda, G; McGrath, E; Mckee, D; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Nozar, M; Ostapenko, T; Papandreou, Z; Potterveld, D; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Telfeyan, J; Todor, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B; Zhu, H

    2016-01-01

    Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. While differences are found, the parameterizations generally agree with the data even at the very low Q^2 scale of the data. The deuterium data show a smaller longitudinal structure function, and smaller ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross section R, than the proton. This suggests either an unexpected difference in R for the proton and neutron or a suppression of the gluonic distribution in nuclei.

  20. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  1. Deformation Measurement of a Driven Pile Using Distributed Fibre-optic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsberger, Christoph; Woschitz, Helmut; Hayden, Martin

    2016-03-01

    New developments in distributed fibre-optic sensing allow the measurement of strain with a very high precision of about 1 µm / m and a spatial resolution of 10 millimetres or even better. Thus, novel applications in several scientific fields may be realised, e. g. in structural monitoring or soil and rock mechanics. Especially due to the embedding capability of fibre-optic sensors, fibre-optic systems provide a valuable extension to classical geodetic measurement methods, which are limited to the surface in most cases. In this paper, we report about the application of an optical backscatter reflectometer for deformation measurements along a driven pile. In general, pile systems are used in civil engineering as an efficient and economic foundation of buildings and other structures. Especially the length of the piles is crucial for the final loading capacity. For optimization purposes, the interaction between the driven pile and the subsurface material is investigated using pile testing methods. In a field trial, we used a distributed fibre-optic sensing system for measuring the strain below the surface of an excavation pit in order to derive completely new information. Prior to the field trial, the fibre-optic sensor was investigated in the laboratory. In addition to the results of these lab studies, we briefly describe the critical process of field installation and show the most significant results from the field trial, where the pile was artificially loaded up to 800 kN. As far as we know, this is the first time that the strain is monitored along a driven pile with such a high spatial resolution.

  2. Deformation of the Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from measurements from 1988 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    Two periods of volcanic unrest occurred between 1989 and 1998 in the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California. Numerous earthquakes were recorded, and these periods of unrest were documented with high-precision geodetic measurements. The first round of unrest started rapidly in late 1989 and slowly decreased in rate through the early 1990s. For this interval there are both leveling and two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) measurements. The second round of unrest started slowly in mid-1997, climaxed in late 1997, and rapidly returned to quiescence by mid-1998. Deformation was recorded by both the two-color EDM and continuous GPS. Both episodes require inflation at 6-7 km beneath the resurgent dome, and both episodes had roughly 0.1 m extension across the resurgent dome. In addition, the data presented here suggest that there is a deeper, 10-20 km, inflation source beneath the south moat of the caldera. For both episodes, the better-resolved inflation beneath the resurgent dome is a near-vertical, prolate spheroid rather than an isotropic source, which suggests that magma came up through vertical cracks. However, the modeling suggests that the location changed with the depth from 6.0 to 6.7 km for the later episode. In contrast to the earlier episode, the 1997-1998 episode has additional deformation in the south moat, where the simplest model is that of a right-lateral slip on a steeply dipping plane that is defined by the location of earthquakes in the south moat. Models of the time-dependent behavior suggest that slip on this fault occurred from late November through December 1997, corresponding to the time of greatest moment release by the earthquake swarm in the south moat. Confounding the interpretation of these data is an active geothermal field near the center of the EDM network and adjacent to the south moat and resurgent dome. Additional modeling of leveling and EDM data within the geothermal field during a period of low rate of inflation of the dome

  3. Present-day crustal deformation in central Alborz (Iran) inferred from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernant, P.; Nilforoushan, F.; Bayer, R.; Sedighi, M.; Chery, J.; Tavakoli, F.; Masson, F.

    2003-04-01

    The Alborz range is an active mountain belt south of the Caspian sea. The main tectonic structures of Alborz are generally overthrusting range-parallel faults northward dipping in the south and southward dipping in the north. The regular occurrence of large historical earthquakes in this range suggests an important activity of the faults. To study the internal deformation (horizontal and vertical movements) of the Alborz range, we have installed a GPS network of 12 sites crossing the Alborz range 50 km east of Tehran. Three epochs of measurements have been recorded during the falls 2000, 2001 and 2002. A previous study using a network covering the whole country has suggested that the central Alborz is accommodating ~8 mm/yr of the ~21 mm/yr of the north-south convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. Our new data processed with GAMIT and GLOBK provide a velocity field consistent with the shortening rate in Alborz. The mean repeatability values obtained for the network baselines are about 1-1.5 mm for north and east Component for each surveys. The three epochs of measurements allow to closely define the errors associated to the sites, they are about 1.5-2 mm/yr. Most of the shortening seems to be accommodated by the southern and northern frontal parts of the range which may absorb ~4 and ~3 mm/yr respectively. Deformation in the central part remains poorly sampled due to a landslide affecting a point at about 200 mm/yr to the SE. However, the shortening of the inner part of the range appears to be modest (~1 mm/yr). Because left lateral displacements are known in central Alborz, we have tried to interpret our results in order to define the long term velocities of these faults. Assuming that most of the strike-slip motion occurs on the Mosha fault which is orientated N100°E, GPS results suggest an interseismic left lateral slip rate of about 4mm/yr between sites north and south of the fault. This is consistent with the geological slip rate proposed by Ritz et al

  4. Pulsed Mode Operation and Longitudinal Parameter Measurement of the Rossendorf SRF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Xiang, R; Klemz, G; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Will, I

    2011-01-01

    The Rossendorf SRF gun with a 3½ cell cavity has been operated since 2007. It has produced CW beam with the electron energy of 3 MeV and the average current up to 16 μA. The electron beam of the gun has been successfully injected into the ELBE superconducting linac since 2010. The Nb cavity has shown constant quality during the operation and for the Cs2Te photocathode life time of months could be obtained. Recently the gun started to run in the pulsed mode with higher gradient. The longitudinal Parameters have been measured in this mode. The dark current arose from the high gradient is studied. The main field emission source has been found to be the half cell. In this paper the new status of the SRF gun will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will be discussed.

  5. Measurement of flow fluctuations in single longitudinal mode pulsed dye laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Rawat; N Kawade; G Sridhar; Sunita Singh; L M Gantayet

    2014-02-01

    A simple technique had been demonstrated for measuring flow-induced fluctuations in the single longitudinal mode (SLM) pulsed dye laser. Two prominent frequency components of 10.74 Hz and 48.83 Hz were present in the output of the Nd:YAG-pumped SLM dye laser. The flow-induced frequency component of 48.83 Hz was present due to the revolution per minute of the motor attached to the magnetically coupled gear pump. The time average bandwidth of 180 MHz has been obtained for this SLM dye laser. The effect of pump pulse energy on the bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was studied. The bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was increased to 285 MHz from 180 MHz, when the pump pulse energy was increased to 0.75 mJ from 0.15 mJ for a constant dye flow velocity of 0.5 m/s.

  6. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Development of Electric Sensor as for Measurement of Red Blood Cell Deformability in Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Nakabe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A microsensor that can continuously measure the deformability of a single red blood cell (RBC in its microchannels using microelectrodes is described in this paper. The time series of the electric resistance is measured using an AC current vs. voltage method as the RBC passes between counter-electrode-type micro-membrane sensors attached to the bottom wall of the microchannel. The RBC is deformed by the shear flow created in the microchannel; the degree of deformation depends on the elastic modulus of the RBC. The resistance distribution, which is unique to the shape of the RBC, is analyzed to obtain the deformability of each cell. First, a numerical simulation of the electric field around the electrodes and RBC is carried out to evaluate the influences of the RBC height position, channel height, distance between the electrodes, electrode width, and RBC shape on the sensor sensitivity. Then, a microsensor was designed and fabricated on the basis of the numerical results. Resistance measurement was carried out using samples of normal RBCs and rigidified (Ca2+-A23186 treated RBCs. Visualization measurement of the cells’ behavior was carried out using a high-speed camera, and the results were compared with those obtained above to evaluate the performance of the sensor.

  7. Measurement of charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; Pasquale, S. De; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jungst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schonberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gottlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huttmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Ukleja, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yagues Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Rosin, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kozulia, A.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Walsh, R.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Brummer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Bellan, P.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Ukleja, A.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e(-)p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb(-1) collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centr

  8. The Five Cs Model of Positive Youth Development: A Longitudinal Analysis of Confirmatory Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P.; Li, Yibing; Kiely, Megan K.; Brittian, Aerika; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of positive development across adolescence rests on having a valid and equivalent measure of this construct across the breadth of this period of life. Does the Positive Youth Development (PYD) construct based on the Five Cs model have satisfactory psychometric properties for such longitudinal measurement invariance? Using…

  9. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.

  10. Optic-electronic systems for measurement the three-dimension angular deformation of axles at the millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kopylova, Tatyana V.; Konyakhin, Alexsey I.; Smekhov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the millimetre wave range require the high accuracy for position of the mirror components of the radiotelescope. A mirror weight is the cause of the three-dimension angular deformation of the elevation axle and azimuth axle relatively bearings. At result the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a parabolic mirror axis orientation is not equal to the set values. For the measuring roll, pitch and yaw angular deformations the autocollimation system with new type of the reflector are used. Reflector for autocollimation measurements as compositions of the anamorphic prism and special tetrahedral reflector is described. New methods for roll, pitch, yaw angles measuring are discussed. Optical scheme for the measurement system, structure the anamorphic prism and tetrahedral reflector are proposed. Equations for the static characteristic of the measuring system are shown.

  11. Assessing Ionospheric effects on L-band SAR data: Implications to co-seismic deformation measurements on the Sichuan Eartquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucoules, D.; de Michele, M.

    2009-04-01

    SAR data from the Alos L-band sensor (PALSAR) is an efficient tool for ground surface deformation measurements using both radar interferometry (INSAR) and sub-pixel image correlation. On the recent Sichuan earthquake, these methods were successfully used by several Research teams in order to estimate the deformation field and to detect the surface rupture. The main interest of L-band InSAR is due to the fact that results are less affected by temporal decorrelation than C-band InSAR data, especially in highly vegetated areas. However, the L-band deformation maps are severely hampered by ionospheric contributions to the radar signal. In particular, the azimuth offsets (pixel displacement along the orbit) are affected by "stripes" with amplitudes that could be higher than the deformation signal. In this paper, we propose a methodology for estimating the ionospheric contribution to the InSAR signal based on the azimuth pixel offset. The retrieved ionospheric contribution is then used to compute a correction that can we apply both to the correlogram and interferogram. We therefore propose a joint correction of the azimuth offsets and interferometric phases based on features observed on the correlation image. The proposed method is used to improve our deformation maps on the Sichuan Eartquake.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN THE LITHOSPHERE FROM GEODETIC MEASUREMENTS BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SAN ANDREAS FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Gabsatarov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of data from permanent GPS observation stations located in tectonically active regions provides for direct observation of deformation processes of the earth's surface which result from elastic interaction of the lithospheric plates and also occur when accumulated stresses are released by seismic events and postseismic processes.This article describes the methodology of applying the regression analysis of time series of data from GPS-stations for identification of individual components of the stations’ displacements caused by the influence of various deformation processes. Modelling of the stations’ displacements caused only by deformations of the marginal zone, wherein the lithospheric plates interact, allows us to study variations of the steady-state deformation in the marginal zone.he proposed methodology is applied to studies of variations of fields of cumulative surface displacements, surface displacement velocity and maximum shear strain velocity which are determined from the GPS data recorded prior to the Parkfield earthquake of 28 September 2004 (Mw=6.0.Combined analysis of the variations of the above-mentioned fields shows that measurable anomalies of the elastic deformation of the transform fault’s edge took place prior to the seismic event of 28 September 2004, and such anomalies were coincident in space and time with the focal area of the future seismic event.

  13. A new capacitive borehole tiltmeter for crustal deformation measurement and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Liheng; Li Tao; Chen Zheng; Li Hong

    2015-01-01

    Borehole inclinometers are important observation instruments used to measure ground tilt movement and monitor crustal deformation of solid tides and geological landslide disasters. They are widely used in oil exploration, mineral resource drilling, well logging, exploration and other fields. There is potential for development of rock stress strain monitoring tools. Many types of tiltmeters have been installed, such as SQ-7, FSQ, VS and JB. However, these tiltmeters are generally installed in a deep cave to avoid the inter-ference of temperature, humidity, and human activities. With the urbanization of human society, suitable installation locations are difficult to find. To solve the problem, a two-component borehole tiltmeter, named the CBT-type tiltmeter, is proposed in this paper. It can be installed in a borehole less than 500 m deep to eliminate environmental influences. The tiltmeter is composed of two sophisticated gravitational swing and two capacitive transducers. From preliminary theory and experiment analysis, its linear correlation coefficient is higher than 0.99, its co-seismic response is rapid and its noise level is up to 10-4 arc seconds in practice.

  14. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  15. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D& #x27; Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal,; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKInnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Protopopescu; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stapanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

  16. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    CERN Document Server

    Avakian, H; Burkert, V D; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; ElAlaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

  17. Kinematic analyses of a cross-slot microchannel applicable to cell deformability measurement under inertial or viscoelastic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Min [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A cross-slot microchannel has been harnessed for a wide range of applications, such as label-free measurements of cell deformability and rheological characterization of complex fluids. This work investigates flow kinematics in a cross-slot microchannel used for the measurements of cell deformability utilizing finite element method (FEM)- based numerical simulation. In a cross-slot microchannel, the cell is stretched near the stagnation of the cross-slot channel, and cell deformation is significantly affected by its trajectory. Two passive methods, inertia- and viscoelasticitybased, which do not rely on any external force such as an electric field, have been applied to focus particles along the channel centerline so that the cell trajectories are unified. However, it is not well understood how the flow kinematics inside the cross-slot channel is altered by the inertial or viscoelastic effect when these two methods are employed. This work demonstrates that the flow kinematics such as the distributions of flow type and strain rate is notably changed with an increase in the Reynolds number when an inertia-based method is employed. On the other hand, flow kinematics does not significantly deviate from that of an inertia-less Newtonian fluid irrespective of the Weissenberg numbers when a viscoelasticity-based method is used. The current work will be helpful for the design and operation of a cross-slot microdevice for measuring cell deformability.

  18. Speckle-interferometric measurement system of 3D deformation to obtain thickness changes of thin specimen under tensile loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarsch, Robert; Zhang, Jiajun; Sguazzo, Carmen; Hartmann, Stefan; Rembe, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of materials and geometries in tensile tests and the extraction of mechanic parameters is an important field in solid mechanics. Especially the measurement of thickness changes is important to obtain accurate strain information of specimens under tensile loads. Current optical measurement methods comprising 3D digital image correlation enable thickness-change measurement only with nm-resolution. We present a phase-shifting electronic speckle-pattern interferometer in combination with speckle-correlation technique to measure the 3D deformation. The phase-shift for the interferometer is introduced by fast wavelength tuning of a visible diode laser by injection current. In a post-processing step, both measurements can be combined to reconstruct the 3D deformation. In this contribution, results of a 3Ddeformation measurement for a polymer membrane are presented. These measurements show sufficient resolution for the detection of 3D deformations of thin specimen in tensile test. In future work we address the thickness changes of thin specimen under tensile loads.

  19. Fibre optic Bragg grating sensors: an alternative method to strain gauges for measuring deformation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresvig, T; Ludvigsen, P; Steen, H; Reikerås, O

    2008-01-01

    Strain gauges are currently the default method for measuring deformation in bone. Strain gauges are not well suited for in vivo measurements because of their size and because they are difficult to use in bone. They are also unsuitable for repeated measurements over time since they cannot be left in the patient. The optical Bragg grating fibres behave like selective filters of light. As a result the structure will transmit most wavelengths of light, but will reflect certain specific wavelengths. If the Bragg grating is strained along the fibre axis, the wavelength will shift, and this change represents a measure of strain. The optical fibres are very thin, no thicker than a standard surgical suture and are easy to adhere to bone by use of the FDA approved polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as bonding adhesive. Since they are made of biocompatible silica porous bioglass ceramics, it should also be possible to leave the fibres in the patient between and after measurements. We have shown that fibre optic Bragg grating sensors can be used as a measurement tool for bone strain by performing measurements both on an acryl tube and on an extracted sample of human femur diaphysis. On either of them we used four fibre optic sensors and four strain gauges, interspersed at every 45 degrees around the circumference. The standard deviation of the measurements on the acrylic tube for each of the sensors, both optical fibres and strain gauges, varied from 1.0 to 5.2%. Every sensor, both optical fibre and strain gauge, correlated significantly with all of the rest at the 0.01 level with a Pearson correlation coefficient r ranging from 0.986 to 1.0. The linearity for all of the sensors versus load was excellent, the lowest linearity of the eight sensors was 0.996 as expressed by r(2) (coefficient of determination), with no significant difference in linearity between optical fibres and strain gauges. Bone is not an ideal isotropic material, and we found that the strain readings of the

  20. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  1. Measurements of longitudinal gamma ray distribution using a multichannel fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S. H.; Jeon, D.; Kim, J. S.; Jang, J. S.; Jang, K. W.; Yoo, W. J.; Moon, J. H.; Park, B. G.; Kim, S.; Lee, B.

    2014-11-01

    Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, Cerenkov radiation can also be generated due to the fiber’s dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using the optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, we fabricated a multichannel, fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) system using silica optical fibers (SOFs), plastic optical fibers (POFs), an optical spectrometer, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MA-PMTs) and a scanning system to measure the light intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma rays. To evaluate the fading effects in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the SOFs and POFs were measured based on the irradiation time by using an optical spectrometer. In addition, we measured the longitudinal distribution of gamma rays emitted from the cylindrical type Co-60 source by using MA-PMTs. The result was also compared with the distribution of the electron flux calculated by using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNPX).

  2. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdam, Mathilde G E; Oort, Frans J

    2014-01-01

    Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data.A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models.Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data from bone metastasis patients, collected at 13 consecutive measurement occasions.The use of curves to facilitate substantive interpretation of apparent measurement bias.Assessment of change in common factor means, after accounting for apparent measurement bias.Longitudinal measurement invariance is usually investigated with a longitudinal factor model (LFM). However, with multiple measurement occasions, the number of parameters to be estimated increases with a multiple of the number of measurement occasions. To guard against too low ratios of numbers of subjects and numbers of parameters, we can use Kronecker product restrictions to model the multivariate longitudinal structure of the data. These restrictions can be imposed on all parameter matrices, including measurement invariance restrictions on factor loadings and intercepts. The resulting models are parsimonious and have attractive interpretation, but require different methods for the investigation of measurement bias. Specifically, additional parameter matrices are introduced to accommodate possible violations of measurement invariance. These additional matrices consist of measurement bias parameters that are either fixed at zero or free to be estimated. In cases of measurement bias, it is also possible to model the bias over time, e.g., with linear or non-linear curves. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models will be illustrated with multivariate longitudinal data from 682 bone metastasis patients whose health-related quality of life (HRQL) was measured at 13 consecutive weeks.

  3. Deformation analysis of ferrite/pearlite banded structure under uniaxial tension using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jia; Qiao, Zhixia; Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The ferrite/pearlite banded structure causes the anisotropic behavior of steel. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) was used to analyze the micro deformation of this microstructure under uniaxial tension. The reliability of DIC for this application was verified by a zero-deformation experiment. The results show that the performance of DIC can satisfy the requirements of the tensile deformation measurement. Then, two uniaxial tensile tests in different directions (longitudinal direction and transverse direction) were carried out and DIC was used to measure the micro deformation of the ferrite/pearlite banded structure. The measured results show that the ferrite bands undergo the main deformation in the transverse tension, which results in the relatively weaker tensile properties in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction. This work is useful to guide the modification of the bands morphology and extend the application scope of DIC.

  4. Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3 eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images (interferograms processed from both spaceborne Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS-1 and aerial Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR data acquired between 31 May 2010 and 10 April 2014 were used to measure post-eruptive deformation events. Interferograms suggest three distinct deformation processes after the May 2010 eruptions, including: (1 subsidence of the area involved in the co-eruptive slope movement; (2 localized deformation near the summit; and (3 emplacement and subsequent subsidence of about a 5.4 km lava flow. The detection of several different geophysical signals emphasizes the utility of measuring volcanic deformation using remote sensing techniques with broad spatial coverage. Additionally, the high spatial resolution of UAVSAR has proven to be an excellent compliment to satellite data, particularly for constraining motion components. Measuring the rapid initiation and cessation of flank instability, followed by stabilization and subsequent influence on eruptive features, provides a rare glimpse into volcanic slope stability processes. Observing these and other deformation events contributes both to hazard assessment at Pacaya and to the study of the stability of stratovolcanoes.

  5. Multipurpose optic-electronic autocollimators for measuring deformations of the axle with a millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Molev, Fedor; Konyakhin, Alexey; Li, Renpu

    2015-02-01

    The improved autocollimators for measuring angular deformations of the large constructions as support tube of mirror and elevation axle of the radio telescopes are analyzed. Two new types of the reflector for autocollimator are researched. The first type of the reflectors is the tetrahedral reflector with flat reflecting sides and invariant axis. The autocollimator with tetrahedral reflector is used for the measuring 3-D deformations as roll, pitch and yaw angular deviations. The second type of the reflector is the composition of the anamorphic wedge system and ordinary cube-corner retroreflector. This reflector generates the narrow beam, as result the work distance and the range of measurement of the roll angle increase. Technical characteristics of the experimental setups of new reflectors are presented. Features of the tetrahedral reflector and anamorphic system as the reflectors for multipurpose autocollimator are discussed.

  6. Measurement of the longitudinal spin structure of the proton by COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzenev, A.; Compass Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive A and hadron double-spin asymmetries Apπ+, Apπ-, ApK+, ApK- measured at COMPASS (CERN SPS) in deep-inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam off a polarized NH 3 solid target are presented. The results have been obtained with the full statistics collected in 2007 for the longitudinal target polarization. Proton asymmetries have been combined with published deuteron ones. An evaluation of the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g1NS(x,Q) and its first moment, which confirms the validity of the Bjorken sum-rule, is presented. A LO evaluation of polarized quark densities is also presented. The use of the proton data allows to perform a full flavor separation and to extract individual helicity densities of u, d, u¯, d¯ and s quarks. All sea quark densities are found to be compatible with zero in the full range of the measurements.

  7. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physical Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero. (orig.)

  8. Longitudinal detection of ferromagnetic resonance using x-ray transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, G.; Rusponi, S. [Ecole Polytechninque Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kavich, J.; Rizzini, A. Lodi [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (ICN-CSIC), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Piamonteze, C.; Nolting, F. [Swiss Light Source (SLS), Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tieg, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), F-38043 Grenoble (France); Thiele, J.-U. [Seagate Technology, 47010 Kato Road, Fremont, California 94538 (United States); Gambardella, P. [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (ICN-CSIC), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), E-08100 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We describe a setup for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance in the longitudinal geometry using element-specific transmission measurements. Thin magnetic film samples are placed in a static magnetic field collinear with the propagation direction of a polarized soft x-ray beam and driven to ferromagnetic resonance by a continuous wave microwave magnetic field perpendicular to it. The transmitted photon flux is measured both as a function of the x-ray photon energy and as a function of the applied static magnetic field. We report experiments performed on a 15 nm film of doped Permalloy (Ni{sub 73}Fe{sub 18}Gd{sub 7}Co{sub 2}) at the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2}-edges of Fe, Co, and Ni. The achieved ferromagnetic resonance sensitivity is about 0.1 monolayers/{radical}(Hz). The obtained results are interpreted in the framework of a conductivity tensor based formalism. The factors limiting the sensitivity as well as different approaches for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance are discussed.

  9. Longitudinal detection of ferromagnetic resonance using x-ray transmission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, G; Rusponi, S; Kavich, J; Rizzini, A Lodi; Piamonteze, C; Nolting, F; Tieg, C; Thiele, J-U; Gambardella, P

    2009-12-01

    We describe a setup for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance in the longitudinal geometry using element-specific transmission measurements. Thin magnetic film samples are placed in a static magnetic field collinear with the propagation direction of a polarized soft x-ray beam and driven to ferromagnetic resonance by a continuous wave microwave magnetic field perpendicular to it. The transmitted photon flux is measured both as a function of the x-ray photon energy and as a function of the applied static magnetic field. We report experiments performed on a 15 nm film of doped Permalloy (Ni(73)Fe(18)Gd(7)Co(2)) at the L(3)/L(2)-edges of Fe, Co, and Ni. The achieved ferromagnetic resonance sensitivity is about 0.1 monolayers/square root(Hz). The obtained results are interpreted in the framework of a conductivity tensor based formalism. The factors limiting the sensitivity as well as different approaches for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance are discussed.

  10. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the metabolic syndrome: is the assessment of the metabolic syndrome stable over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Wright, Bruce R; Burns, G Leonard; Parks, Craig D; Strand, Paul S

    2011-02-01

    Without verification of longitudinal measurement invariance, researchers cannot be certain whether observed change in the metabolic syndrome reflects true change or changes in assessment or structure of the construct over time. This research tested longitudinal measurement invariance of a 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome during the course of 6 years. Tests of longitudinal measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar) were conducted on 604 men and women who participated in the Spokane Heart Study from 1996 to 2006. Metabolic syndrome indicators included body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose. Sequential configural and metric invariance models demonstrated adequate model fit, but the scalar invariance model led to a decrement in fit. Therefore, the theoretical framework of the syndrome and the relationships between the syndrome construct and the indicators appear to be equivalent over time. However, observed values of the metabolic syndrome indicators may differ across time when there is a constant level of the syndrome. Because longitudinal invariance was not fully demonstrated, interpretation of change in the metabolic syndrome over time may be misleading because change may be partly attributable to measurement properties of the indicators. However, a cross-sectional 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome is supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent transition…

  12. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent…

  13. The analysis of longitudinal quality of life measures with informative drop-out : A pattern mixture approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.J.; Buijs, C.; Stolk, R.P.; de Vries, E.G.E.; le Cessie, S.

    The analysis of longitudinal health-related quality of life measures (HRQOL) can be seriously hampered due to informative drop-out. Random effects models assume Missing At Random and do not take into account informative drop-out. We therefore aim to correct the bias due to informative drop-out.

  14. Improving the Rank Precision of Population Health Measures for Small Areas with Longitudinal and Joint Outcome Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Athens

    Full Text Available The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published the County Health Rankings since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight health outcomes and the multiple determinants of these outcomes and to encourage in-depth health assessment for all United States counties. A significant methodological limitation, however, is the uncertainty of rank estimates, particularly for small counties. To address this challenge, we explore the use of longitudinal and pooled outcome data in hierarchical Bayesian models to generate county ranks with greater precision.In our models we used pooled outcome data for three measure groups: (1 Poor physical and poor mental health days; (2 percent of births with low birth weight and fair or poor health prevalence; and (3 age-specific mortality rates for nine age groups. We used the fixed and random effects components of these models to generate posterior samples of rates for each measure. We also used time-series data in longitudinal random effects models for age-specific mortality. Based on the posterior samples from these models, we estimate ranks and rank quartiles for each measure, as well as the probability of a county ranking in its assigned quartile. Rank quartile probabilities for univariate, joint outcome, and/or longitudinal models were compared to assess improvements in rank precision.The joint outcome model for poor physical and poor mental health days resulted in improved rank precision, as did the longitudinal model for age-specific mortality rates. Rank precision for low birth weight births and fair/poor health prevalence based on the univariate and joint outcome models were equivalent.Incorporating longitudinal or pooled outcome data may improve rank certainty, depending on characteristics of the measures selected. For measures with different determinants, joint modeling neither improved nor degraded rank precision. This approach suggests a simple way to use existing

  15. Lifetime measurements of the first 2+ states in 104,106Zr: Evolution of ground-state deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Browne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first fast-timing measurements from nuclides produced via the in-flight fission mechanism are reported. The lifetimes of the first 2+ states in 104,106Zr nuclei have been measured via β-delayed γ-ray timing of stopped radioactive isotope beams. An improved precision for the lifetime of the 21+ state in 104Zr was obtained, τ(21+=2.90−20+25 ns, as well as a first measurement of the 21+ state in 106Zr, τ(21+=2.60−15+20 ns, with corresponding reduced transition probabilities of B(E2;21+→0g.s.+=0.39(2 e2b2 and 0.31(1 e2b2, respectively. Comparisons of the extracted ground-state deformations, β2=0.39(1 (104Zr and β2=0.36(1 (106Zr with model calculations indicate a persistence of prolate deformation. The data show that 104Zr is the most deformed of the neutron-rich Zr isotopes measured so far.

  16. Longitudinal hemodynamic measurements in swine heart failure using a fully implantable telemetry system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny S Choy

    Full Text Available Chronic monitoring of heart rate, blood pressure, and flow in conscious free-roaming large animals can offer considerable opportunity to understand the progression of cardiovascular diseases and can test new diagnostics and therapeutics. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of chronic, simultaneous measurement of several hemodynamic parameters (left ventricular pressure, systemic pressure, blood flow velocity, and heart rate using a totally implantable multichannel telemetry system in swine heart failure models. Two solid-state blood pressure sensors were inserted in the left ventricle and the descending aorta for pressure measurements. Two Doppler probes were placed around the left anterior descending (LAD and the brachiocephalic arteries for blood flow velocity measurements. Electrocardiographic (ECG electrodes were attached to the surface of the left ventricle to monitor heart rate. The telemeter body was implanted in the right side of the abdomen under the skin for approximately 4 to 6 weeks. The animals were subjected to various heart failure models, including volume overload (A-V fistula, n = 3, pressure overload (aortic banding, n = 2 and dilated cardiomyopathy (pacing-induced tachycardia, n = 3. Longitudinal changes in hemodynamics were monitored during the progression of the disease. In the pacing-induced tachycardia animals, the systemic blood pressure progressively decreased within the first 2 weeks and returned to baseline levels thereafter. In the aortic banding animals, the pressure progressively increased during the development of the disease. The pressure in the A-V fistula animals only showed a small increase during the first week and remained stable thereafter. The results demonstrated the ability of this telemetry system of long-term, simultaneous monitoring of blood flow, pressure and heart rate in heart failure models, which may offer significant utility for understanding cardiovascular disease

  17. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  18. Measurement of the longitudinal and circumferential muscular activity associated with peristalsis using a single fibre grating array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkwright, J. W.; Blenman, N. G.; Underhill, I. D.; Maunder, S. A.; Spencer, N. J.; Costa, M.; Brooks, S. J.; Szczesniak, M. M.; Dinning, P. G.

    2010-09-01

    Diagnostic catheters based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBG's) are proving to be highly effective for measurement of the muscular activity associated with peristalsis in the human gut. The primary muscular contractions that generate peristalsis are circumferential in nature; however, it has long been known that there is also a component of longitudinal contractility present, acting in harmony with the circumferential component to improve the overall efficiency of material movement. To date, there have been relatively few reports on the measurement or inference of longitudinal contractions in humans and all have been limited to detection at a single location only. This is due to the lack of a viable recording technique suitable for real-time in-vivo measurement of this type of activity over extended lengths of the gut. We report the detection of longitudinal motion in lengths of excised mammalian colon using an FBG technique that should be viable for similar detection in humans. The longitudinal sensors have been combined with our previously reported FBG pressure sensing elements to form a composite catheter that allows the relative phase between the two components to be detected. The catheter output has been validated using digital video mapping in an ex-vivo animal preparation using lengths of rabbit ileum.

  19. The magnetic flux leakage measurement by the hall sensor in the longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Gwang Tae [Korea Industrial Testing Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dae Rok; Han, Jung Hee; Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Physics, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-15

    This paper is concerned with magnetic leakage flux measurement using by the hall sensor in the longitudinal magnetic field of the feromagnetic specimen. For detection sensitivity by the hall probe according to various depth of the subsurface defects, the specimen are prepared by six drilled holes of 0.5 mm φ from 1 mm depth to 4 mm depth in the carbon steel plate(10 x 35 x 265 mm). When the specimen applied by various frequency(2 - 9 Hz) of the AC through synthesizer and power amplifier in the yoke, the signals of the magnetic flux leakage using lack-in amplifier and synthesizer are decreased linearly with defect depth at 2 Hz, but these signals are decreased suddenly with defect depth from the surface and obscured with increasing frequency. And, when the specimen applied range of 1 Amp. to 5 Amp. by DC power supply in the yoke, the signals of the magnetic flux leakage through DVM decreased linearly with defect depth up to 2.5 mm depth and change slightly defect depth above 2.5 mm depth from the surface, but its signals appeared predominately.

  20. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  1. Longitudinal associations of phthalate exposures during childhood and body size measurements in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Pajak, Ashley; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida P.; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Phthalates are environmental chemicals that may play a role in the development of obesity. Few studies have investigated longitudinal associations between postnatal phthalate exposures and subsequent anthropometric measurements in children. Methods We collected data as part of The Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program at three US sites. 1,239 girls, ages 6–8 years, were enrolled in 2004–2007. We categorized baseline phthalate exposures, assessed from creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites as low, body mass index (BMI), height, and waist circumference at ages 7 through 13 years. Results Low molecular weight phthalates were positively associated with gains in BMI and waist circumference. Predicted differences in BMI and waist circumference between girls with high versus low concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates increased from 0.56 (95% CI: −0.02, 1.1) to 1.2 (95%CI: 0.28, 2.1) kg/m2 and from 1.5 (95%CI: −0.38, 3.3) to 3.9 (95%CI: 1.3, 6.5) cm, respectively. High molecular weight phthalates were negatively associated with height but only among girls who were normal weight at baseline (BMI ≤85th percentile). Conclusion Phthalates, specifically low molecular weight phthalates, have small but detectable associations with girls’ anthropometric outcomes. Low molecular weight phthalates, showed stronger associations than other types of phthalates. PMID:27031039

  2. Measuring structure deformations of a composite glider by optical means with on-ground and in-flight testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunowicz, Jerzy; Święch, Łukasz; Meyer, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    In aeronautical research experimental data sets of high quality are essential to verify and improve simulation algorithms. For this reason the experimental techniques need to be constantly refined. The shape, movement or deformation of structural aircraft elements can be measured implicitly in multiple ways; however, only optical, correlation-based techniques are able to deliver direct high-order and spatial results. In this paper two different optical metrologies are used for on-ground preparation and the actual execution of in-flight wing deformation measurements on a PW-6U glider. Firstly, the commercial PONTOS system is used for static tests on the ground and for wind tunnel investigations to successfully certify an experimental sensor pod mounted on top of the test bed fuselage. Secondly, a modification of the glider is necessary to implement the optical method named image pattern correlation technique (IPCT), which has been developed by the German Aerospace Center DLR. This scientific technology uses a stereoscopic camera set-up placed inside the experimental pod and a stochastic dot matrix applied to the area of interest on the glider wing to measure the deformation of the upper wing surface in-flight. The flight test installation, including the preparation, is described and results are presented briefly. Focussing on the compensation for typical error sources, the paper concludes with a recommended procedure to enhance the data processing for better results. Within the presented project IPCT has been developed and optimized for a new type of test bed. Adapted to the special requirements of the glider, the IPCT measurements were able to deliver a valuable wing deformation data base which now can be used to improve corresponding numerical models and simulations.

  3. Measurement of Pion and Proton Longitudinal Shower Profiles up to 20 Nuclear Interaction Lengths with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, H; Carli, T; Henriques-Correia, A M

    2006-01-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20 to 180 GeV produced at CERN's SPS H8 test beam line in the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter has been measured. The testbeam configuration allowed to measure the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It is found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are laterally to the direction of the impinging particle wider. Including the measured total energy response, the pion to proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion induced showers. The data are compared with Geant4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parameterisation within an accuracy of 5-10 %.

  4. Phase-Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography Measurements of the Intraocular Pressure-Induced Deformation of the Porcine Lamina Cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Geraldes, Diogo M; Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert; Reinhard, Christina; Campbell, Ian C; Raji, Yazdan; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-04-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a complex mesh-like tissue in the posterior eye. Its biomechanical environment is thought to play a major role in glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness. Due to its small size and relative inaccessibility, high-resolution measurements of LC deformation, important in characterizing LC biomechanics, are challenging. Here we present a novel noninvasive imaging method, which enables measurement of the three-dimensional deformation of the LC caused by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior segments of porcine eyes were imaged using synchrotron radiation phase contrast micro-computed tomography (PC μCT) at IOPs between 6 and 37 mmHg. The complex trabecular architecture of the LC was reconstructed with an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Scans acquired at different IOPs were analyzed with digital volume correlation (DVC) to compute full-field deformation within the LC. IOP elevation caused substantial tensile, shearing and compressive devformation within the LC, with maximum tensile strains at 30 mmHg averaging 5.5%, and compressive strains reaching 20%. We conclude that PC μCT provides a novel high-resolution method for imaging the LC, and when combined with DVC, allows for full-field 3D measurement of ex vivo LC biomechanics at high spatial resolution.

  5. A multiscale approach for the deformation mechanism in pearlite microstructure: Experimental measurements of strain distribution using a novel technique of precision markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yoshimi, Yusuke; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimokawa, Tomotsugu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ohashi, Tetsuya [Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koencho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Plastic deformation of fully pearlitic steels was investigated using a multiscale approach: experimentally, the finite element method and molecular dynamics. This paper is the first in a series of three papers demonstrating the strain distribution in uniaxial tensile deformation with high-precision markers drawn by electron beam lithography. Strain was measured at loads of 1.98 kN, 2.21 kN and 2.28 kN in tensile deformation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and strain maps show the plastic deformation of cementite lamellae and homogenous plastic deformation under uniaxial tensile deformation in the area where the cementite lamellae are aligned in the tensile direction. The areas where strain was enhanced were both block/colony boundaries and the areas where the cementite lamellae are inclined approximately 45° to the tensile direction.

  6. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; /Oxford U.; Kimmitt, M.F.; /Essex U.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  7. Second trimester ultrasound: reference values for two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal strain, strain rate and time to peak deformation of the fetal heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapusta, L.; Mainzer, G.; Weiner, Z.; Deutsch, L.; Khoury, A.; Haddad, S.; Lorber, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on myocardial deformation during the internationally widely used second-trimester screening are scarce and confusing. Reference values of time to peak strain are missing. The aims of this study were to assess reference values derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiog

  8. Second trimester ultrasound: reference values for two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal strain, strain rate and time to peak deformation of the fetal heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapusta, L.; Mainzer, G.; Weiner, Z.; Deutsch, L.; Khoury, A.; Haddad, S.; Lorber, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on myocardial deformation during the internationally widely used second-trimester screening are scarce and confusing. Reference values of time to peak strain are missing. The aims of this study were to assess reference values derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking

  9. Deformability measurement of red blood cells using a microfluidic channel array and an air cavity in a driving syringe with high throughput and precise detection of subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-07

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been considered a potential biomarker for monitoring pathological disorders. High throughput and detection of subpopulations in RBCs are essential in the measurement of RBC deformability. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure RBC deformability by evaluating temporal variations in the average velocity of blood flow and image intensity of successively clogged RBCs in the microfluidic channel array for specific time durations. In addition, to effectively detect differences in subpopulations of RBCs, an air compliance effect is employed by adding an air cavity into a disposable syringe. The syringe was equally filled with a blood sample (V(blood) = 0.3 mL, hematocrit = 50%) and air (V(air) = 0.3 mL). Owing to the air compliance effect, blood flow in the microfluidic device behaved transiently depending on the fluidic resistance in the microfluidic device. Based on the transient behaviors of blood flows, the deformability of RBCs is quantified by evaluating three representative parameters, namely, minimum value of the average velocity of blood flow, clogging index, and delivered blood volume. The proposed method was applied to measure the deformability of blood samples consisting of homogeneous RBCs fixed with four different concentrations of glutaraldehyde solution (0%-0.23%). The proposed method was also employed to evaluate the deformability of blood samples partially mixed with normal RBCs and hardened RBCs. Thereafter, the deformability of RBCs infected by human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was measured. As a result, the three parameters significantly varied, depending on the degree of deformability. In addition, the deformability measurement of blood samples was successfully completed in a short time (∼10 min). Therefore, the proposed method has significant potential in deformability measurement of blood samples containing hematological diseases with high throughput and precise detection of

  10. A flexible strain sensor based on a Conductive Polymer Composite for in situ measurement of parachute canopy deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Cédric; Lewandowski, Maryline; Koncar, Vladan

    2010-01-01

    A sensor based on a Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC), fully compatible with a textile substrate and its general properties, has been developed in our laboratory, and its electromechanical characterization is presented herein. In particular the effects of strain rate (from 10 to 1,000 mm/min) and of repeated elongation cycles on the sensor behaviour are investigated. The results show that strain rate seems to have little influence on sensor response. When submitted to repeated tensile cycles, the CPC sensor is able to detect accurately fabric deformations over each whole cycle, taking into account the mechanical behaviour of the textile substrate. Complementary information is given concerning the non-effect of aging on the global resistivity of the CPC sensor. Finally, our sensor was tested on a parachute canopy during a real drop test: the canopy fabric deformation during the critical inflation phase was successfully measured, and was found to be less than 9%.

  11. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science

  12. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  13. Ocean tidal loading affecting precise geodetic observations on Greenland: Error account of surface deformations by tidal gravity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentzsch, G.; Knudsen, Per; Ramatschi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-borne and satellite based altimetry are used to monitor the Greenland ice-cap. Since these measurements are related to fiducial sites at the coast, the robustness of the height differences depends on the stability of these reference points. To benefit from the accuracy of these methods...... observations. Near the coast ocean tidal loading causes additional vertical deformations in the order of 1 to 10 cm Therefore, tidal gravity measurements were carried out at four fiducial sites around Greenland in order to provide corrections for the kinematic part of the coordinates of these sites. Starting...

  14. InSAR measurement of surface deformation at the Hanford Reservation associated with the 2009 Wooded Island earthquake swarm (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Gomberg, J. S.; Weaver, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake swarms are frequent in much of eastern Washington. Earthquakes in these swarms typically are in the range of magnitude 1 to 3 and are often shallow with depths of a few kilometers. The most recent swarm of small earthquakes occurred from January 2009 through July 2009 and was located near Wooded Island 15 km north of Richland, Washington on the southeastern corner of the Hanford Reservation. The swarm location is along the eastern edge of the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt, where swarm activity appears to be common. The Wooded Island swarm location is about 10 km northeast of the northwest-striking Rattlesnake Mountain fault and about 10 km south of the Gable Mountain fault that strikes west-northwest. Both of these mapped faults are associated with major thrusts that deform the Columbia River basalts, but the relation between these faults and the current swarm location is unknown. Although there have been at least two other swarms near Wooded Island in the last 30 years, the current swarm is of particular interest because we are able to map the surface deformation associated with the swarm with multi-temporal InSAR images from the European Space Agency’s ENVISAT satellite. We find two clear “pods” of deformation in interferograms generated from the satellite data, coincident with the distribution of the swarm hypocenters. We measure about 35 mm of peak surface deformation in the satellite line-of-sight direction. The deformation became resolvable in interferograms after the end of February 2009, when seismicity rates were highest. Preliminary modeling of the deformation is consistent with two small (about two km long) reverse faults each striking west-northwest with nearly 50 mm of slip. The geodetically estimated slip exceeds the seismic slip significantly, suggesting that the swarm was driven by aseismic creep. One of the modeled faults is well constrained to be shallow, about 200 m deep, and both faults occur within the underlying ~3 km thick

  15. Impaired longitudinal deformation measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography in children with end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, Maike; Schoenmaker, Nikki J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.; van der Lee, Johanna H.; van Dyk, Maria; Gewillig, Marc; Koster, Linda; Tanke, Ronald; Lilien, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271538899; Blom, Nico A.; Mertens, Luc; Kuipers, Irene M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular dysfunction is an important co-morbidity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with a poor prognosis in the adult population. In pediatric ESRD, left ventricular function is generally well preserved, but limited information is available on early changes in

  16. Measurement of high-Q^2 deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Bonato, A; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danielson, T; De Pasquale, S; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dossanov, A; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gil, M; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Gosau, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heath, G P; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Jakob, H P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Jüngst, M; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O M; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Lobodzinska, E; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S; Miglioranzi, S; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Samson, U; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schonberg, V; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shimizu, S; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stadie, H; Staiano, A; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Stösslein, U; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vlasov, N N; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Wang, M; Watt, G; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A

    2006-01-01

    The cross sections for charged and neutral current deep inelastic scattering in e^+p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam have been measured using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 23.8 pb^1 at sqrt(s) = 318 GeV, are given for both e^+p charged current and neutral current deep inelastic scattering for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. Single differential cross sections are presented for the kinematic region Q^2 > 200 GeV^2 . The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. A fit to the data yields sigma^CC (P_e = 1) = 7.4 +/- 3.9 (stat.) +/- 1.2 (syst.) pb, which is consistent within two standard deviations with the absence of right-handed charged currents in the Standard Model.

  17. Experimental Study on Anisotropic Strength and Deformation Behavior of a Coal Measure Shale under Room Dried and Water Saturated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of anisotropic strength and deformation behavior of coal measure shale. The effect of two factors (i.e., anisotropy and water content on shale strength and deformation behavior was studied. A series of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were conducted on both room dried and water saturated samples for different lamination angles. The test results indicate that (1 the compressive strength, cohesion, internal friction angle, tangent Young’s modulus, and axial strain corresponding to the peak and residual strengths of room dried specimens exhibit anisotropic behavior that strongly depends on the orientation angle (β; (2 in comparison to the room dried samples, the compressive strength and Young’s modulus as well as the anisotropy are all reduced for water saturated specimens; and (3 the failure mechanism of the samples can be summarized into two categories: sliding along lamination and shearing of rock material, with the type occurring in a particular situation depending strongly on the lamination orientation angles with respect to the major principal stress. According to the findings, it is strongly recommended that the effect of anisotropy and water content on the strength and deformation behavior of the rock must be considered in ground control designs.

  18. Joint Terrestrial and Aerial Measurements to Study Ground Deformation: Application to the Sciara Del Fuoco at the Stromboli Volcano (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2002–2003 Stromboli eruption triggered the failure of part of the Sciara del Fuoco slope, which generated a tsunami that struck the island and the northern coastline of Sicily. The Sciara del Fuoco is a very steep slope where all lava flows from the craters’ emplacement; most lateral eruptions usually take place from fissures propagating in this sector of the volcano. The eruption went on to produce a lava field that filled the area affected by the landslide. This in turn led to further instability, renewing the threat of another slope failure and a potentially related tsunami. This work describes a new joint approach, combining surveying data and aerial image correlometry methods, to study the motion of this unstable slope. The combination has the advantage of very precise surveying measurements, which can be considered the ground truth to constrain the very-high-resolution aerial photogrammetric data, thereby obtaining highly detailed and accurate ground deformation maps. The joint use of the two methods can be very useful to obtain a more complete image of the deformation field for monitoring dangerous and/or rather inaccessible places. The proposed combined methodology improves our ability to study and assess hazardous processes associated with significant ground deformation.

  19. Measuring Deformation in Jakarta through Long Term Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan; Sulaiman, Albertus; Ito, Takeo

    2016-11-01

    Jakarta as a home for more than 10 millions habitant facing complex environmental problems due to physical development that cause physical deformation. Physical deformation issues such as decreasing environmental carrying capacity, land cover changes and land subsidence have occurred. Recent studies shows that the long of shoreline changes in a span of 13 years from 2002 to 2015 around 14 km due to land reclamation in Jakarta bay. Previous studies also concluded that Jakarta suffer a sinking phenomena due to its rapid subsidence rate, approximately 260 mm/year in northern part of Jakarta. During the 2007 to 2011, the land subsidence phenomena in Jakarta was observed by InSAR based on ALOS-PALSAR data and found that the subsided areas only occurred in certain areas, mainly in Pluit and Cengkareng regions, with a subsidence of approximately 70 cm for 4 years. Land subsidence is generally related to geological subsidence i.e. sediment consolidation due to its own weight and tectonic movements; or related to human activities such as withdrawal of ground water and geothermal fluid, oil and gas extraction from underground reservoirs, and collapse of underground mines. The amount of subsidence or uplift can be estimated from the number of concentric fringes that appear in the interferogram. This research utilizes Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data observed from ALOS-2 (L-band) and Sentinel-1 (C-band) satellites. By interfering two single look complex (SLC) images from different observation epoch, it is found that the subsided area that has been identified before continues to subside. This occurs especially in Pluit region and has been revealed by interfering ALOS-2 data up to year 2016. The deformation in this area is approximately 12 cm from November 2015 to September 2016. The process of land reclamation also clearly identified by Sentinel-1 image by series data processing in Sentinels Application Platform (SNAP) software.

  20. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-15

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W^{±} and Z/γ^{*} boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at sqrt[s]=510  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W^{±} were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  1. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of single and double spin asymmetries for $W^{\\pm}$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ boson production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for $W^{\\pm}$ were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the $W$ mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by recent polarized DIS measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range $0.05

  2. A Technique for Measurement of Static and Dynamic Longitudinal Aerodynamic Derivatives Using the DSTO Water Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    deformed models in straight air streams as discussed by Gorlin and Slezinger [9]. Otherwise, wind tunnel experimental methods are generally based on...1945. 9. Gorlin , S. M., and Slezinger, I. I., Wind Tunnels and Their Instrumentation (Aeromekhanicheskie izmerenia. Metody i pribory), trans. P

  3. Biomimetics of Campaniform Sensilla: Measuring Strain from the Deformation of Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent; Sally E. Clift; Carlo Menon

    2007-01-01

    We present a bio-inspired strategy for designing embedded strain sensors in space structures. In insects, the campaniform sensillum is a hole extending through the cuticle arranged such that its shape changes in response to loads. The shape change is rotated through 90 by the suspension of a bell-shaped cap whose deflection is detected by a cell beneath the cuticle. It can be sensitive to displacements of the order of 1 nm. The essential morphology, a hole formed in a plate of fibrous composite material, was modelled by Skordos et al. who showed that global deformation of the plate (which can be flat, curved or a tube) induces higher local deformation of the hole due to its locally higher compliance. Further developments reported here show that this approach can be applied to groups of holes relative to their orientation.The morphology of the sensillum in insects suggests that greater sensitivity can be achieved by arranging several holes in a regular pattern; that if the hole is oval it can be "aimed" to sense specific strain directions; and that either by controlling the shape of the hole or its relationship with other holes it can have a tuned response to dynamic strains.We investigate space applications in which novel bio-inspired strain sensors could successfully be used.

  4. Experimental Measurements of Longitudinal and Transverse Dispersion in Miscible Fluids with a High Viscosity and Density Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkindi, A.; Bijeljic, B.; Muggeridge, A.

    2008-12-01

    Diffusion and advective dispersion may have a significant influence on the mixing between miscible fluids during displacement processes in porous media. This is particularly important when intimate mixing may result in important changes to the fluid behaviour. For example in oil recovery, mixing between injected and connate water will tend to reduce the efficiency of low salinity water injection. On the other hand recovery may be increased if injected gas mixes with high viscosity oil increasing its mobility. Most experimental data for longitudinal and transverse dispersion have been obtained using fluid pairs with very similar viscosities and densities. The traditional description (Perkins and Johnston, 1963) suggests that longitudinal dispersion decreases as mobility ratio increases. It also suggests that gravity will tend to reduce transverse dispersion. We provide experimental measurements of longitudinal (KL) and transverse (KT) dispersion at low Reynolds number as a function of Peclet number for the first contact miscible ethanol- glycerol fluid system flowing in a porous media formed from glass beads. These fluids have a high viscosity ratio of over 1000 and a significant density difference of 470 kg m-3. We show that both KL and KT are similar to values measured for a water-brine system but that KT is reduced when the less dense ethanol is flowing above the denser glycerol.

  5. Interseismic Deformation of the Altyn Tagh Fault Determined by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF is one of the major left-lateral strike-slip faults in the northeastern area of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the interseismic deformation across the ATF at 85°E was measured using 216 interferograms from 33 ENVISAT advanced synthetic aperture radar images on a descending track acquired from 2003 to 2010, and 66 interferograms from 15 advanced synthetic aperture radar images on an ascending track acquired from 2005 to 2010. To retrieve the pattern of interseismic strain accumulation, a global atmospheric model (ERA-Interim provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast and a global network orbital correction approach were applied to remove atmospheric effects and the long-wavelength orbital errors in the interferograms. Then, the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR time series with atmospheric estimation model was used to obtain a deformation rate map for the ATF. Based on the InSAR velocity map, the regional strain rates field was calculated for the first time using the multi-scale wavelet method. The strain accumulation is strongly focused on the ATF with the maximum strain rate of 12.4 × 10−8/year. We also show that high-resolution 2-D strain rates field can be calculated from InSAR alone, even without GPS data. Using a simple half-space elastic screw dislocation model, the slip-rate and locking depth were estimated with both ascending and descending surface velocity measurements. The joint inversion results are consistent with a left-lateral slip rate of 8.0 ± 0.7 mm/year on the ATF and a locking depth of 14.5 ± 3 km, which is in agreement with previous results from GPS surveys and ERS InSAR results. Our results support the dynamic models of Asian deformation requiring low fault slip rate.

  6. Contactless electrical conductivity measurement of metallic submicron-grain material: Application to the study of aluminum with severe plastic deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, M; Matsui, H; Yoshida, T; Anami, T; Tsuruta, K; Deguchi, H; Iwamoto, T; Terada, D; Miyajima, Y; Tsuji, N

    2016-05-01

    We measured the electrical conductivity σ of aluminum specimen consisting of submicron-grains by observing the AC magnetic susceptibility resulting from the eddy current. By using a commercial platform for magnetic measurement, contactless measurement of the relative electrical conductivity σn of a nonmagnetic metal is possible over a wide temperature (T) range. By referring to σ at room temperature, obtained by the four-terminal method, σn(T) was transformed into σ(T). This approach is useful for cylinder specimens, in which the estimation of the radius and/or volume is difficult. An experiment in which aluminum underwent accumulative roll bonding, which is a severe plastic deformation process, validated this method of evaluating σ as a function of the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries.

  7. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  8. One-Dimensional-Ratio Measures of Atrophy Progression in Multiple Sclerosis as Evaluated by Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martola, J.; Wiberg Kristoffersen, M.; Aspelin, P. (Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Stawiarz, L.; Fredrikson, S.; Hillert, J. (Div. of Neurology, Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Bergstroem, J. (Medical Statistics Unit, Dept. of Learning, Informatics, Management, and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Flodmark, O. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    Background: For decades, normalized one-dimensional (1D) measures have been used in the evaluation of brain atrophy. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the use of normalized linear measures over longitudinal follow-up remains insufficiently documented. Purpose: To evaluate the association between different regional atrophy measures and disability in MS patients over four decades in a longitudinal cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: 37 consecutively selected MS patients were included. At baseline, patients had a range of disease duration (1-33 years) and age (24-65 years). Each patient was followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a mean of 9.25 years (range 7.3-10 years). Four 1D measures were applied at three time points on axial 5-mm T1-weighted images. Three clinical MS subgroups were represented: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Results: There were significant changes in all 1D ratios during follow-up. The Evans ratio (ER) and the bifrontal ratio (BFR) were associated with the development of disability. Changes of ER and BFR reflected more aggressive disease progression, as expressed by MS severity score (MSSS). Conclusion: All four normalized ratios showed uniform atrophy progression, suggesting a consistent rate of atrophy over long-term disease duration independent of MS course. Disability status correlated with 1D measures, suggesting that serial evaluation of Evans and bifrontal ratios might contribute to the radiological evaluation of MS patients.

  9. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  10. Measurements of the Neutron Longitudinal Spin Asymmetry A1n and Flavor Decomposition in the Valence Quark Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flay, David J. [Temple University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current data for the nucleon-virtual photon longitudinal spin asymmetry A1 on the proton and neutron have shown that the ratio of the polarized-to-unpolarized down-quarkparton distribution functions,Dd=d, tends towards -1/2 at large x, in disagreement with the perturbative QCD prediction that Dd/d approaches 1 but more in line with constituent quark models. As a part of experiment E06-014 in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, double-spin asymmetries were measured in the scattering of a longitudinally polarized electron beam of energies 4.74 and 5.89 GeV from a longitudinally and transversely polarized 3He target in the deep inelastic scattering and resonance region, allowing for the extraction of the neutron asymmetry An1 and the ratios Dd/d and Du/u. We will discuss our analysis of the data and present results for A1 and g1/F1 on both 3He and the neutron, and the resulting quark ratios for the up and down quarks in the kinematic range of 0.2

  11. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

    2008-03-01

    A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system

  12. GPS measurements of deformation associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1991-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  13. Longitudinal measurements of MRI-T2 in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effects of age and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, R J; Arpan, I A; Forbes, S C; Lott, D J; Senesac, C R; Senesac, E; Deol, J; Triplett, W T; Baligand, C; Daniels, M J; Sweeney, H L; Walter, G A; Vandenborne, K

    2014-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by an increased muscle damage and progressive replacement of muscle by noncontractile tissue. Both of these pathological changes can lengthen the MRI transverse proton relaxation time (T2). The current study measured longitudinal changes in T2 and its distribution in the lower leg of 16 boys with DMD (5-13years, 15 ambulatory) and 15 healthy controls (5-13years). These muscles were chosen to allow extended longitudinal monitoring, due to their slow progression compared with proximal muscles in DMD. In the soleus muscle of boys with DMD, T2 and the percentage of pixels with an elevated T2 (⩾2SD above control mean T2) increased significantly over 1year and 2years, while the width of the T2 histogram increased over 2years. Changes in soleus T2 variables were significantly greater in 9-13years old compared with 5-8years old boys with DMD. Significant correlations between the change in all soleus T2 variables over 2years and the change in functional measures over 2years were found. MRI measurement of muscle T2 in boys with DMD is sensitive to disease progression and shows promise as a clinical outcome measure.

  14. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function in diffraction at the H1 experiment and prospects for diffraction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, David

    2011-05-15

    A measurement of the longitudinal diffractive structure function F{sub L}{sup D} using the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The structure function is extracted from first measurements of the diffractive cross section ep{yields}eXY at centre of mass energies {radical}(s) of 225 and 252 GeV at high values of inelasticity y, together with a new measurement at {radical}(s) of 319 GeV, using data taken in 2006 and 2007. Previous H1 data at {radical}(s) of 301 GeV complete the kinematic coverage needed to extract F{sub L}{sup D} in the range of photon virtualities 2.5longitudinal momentum loss 10{sup -4}measured F{sub L}{sup D} is compared with leading twist predictions based on diffractive parton densities extracted in NLO QCD fits to previous diffractive DIS data and to a model which additionally includes a higher twist contribution derived from a colour dipole approach. The photoabsorption ratio for diffraction RD is extracted for Q{sup 2}>7 GeV{sup 2} and compared to the analogous quantity for inclusive DIS. (orig.)

  15. Present-day Surface Deformation and Vertical Motion In The Central Alborz (iran) From GPS and Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, F.; Sedighi, M.; Hinderer, J.; Bayer, R.; Nilforoushan, F.; Luck, J.-M.; Vernant, P.; Chéry, J.

    The present tectonic of Iran results from the north-south convergence between Eura- sia and Arabia, with a rate of about 3 cm/year. The deformation of Iran is concen- trated in major belts along the south-western border (Zagros), the southern shore of the Caspian Sea (Alborz) and along the north-east border (Kopet-Dag). The Alborz range is an east-west mountain range which accommodates about 1 cm/year of short- ening between the Central Iranian Desert and the south Caspian Sea. The main tec- tonic structures are generally overthrusting range-parallel faults northward dipping in the south (North Tehran fault, Mosha fault) and southward dipping in the north (Amir fault, North Border fault). The compressive tectonic in the Alborz range is certainly accommodated by large vertical motions along the major faults. To study the defor- mation (horizontal and vertical movement) we have installed and measured a GPS network of 14 sites crossing the Alborz range east of Tehran. The GPS network is measured during campaigns performed each year. In order to well constrained the ver- tical deformation of the southern border of the Alborz, we have performed colocated GPS and absolute gravity measurements in 3 sites, one near the Mosha fault (Abali), one in the frontal thrust area of Tehran and one in the stable central Iranian block (Chesmeh-Sour). After two measures (2000 and 2001), some interesting preliminary results will be shown. The observed gravity variation for one year (Sept. 2000 - Sept. 2001) is -3.0 mgal +-2.6 mgal (Abali), -24.2 mgal +-4.8 mgal (Tehran) and +4.7 mgal +-2.3 mgal (Chesmeh-Sour). These results could be explained respectively by a tec- tonic uplift of about 10 mm/year in the Alborz, water pumping in the Tehran area and (unexplained) subsidence at Chesmeh-Sour. These results will be compared to the first estimation of the deformation obtained by GPS (horizontal repeatability < 3 mm and vertical repeatability < 5 mm).

  16. A novel 2nd-order shape function based digital image correlation method for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruixiang; Jiang, Hao; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Weikang

    2017-03-01

    Compared with the traditional forward compositional matching strategy, the inverse compositional matching strategy has almost the same accuracy, but has an obviously higher efficiency than the former in digital image correlation (DIC) algorithms. Based on the inverse compositional matching strategy and the auxiliary displacement functions, a more accurate inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (IC-GN2) algorithm with a new second-order shape operator is proposed for nonuniform and large deformation measurements. A theoretical deduction showed that the new proposed second-order shape operator is invertible and can steadily attain second-order precision. The result of the numerical simulation showed that the matching accuracy of the new IC-GN2 algorithm is the same as that of the forward compositional Gauss-Newton (FC-GN2) algorithm and is relatively better than in IC-GN2 algorithm. Finally, a rubber tension experiment with a large deformation of 27% was performed to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  17. A Study of the Deformation, Network, and Aging of Polyethylene Oxide Films by Infrared Spectroscopy and Calorimetric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Bergeron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The calorimetric and infrared (IR spectroscopy measurements of polyethylene oxide (PEO are used to evaluate the deformation and relaxation that films experience during a temperature cycle (30°C–90°C–30°C. After melting, the intensity of some bands decreases by 10 to 70%. During the temperature cycle, the C–O band in the 1100 cm−1 region and the C–C–O deformation bands at 650 and 500 cm−1 show some new features. A network of cooperative oxygen-hydrogen interactions between the PEO chains form in films with special history, namely, in thermally treated films, in thin films prepared from gel forming solutions, and in thick films after aging. The interchain interaction network is suggested from the IR absorption bands in the 1200 and 900 cm−1 region and also from small bands at 1144 and 956 cm−1. The network seems absent or reduced in thin films. IR spectroscopy appears a sensitive technique to study chain conformations in PEO films and in other materials where order, disorder, and the formation of intermolecular interactions coexist.

  18. A generalized longitudinal mixture IRT model for measuring differential growth in learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadengye, Damazo T; Ceulemans, Eva; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    This article describes a generalized longitudinal mixture item response theory (IRT) model that allows for detecting latent group differences in item response data obtained from electronic learning (e-learning) environments or other learning environments that result in large numbers of items. The described model can be viewed as a combination of a longitudinal Rasch model, a mixture Rasch model, and a random-item IRT model, and it includes some features of the explanatory IRT modeling framework. The model assumes the possible presence of latent classes in item response patterns, due to initial person-level differences before learning takes place, to latent class-specific learning trajectories, or to a combination of both. Moreover, it allows for differential item functioning over the classes. A Bayesian model estimation procedure is described, and the results of a simulation study are presented that indicate that the parameters are recovered well, particularly for conditions with large item sample sizes. The model is also illustrated with an empirical sample data set from a Web-based e-learning environment.

  19. Measurements and Analysis of Longitudinal HOM Driven Coupled Bunch Modes in PEP-II Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastorides, T; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J.D.; Winkle, D.Van; /SLAC

    2008-07-07

    The growth rates of the longitudinal higher-order impedance-driven beam modes have greatly increased since the initial PEP-II design and commissioning. This increase is attributed to the addition of 6 1.2MW RF stations with 8 accelerating cavities in the HER and 2 1.2MW RF stations with 4 accelerating cavities in the LER, which allowed operations at twice the design current and almost four times the luminosity. As a result, the damping requirements for the longitudinal feedback have greatly increased since the design, and the feedback filters and control schemes have evolved during PEP-II operations. In this paper, growth and damping rate data for the higher-order mode (HOM) driven coupled-bunch modes are presented from various PEP-II runs and are compared with historical estimates during commissioning. The effect of noise in the feedback processing channel is also studied. Both the stability and performance limits of the system are analyzed.

  20. Mapping and Measuring the Microrelief of Slope Deformations Using Modern Contactless Technologies and Practical Application in Territorial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudý, František; Slámová, Martina; Tomaštík, Julián; Kardoš, Miroslav; Tunák, Daniel; Saloň, Šimon

    2017-04-01

    Slope deformations are risks limiting economic land use potential. A national database system keeps records of slope disturbances and deformations, however, it is important to update the information mainly from the point of view of practical territorial planning, especially in the high-risk areas presented in the study. The paper explains the possibilities of applying modern methods of mapping the microrelief of slope deformations of a lower extent (up to several hundreds of m2) and using not very well known contactless technologies, which could be applied in practice due to their low-cost and low-time consuming nature. In order to create a digital model of the microrelief used to carry out the measurements we applied the method of terrestrial photogrammetry, terrestrial scanning using Lenovo Phab 2Pro. It is the first device available for users that uses the Google Tango technology. So far there have been only prototypes of devices available for the developers only. The Tango technology consists of 3 partial technologies - "depth perception" (measuring the distance to objects, nowadays it uses mainly infrared radiation), "motion tracking" (tracking the position and motion of the device using embedded sensors) and "area learning" (simply learning the area, where the device looks for same objects within already existing 3D models and real space). Even though the technology utilisation is nowadays presented mainly in the field of augmented reality and navigation in the interior, there are already some applications for collecting the point clouds in real time, which can be used in a wide spectrum of applications in exterior, which was also applied in our research. Data acquired this way can be processed in readily available software products, what enabled a high degree of automation also in our case. After comparing with the reference point field that was measured using GNSS and electronic tachymeter, we reached accuracy of point position determination from a digital

  1. Longitudinal Serum Creatinine Levels in Relation to Graft Loss Following Renal Transplantation: Robust Joint Modeling of Longitudinal Measurements and Survival Time Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younespour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major public health problem that may lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Renal transplantation has become the treatment modality of choice for the majority of patients with ESRD. It is therefore necessary to monitor the disease progression of patients who have undergone renal transplantation. In order to monitor the disease progression, the continuous assessment of kidney function over time is considered. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the etiological role of recipient characteristics in serum creatinine changes within the follow-up period and in relation to the graft failure risk, as well as to evaluate whether or not the serum creatinine level represents an indicator of graft failure following renal transplantation. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the department of nephrology, Baqiyatallah Hospital, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, between April 2005 and December 2008. The study involved 413 renal transplantation patients. The primary outcomes were the determination of the serum creatinine levels at each attendance and the time to graft failure. Robust joint modeling of the longitudinal measurements (serum creatinine level and time-to-event data (time to graft failure were used for the analysis in the presence of outliers in the serum creatinine levels. The data analysis was implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results There was a positive association between the serum creatinine level and graft failure (HR = 5.13, P < 0.001. A one unit increase in the serum creatinine level suggests an increased risk of graft failure of up to 5.13 times. The serum creatinine level significantly decreased over time (95% CI: (-1.58, -1.08. The recipient’s age was negatively associated with the serum creatinine level (95% CI: (-0.02, -0.001. Conclusions Graft failure is more likely to occur in patients with higher serum creatinine levels.

  2. Determination of multidirectional myocardial deformations in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Deformation and velocity measurements at elevated temperature in a fractured 0.5 M block of tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.; Berge, P.A.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of laboratory tests conducted on small block samples of Topopah Spring tuff, in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The overall objective of these tests is to investigate the thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical response of the rock to conditions similar to the near-field environment (NFE) of a potential nuclear waste repository. We present preliminary results of deformation and elastic wave velocity measurements on a 0.5-m-scale block of Topopah Spring tuff tested in uniaxial compression to 8.5 MPa and at temperatures to 85{degree}C. The Young`s modulus was found to be about 7 to 31 GPa for vertical measurements parallel to the stress direction across parts of the block containing no fractures or a few fractures, and 0.5 to 0.9 GPA for measurements across individual fractures, at ambient temperature and 8.5 MPa maximum stress. During stress cycles between 5 and 8.5 MPa, the deformation modulus values for the matrix with fractures were near 15-20 GPa at ambient temperature but dropped to about 10 GPa at 85{degree}C. Compressional wave velocities were found to be about 3.6 to 4.7 km/s at ambient temperature and stress. After the stress was cycled, velocities dropped to values as low as 2.6 km/s in the south end of the block where vertical cracks developed. Heating the block to about 85{degree}C raised velocities to as much as 5.6 km/s in the upper third of the block.

  4. Accuracy and repeatability of an optical motion analysis system for measuring small deformations of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helen; Holt, Cathy; Evans, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Optical motion analysis techniques have been widely used in biomechanics for measuring large-scale motions such as gait, but have not yet been significantly explored for measuring smaller movements such as the tooth displacements under load. In principle, very accurate measurements could be possible and this could provide a valuable tool in many engineering applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of the Qualisys ProReflex-MCU120 system when measuring small displacements, as a step towards measuring tooth displacements to characterise the properties of the periodontal ligament. Accuracy and repeatability of the system was evaluated using a wedge comparator with a resolution of 0.25 microm to provide measured marker displacements in three orthogonal directions. The marker was moved in ten steps in each direction, for each of seven step sizes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 microm), repeated five times. Spherical and diamond markers were tested. The system accuracy (i.e. percentage of maximum absolute error in range/measurement range), in the 20-200 microm ranges, was +/-1.17%, +/-1.67% and +/-1.31% for the diamond marker in x, y and z directions, while the system accuracy for the spherical marker was +/-1.81%, +/-2.37% and +/-1.39%. The system repeatability (i.e. maximum standard deviation in the measurement range) measured under the different days, light intensity and temperatures for five times, carried out step up and then step down measurements for the same step size, was +/-1.7, +/-2.3 and +/-1.9 microm for the diamond marker, and +/-2.6, +/-3.9 and +/-1.9 microm for the spherical marker in x, y and z directions, respectively. These results demonstrate that the system suffices accuracy for measuring tooth displacements and could potentially be useful in many other applications.

  5. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  6. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  7. In-flight measurements of aircraft propeller deformation by means of an autarkic fast rotating imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Boleslaw; Boden, Fritz

    2015-03-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation and pitch of the aircraft propeller is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the aircraft propeller has been presented on the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as on the real aircraft. In this paper we outline the principle of Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and describe the construction of a dedicated autarkic 3D camera system placed on the investigated propeller and rotating at its full speed. Furthermore, the results of the first ground and in-flight tests are shown and discussed. This development has been found by the European Commission within the 7th frame project AIM2 (contract no. 266107).

  8. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-06-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors.

  9. Beam Measurements of the Longitudinal impedance of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090034; Petrache, Costel

    One of the main challenges of future physics projects based on particle accelerators is the need for high intensity beams. However, collective effects are a major limitation which can deteriorate the beam quality or limit the maximum intensity due to losses. The CERN SPS, which is the last injector for the LHC, is currently unable to deliver the beams required for future projects due to longitudinal instabilities. The numerous devices in the machine (accelerating RF cavities, injection and extraction magnets, vacuum flanges. etc.) lead to variations in the geometry and material of the chamber through which the beam is travelling. The electromagnetic interaction within the beam (space charge) and of the beam with its environment are described by a coupling impedance which affects the motion of the particles and leads to instabilities for high beam intensities. Consequently, the critical impedance sources should be identified and solutions assessed. To have a reliable impedance model of an accelerator, the...

  10. Interferometric Set-Up for Measuring Thermal Deformations of Precision Construction Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many precision devices, especially measuring devices, must maintain their technical parameters in variable ambient conditions, particularly at varying temperatures. Examples of such devices may be super precise balances that must keep stability and accuracy of the readings in varying ambient temperatures. Due to that fact, there is a problem of measuring the impact of temperature changes, mainly on geometrical dimensions of fundamental constructional elements of these devices. In the paper a new system for measuring micro-displacements of chosen points of a constructional element of balance with a resolution of single nanometres and accuracy at a level of fractions of micrometres has been proposed.

  11. Longitudinal changes in estimated and measured GFR in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H; Sun, Wanjie; Cleary, Patricia A; Lachin, John M; Molitch, Mark E; Zinman, Bernard; Steffes, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of GFR from serum concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C has been refined using cross-sectional data from large numbers of people. However, the ability of the improved estimating equations to identify changes in GFR within individuals over time has not been rigorously evaluated, particularly within the normal range of GFR. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of 1441 participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study with type 1 diabetes, we compared GFR estimated from creatinine (eGFR(Cr)), cystatin C (eGFR(Cys)), or both (eGFR(Cr+Cys)) with iothalamate GFR (iGFR), including changes in each over time. Mean (SD) iGFR was 122.7 (21.0) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). In cross-sectional analyses, eGFR(Cr+Cys) estimated iGFR with the highest correlation (r=0.48 versus 0.39-0.42), precision, and accuracy. In longitudinal analyses, change in eGFR(Cr+Cys) best estimated change in iGFR; however, differences between estimates were small, and no estimate accurately classified change in iGFR. Over a median 23 years of follow-up, mean rate of change in eGFR was similar across estimates of eGFR(Cr), eGFR(Cys), and eGFR(Cr+Cys) (-1.37, -1.11, and -1.29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, respectively). Associations of BP and hemoglobin A1c with change in eGFR were strongest for eGFR(Cys) and eGFR(Cr+Cys). Together, these results suggest that the addition of cystatin C to creatinine to estimate GFR may improve identification of the causes and consequences of GFR loss in type 1 diabetes, but may not meaningfully improve the tracking of GFR in clinical care.

  12. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  13. Covariance estimation for dInSAR surface deformation measurements in the presence of anisotropic atmospheric noise

    KAUST Repository

    Knospe, Steffen H G

    2010-04-01

    We study anisotropic spatial autocorrelation in differential synthetic aperture radar interferometric (dInSAR) measurements and its impact on geophysical parameter estimations. The dInSAR phase acquired by the satellite sensor is a superposition of different contributions, and when studying geophysical processes, we are usually only interested in the surface deformation part of the signal. Therefore, to obtain high-quality results, we would like to characterize and/or remove other phase components. A stochastic model has been found to be appropriate to describe atmospheric phase delay in dInSAR images. However, these phase delays are usually modeled as being isotropic, which is a simplification, because InSAR images often show directional atmospheric anomalies. Here, we analyze anisotropic structures and show validation results using both real and simulated data. We calculate experimental semivariograms of the dInSAR phase in several European Remote Sensing satellite-1/2 tandem interferograms. Based on the theory of random functions (RFs), we then fit anisotropic variogram models in the spatial domain, employing Matérn-and Bessel-family correlation functions in nested models to represent complex dInSAR covariance structures. The presented covariance function types, in the statistical framework of stationary RFs, are consistent with tropospheric delay models. We find that by using anisotropic data covariance information to weight dInSAR measurements, we can significantly improve both the precision and accuracy of geophysical parameter estimations. Furthermore, the improvement is dependent on how similar the deformation pattern is to the dominant structure of the anisotropic atmospheric signals. © 2009 IEEE.

  14. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  15. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sawiak

    Full Text Available Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala. Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Measurements of longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions for neutral pions in the forward-rapidity region with the LHCf detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.; Zhou, Q.D.

    2016-01-01

    The transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions for inclusive neutral pions in the very forward rapidity region have been measured with the Large Hadron Collider forward detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 2.76 and 7 TeV and in proton-lead collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s_\\text{NN}}=$ 5.02 TeV at the LHC. Such momentum distributions in proton-proton collisions are compatible with the hypotheses of limiting fragmentation and Feynman scaling. A sizable suppression of the production of neutral pions, after taking into account ultraperipheral collisions, is found in the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions obtained in proton-lead collisions. This leads to a strong nuclear modification factor value of about 0.1-0.3. The experimental measurements presented in this paper provide a benchmark for the hadronic interaction Monte Carlo simulations codes that are used for the simulation of air showers.

  18. Measurement and interpretation of crustal deformation rates associated with postglacial rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James L.

    1994-01-01

    This project involves obtaining GPS measurements in Scandinavia and using the measurements to estimate the viscosity profile of the earth's mantle and to correct tide-gauge measurements for the rebound effect. We report on several aspects of this project. The DSGS was not scheduled to be reoccupied with DOSE receivers during the report period. The permanent network set up by Onsala Space Observatory continues to operate, and the data are being evaluated. An important technical advance we intend for this project is to use the full three dimensional site velocity information for inferring geophysical parameters. During the report period, two papers have been been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research and will be published in April. Reprints of these papers are contained in the Appendix.

  19. Measuring Ganymede's tidal deformation by laser altimetry: application to the GALA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, Gregor; Hussmann, Hauke; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of Ganymede's induced magnetic field suggest a salty water layer under the icy crust (Kivelson et al. 2002), in agreement with thermal models based on heat transfer and energy balance equations (e.g., Spohn and Schubert, 2003). Due to the small density contrast between ice-I and liquid water, interior structure models (e.g. Sohl et al. 2003) consistent with Ganymede's moment of inertia and total mass cannot constrain the ice thickness or ocean depth. In order to reduce the ambiguity of the structural models and to constrain the ice thickness, it has been proposed to measure the dynamic response of Ganymede's ice shell to tidal forces exerted by Jupiter characterized by the Love numbers h2 and k2. Similar strategies have been investigated in application to Europa (Wu 2001, Wahr 2006, Hussmann 2011). The body tide Love number h2 depends on the tidal frequency (main tidal cycle is the 7.15 days period of revolution), the internal structure, and the rheology, in particular on the presence of fluid layers, and the thickness and rigidity of an overlaying ice shell. Combined with measurements of the Love number k2, which can be inferred from radio science experiments, and a simultaneous determination of linear combinations of h2 and k2 the obtained data would significantly reduce the ambiguity in structural models (Wahr et al. 2006). A way to determine tidal effects in Ganymede's topography and therefore the h2 value by a spacecraft in orbit is the crossover method: Different orbit tracks will intersect at certain surface locations at different times so that the tidal signal can be extracted from a differential altimetry measurement. The Ganymede Laser Altimeter GALA is one of the instruments selected for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE). The GALA instrument will perform globally distributed altitude measurements from a low circular orbit. The main challenges for the determination of the tidal amplitude are Ganymede's high surface roughness and low

  20. Integrated GPS and SAR Interferometry to Measure Time-varying Surface Deformation Over a Giant Oilfield in California*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Patzek, T. W.; Patzek, T. W.; Silin, D. B.; Brink, J.

    2001-12-01

    We combine campaign GPS measurements with interferometry synthetic aperture radar (IntSAR) images to map the deformation around and above the Lost Hills oilfield, one of the biggest fields in the USA. GPS at several dozen benchmarks every six months provides a long time series of total vertical and horizontal position change for monuments in the rapidly subsidng ground surface above the oilfield. IntSAR maps using data from the ERS satellites measure relative changes at high spatial resolution with some moderate- to long-wavelength noise sources such as orbit error and atmospheric delays. The GPS data are used to model the moderate to long-wavelength surface deformation field so that the error contributions at those wavelengths in the IntSAR images can be estimated and removed. The rapid subsidence (rates greater than 1 mm/day in 1995) and small size (roughly 3 km wide by 10 km long) require the use of short time intervals for the IntSAR pairs (between 35 days and 8 months), and also processing with the smallest possible sample spacing of 20 by 20 meters to resolve the extreme strain rates. Previously published comparison of the tiltmeter measurements with well fluid extraction demonstrated both an immediate elastoplastic response to depletion and a time-dependent creep response. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the IntSAR measurements will be combined with well records on fluid extraction and injection to separate the delayed response from the immediate reponse to better understand the processes of compaction in the oil reservoir rocks, extremely high-porosity diatomite. This will have direct relevance to the oilfield operations as the compaction can damage the wells and should be minimized. Surprisingly, in some parts of the oilfield, injecting more water to replace the pressure of the oil and gas extracted causes the subsidence rates to increase. Because the fluid input and output at the oilfield is measured, it provides an excellent test bed for

  1. Characterisation of polycrystal deformation by numerical modelling and neutron diffraction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjørn

    of calculated and measured lattice strains are made for three different materials; alu-minium, copper and austenitic stainless steel. The predictions of the self-consistent model is more accurate and detailed than the predictions of the Taylor and Sachs models, though some discrepancies are noted for some...

  2. Crustal deformation and magmatic processes at Laguna del Maule volcanic field (Chile): Geodetic measurements and numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mével, Hélène

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in Chile is an exceptional example of postglacial rhyolitic volcanism in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Since 2007, LdM has experienced an unrest episode characterized by high rates of deformation measured by interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired between 2007 and 2016, and data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) recorded since 2012 at five stations. The inflating region includes most of the 16--km-by--14--km ring of rhyolitic domes and coulees. The fastest-moving GPS station (MAU2) has a velocity vector of [[special character omited]72 +/- 4, 19 +/- 1, 194 +/- 3] mm/yr between 2012 and 2016 for the eastward, northward, and upward components, respectively. First, we model the InSAR observations assuming a rectangular dislocation in a half space with uniform elastic properties. The best time function for modeling the InSAR data set is a double exponential model with rates increasing from 2007 through 2010 and decreasing slowly since 2011. Modeling of historical uplift at Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Three Sisters volcanic fields suggests a common temporal evolution of vertical displacement rates. We hypothesize that magma intruding into an existing silicic magma reservoir is driving the surface deformation and present a new dynamic model to describe this process. A Newtonian fluid characterized by its viscosity, density, and pressure flows through a vertical conduit, intruding into a reservoir embedded in an elastic domain and leading to time-dependent surface deformation. Using a grid-search optimization, we minimize the misfit to the InSAR displacement data by varying the three parameters governing the analytical solution: the characteristic timescale tauP for magma propagation, the injection pressure, and the inflection time when the acceleration switches from positive to negative. For a spheroid with semi-major axis a = 6200 m, semi-minor axis c = 100 m, located at a

  3. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  4. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current cross-sections with longitudinally polarised positrons with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Trevor P.

    2012-07-15

    The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e{sup {+-}}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q{sup 2}. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross section {sigma} are measured. The structure function xF{sub 3} is determined by combining the e{sup +}p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e{sup -}p measurements. The interference structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}Z} is extracted at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2}. The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)

  5. Study on deformation measurement of position and attitude based on the fold line videometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-lin; Jiang, Guang-wen; Fu, Sihua; Zhao, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Combining with the fold line videometrics, a method for pose estimation based on monocular measurements is studied. The method to measure the inertial position of the Photometric transfer station and the Orthogonal Iterative Algorithm based on the image space collinearity error is summarized. Then, the mistake using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to solve is described and then introduce the improving algorithm. Finally, the Simulation and actual experiment is done to verify the accuracy of pose estimation using the fold line videometrics. The results show that the precision can reach 1mm or less using a camera with the resolution of 1280 by 1024 pixels, in the condition of 4.5 meter capturing distance and a Leica TS30.

  6. Interseismic deformation of the Shahroud fault system (NE Iran) from space-borne radar interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Z.; Pathier, E.; Walker, R. T.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H.; Sedighi, M.; Doin, M.-P.

    2015-07-01

    The Shahroud fault system is a major active structure in the Alborz range of NE Iran whose slip rate is not well constrained despite its potential high seismic hazard. In order to constrain the slip rate of the eastern Shahroud fault zone, we use space-borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry with both ascending and descending Envisat data to determine the rate of interseismic strain accumulation across the system. We invert the slip rate from surface velocity measurements using a half-space elastic dislocation model. The modeling results are consistent with a left-lateral slip rate of 4.75 ± 0.8 mm/yr on the Abr and Jajarm, strands of the Shahroud fault, with a 10 ± 4 km locking depth. This is in good agreement with the 4-6 mm/yr of left-lateral displacement rate accumulated across the total Shahroud fault system obtained from GPS measurements.

  7. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  8. Deformation during the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, measured from historical optical imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sébastien; Ayoub, François; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We measure the displacement field resulting from the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, using optical image correlation. Images are processed using the COSI-Corr software package. Surface extension is accommodated on normal faults and fissures which bound the rift zone, in response to dike injection at depth. Correlation of declassified KH-9 spy and SPOT5 satellite images reveals extension between 1977–2002 (2.5 m average opening over 80 km), while correlation of aerial photos betwe...

  9. Full-field wing deformation measurement scheme for in-flight cantilever monoplane based on 3D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei-Gang; Liang, Jin; Guo, Xiang; Guo, Cheng; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zheng-Zong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a new non-contact scheme, based on 3D digital image correlation technology, is presented to measure the full-field wing deformation of in-flight cantilever monoplanes. Because of the special structure of the cantilever wing, two conjugated camera groups, which are rigidly connected and calibrated to an ensemble respectively, are installed onto the vertical fin of the aircraft and record the whole measurement. First, a type of pre-stretched target and speckle pattern are designed to adapt the oblique camera view for accurate detection and correlation. Then, because the measurement cameras are swinging with the aircraft vertical trail all the time, a camera position self-correction method (using control targets sprayed on the back of the aircraft), is designed to orientate all the cameras’ exterior parameters to a unified coordinate system in real time. Besides, for the excessively inclined camera axis and the vertical camera arrangement, a weak correlation between the high position image and low position image occurs. In this paper, a new dual-temporal efficient matching method, combining the principle of seed point spreading, is proposed to achieve the matching of weak correlated images. A novel system is developed and a simulation test in the laboratory was carried out to verify the proposed scheme.

  10. Measurement of the spin and magnetic moment of $^{31}$Mg Evidence for a strongly deformed intruder ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Nevens, G; Yordanov, D; Blaum, K; Himpe, P; Lievens, P; Mallion, S; Neugart, R; Vermeulen, N; Utsuno, Y; Otsuka, T

    2005-01-01

    Unambiguous values of the spin and magnetic moment of $^{31}$Mg are obtained by combining the results of a hyperfine-structure measurement and a $\\beta$-NMR measurement, both performed with an optically polarized ion beam. With a measured nuclear $\\textit{g}$-factor and spin $\\scriptstyle\\textrm{I}$= 1/2, the magnetic moment $\\mu(^{31}\\!$Mg)=-0.88355(15)$\\mu\\scriptstyle_\\textrm{N}$ is deduced. A revised level scheme of $^{31}$Mg( Z=12, N=19 ) with ground state spin/parity $\\scriptstyle\\textrm{I}$$^{\\pi}$= 1/2$^{+}$ is presented, revealing the coexistence of 1p-1h and 2p-2h intruder states below 500keV. Advanced shell-model calculations and the Nilsson model suggest that the $\\scriptstyle\\textrm{I}$$^{\\pi}$= 1/2$^{+}$ ground state is a strongly prolate deformed intruder state. This result plays a key role for the understanding of nuclear structure changes due to the disappearance of the N=20 shell gap in neutron-rich nuclei.

  11. Determination of ductile damage parameters by local deformation fields: Measurement and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, M. [Chair of Structural Mechanics and Vehicle Vibrational Technology, BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany); Kuna, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This work comprises the development, implementation and application of methods for the parameter identification of damage mechanical constitutive laws. Ductile damage is described on a continuum mechanical basis by extension of the von Mises yield condition with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman as well as with the Rousselier model. The classical Rousselier model is complemented by accelerated void growth and void nucleation. The non-linear boundary and initial value problem is solved by the finite element system SPC-PMHP, which was developed in the frame of the special research program SFB393 for parallel computers. The material parameters are identified by locally measured displacement fields and measured force-displacement curves. For the material parameter identification a non-linear optimization algorithm is used, which renders the objective function to a minimum by means of a gradient based method. A useful strategy to identify the material parameters was found by careful numerical studies. Finally, using the object grating method the local displacement fields as well as the force-displacement curves are measured at notched flat bar tension specimens made of StE 690 and the parameters of the material are identified. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  13. Longitudinal measures of cholinergic forebrain atrophy in the transition from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Teipel, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence from cross-sectional in vivo imaging studies suggests that atrophy of the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be distinguished from normal age-related degeneration even at predementia stages of the disease. Longitudinal study designs are needed to specify the dynamics of BF degeneration in the transition from normal aging to AD. We applied recently developed techniques for in vivo volumetry of the BF to serial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 82 initially healthy elderly individuals (60-93 years) and 50 patients with very mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating score = 0.5) that were clinically followed over an average of 3 ± 1.5 years. BF atrophy rates were found to be significantly higher than rates of global brain shrinkage even in cognitively stable healthy elderly individuals. Compared with healthy control subjects, very mild AD patients showed reduced BF volumes at baseline and increased volume loss over time. Atrophy of the BF was more pronounced in progressive patients compared with those that remained stable. The cholinergic BF undergoes disproportionate degeneration in the aging process, which is further increased by the presence of AD.

  14. Early echocardiographic deformation analysis for the prediction of sudden cardiac death and life-threatening arrhythmias after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Valeur, Nana; Andersen, Mads Jønsson

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to hypothesize that global longitudinal strain (GLS) as a measure of infarct size, and mechanical dispersion (MD) as a measure of myocardial deformation heterogeneity, would be of incremental importance for the prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or malignant ventricular ar...

  15. Characterising x-ray mirror deformations with a phase measuring deflectometry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.; Winter, A.

    2014-07-01

    MPE is developing modular x-ray mirrors for the next generation of high-energy astronomy missions. The mirror segments are based on thermally formed (a.k.a. slumped) glass sheets, with a typical thickness of 400µm. One of the major challenges is the alignment and integration of the mirror segments and the associated metrology. The optical performance of the mirror can be significantly compromised by adhesive shrinkage, gravity sag or residual stresses influenced by the properties of the mirror mounting and the integration procedure. In parallel with classic coordinate measurement techniques we utilize a deflectometry based metrology system to characterization shape errors of the mirror surfaces. A typical deflectometry setup uses a TFT display to project a sinusoidal pattern onto a specular test surface (SUT) and a camera that observes the reflected image. This reflected image contains slope information of the SUT in the form of distortions of the original displayed pattern. A phase shifting technique can be used to recover this slope information with only very few exposures and reasonable computational effort. The deflectometry system enables us to characterize bonding interfaces of slumped glass mirrors, as well as influence of temporary mounting points, handling and thermal distortions. It is also well suited to measure transient effects.

  16. Deformed discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  17. Estimation of transient deformation on cGPS measurements at Taiwan region: Implications for tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. H.; Chan, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Transient deformation on geodetic time series is usually caused by the tectonic or surface processes. Surface processes include multiple durations that could be trapped or ignored using general time series analysis. We first recognize overall transient signals in Taiwan region recorded by continuous GPS (cGPS) networks. Sparse estimation techniques and Bi-splines function are used to detect the signals on cGPS time series then estimate the parameters. Our study analyzes the transient deformation by using a multi-dataset of the cGPS, seismogram, digital terrain model (DTM), and rainfall gauges. We establish a systematic classification by weighting both the empirical trigger factors and regional criterion to classify the signals into seven types. Spatial and temporal characteristics of transient deformation show three major contributions in Taiwan region including the seismic-related, landslides-related, and slow-slip transients. The cGPS networks in Taiwan region show long-term transient deformation at rates 2-68 mm/yr, ~14%-75% of their tectonic interseismic velocities. Tectonic and surface processes involve ~38%-85% and ~15%-62%, respectively, in the transient deformation under different geological units of Taiwan region. The lack of consideration for the transient deformation in surface processes would underestimate their biases on tectonic interseismic velocity. Statistical linking between cGPS transient deformation, tectonic and surface processes of Taiwan indicate that earthquake, typhoon, and topography play important roles in the occurrence of transient deformation.

  18. Second order gauge invariant measure of a tidally deformed black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a Lagrangian perturbation theory for the second order treatment of small disturbances of the event horizon in Schwarzchild black holes is introduced. The issue of gauge invariance in the context of general relativistic theory is also discussed. The developments of this paper is a logical continuation of the calculations presented in \\cite{Vega+Poisson}, in which the first order coordinate dependance of the intrinsic and exterinsic geometry of the horizon is examined and the first order gauge invariance of the intrinsic geometry of the horizon is shown. In context of second order perturbation theory, It is shown that the rate of the expansion of the congruence of the horizon generators is invariant under a second order reparametrization; so it can be considered as a measure of tidal perturbation. A general expression for this observable, which accomodates tidal perturbations, is also presented.

  19. Second order gauge invariant measure of a tidally deformed black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Nahid, E-mail: nahmadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Kargar Avenue North, Tehran 14395-547 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a Lagrangian perturbation theory for the second order treatment of small disturbances of the event horizon in Schwarzchild black holes is introduced. The issue of gauge invariance in the context of general relativistic theory is also discussed. The developments of this paper is a logical continuation of the calculations presented in [1], in which the first order coordinate dependance of the intrinsic and exterinsic geometry of the horizon is examined and the first order gauge invariance of the intrinsic geometry of the horizon is shown. In context of second order perturbation theory, It is shown that the rate of the expansion of the congruence of the horizon generators is invariant under a second order reparametrization; so it can be considered as a measure of tidal perturbation. A generally non-vanishing expression for this observable, which accomodates tidal perturbations and implies nonlinear response of the horizon, is also presented.

  20. Measurement of the Longitudinal Spin Transfer to Lambda and Anti-Lambda Hyperons in Polarised Muon DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, J; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Brona, G; Burtin, E; Bussa, M P; Chapiro, A; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Das, S; DasGupta, S S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Díaz, V; Dinkelbach, A M; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; Friedrich, J M; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Görtz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grajek, O A; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Heinsius, F H; Hermann, M; Hermann, R; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Höppner, C; D'Hose, N; Ilgner, C; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iven, B; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jasinski, P; Jegou, G; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Komissarov, E V; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K C; Konopka, R; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kuznetsov, O; Kowalik, K; Krämer, M; Kral, A; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Marroncle, J; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Massmann, F; Matsuda, T; Maximov, A N; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J; Negrini, S; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pontecorvo, G; Pretz, J; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Reggiani, D; Richter, A; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, H; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schmitt, L; Schröder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Siebert, H W; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Takekawa, S; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Tkatchev, L G; Venugopal, G; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Vossen, A; Weitzel, Q; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhao, J; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A

    2009-01-01

    The longitudinal polarisation transfer from muons to lambda and anti-lambda hyperons, D_LL, has been studied in deep inelastic scattering off an unpolarised isoscalar target at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The spin transfers to lambda and anti-lambda produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of x and xF . The measured x and xF dependences of D^lambda_LL are compatible with zero, while D^anti-lambda_LL tends to increase with xF, reaching values of 0.4 - 0.5. The resulting average values are D^lambda_LL = -0.012 +- 0.047 +- 0.024 and D^anti-lambda_LL = 0.249 +- 0.056 +- 0.049. These results are discussed in the frame of recent model calculations.

  1. Are There Linguistic Markers of Suicidal Writing That Can Predict the Course of Treatment? A Repeated Measures Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancu, Mira; Jobes, David; Wagner, Barry M; Greene, Jeffrey A; Fratto, Timothy A

    2016-07-02

    The purpose of this pilot study was to predict resolution of suicidal ideation and risk over the course of therapy among suicidal outpatients (N = 144) using a novel method for analyzing Self- verses Relationally oriented qualitative written responses to the Suicide Status Form (SSF). A content analysis software program was used to extract word counts and a repeated measures longitudinal design was implemented to assess improvement over time. Patients with primarily Relationally focused word counts were more likely to have a quicker suicide risk resolution than those with more Self-focused word counts (6-7 sessions versus 17-18 sessions). Implications of these data are discussed, including the potential for enhancing treatment outcomes using this method with individuals entering treatment.

  2. Geodetic measurement of deformation east of the San Andreas fault in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Lisowski, Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    Triangulation and trilateration data from two geodetic networks located between the San Andreas fault and the Great Valley have been used to calculate shear strain rates in the Diablo Range and to estimate the slip rate along the Calaveras and Paicines faults in central California. The shear strain rates, γ1 and γ2, were estimated independently from angle changes using Prescott's method and from the simultaneous reduction for station position and strain parameters using the DYNAP method with corrections to reduce the triangulation and trilateration data to a common reference surface. On the basis of Prescott's method, the average shear strain rate across the Diablo Range for the time period between 1962 and 1982 is 0.15±0.08 μrad/yr, with the orientation of the most compressive strain (β) at N16°E±14°. Utilizing corrections for the deflection of the vertical and the geoid reference ellipsoid separation computed on the basis of local gravity observations, γ = 0.19±0.09 μrad/yr and β = N16°E±13°. Although γ is not significantly greater than zero, at the 95% confidence level the orientation of β is similar to the direction of maximum compressive strain indicated by the orientation of major fold structures in the region (N25°E). We infer that the measured strain is due to compression across the folds of this area; the average shear straining corresponds to a relative shortening rate of 5.7±2.7 mm/yr. In contrast to the situation throughout most of the Coast Ranges where fold axes have orientations approximately parallel to the San Andreas fault, within the Diablo Range between Hollister and Coalinga the trends of the fold axes are different and are thought to be controlled by reactivation of older structures. From trilateration measurements made between 1972 and 1987 on lines that are within 10 km of the San Andreas fault, a slip rate of 10-12 mm/yr was calculated for the Calaveras-Paicines fault south of Hollister. The slip rate on the Paicines

  3. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, J. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  4. Experimental Measurements of Permeability Evolution During Brittle Deformation of Crystalline Rocks and Implications for Fluid Flow in Fault Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.; Faulkner, D.

    2007-12-01

    Detailed experimental studies of the development of permeability of crustal rock during deformation are essential in helping to understand fault mechanics and constrain larger scale models that predict bulk fluid flow within the crust. The strength, permeability and pore fluid volume evolution of initially intact crystalline rock (Westerly granite and Cerro Cristales granodiorite) under increasing differential load leading to macroscopic failure has been measured in a triaxial deformation apparatus. Experiments were run under pore water pressures of 50 MPa and varying effective pressures from 10 to 50 MPa. Permeability is seen to increase by up to and over two orders of magnitude prior to macroscopic failure, from 3.5 x 10-21 to 9 x 10-19 m2 with the greatest increase seen at lowest effective pressures. Post-failure permeability is shown to be over 3 orders of magnitude higher than initial intact permeabilities, as high as 4 x 10-18 m2, and approaches lower the limit of measurements of in situ bulk crustal permeabilities. Increasing amplitude cyclic loading tests show permeability-stress hysteresis, with high permeabilities maintained as differential stress is reduced. The largest permeability increases are seen between 90-99% of the failure stress. Under hydrothermal conditions without further loading, it is suggested that much of this permeability can be recovered, and pre-macroscopic failure fracture damage may heal relatively faster than post-failure macroscopic fractures. Pre-failure permeabilities are nearly seven to nine orders of magnitude lower than that predicted by some high pressure diffusive models suggesting that microfracture matrix flow cannot dominate, and agrees with inferences that bulk fluid flow and dilatancy must be dominated by larger scale structures, such as macrofractures. It is suggested that the permeability of a highly stressed fault tip process zone in low-permeability crystalline rocks could increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude

  5. Measurement of high-Q (2) charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Huettmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ota, O.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e (+) p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb(-1) collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a ce

  6. Timed Up & Go as a measure for longitudinal change in mobility after stroke - Postural Stroke Study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carina U; Danielsson, Anna; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hansson, Per-Olof

    2014-05-09

    A frequently used clinical test to assess mobility after stroke is the Timed Up & Go. Knowledge regarding whether or not the Timed Up & Go is able to detect change over time in patients with stroke, whether improvements in mobility exist after the first three months and whether or not longitudinal change in mobility after stroke depend on the patients' age, is limited or unclear. The objectives were to investigate the distribution-based responsiveness of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) during the first three months after a first event of stroke, to measure the longitudinal change in TUG time during the first year after stroke and to establish whether recovery in TUG time differs between different age groups. Ninety-one patients with first-ever stroke were assessed using the Timed Up & Go at the 1st week and at 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke. The non-parametric sign-test, the parametric t-test and a mixed model approach to linear regression for repeated measurements (Proc mixed) were used for the statistical analyses. The median TUG time was reduced from 17 to 12 seconds (p time between 3 and 12 months after stroke, while patients time). The Timed Up & Go demonstrates ability to detect change in mobility over time in patients with stroke. A significant improvement in TUG time from the 1st week to 3 months after stroke was found, as expected, but thereafter no statistically significant change was detected. After 3 months, patients ≥80 years tended to deteriorate in terms of TUG time, while the younger patients did not.

  7. Timed Up & Go as a measure for longitudinal change in mobility after stroke – Postural Stroke Study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A frequently used clinical test to assess mobility after stroke is the Timed Up & Go. Knowledge regarding whether or not the Timed Up & Go is able to detect change over time in patients with stroke, whether improvements in mobility exist after the first three months and whether or not longitudinal change in mobility after stroke depend on the patients’ age, is limited or unclear. The objectives were to investigate the distribution-based responsiveness of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) during the first three months after a first event of stroke, to measure the longitudinal change in TUG time during the first year after stroke and to establish whether recovery in TUG time differs between different age groups. Methods Ninety-one patients with first-ever stroke were assessed using the Timed Up & Go at the 1st week and at 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke. The non-parametric sign-test, the parametric t-test and a mixed model approach to linear regression for repeated measurements (Proc mixed) were used for the statistical analyses. Results The median TUG time was reduced from 17 to 12 seconds (p time between 3 and 12 months after stroke, while patients time). Conclusion The Timed Up & Go demonstrates ability to detect change in mobility over time in patients with stroke. A significant improvement in TUG time from the 1st week to 3 months after stroke was found, as expected, but thereafter no statistically significant change was detected. After 3 months, patients ≥80 years tended to deteriorate in terms of TUG time, while the younger patients did not. PMID:24885868

  8. Measures for controlling large deformations of underground caverns under high in-situ stress condition-A case study of Jinping I hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwu Song; Xuemin Feng; Chenggang Liao; Dewen Cai; Zhongxu Liu; Yunhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    The Jinping I hydropower station is a huge water conservancy project consisting of the highest concrete arch dam to date in the world and a highly complex and large underground powerhouse cavern. It is located on the right bank with extremely high in-situ stress and a few discontinuities observed in sur-rounding rock masses. The problems of rock mass deformation and failure result in considerable chal-lenges related to project design and construction and have raised a wide range of concerns in the fields of rock mechanics and engineering. During the excavation of underground caverns, high in-situ stress and relatively low rock mass strength in combination with large excavation dimensions lead to large deformation of the surrounding rock mass and support. Existing experiences in excavation and support cannot deal with the large deformation of rock mass effectively, and further studies are needed. In this paper, the geological conditions, layout of caverns, and design of excavation and support are first introduced, and then detailed analyses of deformation and failure characteristics of rocks are presented. Based on this, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed, and the support adjustments for controlling rock large deformation and subsequent excavation procedures are proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of support and excavation adjustments to maintain the stability of the rock mass is verified. The measures for controlling the large deformation of surrounding rocks enrich the practical experiences related to the design and construction of large underground openings, and the construction of caverns in the Jinping I hydropower station provides a good case study of large-scale excavation in highly stressed ground with complex geological structures, as well as a reference case for research on rock mechanics. © 2016 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article

  9. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  10. Measurements of the neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections using longitudinally polarised lepton beams at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.

    2007-01-18

    This thesis presents inclusive e{sup {+-}}p single and double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering measured as functions of the four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} and the Bjorken variable x in interactions of longitudinally polarised leptons with unpolarised protons using the H1 detector at HERA II. An overview of the phenomenology of deep inelastic scattering is given and the experimental apparatus as well as the measurement and analysis procedures are described. The analysis is based on e{sup +}p data taken in 2003-04 and e{sup -}p data taken in 2005 at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=318 GeV, with integrated luminosities of 47.6 pb{sup -1} and 98.4 pb{sup -1} for the e{sup +}p and e{sup -}p samples, respectively. The cross sections are measured in the range of 200measurements are used to study polarisation e ects in neutral current interactions and to determine the structure function xF{sub 3}. The new HERA II data are combined together with previously published data from HERA I to determine the structure function xF{sub 3} with improved precision. Furthermore, this measurement is combined with the corresponding ZEUS measurement to provide the most accurate measurement of the interference structure function xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3}, which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low values of x. The data on polarised cross section asymmetries A{sup {+-}} are also combined with the ZEUS data. This leads to the first observation of parity violation in neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering at distances down to 10{sup -18} m. The data are well described by the Standard Model predictions. (orig.)

  11. Measurement and evaluation of the alar base in unilateral secondary lip nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilai; Yang, Yusheng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Guomin

    2013-11-01

    Objective : This study aimed to analyze the asymmetry of the pyriform aperture and alar base in patients with unilateral secondary nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods : 3D-CT images of the subject group of 101 adult patients and of a control group of 65 normal adults were examined. Sixty-nine patients without alveolar bone grafting (ABG) were classified as Group A, and 32 patients with ABG were classified as Group B. Seven landmarks (INM, LPA, IPA, Gbase, Gsup, Glat, and Sbal) were measured for both the subject and control groups, and comparative analyses were done to assess the degree of asymmetry in the subject group. Results : For over 95% of Group A and 80% to 85% of Group B, the index of LPA and IPA showed asymmetry or marked asymmetry. The index of Gbase, Glat, Gsup, and Sbal showed symmetry for around 50% of Group A and about 60% of Group B. In Group A, dorsal, lateral, and caudal translocation was found on the cleft side in LPA and IPA, while all soft landmarks showed dorsal translocation. In Group B, caudal translocation was found in both LPA and IPA, but only LPA appeared dorsal on the cleft side, while Glat showed dorsal and caudal translocation. Conclusion : The results indicated that the degree of asymmetry of hard tissue landmarks far exceeded that of the soft tissue landmarks, and the degree of asymmetry of pyriform aperture was higher than expected for patients after ABG.

  12. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for LIGO, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{NS}\\propto (R/M)^{5}$ using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if non-tidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of non-tidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than $30$. For similarly loud signals, we also f...

  13. Longitudinal Transient Elastography Measurements Used in Follow-up for Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Verdievel, Hugo; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; De Looze, Danny; Verhelst, Xavier; Geerts, Anja; Robberecht, Eddy; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is diagnosed using a combination of criteria. Transient elastography (TE), an ultrasonographic method to evaluate liver stiffness, can differentiate patients with and without liver disease. This retrospective study (2007-2013) aimed to detect developing CFLD using consequent TE measurements. All cystic fibrosis patients with TE measurements between 2007 and 2013 (n = 150, median age 17 (9-24) y) were included, of which 118 had a median of three (range, 2-4) measurements with an interval of 1 (1-2) y. Twenty (14%) had CFLD at the first TE measurement; five (3%) developed CFLD during follow-up. The median TE value in CFLD was 14 kPa (8.7-32.2) compared with 5.3 (4.9-5.7) in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease (CFnoLD; p = 0.0001). In CFnoLD, TE was correlated with age (p = 0.031). A TE result >6.8 kPa had a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 91.7% in predicting CFLD, according to the receiver operating characteristics analysis. It also has a positive predictive value of 88.6% and a negative predictive value of 86.9%, increasing to 91.7% and 98%, respectively, in patients at risk (<14 y) for developing CFLD. Patients with developing CFLD had progressively increasing consecutive TE measurements.

  14. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  15. Three dimension simulation analysis of the interpass stress and deformation during multipass welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huajun; Zhang Guangjun; Zhang Xiulan; Cai Chunbo; Gao Hongming

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely studied about the final residual stress and deformation in multipass welding of thick weldments. But there is a lack of a clear understanding of the interrelationship of interpass stress and deformation during multipass welding. In this study, a three dimension numerical model of a sixteen-pass double V-groove welded joint with 50 mm plate is developed to compute the stress field and deformation by using multiple CPU parallel processing technology. The following factors such as the non-linear of temperature, heat radiation, filling of material step by step and so on are considered. Distribution and evolution law of welding stress in the transverse and longitudinal section is analyzed in this paper, and the interpass stresses are studied also. At the same time the evolution course of angular deformation amount is analyzed, and the experimental results show that the calculated results accord with the measured results of angular deformation.

  16. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome–nascent chain complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Sammy H. S.; Waudby, Christopher A.; Cassaignau, Anaïs M. E.; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John, E-mail: j.christodoulou@ucl.ac.uk [University College London and Birkbeck College, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome–nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 μM), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of {sup 15}N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of {sup 1}H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on N{sub z} during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ∼1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Quantitative measurement of blaCMY-2 in a longitudinal observational study of dairy cattle treated with ceftiofur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Tim C; Singer, Randall S

    2012-11-01

    There is concern that a relationship exists between antibiotic use in livestock production and the emergence, spread, and persistence of antibiotic resistance. It is important to understand the impact that therapeutic doses of antibiotics for treatment of disease have on resistance because disease treatment typically involves higher doses of antibiotic over short time spans. Absolute quantities of the antibiotic resistance gene bla(CMY-2) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the bacterial community DNA of fecal samples from dairy cattle that were given a 5-day course of ceftiofur and untreated cattle during a longitudinal, observational study. A hierarchical linear model that accounts for left-censored data and repeated measures was used to estimate group means of bla(CMY-2) from the qPCR data. Ceftiofur-treated animals had significantly higher mean quantities of bla(CMY-2) than untreated animals during treatment. On the first day post-treatment, mean quantities of bla(CMY-2) returned to pre-treatment levels and remained low in both groups for the remainder of the study. The use of qPCR to measure bla(CMY-2) quantities provided evidence that the burden of resistance in treated animals may have increased temporarily, a result that was not evident when using only cultivation-based methods of testing for resistance.

  18. Measurement of charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is given for positively and negatively polarised electron beams. The differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The double-differential cross-section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} is presented in the kinematic range 280measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  19. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...

  1. A developmental approach to performance measures - results from a longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Performance measurement systems (PMS) serve different functions. These are formal devices for control, and for the formulation and communication of strategy, and as such PMS primarily serve higher-level managers. But we can also aspire PMS to support operational managers, to motivate and enable thes

  2. A developmental approach to performance measures - results from a longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Performance measurement systems (PMS) serve different functions. These are formal devices for control, and for the formulation and communication of strategy, and as such PMS primarily serve higher-level managers. But we can also aspire PMS to support operational managers, to motivate and enable

  3. Cross-national and longitudinal investigation of a short measure of workaholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Feldt, Taru; Hakanen, Jari J.; Kokko, Katja; Huhtala, Mari; Pulkkinen, Lea; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS). The DUWAS-10 is intended to measure workaholism with two correlated factors: working excessively (WE) and working compulsively (WC). The factor structure of the DUWAS-10 was examined

  4. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  5. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  6. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  7. Combating hooliganism in the Netherlands. An evaluation of measures to combat hooliganism with longitudinal registration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, D.P.; Postma, M; Jansen, L.; Tolsma, J.

    2014-01-01

    Football hooliganism is an undesirable but widespread phenomenon. In this contribution, a range of measures to combat hooliganism in the Netherlands is evaluated. We use (logistic) multi-level models to analyze data on hooliganism from the Dutch Football Vandalism Information Office covering 3431

  8. Combating hooliganism in the Netherlands: An evaluation of measures to combat hooliganism with longitudinal registration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, D.P.; Postma, M; Jansen, L.; Tolsma, J.

    2014-01-01

    Football hooliganism is an undesirable but widespread phenomenon. In this contribution, a range of measures to combat hooliganism in the Netherlands is evaluated. We use (logistic) multi-level models to analyze data on hooliganism from the Dutch Football Vandalism Information Office covering 3431

  9. Dew measurements along a longitudinal sand dune transect, Negev Desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A F; Heusinkveld, B G; Berkowicz, S M

    2000-03-01

    In a desert environment dew can serve as an important source of moisture for plants, biological crusts, insects and small animals. A measurement programme was carried out within a sand dune belt situated in the northwestern Negev desert, Israel, to measure daily amounts of dew deposition as well as micro-meteorological conditions during the dew formation and early-morning drying process. Dew quantities were measured by micro-lysimeters along a 200-m transect as well as by the eddy-correlation technique at a reference location. A simple physical model was constructed to simulate the dew deposition process as well as early-morning drying for the interdune area and the north- and south-facing dune slopes. Measurements carried out during September and October 1997 showed that the daily amounts of dew ranged between 0.1 mm/night and 0.3 mm/night within the interdune area. On the slopes, the amounts of dew were about 50% lower. Simulated results agreed well with the field data.

  10. Developing performance measurement systems as enabling formalization: A longitudinal field study of a logistics department.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a developmental approach to performance-measurement systems (PMS). In particular, we look at characteristics of a development process that result in the PMS being perceived by employees as enabling of their work, rather than as primarily a control device for use by senior manag

  11. Longitudinal measurements of syrinx size in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elmira; Bilston, Lynne E; Song, Xin; Bongers, Andre; Stoodley, Marcus A; Cheng, Shaokoon; Hemley, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Syringomyelia pathophysiology is commonly studied using rodent models. However, in vivo studies of posttraumatic syringomyelia have been limited by the size of animals and lack of reliable noninvasive evaluation techniques. Imaging the rat spinal cord is particularly challenging because the spinal cord diameter is approximately 1-3 mm, and pathological lesions within the spinal cord parenchyma are even smaller. The standard technique has been histological evaluation, but this has its limitations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether syrinx size could be reliably measured using a preclinical high-field MRI animal system in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia. METHODS The authors used an existing rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia, which was created using a controlled pneumatic compression device to produce the initial spinal cord injury, followed by a subarachnoid injection of kaolin to produce arachnoiditis. T2-weighted MRI was performed on each animal using a 9.4-T scanner at 7, 10, and 13 weeks after injury. Animals were killed and syrinx sizes were calculated from in vivo MRI and histological studies. RESULTS MRI measurements of syrinx volume and length were closely correlated to histological measurements across all time points (Pearson product moment correlation coefficient r = ± 0.93 and 0.79, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that high-field T2-weighted MRI can be used to measure syrinx size, and data correlate well with syrinx size measured using histological methods. Preclinical MRI may be a valuable noninvasive technique for tracking syrinx formation and enlargement in animal models of syringomyelia.

  12. APPLICATION OF THE LONGITUDINAL CHROMATIC ABERRATION EFFECT FOR DISTANCES MEASUREMENT ON THE BASIS OF A SINGLE PHOTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Volkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We propose a method for measuring the distances to the surfaces of photographed objects based on the effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration. According to this effect, the focal length of lens depends on the wavelength of refracted light, thus the defocus of image formed by lens depends not only on the distance from image plane to lens, but also on the wavelength of light the picture was taken for (red, green or blue color ranges. Method. The proposed method of distance measurement is based on comparison of image defocus for different wavelengths (e.g., red and blue. The comparison is performed in the spatial frequency domain and is based on analysis of image complex spectrograms (the Fourier spectrum calculated locally within a window scanning the image.The distance to each point of photographed surface is calculated in closed form by the analysis of local spatial spectrum with the use of Gaussian model of point spread function. Main Results. The working capacity of distance measurement technique is partially verified on the basis of image defocus imitation by different displacement of objective lens with respect to sensor matrix of camera. The presented analysis of chromatic parameters of traditionally applied optical materials also proves the physical realizability of proposed technique. A technology is also proposed for distance measuring based on really differing image defocus in different color channels applying a special calibration of electro-optical system. Practical Relevance. The proposed distance measurement technique could be practically useful in the cases where any active illumination of objects being photographed is prohibited. It is also worth to be applied in the inexpensive low-sized optical measuring devices like Kinect for Xbox-360.

  13. Longitudinal and Transverse Wire Measurements for the Evaluation of Impedance Reduction Measures on the MKE Extraction Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Gaxiola, E; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 significant heating of the MKE Extraction kicker magnets in CERN's SPS was confirmed by measurements with beam. The dissipated power was so high that it would seriously jeopardize the good functioning of the kicker by warming the ferrite above the Curie temperature. In an impedance reduction campaign the beam coupling impedance of the present kickers was assessed with wire measurements and possible cures were evaluated. For a reliable impedance determination refined measurement methods had to be used. Any kicker modification should not deteriorate kick field quality and high voltage capability. Shielding the ferrites with printed metallic strips turned out to be a promising solution. Technological issues of the metallic coatings are also discussed.

  14. Tissue Deformation Index as a Reliable Measure of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Activation on M-Mode Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Maciej; Adamczyk, Wacław; Gnat, Rafael; Stranc, Tomasz

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this article is to present a novel method of evaluating the activity of lateral abdominal muscles using M-mode sonography. The method leads to calculation of the tissue deformation index, representing the percent change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness over time. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to establish the mean tissue deformation index values for individual lateral abdominal muscles; and (2) to establish the reliability of the tissue deformation index. In a group of 34 healthy young volunteers (mean age, 24.03 years; body mass, 68.89 kg; body height, 174.25 cm), the reflex response of the lateral abdominal muscles to postural perturbation in the form of rapid arm abduction was recorded in 2 series, with 6 repetitions each, and the tissue deformation index was calculated. The mean tissue deformation index values formed a gradient, increasing from deep to superficial lateral abdominal muscles: 0.06%/ms for transversus abdominis, 0.11%/ms for oblique internal, and 0.16 for oblique external muscles. The tissue deformation index values differed significantly among individual lateral abdominal muscles (all paired comparisons, P  0.8).

  15. Longitudinal deformation of existing tunnel due to underlying shield tunneling%盾构隧道掘进引起上方已建隧道的纵向变形研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 宗翔; 黄宏伟

    2014-01-01

    The effect of underlying tunneling on existing tunnel is of great concern because the newly built tunnel can induce longitudinal deformation of existing tunnels. A prediction model based on the method of beam on Kerr elastic foundation is proposed. The existing tunnel is simplified as Euler-Bernoulli beam and Timoshenko beam, respectively, to consider the effect of the tunnel shear stiffness on the longitudinal settlement caused by the underlying tunneling. The impact of underlying tunneling on the existing tunnel is taken as Gauss-distributed loading. The proposed prediction method is then verified with the centrifuge results from the reference. The effects of volume loss, load distribution, relative bending rigidity between shield tunnel and ground and tunnel shear strength on the longitudinal settlement of existing tunnel caused by underlying tunneling are investigated, respectively. The results of Timoshenko beam are consistent with those of Euler-Bernoulli beam when the tunnel shear strength is big enough. The proposed method is more feasible for the tunnel with the bending rigidity greater than 7.54×106kN·m2. The effect of tunnel shear strength is very significant when the equivalent shear strength ratio is less than 1/4. The proposed method is finally validated using the field monitoring in Shanghai.%城市地铁隧道施工中经常遇到新建隧道下穿上方已建隧道的例子,如何提前预测已建隧道的纵向变形是目前工程界普遍关心的问题。基于能够考虑土体变形连续性的 Kerr 地基梁理论,分别将已建隧道简化为欧拉伯努利梁和铁木辛柯梁,将新建隧道对已建隧道的作用简化为高斯分布荷载,建立了新建隧道施工对上方已建隧道影响的解析分析方法;并利用离心机试验结果进行了验证。分析了地层损失率、荷载形状参数和隧道与土体相对抗弯刚度对已建隧道纵向变形的影响。探讨了隧道剪切刚度对隧道纵向

  16. Longitudinal ambulatory measurements of gait abnormality in dystrophin-deficient dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voit Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the gait abnormalities in GRMD (Golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs during growth and disease progression using an ambulatory gait analyzer (3D-accelerometers as a possible tool to assess the effects of a therapeutic intervention. Methods Six healthy and twelve GRMD dogs were evaluated twice monthly, from the age of two to nine months. The evolution of each gait variable previously shown to be modified in control and dystrophin-deficient adults was assessed using two-ways variance analysis (age, clinical status with repeated measurements. A principal component analysis (PCA was applied to perfect multivariate data interpretation. Results Speed, stride length, total power and force significantly already decreased (p Conclusion The gait variables measured by the accelerometers were sensitive to early detect and follow the gait disorders and mirrored the heterogeneity of clinical presentations, giving sense to monitor gait in GRMD dogs during progression of the disease and pre-clinical therapeutic trials.

  17. Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. Methods Study participants were participants in a community-based skin cancer prevention trial in Nambour, a town in southeast Queensland (latitude 26°S. In 1992, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for all 1621 participants and weight was remeasured at the end of the trial in 1996. Prevalence proportion ratios were calculated using a log-binomial model to estimate the risk of BCC prior to or prevalent in 1992, while Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the relative risk of BCC during the follow-up period. Results At baseline, 94 participants had a current BCC, and 202 had a history of BCC. During the 5-year follow-up period, 179 participants developed one or more new BCCs. We found no significant association between any of the anthropometric measures or indices and risk of BCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including sun exposure. There was a suggestion that short-term weight gain may increase the risk of developing BCC for women only. Conclusion Adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio is not significantly associated with occurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  18. Improved femoral component rotation in advanced genu valgum deformity using computer-assisted measured resection total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Jie; Lee, Chien-Ying; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Peng, Kuo-Ti; Huang, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Mel S; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei; Shen, Wun-Jer

    2015-09-02

    Accurate femoral rotational alignment is of vital importance for successful total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The value of computer-assisted surgery TKA (CAS-TKA) in increasing the accuracy of femoral rotational alignment remains controversial. We hypothesize that outcomes are related to the severity of preoperative varus and valgus deformity and that CAS-TKA may be beneficial under certain circumstances. Between January 2007 and December 2013, patients with osteoarthritis and varus angulation in the mechanical axis (MA) ≥ 15° and valgus angulation in the MA ≥ 10° (based on hip-to-ankle standing radiography) who underwent TKA were divided into four groups. CAS-TKA and conventional TKA outcomes were compared in patients who had preoperative advanced genu varum and advanced genu valgum deformities. The accuracy of component alignment and postoperative limb alignment was determined using radiographic parameters and computed tomography (CT). One hundred and eight patients (144 knees) were included in the analysis. For patients with preoperative advanced genu varum deformity, a significant difference was detected in the sagittal femoral angle (p genu valgum deformity, a significant difference was found in the sagittal femoral angle (p = 0.034). The femoral rotational angle was significantly closer to the proper position in the CAS-TKA group (p genu valgum deformity (p = 0.011). Our data demonstrate that CAS-TKA is beneficial in obtaining proper femoral rotational alignment in patients with advanced genu valgum deformity (preoperative MA ≥ 10° valgus). In patients with advanced genu varum deformity (preoperative MA ≥ 15° varus), CAS-TKA did not improve the femoral rotational alignment.

  19. A method for eliminating Faraday rotation in cryostat windows in longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polewko-Klim, A., E-mail: anetapol@uwb.edu.pl; Uba, S.; Uba, L. [Institute of Informatics, University of Bialystok, Sosnowa 64, PL-15-887 Bialystok (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    A solution to the problem of disturbing effect of the background Faraday rotation in the cryostat windows on longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect (LMOKE) measured under vacuum conditions and/or at low temperatures is proposed. The method for eliminating the influence of Faraday rotation in cryostat windows is based on special arrangement of additional mirrors placed on sample holder. In this arrangement, the orientation of the cryostat window is perpendicular to the light beam direction and parallel to an external magnetic field generated by the H-frame electromagnet. The operation of the LMOKE magnetometer with the special sample holder based on polarization modulation technique with a photo-elastic modulator is theoretically analyzed with the use of Jones matrices, and formulas for evaluating of the actual Kerr rotation and ellipticity of the sample are derived. The feasibility of the method and good performance of the magnetometer is experimentally demonstrated for the LMOKE effect measured in Fe/Au multilayer structures. The influence of imperfect alignment of the magnetometer setup on the Kerr angles, as derived theoretically through the analytic model and verified experimentally, is examined and discussed.

  20. A method for eliminating Faraday rotation in cryostat windows in longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewko-Klim, A; Uba, S; Uba, L

    2014-07-01

    A solution to the problem of disturbing effect of the background Faraday rotation in the cryostat windows on longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect (LMOKE) measured under vacuum conditions and/or at low temperatures is proposed. The method for eliminating the influence of Faraday rotation in cryostat windows is based on special arrangement of additional mirrors placed on sample holder. In this arrangement, the orientation of the cryostat window is perpendicular to the light beam direction and parallel to an external magnetic field generated by the H-frame electromagnet. The operation of the LMOKE magnetometer with the special sample holder based on polarization modulation technique with a photo-elastic modulator is theoretically analyzed with the use of Jones matrices, and formulas for evaluating of the actual Kerr rotation and ellipticity of the sample are derived. The feasibility of the method and good performance of the magnetometer is experimentally demonstrated for the LMOKE effect measured in Fe/Au multilayer structures. The influence of imperfect alignment of the magnetometer setup on the Kerr angles, as derived theoretically through the analytic model and verified experimentally, is examined and discussed.

  1. Time-Dependent Deformation at Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Field (Nevada) Measured With Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Modeled with Multiple Working Hypotheses of Coupled Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K. L.; Ali, S. T.; Akerley, J.; Baluyut, E.; Cardiff, M. A.; Davatzes, N. C.; Foxall, W.; Fratta, D.; Kreemer, C.; Mellors, R. J.; Lopeman, J.; Spielman, P.; Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014 by five satellite missions, including: ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting maps of deformation show an elliptical subsiding area that is ~4 km by ~1.5 km. Its long axis coincides with the strike of the dominant normal-fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, that are probably associated with damaged regions where faults interact via thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing high-permeability conduits to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We explore first-order models to calculate the time-dependent deformation fields produced by coupled processes, including: thermal contraction of rock (T-M coupling), decline in pore pressure (H-M coupling), and dissolution of minerals over time (H-C-M coupling). These processes are related to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological and material properties at the site. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo) http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo.

  2. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...... patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce...... to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial...

  3. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  4. Measurement of high-Q(2) neutral current deep inelastic e(-) p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Ukleja, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Molina, A. G. Yagues; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Rosin, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kozulia, A.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Walsh, R.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Bellan, P.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Ukleja, A.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e(-) p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d sigma/dQ(2), d sigma/dx and d sigma/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q(2

  5. Measurement of high-Q(2) neutral current deep inelastic e(+) p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarized positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; Del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Huettmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e(+)p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarized positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d sigma=dQ(2), d sigma=dx and d sigma=dy and the reduced cross section (sigma) over tilde are m

  6. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  7. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin; Platt, Lawrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. Methods and Findings We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown–rump length measured at 8–13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25–31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157–168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55–68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487–2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38–40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8–16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980–3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had

  8. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvid Kiserud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use.We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31, median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168, median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68, 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222. The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40 although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16. The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615. There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of

  9. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Carvalho, José; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Platt, Lawrence D

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound

  10. Longitudinal changes in heart rate-corrected measures of exercise performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Kavitha; Epstein, Michael L; Singh, Tajinder P

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of change in exercise performance over time in children with repaired congenital heart disease is often hampered by poor effort that limits the maximum heart rate; this is often difficult to distinguish from chronotropic impairment, a common finding in these children. In an attempt to address this limitation, we sought to examine measures of exercise performance that are corrected for heart rate in healthy children and to determine if these change with somatic growth. We studied two serial graded exercise tests in 24 healthy children at an interval of >3 years. Paired comparisons revealed that maximum oxygen pulse (O(2) pulse), O(2) pulse at ventilatory anaerobic threshold, O(2) pulse at a heart rate of 140 beats per minute, and slope of the VO(2)-heart rate relationship all increased with age. However, when indexed to somatic growth, there was no change in the mean values of these parameters over time. We conclude that O(2 )pulse and slope of the VO(2)-heart rate relationship during exercise increase in proportion to somatic growth in children so that optimal oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles is ensured. This study provides the "normative" response of exercise parameters to growth, against which responses of children with repaired congenital heart disease may be compared.

  11. Measurement of R = sigma_L / sigma_T and the Separated Longitudinal and Transverse Structure Functions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y; Ahmidouch, A; Armstrong, C S; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Beck, D H; Blok, H P; Bochna, C W; Böglin, W; Bosted, P; Bouwhuis, M; Breuer, H; Brown, D S; Brüll, A; Carlini, R D; Cha, J; Chant, N S; Cochran, A; Cole, L; Danagulyan, S; Day, D B; Dunne, J; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Fox, B; Gan, L; Gao, H; Garrow, K; Gaskell, D; Gasparian, A; Geesaman, D F; Gilman, R; Gueye, P L J; Harvey, M; Holt, R J; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Keppel, C E; Kinney, E; Lorenzon, W; Lung, A; Mack, D J; Markowitz, P; Martin, J W; McIlhany, K; McKee, D; Meekins, D; Miller, M A; Milner, R G; Mitchell, J H; Mkrtchyan, H G; Müller, B A; Nathan, A; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; O'Neill, T G; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Piercey, R B; Potterveld, D; Ransome, R D; Reinhold, J; Rollinde, E; Rondon, Oscar A; Roos, P; Sarty, A J; Sawafta, R; Schulte, E C; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Stepanyan, S; Strauch, S; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Tieulent, R; Tvaskis, V; Uzzle, A; Vulcan, W F; Wood, S A; Xiong, F; Yuan, L; Zeier, M; Zihlmann, B; Ziskin, V

    2004-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 < Q^2 < 5.5 GeV^2. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal / transverse separations. The precision R = sigma_L / sigma_T data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F_1 and F_L in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q^2 = 1 GeV^2 in the separated structure functions independently.

  12. Quantitative Measurement of Longitudinal and Transverse Cross-Relaxation Rates: An Application to the Analysis of the Internal Dynamics of Ranalexin in Water and Trifluoroethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliavin, T. E.; Desvaux, H.; Aumelas, A.; Chavanieu, A.; Delsuc, M. A.

    1999-09-01

    We describe a quantitative processing method which gives access to the longitudinal and transverse cross-relaxation rates from off-resonance ROESY intensities. This method takes advantage of the dependence of the off-resonance ROESY experiments at any mixing time and any spin-lock angle θ on two relaxation matrices, the longitudinal and the transverse ones. This allows one to take into account multistep magnetization transfers even if the measurements are performed only at one or two mixing times. The ratio of the longitudinal to transverse cross-relaxation rates can then be used as a local indicator of the internal dynamics, without assuming a structure or a model of motion. After validation of this processing method by numerical simulations, it is applied to the analysis of the dynamics of the peptide ranalexin dissolved in pure water and in water/TFE.

  13. Measurement of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} and the Separated Longitudinal and Transverse Structure Functions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongguang Liang; Michael Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W. Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Daniel Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B. Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Ronald Gilman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; J.W. Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A. Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O' neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E. Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Vladas Tvaskis; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-10-01

    We report on a detailed study of longitudinal strength in the nucleon resonance region, presenting new results from inclusive electron-proton cross sections measured at Jefferson Lab Hall C in the four-momentum transfer range 0.2 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 GeV{sup 2}. The data have been used to accurately perform over 170 Rosenbluth-type longitudinal/transverse separations. The precision R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T} data are presented here, along with the first separate values of the inelastic structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub L} in this regime. The resonance longitudinal component is found to be significant. With the new data, quark-hadron duality is observed above Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2} in the separated structure functions independently.

  14. Les principes distributifs des mesures d’insertion des jeunes à l’épreuve du longitudinal Youth integration measures and their criteria tested by a longitudinal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Lima

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La sélection des bénéficiaires des mesures d’action sociale relève d’un problème éthique qui fait l’objet d’une intense activité cognitive et normative de la part d’acteurs publics outillés par l’expertise. Or, l’examen historique des principes distributifs mobilisés dans les politiques d’insertion des jeunes donne à voir la reformulation des référentiels de l’action publique dans un cadre longitudinal ainsi que ses effets sur les présupposés éthiques des politiques. Le principe de discrimination positive consistant à redistribuer les chances d’insertion en faveur des jeunes les moins formés a été énoncé au sein d’une représentation instantanéiste de l’insertion des jeunes. Il perd de sa validité avec l’institutionnalisation des trajectoires. L’éthique de l’accompagnement du parcours qui devient dominante dans les années 1990 perd de vue les inégalités entre groupes de niveau de formation au profit d’une démarche d’organisation de carrières ascendantes permises par les mesures d’action sociale disponibles.Targeting social programs is an ethical problem for administrators. Therefore, they develop an intense cognitive and normative activity with the help of experts in economics. The history of how funds are allocated in support of youth integration policies shows the longitudinal reframing of public policy and its impact on ethical principles. The principle of affirmative action consisting in redistributing offers among less qualified youth has been formulated according to a static representation of youth integration. It loses its validity with the institutionalization of individual itineraries. The ethic of pathway support that became dominant in the 1990s lost sight of the inequality between groups levels of qualification no longer appeared relevant and gave way to the organization of upwardly mobile careers made possible by the social programs at hand.

  15. Reliability of calculation of the lithosphere deformations in tectonically stable area of Poland based on the GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Jarosiński, Marek

    2013-04-01

    In this research we aimed to check if the GPS observations can be used for calculation of a reliable deformation pattern of the intracontinental lithosphere in seismically inactive areas, such as territory of Poland. For this purpose we have used data mainly from the ASG-EUPOS permanent network and the solutions developed by the MUT CAG team (Military University of Technology: Centre of Applied Geomatics). From the 128 analyzed stations almost 100 are mounted on buildings. Daily observations were processed in the Bernese 5.0 software and next the weekly solutions were used to determine the station velocities expressed in ETRF2000. The strain rates were determined for almost 200 triangles with GPS stations in their corners plotted used Delaunay triangulation. The obtained scattered directions of deformations and highly changeable values of strain rates point to insufficient antennas' stabilization as for geodynamical studies. In order to depict badly stabilized stations we carried out a benchmark test to show what might be the effect of one station drift on deformations in contacting triangles. Based on the benchmark results, from our network we have eliminated the stations which showed deformation pattern characteristic for instable station. After several rounds of strain rate calculations and eliminations of dubious points we have reduced the number of stations down to 60. The refined network revealed more consistent deformation pattern across Poland. Deformations compared with the recent stress field of the study area disclosed good correlation in some places and significant discrepancies in the others, which will be the subject of future research.

  16. A Robust System for Longitudinal Knee Joint Edema and Blood Flow Assessment Based on Vector Bioimpedance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersek, Sinan; Töreyin, Hakan; Inan, Omer T

    2016-06-01

    We present a robust vector bioimpedance measurement system for longitudinal knee joint health assessment, capable of acquiring high resolution static (slowly varying over the course of hours to days) and dynamic (rapidly varying on the order of milli-seconds) bioresistance and bioreactance signals. Occupying an area of 78×90 mm(2) and consuming 0.25 W when supplied with ±5 V, the front-end achieves a dynamic range of 345 Ω and noise floor of 0.018 mΩrms (resistive) and 0.055 mΩrms (reactive) within a bandwidth of 0.1-20 Hz. A microcontroller allows real-time calibration to minimize errors due to environmental variability (e.g., temperature) that can be experienced outside of lab environments, and enables data storage on a micro secure digital card. The acquired signals are then processed using customized physiology-driven algorithms to extract musculoskeletal (edema) and cardiovascular (local blood volume pulse) features from the knee joint. In a feasibility study, we found statistically significant differences between the injured and contralateral static knee impedance measures for two subjects with recent unilateral knee injury compared to seven controls. Specifically, the impedance was lower for the injured knees, supporting the physiological expectations for increased edema and damaged cell membranes. In a second feasibility study, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the dynamic impedance measures with a cold-pressor test, with a 20 mΩ decrease in the pulsatile resistance associated with increased downstream peripheral vascular resistance. The proposed system will serve as a foundation for future efforts aimed at quantifying joint health status continuously during normal daily life.

  17. Full-Field Reconstruction of Structural Deformations and Loads from Measured Strain Data on a Wing Using the Inverse Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Manalo, Russel; Tessler, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the measurement of wing deformation and internal loads using measured strain data. Future aerospace vehicle research depends on the ability to accurately measure the deformation and internal loads during ground testing and in flight. The approach uses the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM). The iFEM is a robust, computationally efficient method that is well suited for real-time measurement of real-time structural deformation and loads. The method has been validated in previous work, but has yet to be applied to a large-scale test article. This work is in preparation for an upcoming loads test of a half-span test wing in the Flight Loads Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). The method has been implemented into an efficient MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts) code for testing different sensor configurations. This report discusses formulation and implementation along with the preliminary results from a representative aerospace structure. The end goal is to investigate the modeling and sensor placement approach so that the best practices can be applied to future aerospace projects.

  18. Longitudinal Inter-Comparison of Modeled and Measured West Greenland Ice Sheet Meltwater Runoff Losses (2004-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Tedesco, M.; Mote, T. L.; Koenig, L.; Smith, L. C.; Hagedorn, B.; Overeem, I.; Sletten, R. S.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, B.; Hall, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Increased surface meltwater runoff, that exits the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) margin via supra-, en-, and sub-glacial drainage networks into fjords, pro-glacial lakes and rivers, accounts for half or more of total mass loss. Despite its importance, modeled meltwater runoff fluxes are poorly constrained, primarily due to a lack of direct in situ observations. Here, we present the first ever longitudinal (north-south) inter-comparison of a multi-year dataset (2004-2014) of discharge for four drainage basins - Watson, Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua, Naujat Kuat, and North Rivers - along West Greenland. These in situ hydrologic measurements are compared with modeled runoff output from Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model, and the performance of the model is examined. An analysis of the relationship between modeled and actual ice sheet runoff patterns is assessed, and provides insight into the model's ability to capture inter-annual and intra-annual variability, spatiotemporal patterns, and extreme melt events. This study's findings will inform future development and parameterization of ice sheet surface mass balance models.

  19. The analysis of longitudinal quality of life measures with informative drop-out: a pattern mixture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Wendy J; Buijs, Ciska; Stolk, Ronald P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; le Cessie, Saskia

    2010-02-01

    The analysis of longitudinal health-related quality of life measures (HRQOL) can be seriously hampered due to informative drop-out. Random effects models assume Missing At Random and do not take into account informative drop-out. We therefore aim to correct the bias due to informative drop-out. Analyses of data from a trial comparing standard-dose and high-dose chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer with respect to long-term impact on HRQOL will serve as illustration. The subscale Physical Function (PF) of the SF36 will be used. A pattern mixture approach is proposed to account for informative drop-out. Patterns are defined based on events related to HRQOL, such as death and relapse. The results of this pattern mixture approach are compared to the results of the commonly used random effects model. The findings of the pattern mixture approach are well interpretable, and different courses over time in different patterns are distinguished. In terms of estimated differences between standard dose and high dose, the results of both approaches are slightly different, but have no consequences for the clinical evaluation of both doses. Under the assumption that drop-out is at random within the patterns, the pattern mixture approach adjusts the estimates to a certain degree. This approach accounts in a relatively simple way for informative drop-out.

  20. Measurement of Longitudinal β-Amyloid Change with 18F-Florbetapir PET and Standardized Uptake Value Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Susan M.; Fero, Allison; Baker, Suzanne L.; Koeppe, Robert; Mintun, Mark; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Jagust, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The accurate measurement of β-amyloid (Aβ) change using amyloid PET imaging is important for Alzheimer disease research and clinical trials but poses several unique challenges. In particular, reference region measurement instability may lead to spurious changes in cortical regions of interest. To optimize our ability to measure 18F-florbetapir longitudinal change, we evaluated several candidate regions of interest and their influence on cortical florbetapir change over a 2-y period in participants from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Methods We examined the agreement in cortical florbetapir change detected using 6 candidate reference regions (cerebellar gray matter, whole cerebellum, brain stem/pons, eroded subcortical white matter [WM], and 2 additional combinations of these regions) in 520 ADNI subjects. We used concurrent cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1–42 measurements to identify subgroups of ADNI subjects expected to remain stable over follow-up (stable Aβ group; n = 14) and subjects expected to increase (increasing Aβ group; n = 91). We then evaluated reference regions according to whether cortical change was minimal in the stable Aβ group and cortical retention increased in the increasing Aβ group. Results There was poor agreement across reference regions in the amount of cortical change observed across all 520 ADNI subjects. Within the stable Aβ group, however, cortical florbetapir change was 1%–2% across all reference regions, indicating high consistency. In the increasing Aβ group, cortical increases were significant with all reference regions. Reference regions containing WM (as opposed to cerebellum or pons) enabled detection of cortical change that was more physiologically plausible and more likely to increase over time. Conclusion Reference region selection has an important influence on the detection of florbetapir change. Compared with cerebellum or pons alone, reference regions that included subcortical WM resulted in

  1. Study on the Deformation Measurement of the Cast-In-Place Large-Diameter Pile Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional piles such as the circle pile, the cast-in-place large-diameter pile (PCC pile has many advantages: the lateral area of PCC pile is larger and the bearing capacity of PCC pile is higher. It is more cost-effective than other piles such as square pile under the same condition. The deformation of the PCC pile is very important for its application. In order to obtain the deformation of the PCC pile, a new type of quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing technology named a fiber Bragg grating (FBG is used to monitor the deformation of the PCC pile. The PCC model pile is made, the packaging process of the PCC model pile and the layout of fiber sensors are designed, and the strains of the PCC model pile based on FBG sensors are monitored. The strain of the PCC pile is analyzed by the static load test. The results show that FBG technology is successfully applied for monitoring the deformation of the PCC pile, the monitoring data is more useful for the PCC pile. It will provide a reference for the engineering applications.

  2. In Vivo Measurement of Cervical Spinal Cord Deformation During Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Liu, Jie; Yung, Andrew; Cripton, Peter A; Kozlowski, Piotr; Oxland, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The spinal cord undergoes physical deformation during traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), which results in biological damage. This study demonstrates a novel approach, using magnetic resonance imaging and image registration techniques, to quantify the three-dimensional deformation of the cervical spinal cord in an in vivo rat model. Twenty-four male rats were subjected to one of two clinically relevant mechanisms of TSCI (i.e. contusion and dislocation) inside of a MR scanner using a novel apparatus, enabling imaging of the deformed spinal cords. The displacement fields demonstrated qualitative differences between injury mechanisms. Three-dimensional Lagrangian strain fields were calculated, and the results from the contusion injury mechanism were deemed most reliable. Strain field error was assessed using a Monte Carlo approach, which showed that simulated normal strain error experienced a bias, whereas shear strain error did not. In contusion injury, a large region of dorso-ventral compressive strain was observed under the impactor which extended into the ventral region of the spinal cord. High tensile lateral strains under the impactor and compressive lateral strains in the lateral white matter were also observed in contusion. The ability to directly observe and quantify in vivo spinal cord deformation informs our knowledge of the mechanics of TSCI.

  3. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  4. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  5. Global Longitudinal Strain Is a Superior Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Morten; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of global longitudinal strain (GLS) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients in relation to all-cause mortality. BACKGROUND: Measurement of myocardial deformation by 2-dimensional speckle tracking...

  6. Monitoring the surface deformation of Hurd rockglacier using D-GPS measurements and D-INSAR: first results (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gonçalo; Catalão, João; Prates, Gonçalo; Correia, António

    2014-05-01

    Rockglaciers have been described by various authors in the South Shetlands archipelago (Antarctic Peninsula region), with the main contribution being that of Serrano and Lopez-Martínez (2000), who have described 9 rockglaciers and 11 protalus lobes. However, little is known about the deformation rates of rockglaciers in the region nor about possible changes associated with climate warming. Since the Western Antarctic Peninsula region is one of the areas on Earth which has been warming at a faster rate, monitoring rockglacier deformation should provide insight into the influence of climate change on geomorphodynamics. Hurd rockglacier is located in the south part of Hurd Peninsula, in a glacial cirque with a ridge varying from 227 to 301 m asl that connects directly to False Bay through a series of raised-beach terraces. The bedrock is composed of sandstones, shales and greywackes with a flysch facies, of the Myers Bluff formation. The valley shows steep rockwalls with extensive scree slopes and a small retreating valley glacier with a prominent frontal moraine, from where the rockglacier develops. The rockglacier body is ci 630 m long and 290 m wide and the surface shows frequent pressure ridges and furrows, especially in the lower sector. The rockglacier front is 15-20 m high and shows a slope of 45º (Serrano and López-Martínez 2000). In this poster we present the first data from surface deformation monitoring using stakes and D-GPS measurements conducted annually since 2011. Preliminary results show deformation values of 8 to 15 cm/year. Since 2011 we are also conducting DInSAR analysis using TerraSAR-X imagery and despite problems related mostly to snow cover, we have obtained image pairs allowing to identify deformation in the same order of magnitude of field observations. We expect to be able to present new results from the summer of 2013-14 campaign, which include a more intensive image acquisition plan. Results from a Vertical Electrical Sounding fro

  7. On- and off-fault coseismic surface deformation associated with the September 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake measured from mapping and automated pixel correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. D.; Reitman, N. G.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake ruptured a ~200 km-long stretch of the Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan. We remotely measured the coseismic surface deformation field using high-resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We measured ~300 near-field (0-10 m from fault) laterally offset piercing points (streams, terrace risers, roads, etc.) and find peak left-lateral offsets of ~12-15 m. We characterized the far-field (0-10 km from fault) displacement field using manual (~250 measurements) and automated image cross-correlation methods (e.g., pixel tracking) and find peak displacement values of ~16 m, which commonly exceed the on-fault displacement magnitudes. Our preliminary observations suggest the following: (1) coseismic surface displacement typically increases with distance away from the surface trace of the fault (e.g., highest displacement values in the far field), (2) for certain locations along the fault rupture, as little as 50% of the coseismic displacement field occurred in the near-field; and (3) the magnitudes of individual displacements are inversely correlated to the width of the surface rupture zone (e.g., largest displacements where the fault zone is narrowest). This analysis highlights the importance of identifying field study sites spanning fault sections with narrow deformation zones in order to capture the entire deformation field. For regions of distributed deformation, these results would predict that geologic slip rate studies underestimate a fault's complete slip rate.

  8. Contracture deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deformity - contracture ... Contracture can be caused by any of the following: Brain and nervous system disorders, such as cerebral ... Follow your health care provider's instructions for treating contracture at home. Treatments may include: Doing exercises and ...

  9. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols.

  10. CLADA: cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm(3) isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post-mortem tissue. CLADA's sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation=0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical t