WorldWideScience

Sample records for measured energy values

  1. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  2. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  3. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  4. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Daniela; Bienert, Sven; Schuetzenhofer, Christian; Boazu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Market driven reasons can strengthen implementation of energy policies in buildings. → Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance are developed. → Recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis are presented. → Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed. → The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures is also in the focus. -- Abstract: A main objective of energy policies is to make all levels of the society, from governments to citizen, interested in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the most important barriers in implementation of energy policies is that the cost of potential energy savings, typically considered being the only financial benefit, does not sufficiently motivate investments. The target is therefore to identify further possible drivers pushing positive reaction according to energy saving action. The paper discusses whether a market-based instrument, capturing the increase of the economic value of energy efficient buildings, can be also used. Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance, including recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis of investments in weatherization, are developed. By applying the proposed methods, the payback period of investments in energy efficiency measures depends on two factors: potential energy savings and the added value to the property. Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed and provide evidence to the research question. The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures, the possibility of an intangible added value as well as the impact to financial investment decisions is subsequently in the focus.

  5. Measuring the social value of nuclear energy using contingent valuation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Joon Kim, Won; Hoon Jeong, Yong; Heung Chang, Soon

    2010-01-01

    As one of the promising energy sources for the next few decades, nuclear energy receives more attention than before as environmental issues become more important and the supply of fossil fuels becomes unstable. One of the reasons for this attention is based on the rapid innovation of nuclear technology which solves many of its technological constraints and safety issues. However, regardless of these rapid innovations, social acceptance for nuclear energy has been relatively low and unchanged. Consequently, the social perception has often been an obstacle to the development and execution of nuclear policy requiring enormous subsidies which are not based on the social value of nuclear energy. Therefore, in this study, we estimate the social value of nuclear energy-consumers' willingness-to-pay for nuclear energy-using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and suggest that the social value of nuclear energy increases approximately 68.5% with the provision of adequate information about nuclear energy to the public. Consequently, we suggest that the social acceptance management in nuclear policy development is important along with nuclear technology innovation.

  6. Measuring the Social Value of Nuclear Energy using Contingent Valuation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eun Ju; Kim, Won Joon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to unstable energy supply and volatile energy prices, environmental concerns make energy security as the principal objective of energy policy in many nations. The International Energy Agency (2007) released what is probably its most pessimistic World Energy Outlook to date saying that oil and natural gas imports, coal use and greenhouse gas emissions are set to grow inexorably through 2030 - trends that threaten to undermine energy security and accelerate climate change, if countries do not change their energy use policies. In near term, nuclear is expected to be accepted as one of the promising alternatives which can achieve both energy security and prevention of climate change. However, nuclear energy has some vulnerable points in the view of social acceptance due to the history of its development and previous. Many countries which use nuclear power as one the major energy sources have been solving the problem of low social acceptance of nuclear energy by allocating enormous subsidy to local government. Korea decided to give 300 million dollar to the local government, Gyeongjoo, for constructing low level waste management facilities. Japan also paid 120 million dollar to Rokkasho-mura area for constructing nuclear waste repository. Sellarfield in England, Cabril in Spain also received subsidy every year from the related industries and their government. However these subsidies were provided without any appropriate estimation for the value of risk taking of nuclear energy. In addition, those subsidies are expected to increase and burden the central government for the further development and usage of nuclear. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the value of nuclear energy in view of social acceptance in order to contribute to effective application for the future nuclear development and policy making. We estimate the Willingness-To-Pay of nuclear energy using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). We find high social cost of nuclear

  7. Valuing energy-saving measures in residential buildings. A choice experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, So-Yoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun [Department of Economics, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea); Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures can cut back the usage of energy. This paper attempts to apply a choice experiment in evaluating the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) for air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures in Korea's residential buildings. We consider the trade-offs between price and three attributes of energy-saving (window, facade, and ventilation) for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal WTP (MWTP) estimate for each attribute. We also try to test irrelevant alternatives property for the estimation model holds and compare the estimation results of the multinomial logit (MNL) and the nested logit (NL) models. The NL model outperforms the MNL model. The NL model show that MWTPs for increasing the number of glasses and their variety, for increasing the thickness of facade for 1 mm, and for establishing a ventilation system are KRW 17,392 (USD 18.2), 1,112 (1.2), and 11,827 (12.4), respectively. Overall, the potential consumers have significant amount of WTP. (author)

  8. Evaluation of effective energy for QA and QC: measurement of half-value layer using radiochromic film density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotanda, R.; Takeda, Y.; Gotanda, T.; Oishi Hospital, Hiroshima; Tabuchi, A.; Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama; Yamamoto, K.; Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Centre, Osaka; Kuwano, T.; Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardovascular Diseases, Osaka; Yatake, H.; Kaizuka City Hospital, Osaka; Katsuda, T.

    2009-01-01

    The effective energy of diagnostic x-rays is important for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). However, the half-value layer (HVL), which is necessary to evaluate the effective energy, is not ubiquitously monitored because ionization-chamber dosimetry is time-consuming and complicated. To verify the applicability of GAFCHROMIC XR type R (GAF-R) film for HVL measurement as an alternative to monitoring with an ionization chamber, a single-strip method for measuring the HVL has been evaluated. Calibration curves of absorbed dose versus film density were generated using this single-strip method with GAF-R film, and the coefficient of determination (r2) of the straight-line approximation was evaluated. The HVLs (effective energies) estimated using the GAF-R film and an ionization chamber were compared. The coefficient of determination (r2) of the straight-line approximation obtained with the GAF-R film was more than 0.99. The effective energies (HVLs) evaluated using the GAF-R film and the ionization chamber were 43.25 keV (5.10 m m) and 39.86 keV (4.45 mm), respectively. The difference in the effective energies determined by the two methods was thus 8.5%. These results suggest that GAF-R might be used to evaluate the effective energy from the film-density growth without the need for ionization-chamber measurements.

  9. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...

  10. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly

  11. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  12. Long-term energy services security: What is it and how can it be measured and valued?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Jaap C.; Seebregts, Ad J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent approaches towards measuring the extent of long-term energy security and security externality valuation. It starts out to discuss the contextual connotations of notions of 'energy security' in medium to long-term time frames and reviews some indicators that have been proposed to quantify it. Special attention is paid to two of these approaches, which the authors helped to develop, i.e. diversity-based indices and the Supply/Demand Index. The paper takes issue with conventional welfare economic approaches that neglect: (i) the scope on the demand side for raising security and (ii) negative feedback mechanisms of socio-political impacts of international rent transfers in fossil fuels exporting countries. The concept of energy services security is proposed with a demand-side focus. This enables application of an integrated approach to gauge the resilience of a society to meet the needs of its population for energy services over longer timescales ahead from various interrelated perspectives. Propositions are made on the attribution of security externalities to the use of fossil fuels, policies, and suggestions for further improvements of measures for energy services security.

  13. Measuring the value of intangibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Saskia; Hirth, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new earnings-based measure for the value of intangibles. To validate this measure, we compare it to commonly used proxies for intangible intensity, such as R&D expenses. While R&D expenses measure the investment in new intangibles, our new measure gauges the productivity of already e...... of our intangible-intensity measure in the context of capital structure. We find that more intangible-intensive firms have lower leverage. © 2016 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Measuring value sensitivity in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Christian; Christen, Markus; Tanner, Carmen

    2017-01-28

    Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity. We developed an instrument for assessing the sensitivity for three value groups (moral-related values, values related to the principles of biomedical ethics, strategy-related values) in a four step procedure: 1) value identification (n = 317); 2) value representation (n = 317); 3) vignette construction and quality evaluation (n = 37); and 4) instrument validation by comparing nursing professionals with hospital managers (n = 48). We find that nursing professionals recognize and ascribe importance to principle-related issues more than professionals from hospital management. The latter are more likely to recognize and ascribe importance to strategy-related issues. These hypothesis-driven results demonstrate the discriminatory power of our newly developed instrument, which makes it useful not only for health care professionals in practice but for students and people working in the clinical context as well.

  15. Value of the energy data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  16. Valuing diversity in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the role of supply diversity in promoting energy security. This paper explores ways of valuing diversity. A possible incentive mechanism for promoting diversity which takes account of underlying 'disparities' between different technology options is developed. The mechanism provides a way of trading off cost and diversity and results in an 'efficient' cost-diversity frontier by analogy with financial portfolio theory. If all technologies are believed to be equally disparate, the appropriate mechanism is a 'levy' imposed on market share. If the technologies are not equally disparate, the levy needs to be adjusted by technology-specific multipliers that take account of levels of disparity and patterns of market share. The analysis is applied to two stylised situations. In the long-run equilibrium case, the implications of both different patterns of disparity and different values attached to diversity are investigated. The paper also explores the implications of applying such a mechanism to the current Great Britain electricity system. The implications in terms of financial flows, for both the market as a whole and for individual operators, are investigated. Finally, the appropriateness of such a mechanism in the light of other policy goals, and possible future research directions, is discussed. (author)

  17. Reactive oxygen species-based measurement of the dependence of the Coulomb nanoradiator effect on proton energy and atomic Z value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Han, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2017-11-01

    The Coulomb nanoradiator (CNR) effect produces the dose enhancement effects from high-Z nanoparticles under irradiation with a high-energy ion beam. To gain insight into the radiation dose and biological significance of the CNR effect, the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from iron oxide or gold NPs (IONs or AuNPs, respectively) in water was investigated using traversing proton beams. The dependence of nanoradiator-enhanced ROS production on the atomic Z value and proton energy was investigated. Two biologically important ROS species were measured using fluorescent probes specific to •OH or [Formula: see text] in a series of water phantoms containing either AuNPs or IONs under irradiation with a 45- or 100-MeV proton beam. The enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and superoxide anions ([Formula: see text]) was determined to be caused by the dependence on the NP concentration and proton energy. The proton-induced Au or iron oxide nanoradiators exhibited different ROS enhancement rates depending on the proton energy, suggesting that the CNR radiation varied. The curve of the superoxide anion production from the Au-nanoradiator showed strong non-linearity, unlike the linear behavior observed for hydroxyl radical production and the X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator. In addition, the 45-MeV proton-induced Au nanoradiator exhibited an ROS enhancement ratio of 8.54/1.50 ([Formula: see text] / •OH), similar to that of the 100-KeV X-ray photoelectric Au nanoradiator (7.68/1.46). The ROS-based detection of the CNR effect revealed its dependence on the proton beam energy, dose and atomic Z value and provided insight into the low-linear energy transfer (LET) CNR radiation, suggesting that these factors may influence the therapeutic efficacy via chemical reactivities, transport behaviors, and intracellular oxidative stress.

  18. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  19. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  20. Performance Measures, Benchmarking and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Felicity

    This paper discusses performance measurement in university libraries, based on examples from the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia. The introduction highlights the integration of information literacy into the curriculum and the outcomes of a 1998 UoW student satisfaction survey. The first section considers performance indicators in…

  1. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J; Vilkko, M; Antila, H; Lautala, P [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  2. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  3. Energy technology and American democratic values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.

  4. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  5. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  6. Measurement units of physical values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debraine, P.

    1955-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) to give an analysis of the formation conditions of the various systems of units, 2) to show how the practical problems involving changes of units can be solved. This analysis leads to the conception of 'types' of systems, which is very useful to clarity the question of rationalized and non rationalized systems. The second point which consists essentially in: 1) finding the relationship between the measures of a given quantity in different systems, 2) deriving practical formulas, 3) deriving formulas in various 'types' of systems, is made easier by use of sets of: * definition formulas, * transformation formulas, * units of the various practical systems with useful numerical information covering the following fields: ** geometry, ** kinematics, ** mechanics, ** electricity and magnetism, ** thermodynamics, ** radiation, ** photometry, These sets being printed on coloured paper can be easily found. A number of numerical examples (21) show in a detailed way how to solve the various problems likely to occur. A chapter is particularly devoted to the Giorgi MKS system. (author) [fr

  7. Using historic earnings to value hydro energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, I.A.; Whittington, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly presents a technique for assigning a value to the water held in and removed from the hydro reservoir. Using historic earnings as the basis for a series of equations, it aims to give engineers trading energy a reliable means of placing a value on what is effectively a ''free'' resource. (Author)

  8. Nuclear energy: beliefs, values, and acceptability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R

    1985-06-01

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it has become recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in the long-term future of nuclear energy. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with nuclear energy. Qualitative aspects of risks play a dominant role in the public's perception of risks, and it seems necessary for experts to recognize this in order to improve relations with the general public. It is also clear, however, that differences in the perception of risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more general beliefs and values, and the issue of nuclear energy is embedded in a much wider moral and political domain. 8 references.

  9. Values in reasoning on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaska, P.; Kantola, I.; Kasanen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Energy policy at the present time is a controversial issue with value loaded but hidden assumptions and controdictory views between proponents and opponents. The hidden or even open value contradictions between people acting on the policy formulation as experts or participating in public discussion, hinder attainment of common understanding of the situation and the choices available as well as rational decision making. Diversified subjects of energy issues followed with logical argumentation by different people and with controversial views as presented in public or in the value panel of the research project, have been described and analysed in a novel way in this research. A previously developed cognitive mapping technique has been applied in presenting the logical substructures of argumentation. However, controversality of energy policy does not stem only from the values but equally from other sources of possible contradictory views, such as erraneous or partial data, contingential information or invalid logic. Energy discussion is not devoid of these pitfalls, not necessarily even when the so-called experts express their views and recommendations. The report analyses some important themes. The message of the research, if any, is about how to consider the value arguments in a rational way and how to 'solve' value contradictions for decision making or how to make decisions on energy in a rational way under value contradictions. It is concluded that the remedy is in conscious elaborations on these contradictions and detection of them from other relevant information and furthermore, in the development of communicative rationality instead of and side by side with the more commonly adapted technical rationality

  10. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  11. The problem of valuing new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awerbuch, Shimon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief editorial outlines the concepts and challenges facing the valuation of modular, renewable energy technologies which are covered in a special issue of ''Energy Policy''. The main problem is the narrowness of the traditional discounted cash flow analysis for valuing such projects when some of the benefits (e.g. flexibility, financial risk, reduction in overhead and indirect costs) are not fully recognized at the outset. (UK)

  12. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  13. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  14. Calculated and measured W values in N2, Ar, CH4 and CO2 gases for ions H+, He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ar+ in the energy range 25 KeV to 375 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Dat; Chemtob, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper describes the experimental method used for measurement of W values in argon gas and in the three components of T.E. gas: nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, for ions with masses in the range 1 to 40 a.m.u. and with energies in the range 25 KeV to 375 KeV. For these ions, the incident velocities are comparable to the electron orbital velocities. At these velocities energy losses due to elastic scattering and electron capture processes are expected to become significant as compared to ionization and excitation which predominate at higher velocities. These measured W values are then compared to calculated values. These calculations are obtained by introducing the inelastic and elastic stopping power cross sections in a transport equation, the resolution of which gives ionization range and the amount of energy released to produce ionization

  15. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT UNDER IFRS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COZMA IGHIAN DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS 13, „Fair Value Measurement”, was first published in May 2011 and it applies to annual reporting periods that begin on or after January 1st 2013; this standard comes as a result of shared efforts on the part of the IASB and the FASB to develop a convergent framework regarding fair value measurement. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the main provisions of the IFRS 13 regarding fair value measurement, with a special emphasis on key concepts found throughout the standard, which refer to the principal market, the most advantageous market, the highest and best use, valuation techniques, and value hierarchy.

  16. Positive-Operator Valued Measure (POVM Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Gazeau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a general formalism for giving a measure space paired with a separable Hilbert space a quantum version based on a normalized positive operator-valued measure. The latter are built from families of density operators labeled by points of the measure space. We especially focus on various probabilistic aspects of these constructions. Simple ormore elaborate examples illustrate the procedure: circle, two-sphere, plane and half-plane. Links with Positive-Operator Valued Measure (POVM quantum measurement and quantum statistical inference are sketched.

  17. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  18. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  19. Measuring values for cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical relevance of the recent critique that values surveys, as they are, suffer from the problem of measuring marginal preferences rather than values. By surveying items from cross-cultural surveys by Hofstede, Inglehart and GLOBE, we show that the marginal

  20. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  1. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  2. On expectation values for nuclear energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear model is built up by constructing measured states, including the ground state, from the vacuum state. All states are, however, not accessible from the ground state so that selection rules may be found which at the same time impose even more stringent conditions on the labelling of energy levels. These are the subject of this paper

  3. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  4. Time-Varying Value of Energy Efficiency in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie; Eckman, Tom; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2018-04-02

    Quantifying the time-varying value of energy efficiency is necessary to properly account for all of its benefits and costs and to identify and implement efficiency resources that contribute to a low-cost, reliable electric system. Historically, most quantification of the benefits of efficiency has focused largely on the economic value of annual energy reduction. Due to the lack of statistically representative metered end-use load shape data in Michigan (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings), the ability to confidently characterize the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings in the state, especially for weather-sensitive measures such as central air conditioning, is limited. Still, electric utilities in Michigan can take advantage of opportunities to incorporate the time-varying value of efficiency into their planning. For example, end-use load research and hourly valuation of efficiency savings can be used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service (KEMA 2012). In addition, accurately calculating the time-varying value of efficiency may help energy efficiency program administrators prioritize existing offerings, set incentive or rebate levels that reflect the full value of efficiency, and design new programs.

  5. measurements of distribution coefficients and lipophilicity values

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    octanol and water, followed by measuring the distribution of the solute in ... Instrumentation and apparatus: HPLC-UV-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS experiments .... process in the determination of KD and log P values for the HFSLM extracts. ..... Perrin, D.D.; Dempsey, B. Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control, Chapman and Hall:.

  6. Lattice-Valued Possibilistic Entropy Measure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 829-846 ISSN 0218-4885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complete lattice * lattice-valued possibilistic distribution * entropy measure * product of possibilistic distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  7. Shared Values?: Measuring Value Differences Between Civilians and Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Efflandt, Scott

    1998-01-01

    .... In response to this many within and outside of the military have attributed these problems to the absence of personal values among new service members that are congruent with the military's core values...

  8. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  9. On the audit of fair value measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder P. Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hypotheses „whether the auditor’s functional domain, his approach, methodology and responsibilities are undergoing a metamorphosis with the adoption of Fair Value Accounting (hereinafter the „FVA” and whether his/her role is moving away from the mechanized attester of tangible evidence to the one exercising a substantively judgmental function in a holistic assessment of the values ascribed to be fair by the entity’s management” are tested. These hypotheses are tested on the basis of an analysis of the statutory provisions, the pronouncements of accounting and other regulatory bodies and accounting norms and theories. After setting forth the research objectives and the hypotheses, the necessity of the FVA is reviewed and the underlying philosophy is analyzed. Impediments in performing audits of fair-value-based measurements are then identified and the US auditing standards and their international counterparts are touched upon. Finally, some safeguards and precautions for the auditor in an audit of fair-value measurements are presented.

  10. Value measurement of nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.; Harris, G.I.; Schonbein, W.R.; Rashford, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty in measuring the benefit component for cost/benefit analysis of diagnostic procedures in medicine is portrayed as a complex issue relating the objective of intent to a classification of types of decisions a physician must make in evaluating a patient's problem. Ultimately, it seems desirable to develop measuring instruments such as attitude measurement tools by which the relative value of alternative diagnostic procedures could be measured in terms of what they contribute to diminishing the patient's personal perception of disease. Even without this idealized objective, it is reasonable to assume that diagnostic tests which do not contain information, defined as a change in the randomness of a state of knowledge, could not be expected to ultimately benefit the patient. Thus diagnostic information should provide a rational direction for the physician to modify the course of the patient's illness. Since information can be measured as a change in randomness of a knowledge state, we can determine the information content of a specific nuclear medicine procedure when faced with an array of diagnostic problems. These measurements remain to be made for clinical nuclear medicine procedures and are currently under study

  11. Debate Regarding Measuring Accounting Value: Historical Cost against Fair Value

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Munteanu; Marilena Zuca

    2015-01-01

    The transition from historical cost to fair value represents an option with major implications in accounting, because it is a complex process that requires tuning to today’s trends of national and global economy. We can state that with all the advantages of using historical cost it has its limitations and it is” getting old”. That doesn’t mean that will be abandoned but substituted when it is needed with another value. At present, the lack of historical value is inconceivable; many practit...

  12. Debate Regarding Measuring Accounting Value: Historical Cost against Fair Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from historical cost to fair value represents an option with major implications in accounting, because it is a complex process that requires tuning to today’s trends of national and global economy. We can state that with all the advantages of using historical cost it has its limitations and it is” getting old”. That doesn’t mean that will be abandoned but substituted when it is needed with another value. At present, the lack of historical value is inconceivable; many practitioners consider it to be the best method to evaluate assets.

  13. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  14. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  15. VALUE AT RISK - CORPORATE RISK MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia-Nicoleta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of 'risk' is used in a number of sciences. The Faculty of Law studies the risk depending on its legality. The Accident Theory applies this term to describe the damage and the disasters. One can find studies on the risks in the works of psychology, philosophy, medicine and within each of these areas the study of the risk is based on the given science subject and, of course, on their methods and approaches. Such a variety of risk study is explained by the diversity of this phenomenon. Under the market economy conditions, the risk is an essential component of any economic agent management policy, of the approach developed by this one, a strategy that depends almost entirely on individual ability and capacity to anticipate his evolution and to exploit his opportunities, assuming a so-called 'risk of business failure.' There are several ways to measure the risks in projects, one of the most used methods to measure this being the Value at Risk(VaR. Value at Risk (VaR was made famous by JP Morgan in the mid 1990s, by introducing the RiskMetrics approach, and hence, by far, has been sanctioned by several Governing Bodies throughout the world bank. In short, it measures the value of risk capital stocks in a given period at a certain probability of loss. This measurement can be modified for risk applications through, for example, the potential loss values affirmation in a certain amount of time during the economic life of the project- clearly, a project with a lower VaR is better. It should be noted that it is not always possible or advisable for a company to limit itself to the remote analysis of each risk because the risks and their effects are interdependent and constitute a system .In addition, there are risks which, in combination with other risks, tend to produce effects which they would not have caused by themselves and risks that tend to offset and even cancel each other out.

  16. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  18. The Value of Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Managing Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Weiss, Edith

    1982-04-01

    Research and interviews with officials of the United States energy industry and a systems analysis of decision making in a natural gas utility lead to the conclusion that seasonal climate forecasts would only have limited value in fine tuning the management of energy supply, even if the forecasts were more reliable and detailed than at present.On the other hand, reliable forecasts could be useful to state and local governments both as a signal to adopt long-term measures to increase the efficiency of energy use and to initiate short-term measures to reduce energy demand in anticipation of a weather-induced energy crisis.To be useful for these purposes, state governments would need better data on energy demand patterns and available energy supplies, staff competent to interpret climate forecasts, and greater incentive to conserve. The use of seasonal climate forecasts is not likely to be constrained by fear of legal action by those claiming to be injured by a possible incorrect forecast.

  19. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  20. Measure-valued solutions to the complete Euler system revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Březina, Jan; Feireisl, Eduard

    2018-06-01

    We consider the complete Euler system describing the time evolution of a general inviscid compressible fluid. We introduce a new concept of measure-valued solution based on the total energy balance and entropy inequality for the physical entropy without any renormalization. This class of so-called dissipative measure-valued solutions is large enough to include the vanishing dissipation limits of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier system. Our main result states that any sequence of weak solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier system with vanishing viscosity and heat conductivity coefficients generates a dissipative measure-valued solution of the Euler system under some physically grounded constitutive relations. Finally, we discuss the same asymptotic limit for the bi-velocity fluid model introduced by H.Brenner.

  1. Quantum measurement with a positive operator-valued measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2003-01-01

    In the quantum theory of measurement, the positive operator-valued measure (POVM) is an important concept, and its implementation can be useful. A POVM consists of a set of non-negative quantum-mechanical Hermitian operators that add up to the identity. The probability that a quantum system is in a particular state is given by the expectation value of the POVM operator corresponding to that state. Following a brief review of the mathematics and mention of the history of POVMs in quantum theory, a particular implementation of a POVM for use in the measurement of nonorthogonal photon polarization states is reviewed. The implementation consists simply of a Wollaston prism, a mirror, two beam splitters, a polarization rotator and three phototubes arranged in an interferometric configuration, and it is shown analytically that the device faithfully represents the POVM. Based on Neumark's extension theorem, the two-dimensional Hilbert space of the POVM implementation can be embedded in the three-dimensional Hilbert space of an ordinary projective-valued measure. Also, analytical expressions are given for the maximum Renyi information loss from the device to a disturbing probe, and for the error and inconclusive rates induced by the probe. Various aspects of the problem of probe optimization are elaborated

  2. Energy measurements from betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Thompson, K.

    1989-03-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the electron beam is accelerated from 1--50 GeV in a distance of 3 km. The energy is measured and corrected at the end with an energy feedback loop. There are no bends within the linear accelerator itself, so no intermediate energy measurements are made. Errors in the energy profile due to mis-phasing of the rf, or due to calibration errors in the klystrons' rf outputs are difficult to detect. As the total betatron phase advance down the accelerator is about 30 /times/ 2π, an energy error of a few percent can cause a large error in the total phase advance. This in turn degrades the performance of auto-steering programs. We have developed a diagnostic program which generates and measures several betatron oscillations in the accelerator. It then analyzes this oscillation, looking for frequency changes which indicate energy errors. One can then compensate for or correct these energy errors. 6 refs., 1 fig

  3. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges' comments. The purpose of this report is to assess the energy performance of the 2011 EVHA winners as well as align the EVHA Program with the Building America Program.

  4. Weak-value measurements can outperform conventional measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W; Harris, Jérémie; Lundeen, Jeff S

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we provide a simple, straightforward example of a specific situation in which weak-value amplification (WVA) clearly outperforms conventional measurement in determining the angular orientation of an optical component. We also offer a perspective reconciling the views of some theorists, who claim WVA to be inherently sub-optimal for parameter estimation, with the perspective of the many experimentalists and theorists who have used the procedure to successfully access otherwise elusive phenomena. (invited comment)

  5. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates, and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award-winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges’ comments.

  6. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  7. Forward energy measurement with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kheyn, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Energy flow is measured in the forward region of CMS at pseudorapidities up to 6.6 in pp interactions at 13 TeV with forward (HF) and very forward (CASTOR) calorimeters. The results are compared to model predictions. The CMS results at different center-of-mass energies are intercompared using pseudorapidity variable shifted by beam rapidity, thus studying applicability of hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.

  8. Increase of internal energy due to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.

    1991-01-01

    We argue that the internal energy E=(H) of a macroscopic system in thermal equilibrium must increase, if we measure an observable A which does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. We derive an expression for calculating a lower bound for this increase in E. We then generalize the above result, and show that under certain conditions the expectation value (C) of an observable C should increase by the measurement of another observable A, if A and C do not commute. (author)

  9. VALUES-ORIENTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Михайлович ВОЗНИЙ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The value-oriented approach to project management of renewable energy based on classification stage of the life cycle of products of the projects, adapted to the goals and objectives of information modeling, which allowed to formulate stricter requirements information models used at different stages of the power plant is proposed. A classification of the alternative energy projects, which highlighting areas for activities is proposed. The list of stakeholders that have an impact on alternative energy projects and presented their classification is defined. The value of alternative energy projects considered from the standpoint of a utilitarian approach, using the concept of utility and on the basis of this concept proposed classification values of alternative energy projects. Criteria values as indicators for assessing the value of alternative energy projects and their weights determined by pairwise comparison. To take into account the changes of the value criteria over time proposed to use the key control points value, assessed value criteria in various key points of control, defined indicator of the total value of alternative energy projects. The classification of risks and tools for value-oriented risk management in alternative energy projects is proposed. Further study authors plan to link the development of mechanisms for harmonization value alternative energy projects for their stakeholders.

  10. Measuring Values in Environmental Research: A Test of an Environmental Portrait Value Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Four human values are considered to underlie individuals’ environmental beliefs and behaviors: biospheric (i.e., concern for environment), altruistic (i.e., concern for others), egoistic (i.e., concern for personal resources) and hedonic values (i.e., concern for pleasure and comfort). These values are typically measured with an adapted and shortened version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), to which we refer as the Environmental-SVS (E-SVS). Despite being well-validated, recent research has indicated some concerns about the SVS methodology (e.g., comprehensibility, self-presentation biases) and suggested an alternative method of measuring human values: The Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). However, the PVQ has not yet been adapted and applied to measure values most relevant to understand environmental beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, we tested the Environmental-PVQ (E-PVQ) – a PVQ variant of E-SVS –and compared it with the E-SVS in two studies. Our findings provide strong support for the validity and reliability of both the E-SVS and E-PVQ. In addition, we find that respondents slightly preferred the E-PVQ over the E-SVS (Study 1). In general, both scales correlate similarly to environmental self-identity (Study 1), energy behaviors (Studies 1 and 2), pro-environmental personal norms, climate change beliefs and policy support (Study 2). Accordingly, both methodologies show highly similar results and seem well-suited for measuring human values underlying environmental behaviors and beliefs. PMID:29743874

  11. 1999 Annual Report: Delivering energy value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Union Gas Limited, a subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Company, is a major Canadian natural gas utility, providing energy delivery and related services to 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in over 400 communities in northern, southwestern and eastern Ontario. Union Gas also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the northeastern United States. In 1999 the Company had revenues of 1.5 billion, net income of $ 95 million, and assets totalling $ 3.8 billion. Net income was down from $ 109 million in 1998, due mainly to the impact of the sale of the Company's retail merchandise program to Union Energy, a lower approved rate of return on common equity. Full-time employees number about 2,500. Total throughput for 1999 was 34.6 billion cubic metres of natural gas, up 8.9 per cent from 1998. The Company undertook significant reorganization and restructuring during 1999, to emphasize critical business processes. The reorganization, which saw the divestiture of the retail merchandise programs to an unregulated affiliate, Union Energy, resulted in a flat, flexible and efficient enterprise, more capable of timely response to changing market opportunities and customer needs. Union Gas also filed application with the Ontario Energy Board for rates for the year 2000 and beyond, using the performance-based regulation framework; completed construction of a $ 16 million, 90 km pipeline to make natural gas service available to Parry Sound; Launched 'enoms' a new Internet-based natural gas nominations system; completed the first phase of the $ 17 million Century Pools storage development project, and applied to build the second phase, comprising a $37 million addition to the storage pools at the Mandasumin, Bluewater and Oil City pools; and completed several smaller projects totalling $ 5.2 million to give access to natural gas to 2,300 new customers at various parts of

  12. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  13. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  14. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Ariel; Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  15. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel [Economics Department, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8RT (United Kingdom); Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert [Economics Department, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  16. Value at Risk models for Energy Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis lies on description of Risk Management in context of Energy Trading. The paper will predominantly discuss Value at Risk and its modifications as a main overall indicator of Energy Risk.

  17. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper

  18. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.W. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  19. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  20. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  1. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  2. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  3. Estimation of cost and value of energy from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.; Fransden, S.

    1995-01-01

    The International Energy Agency expert group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation is finalizing a second edition of the E stimation of cost of energy from wind energy conversion systems . This paper summarizes those recommendations. Further, the value of wind energy in terms of the associated savings is discussed, and a case study is undertaken to illustrate wind energy cost/benefit analyses. The paper concludes that while the recommended practices on cost estimation may be useful in connection with wind energy feasibility studies there is still a need for further international agreement upon guidelines on how to assess wind energy benefits. (author)

  4. Measuring the safeguards value of material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicherman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Material accountability (MA) activities focus on providing after-the-fact indication of diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). MA activities include maintaining records for tracking nuclear material and conducting periodic inventories and audits to ensure that loss has not occurred. This paper presents a value model concept for assessing the safeguards benefits of MA activities and for comparing these benefits to those provided by physical protection (PP) and material control (MC) components. The model considers various benefits of MA, which include: 1) providing information to assist in recovery of missing material, 2) providing assurance that physical protection and material control systems have been working, 3) defeating protracted theft attempts, and 4) properly resolving causes of and responding appropriately to anomalies of missing material and external alarms (e.g., hoax). Such a value model can aid decision-makers in allocating safeguards resources among PP, MC, and MA systems

  5. Renewable energy: Method and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Trond Hartvedt

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents various possibilities for renewable energy in Norway. The wind power would give a practical and economic alternative. The external costs for the wind power would be moderate. In chapter 3 the utility cost analysis for renewable alternatives are studied relative to the macroeconomic efficiency. Some methodical problems and how these analyses are used are reviewed. In the practical utility cost analyses wind power is studied relative to gas power which is the non-renewable alternative present in Norway today. A qualitative part is included. It is not possible to determine whether wind power is preferable to gas power in the macroeconomic perspective. Wind power would be the choice if high environmental and CO2 cleaning costs are expected. The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is difficult to decide whether wind power is the best solution based on cost benefit analysis. However, the alternative seems to be quite robust in the analysis. Due to the central position the energy supplies have in the society this business should be heavily regulated. The sector is also overtaxed as a reduction in consumption is desired. The analysis shows that the system does not function perfectly. The thesis surveys various measures for improving the renewable energy supply and focuses on the wind power. A model for and analysis of the measures are carried out and resulted in a second conclusion. The measures have various properties as to the influence on the market. A subsidy is a fine measure for stimulation production of green power while a tax reduces efficiently the production of black power. A system with green licenses in combination with a subsidy and a tax would be preferable as to increasing the part of renewable energy of the total production. It is therefore necessary to have clearly defined goals and use suitable measures for achieving them. The costs of wind power is falling and it would therefore soon be macroeconomic profitable. It is also

  6. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  7. Exemption values and measurements in international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are developed worldwide to systematically derive exemption limits or exemption values (IAEA, ICRP, Radiation Protection Ordinance) for different applications according to uniform principles. An important step in this regard is the adoption of the new guideline of the EU Council on radiation protection. Also regarding a uniform definition of the exemption of material from nuclear installations, agreement should be reached soon in Europe. Due to different concepts of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes, in particular low level wastes, internationally there is no prospect of a uniform regulation concerning the exemption of very low level wastes, while in Germany a corresponding recommendation has already been made by the radiation protection commission. The exemption limits valid at present are mentioned. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Simplified correction of g-value measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    been carried out using a detailed physical model based on ISO9050 and prEN410 but using polarized data for non-normal incidence. This model is only valid for plane, clear glazings and therefor not suited for corrections of measurements performed on complex glazings. To investigate a more general...... correction procedure the results from the measurements on the Interpane DGU have been corrected using the principle outlined in (Rosenfeld, 1996). This correction procedure is more general as corrections can be carried out without a correct physical model of the investigated glazing. On the other hand...... the way this “general” correction procedure is used is not always in accordance to the physical conditions....

  9. Valuing compassion through definition and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Belinda; Pullin, Simon; Tocheris, Ria

    2011-02-01

    The Leadership in Compassionate Care programme aims to embed compassionate care in practice and education. This article describes a project within the programme that explores with staff, patients and families the meaning of compassion and how this can be measured. The project has involved developing practice statements from noticing the aspects of compassionate care that work well. Staff were provided with support to consider, develop and implement actions that would help ensure consistency in developing compassionate care.

  10. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  11. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  12. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  13. Values, Perceived Risks and Benefits, and Acceptability of Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that

  14. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps ∞ H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2γ annihilation rate for Ps ∞ H was 2.471 78x10 9 s -1

  15. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  16. Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…

  17. Measure for Measure: Urban Water and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, C.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments in the United States account for a majority of the population and, as such, require large volumes of treated drinking water supply and wastewater removal, both of which need energy. Despite the large share of water that urban environments demand, there is limited accounting of these water resources outside of the city itself. In this study, we provide and analyze a database of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy that comprise anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment. We present statistical analyses of the database at an annual, spatial, and intra-annual scale. The average daily per person water flux is estimated as 563 liters of drinking water and 496 liters of wastewater, requiring 340 kWh/1000 m3 and 430 kWh/1000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. This energy demand accounts for 1% of the total annual electricity production of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water (estimated at 15.8% annually) accounts for 9.1 km3of water and 3600 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Through the analysis and benchmarking of the current state of urban water fluxes, we propose the term `blue city,' which promotes urban sustainability and conservation policy focusing on water resources. As the nation's water resources become scarcer and more unpredictable, it is essential to include water resources in urban sustainability planning and continue data collection of these vital resources.

  18. From free energy to expected energy: Improving energy-based value function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Stefan; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Free-energy based reinforcement learning (FERL) was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state and action spaces. However, the FERL method does only really work well with binary, or close to binary, state input, where the number of active states is fewer than the number of non-active states. In the FERL method, the value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). In our earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of the FERL method can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that RBM function approximation can be further improved by approximating the value function by the negative expected energy (EERL), instead of the negative free energy, as well as being able to handle continuous state input. We validate our proposed method by demonstrating that EERL: (1) outperforms FERL, as well as standard neural network and linear function approximation, for three versions of a gridworld task with high-dimensional image state input; (2) achieves new state-of-the-art results in stochastic SZ-Tetris in both model-free and model-based learning settings; and (3) significantly outperforms FERL and standard neural network function approximation for a robot navigation task with raw and noisy RGB images as state input and a large number of actions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  20. Historical Costs versus Fair Value Measurement in Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Dana

    2009-01-01

    There are two important points in which in which we need assets and liabilities measured in financial accounting: on initial recognition and at a balance sheet day. Many International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) used the fair value measurement concept. But most of these standards use the fair value measurement method only at a balance sheet day. On initial recognition assets and liabilities are measured usually at costs. The IASB presented the discussion paper “Measurement Bases for ...

  1. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  2. Social values and political realities in the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Social values, which represent our visions, determine the decisions made in the energy sector more than their technical feasibility. The present energy system is based on 80 % fossil fuels. This situation will continue at least for the coming 20 years, since there are no innovations and no radical change of lifestyle to be expected within this time frame. The absolute level of energy consumption will raise. The rural - urban migration will continue. Scenarios of feasible energy developments may be characterized by fossil-, renewable and nuclear driven energy technologies. The worldwide energy resources are plentiful available and are sufficient even for a growing population. The conflicting objectives of the decision makers in the energy sector drive the energy dichotomies, the sustainability, and the effects of energy competition to an even more severe situation. System Engineering is an approach, which combines systems analysis and technology know-how and by which realistic and optimal energy solutions may be developed. Verbundplan uses System Engineering to plan and erect complex power systems, especially hydro power plants, to evaluate decisions in the energy and environmental field and to optimize investments and the operation of energy systems. (author)

  3. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  4. Corporate performance and the measures of value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petravičius

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managers have turned their attention to the ways increasing the value of their companies. A number of competing measures have been developed and marketed by investment and consulting firms. This paper considers the ways in which value can be created or destroyed in a firm and looks at how to calculate the cost of capital used to measure the opportunity cost of investing funds in one particular business instead of others with equivalent risk. Next, we have a look at the four most widely used value enhancement measures including Economic Value Added, Cash Flow Return on Investment, Market Value Added, Cash Value Added and use an example to think of where these approaches yield similar results and where differences might occur. In conclusion, we summarize the new or unique points in these competing measures, establish the information they can give and explain how to use it when managing and creating shareholder value.

  5. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair value» is narrower and more accurate than the previous, it clarifies the subject matter, subjects of transactions, as well as the date of its execution. The scheme of estimation at fair value as well as model of fair value determination according to IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» has been presented. Methods of measurement at fair value and the fair value hierarchy have been researched. Some disadvantages of provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» on the basis of its analysis have been highlighted, uncertainty is essential among them in which fair value should be applied.

  6. The experience curve, option value, and the energy paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, Jasmin; Sparks, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a model to explain the 'energy paradox,' the inclination of households and firms to require very high internal rates of return in order to make energy-saving investments. The model abstracts from many features of such investments to focus on their irreversibility, the uncertainty of their future payoff streams, and the investor's anticipation of future technological advance. In this setting, the decision to invest in energy-saving technology can be delayed, providing option value. In addition, delay allows the potential investor to cash in on future experience-curve effects: With the passage of time, firms gain practical knowledge in producing and installing the energy-saving technology, enabling them to reduce the technology's up-front cost per unit of energy saved. We incorporate these fundamentals into a stochastic model where the investment's discounted benefits follow geometric Brownian motion. To demonstrate the model's capabilities, we generate simulation results for photovoltaic systems that highlight the experience-curve effect as a fundamental reason why households and firms delay making energy-saving investments until internal rates of return exceed values of 50% and higher, consistent with observations in the economics literature. We also explore altruistic motivations for energy conservation and the model's implications for both 'additionality' and the design of energy-conservation policy

  7. Ground state energy values and moments of the anharmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharaman, M.; Raghavan, Sekhar; Subba Rao, G.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that a very satisfactory estimate of the energy values (for all values of the anharmonicity) and moments of the ground state of the quartic anharmonic oscillator can be obtained in the variational method, by considering trial wavefunctions which have the correct asymptotic properties. The results derived with a single variational parameter are a considerable improvement over the recent results of C.A. Ginsburg and E.W. Montroll (1978). (author)

  8. Measurement of small dispersion values in optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    1999-01-01

    It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm....

  9. Measurement Invariance of Expectancy-Value Questionnaire in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Ennis, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-Value Questionnaire (EVQ) measures student expectancy beliefs and task values of the domain content (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995). In this study the authors examine measurement invariance of EVQ in the domain of physical education between elementary and middle-school students. Participants included 811 students (3rd-5th grades) from 13…

  10. A method for valuing architecture-based business transformation and measuring the value of solutions architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise and Solution Architecture are key in today’s business environment. It is surprising that the foundation and business case for these activities are nonexistent; the financial value for the business of these activities is largely undetermined. To determine business value of enterprise and solution architecture, this thesis shows how to measure and quantify, in business terms, the value of enterprise architecture-based on business transformation and the value of solution architecture.

  11. The perceived value of using BIM for energy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anderson M.

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the Architectural, Engineering & Construction (AEC) industries. Some of the benefits associated with BIM include but are not limited to cost and time savings through greater trade and design coordination, and more accurate estimating take-offs. BIM is a virtual 3D, parametric design software that allows users to store information of a model within and can be used as a communication platform between project stakeholders. Likewise, energy simulation is an integral tool for predicting and optimizing a building's performance during design. Creating energy models and running energy simulations can be a time consuming activity due to the large number of parameters and assumptions that must be addressed to achieve reasonably accurate results. However, leveraging information imbedded within Building Information Models (BIMs) has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce the amount of time required to run energy simulations and can facilitate continuous energy simulations throughout the design process, thus optimizing building performance. Although some literature exists on how design stakeholders perceive the benefits associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation, little is known about how perceptions associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation differ between various green design stakeholder user groups. Through an e-survey instrument, this study seeks to determine how perceptions of using BIMs to inform energy simulation differ among distinct design stakeholder groups, which include BIM-only users, energy simulation-only users and BIM and energy simulation users. Additionally, this study seeks to determine what design stakeholders perceive as the main barriers and benefits of implementing BIM-based energy simulation. Results from this study suggest that little to no correlation exists between green design stakeholders' perceptions of the value associated with using

  12. New values of some physical interaction coefficients for dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenlohr, H.H.; Zsdanszky, K.

    1986-01-01

    At its 8th meeting in 1985 Section I of the ''Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements lonisants'' (CCEMRI) to the ''Comite International des Poids et Mesures'' (CIPM) has put forward a recommendation on new values of some physical constants to be used for exposure and absorbed dose determinations (see Annex I). Implementation of this recommendation has some impact on the measurement of exposure, air kerma and absorbed dose, and may result in changes in calibration factors of dosimeters. This subject will be discussed in detail at the IAEA Workshop on Calibration Procedures in Dosimetry, to be held in Quito in October 1986. The following information may assist SSDLs in preparing themselves for the expected changes of calibration factors. The recommendation has been caused by new numerical values of some physical constants which have become available recently. The two most important changes concern: a) S m,a , the ratio of the mean restricted collision mass stopping powers of the chamber material to that of air for electrons crossing the cavity, and b) W air /e, the mean energy required to produce an ion pair in air per electron charge, for electrons emitted by radioactive sources or produced by photon absorption

  13. Fair Value Accounting and Measurement through FASB’s Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaci, Carmen Giorgiana; Strouhal, Jiří; Matis, Dumitru

    2009-01-01

    Our research follows the path of fair value as a term and concept, as well as its disclosure, measurement and recognition back from 1953 until our days, and analyzes the regulations issued by United States Accounting Standard setters, through the point of view of the historical events, which led to their appearance. Our study brings its’ contribution to complementing growing literature on the value relevance of fair value, but focuses on the assessment of fair value as a financial reporting s...

  14. The value of delay in tidal energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite robust research, prototype development and demonstration of in-stream tidal energy devices, progress to the commercialization stage has been slow. Some of this can be attributed to a lack readiness or financing. However, when uncertainty is high, a developer may choose to delay a project until more is known. The option to delay has value for a company. This study applies the real option valuation model to an investment in a 10 MW array of in-stream tidal energy conversion devices at the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. The values of investing and the option to delay are calculated. A sensitivity analysis of key drivers and scenarios with various input values to the option model are constructed to observe the impact on the 'invest versus delay' decision. The analysis suggests there is value in owning the option to develop, by leasing a FORCE berth, but waiting while uncertainty is resolved. Implications for policy-setting are discussed. - Highlights: • Analyze an invest-vs-delay decision in tidal energy conversion using real options. • Assess whether conditions are conducive to an economically rational decision to delay. • Identify aspects of the decision that can be influenced by government policy.

  15. Comparative Energy Values Of Sorghum Distillers Waste, Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balance trial aimed at determining the energy values of Sorghum Distiller's Wastes (SDW), Maize cob (MC) and Shea butter Waste (SBW) for barrows was conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square cross- over experimental design. While feed intake was influenced (P < 0.05) by the test feed ingredients, the weight gained was ...

  16. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  17. Metabolisable energy values of some non-conventional feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A metabolism trial was designed to evaluate dietary energy values (AME, AMEn, TME, TMEn) of eight readily available non-conventional feeding ingredients viz: cassava root meal (CRM); cassava leaf meal (CLM), mango leaf meal (MLM), shrimp waste meal (SWM), full-fat soyabean (FFSB), palm oil sludge (POS), corn cob ...

  18. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  19. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  20. Energy value of the hard waste in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The base sources of solid waste, which have the most significant influence on total quantity is defined. Whole territory of R. of Macedonia is devoted in seven parts depending on the larger cities and balanced quantity of wastes. In spite of this territory definition, the quantity of solid waste in spite of source of appearing for this regions and the whole territory of Macedonia, is defined. The share of organic materials in the structure of solid waste is defined, beside that can be determine their energy value. By determined quantity of solid waste and their energy value, the capacity and the number of power plant for direct combustion which can be build in R. of Macedonia is determined. The heat energy that can be obtained from solid waste combustion during the year, for determined seven regions individually is calculated. (Author)

  1. THE ISSUES IN THE MEASUREMENT OF POSTMATERIAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tasić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of postmaterial values includes measuring of the views on the preservation ofpeace, freedom of speech, environmental protection, tolerance and everything else that is contrary tothe concept of measuring the material values, that is physical and economic variables. Measurementof postmaterial values is based on the application of 4 or 12 items scale that refers to the materialismor postmaterialism in certain country. There are several issues and limitations in the application ofpostmaterial values measurement scale which can cause significant error, in other words bias inmeasurement. One of the most interesting issues is the impact of question order change on themeasurement results of postmaterial values. Using the results of empirical research it is shown thatthis effect is significant and, also it is particularly examined the intensity of this effect consideringgender and level of education based on the sample of respondents from urban Serbia.

  2. Measurement of Missing Tranverse Energy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This note discusses the overall ATLAS detector performance for the reconstruction of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss. Two reconstruction algorithms are discussed and their performance is evaluated for a variety of simulated physics processes which probe different topologies and different total transverse energy regimes. In addition, effects of fake ETmiss, resulting from instrumental effects and from false reconstructions are investigated. Finally, studies with first data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100 pb-1, are suggested which can be used to assess and calibrate the ETmiss performance at the startup of data taking.

  3. The value chain of small-sized energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Foehr, J.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland), LUT Energy), Email: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi, Email: jarno.fohr@lut.fi, Email: tapio.ranta@lut.fi; Ahtikoski, A. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi (Finland)), Email: anssi.ahtikoski@metla.fi; Valsta, L. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Economics), Email: lauri.valsta@helsinki.fi

    2009-07-01

    Finland has agreed to increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38% by the end of 2020. Most of the increase is to be based on bioenergy. According to the National Climate and Energy Strategy, the need for forest biomass will come to more than 20 TWh, or some 10 million cubic meters per year. Energy wood from young stand thinnings are the biomass resource with the most potential at the moment. The purpose of this study was to compare cost differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on traditional roundwood thinning. In addition, alternative supply chain costs for small-sized wood were studied. The results of the study show that it is worth considering the following points if the demand and average price for forest chips remain high. 1. Forest-owners: Forest management including energy wood thinning is financially feasible. 2. Supply chain: A terminal chipping chain enables large-scale procurement of small-sized energy wood. 3. Power plants: Currently, subsidies, emission trading, and decreasing pulpwood prices together enable large-scale use of small-sized wood for energy purposes. The value chain of small-sized energy wood in large-scale power plants could be mobilised. (orig.)

  4. U-value measurements on ISO round Robin window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust.......9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust....

  5. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in ... the experimental point of view, there are multiple ways to shed light among the different .... compared to the two metallicity expectations [16]. ..... from the Earth; solar neutrinos; indirect dark matter searches) and GeV physics (pro-.

  6. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND ...

  7. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  8. U-value measurements on a roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of the U-value measurements performed on a roof window. The work is as a part of the development of an ISO/CEN standard measuring procedure for roof windows.The measurements have been performed using the procedures given in ISO 12567 draft version 1998...

  9. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  10. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  11. Public values for energy futures: Framing, indeterminacy and policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.; Demski, C.; Parkhill, K.; Pidgeon, N.; Spence, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK there are strong policy imperatives to transition toward low carbon energy systems but how and in what ways such transitional processes might be realised remains highly uncertain. One key area of uncertainty pertains to public attitudes and acceptability. Though there is wide-ranging research relevant to public acceptability, very little work has unpacked the multiple questions concerning how policy-makers can grapple with and mitigate related uncertainties in efforts to enact energy systems change. In this paper, public acceptability is identified as an indeterminate form of uncertainty that presents particular challenges for policy making. We build on our existing research into public values for energy system change to explore how the outcomes of the project can be applied in thinking through the uncertainties associated with public acceptability. Notably, we illustrate how the public values identified through our research bring into view alternative and quite different problem and solution framings to those currently evident within UK policy. We argue that engagement with a wide range of different framings can offer a basis for better understanding and anticipating public responses to energy system change, ultimately aiding in managing the complex set of uncertainties associated with public acceptability. - Highlights: • We argue that public acceptability represents an indeterminate form of uncertainty. • This means alternative approaches to decision-making are required. • We introduce a public value set for energy system change. • We use this as a basis for interrogating current UK policy approaches to transitions. • Incorporating public values in policy can help tackle uncertainty about acceptability.

  12. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  13. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  14. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  15. The use of personal values in living standards measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... Values Questionnaire, Living Standards Measure, purchase decision- .... According to Schwartz (1992), scholars in the areas of psychology, anthropology ... The application of the values perspective to the marketing of .... is a fairly complex task involving large data tables, and that some of the LSM groups.

  16. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  17. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  18. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-01-01

    The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair v...

  19. Adam Smith's Concept of Labour: Value or Measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Rodriguez-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    The terminology employed by Smith to refer to value and measure of value is used in his time with imprecision, which has led to different interpretations about his position on these issues. It is no coincidence that Smith is considered the father of the labour theory of value developed by David Ricardo and Karl Marx and simultaneously of the cost-of-production theory of value developed by John Stuart Mill and Alfred Marshall. This paper reviews the concepts developed by Smith to formulate his...

  20. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  1. Value for money: Defining and measuring 'value' in MoD's acquisition policy of obtaining best value for money

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining value for money is a keystone of UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) acquisition strategy embedded in its Smart Acquisition policy. This thesis examines how best to measure the relative value of competing tender submissions for major projects. There is a comprehensive discussion of a wide range of relevant definitions and over three dozen documents are scrutinised including just some sixteen published by the Government. Commercially available models, algorithms and software are examined as...

  2. Theory of “Weak Value" and Quantum Mechanical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Comment: to be published from "Measurements in Quantum Mechanics", edited by M. R. Pahlavani (InTech, 2012) Chapter 4 page 75. Yutaka Shikano (2012). ISBN: 978-953-51-0058-4 Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/theory-of-weak-value-and-quantum-mechanical-measurement

  3. The use of personal values in living standards measures | Ungerer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Living Standards Measure (LSM), a South African marketing segmentation method, is a multivariate wealth measure based on standard of living. This article reports on whether a rationale can be found for the inclusion of psychological variables, particularly personal values, in this type of multivariate segmentation.

  4. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  5. A Framework for Measuring Low-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, George; Rhyan, Corwin; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth; Hughes-Cromwick, Paul

    2018-04-01

    It has been estimated that more than 30% of health care spending in the United States is wasteful, and that low-value care, which drives up costs unnecessarily while increasing patient risk, is a significant component of wasteful spending. To address the need for an ability to measure the magnitude of low-value care nationwide, identify the clinical services that are the greatest contributors to waste, and track progress toward eliminating low-value use of these services. Such an ability could provide valuable input to the efforts of policymakers and health systems to improve efficiency. We reviewed existing methods that could contribute to measuring low-value care and developed an integrated framework that combines multiple methods to comprehensively estimate and track the magnitude and principal sources of clinical waste. We also identified a process and needed research for implementing the framework. A comprehensive methodology for measuring and tracking low-value care in the United States would provide an important contribution toward reducing waste. Implementation of the framework described in this article appears feasible, and the proposed research program will allow moving incrementally toward full implementation while providing a near-term capability for measuring low-value care that can be enhanced over time. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  7. [Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; E Reichman, Marsha; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data,we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  8. Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; Reichman, Marsha E; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data, we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  9. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  10. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  11. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  12. A model for measuring value for money in professional sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Few to almost none sports teams measure the entertainment value they provide to fans in exchange of the money the latter ones spend on admission fees. Scientific literature oversees the issue as well. The aim of this paper is to present a model that can be used for calculating value for money in the context of spectating sports. The research question asks how can value for money be conceptualized and measured for sports marketing purposes? Using financial and sporting variables, the method calculates how much money, on average, a fan had to spend for receiving quality entertainment – defined as won matches – from his favorite team, during the last season of the Romanian first division football championship. The results only partially confirm the research hypothesis, showing that not just price and sporting performances may influence the value delivered to fans, but other factors as well.

  13. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  14. Light and energy - daylight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Logadottir, A.; Traberg-Borup, S.; Barrie-Nielsen, K.

    2009-07-01

    All measurements where conducted in the spring of 2007, except the Interpane panel. The solar cell panels have been evaluated by three performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room and the systems ability to maintain view to the outside. In the study, we used two performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room: 1. the daylight factor (overcast sky) 2. the relative work plane illuminance (clear sky condition) Overcast sky: In general, all panels provided less daylight than the recommended requirement in the Danish Building Regulation of 2% on the work plane. This will most likely result in additional need for electric lighting. However, larger window areas and more parts of the facade with clear unobstructed glass may be one solution. Clear sky: In general, all panels provided less interior light levels than the two reference systems in the back of the room. Almost all systems aloud more or less direct sunlight in the window perimeter through the clear openings and additional needs for some kind of shading device is to be expected. Some systems blocked a large portion of the light in the majority of the room, and additional electric light in this part of the room may be needed. Only one performance indicator where used to describe the quality of the panels. View: In general, all panels, except two, obstruct the view significantly and cause figure/background confusion for a view position close to the window and the discrepancies of colour judgements. Only two systems provided a fairly clear view to the outside without to much distortion of the view. (au)

  15. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT IN AGRICULTURE AND THE POTENTIAL TO MISLEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADU ALINA BEATTRICE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying fair value measurement to tangible and intangible assets in agriculture cannot be risk free. Twofoldreasons can be brought into attention for the above statement: fair value estimation and the specific of agriculturefield. The purpose of this discussion paper is to underline potential creative accounting demarches that can appear inthis context. The paper concludes based on the discussions approached in the literature. Further avenues of researchare discussed.

  16. Measuring the value of internal audit in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Iulia Zinca (Voiculescu

    2016-09-01

    The results of the study suggest that most organizations use methods that contain mainly quantitative and less qualitative elements. There are differences between banks and other types of organizations in terms of the methods and practices used, but also on the importance showed to measurement of internal audit value. In addition, the findings confirm that there is room for improving the methods and practices used, so that the audit function gains value and credibility.

  17. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  18. Trends in energy 2005. Utility value chain optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fens, T.; IJsbrandy, C.; Van Druten, A.; De Rooij, S.; Van de Rhee, R.; Rookmaaker, J.; Spaans, P.; Pulles, L.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in Energy 2005 has been written around a number of events that were observed in research that was carried out in 2004: the full market opening mid 2004, the likely unbundling of distribution networks in some form, security of supply issues, fuel mix in the generation portfolio and the associated investment strategies, the rise of intelligent metering, certificates of origin for electricity, the most likely movement towards the suppliers model ('leveranciersmodel') and finally emissions management emerging from Kyoto that is coming into force. These events have been interpreted from the perspective of the units in the energy value chain: production, trade, transmission, distribution, metering and sales, the latter is the mostly the direct contact for the end customer

  19. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  20. Identification of Pu isotopes by measurement of Q-value with cryogenic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Y. S.; Kim, M. S.; Le, J. S.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, H. J.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors using heat generation below 1 K have become an attractive alternative because of their outstanding energy resolution. Significant improvement in gamma spectroscopy has been achieved with high resolution transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear material analysis. In alpha spectroscopy, superior resolution to that of conventional detectors has been also demonstrated. Since all the deposited energy can be converted into thermal energy by surrounding a radioactive source with metal foil, alpha energy can be measured without any correction for selfattenuation. Accompanying electrons, x-rays, and/or γ-rays are also converted into thermal energy. Thus measurement of alpha decay in 4π geometry returns the Q value, the total decay energy, independent of decay branches without loss of energy and count, enabling Q spectroscopy.

  1. Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.

  2. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  3. Measurement of half-value layer in mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, H; Saruwatari, R; Doi, N; Yamane, E

    2003-01-01

    The half-value layer (HVL) of an X-ray beam for film-screen mammography is considered an important parameter for image quality and patient dose. Thus, HVL must be measured in accordance with The Manual of Accuracy for Mammography printed by the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. The manual prescribes exactly the geometry of measurement, chamber position of measurement in the field, selection of chamber, and so on. However, the measurement of HVL is difficult in the actual clinical setting. This study examined the results of failure to perform the measurement of HVL in accordance with the manual for measuring HVL in the clinical setting. The investigation indicated that serious problems do not arise when measuring HVL for routine quality control even if the chamber in the field is not always set according to the manual and if a chamber for radiotherapy or diagnosis is used that is not recommended for soft X-ray by the manual. (author)

  4. Measuring and evaluating the soft energy efficiency measures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvilehto, H.-M.; Solid, D. [AaF-Industry Ltd, Solna (Sweden); Rouhiainen, V. [Adato Energia Ltd, Helsinki (Finland); Honkasalo, N.; Sarvaranta, A. [AaF-Consult Ltd, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    This study discusses how to quantify the energy savings related to the companies' aims to enhance their customers' energy efficiency which is one target in the Action Plan for Energy Services in the Energy Efficiency Agreement for the Industries. In Finland, a majority of the energy utilities have signed this action plan and are providing their customers services to improve their energy efficiency. Dissemination of information is the most widely used service to the customers and it is provided in a number of ways including printed material, annual energy report, and an internet tool to access and report hourly measurements. Some of the internet tools cover electricity, district heat and water. The focus of the study is in the evaluation of 'soft' measures; in other words, those measures given by energy utilities that principally rely on communication instruments. However, monitoring the impact of information and communication is far from easy. Carrying out a properly designed evaluation of programmes aiming on enhanced energy efficiency is difficult. Evaluation of the impact of a magazine article on energy efficiency is even more challenging, costly and therefore also rare. Distribution of information as measure to enhance energy efficiency is an important part of EU.s energy policy but what are the ways and even more so, are there ways to actually quantify these savings? There has been excessive work by the member states and research institutes to find a common and robust methodology within the EU to evaluate and quantify energy savings from technical measures. The ex-ante and ex-post results from these evaluations can however differ considerably, e.g. the expected energy savings from installing air to air heat pumps in Denmark did not deliver the expected energy savings. The problems with finding a common robust methodology become even more visible when the 'soft' measures are put under the evaluation loop. The &apos

  5. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  6. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  7. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  8. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  9. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  10. New values for some 4He I 1snl energy levels, ionization energies, and Lamb shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experimental determinations of energy separations within the 1snl term system (n = 2--6) have been used to reevaluate 35 levels. Most of the levels have estimated errors less than 0.001 cm -1 relative to the 2 3 P levels. Addition of accurate theoretical term values (ionization energies) available for several 1snl levels to the corresponding experimental level values gives generally consistent values for the principal ionization energy (E/sub I/). The theoretical energies are further confirmed by the agreement of the weighted average of seven of these E/sub I/ values with a value obtained by fitting Ritz formulas to three accurately determined 1snl series; the suggested new E/sub I/ is 198 310.7745(40) cm -1 on an energy scale fixed by the value 171 135.0000 cm -1 for 2 1 P. Lamb shifts are derived for the 2, 3, 4 3 S 1 , 2 1 S 0 , 2 3 P 1 , and 2 1 P 1 levels as differences between experimental term values obtained with the new E/sub I/ and corresponding calculated term values not including Lamb shifts. The experimental and calculated values for the 1s 2 1 S 0 ground level relative to the present 1snl excited-level system are 0.00 +- 0.15 and 0.073 +- 0.009 cm -1 , respectively, so that a approx.20-fold increase in the experimental accuracy would be required to test the calculated ground-level Lamb shift

  11. CHALLENGES INCURRED IN THE AUDITING OF FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Virgil Chiriac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the auditors' work is to establish confidence between the producers and users of accounting information. Thus, auditors help protect the interests of different categories of beneficiaries of accounting information when they make economic decisions. The prevalence of fair values in the financial statements as their inherent measurement uncertainty has increased dramatically in recent years and is recognized as representing a significant problem for regulators. In these circumstances we ask which are the difficulties encountered by auditors in auditing fair values, what kinds of deficiencies they find within auditing and whether the complexity of measurements of fair value jeopardizes the ability of auditors to give a highly secure opinion.

  12. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  13. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  14. Measuring and Communicating the Value Created by an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a different perspective in measuring the value created by an organization. It does so in the context of an undergraduate course in managerial accounting. In order to break down the functional silo approach to problem solving that has become the model of traditional business education, applications of shadow accounting, the…

  15. Low diagnostic value of respiratory impedance measurements in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, CEJ; Wesseling, GJ; Kessels, AGH; Swaen, GMH; Mertens, PLJM; deKok, ME; Broer, J; Sturmans, F; Wouters, EFM

    The aim of this study was to determine whether impedance values in children with various chronic respiratory complaints differed from those observed in symptom-free children. Respiratory impedance was measured using the forced oscillation technique in 1,776 Dutch children aged 6-12 yrs. In addition

  16. How to Use Value-Added Measures Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models are a specific type of "growth model," a diverse group of statistical techniques to isolate a teacher's impact on his or her students' testing progress while controlling for other measurable factors, such as student and school characteristics, that are outside that teacher's control. Opponents, including many teachers, argue…

  17. Positive-operator-valued measure optimization of classical correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Kobes, R; Zaraket, H

    We study the problem of optimization over positive-operator-valued measures to extract classical correlation in a bipartite quantum system. The proposed method is applied to binary states only. Moreover, to illustrate this method, an explicit example is studied in detail.

  18. Accurate Q value measurements for fundamental physics studies at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T., E-mail: tommi.o.eronen@jyu.fi; Kolhinen, V. S. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: JYFLTRAP collaboration

    2011-07-15

    We have measured several Q values at JYFLTRAP for superallowed {beta} decays that contribute to testing the Standard Model and candidate nuclei that one could use for the search of neutrinoless double-{beta} decay. These results play important roles in the research of fundamental physics that have scopes beyond Standard Model.

  19. The Value of Improved Measurements in a Pig Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    The pig industry is an essential and important part of Danish economy with an export value in 2006 of more than DKK 28 billions [Danish Meat Association (2007)]. The competition is hard, and potential new competitors from low cost countries can be expected to enter the traditional Danish export...... markets. Therefore it is more important than ever to optimize all aspects of Danish pig production, slaughtering processes and delivery. This paper concerns the aspects of optimization at the slaughterhouses regarding estimation of the value of improved measurements. The slaughterhouse industry differs...... investments are expected to improve the quality of the measurements further. This paper concerns the use of Operations Research to solve a practical problem, which is of major importance for the industry, namely to improve the estimation of the economic effects of improved measurements. The benefit...

  20. Negative vacuum energy densities and the causal diamond measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arguably a major success of the landscape picture is the prediction of a small, nonzero vacuum energy density. The details of this prediction depend in part on how the diverging spacetime volume of the multiverse is regulated, a question that remains unresolved. One proposal, the causal diamond measure, has demonstrated many phenomenological successes, including predicting a distribution of positive vacuum energy densities in good agreement with observation. In the string landscape, however, the vacuum energy density is expected to take positive and negative values. We find the causal diamond measure gives a poor fit to observation in such a landscape - in particular, 99.6% of observers in galaxies seemingly just like ours measure a vacuum energy density smaller than we do, most of them measuring it to be negative.

  1. From volatility to value: analysing and managing financial and performance risk in energy savings projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan; Kromer, Steve; Weiss, Gary; Mathew, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Many energy-related investments are made without a clear financial understanding of their values, risks, and volatilities. In the face of this uncertainty, the investor-such as a building owner or an energy service company-will often choose to implement only the most certain and thus limited energy-efficiency measures. Conversely, commodities traders and other sophisticated investors accustomed to evaluating investments on a value, risk, and volatility basis often overlook energy-efficiency investments because risk and volatility information are not provided. Fortunately, energy-efficiency investments easily lend themselves to such analysis using tools similar to those applied to supply side risk management. Accurate and robust analysis demands a high level of understanding of the physical aspects of energy-efficiency, which enables the translation of physical performance data into the language of investment. With a risk management analysis framework in place, the two groups-energy-efficiency experts and investment decision-makers-can exchange the information they need to expand investment in demand-side energy projects. In this article, we first present the case for financial risk analysis in energy efficiency in the buildings sector. We then describe techniques and examples of how to identify, quantify, and manage risk. Finally, we describe emerging market-based opportunities in risk management for energy efficiency

  2. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a)≠-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c s ≠1), and early presence of dark energy [Ω de (a<<1)≠0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  3. Conjectures Regarding the Adoption of Fair Value Measurements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of relevance versus reliability has always been a debate in accounting. Far from being a consensus among the community, the adoption of fair value measurements is intended to present a more realistic view of an entity¿s financial position. However, it could also cause a loss of credibility due to the subjectivity inherent in the valuation process. Wishing to make a contribution to the existing literature on this issue, this paper presents a discussion about the adoption of fair value measurements in Brazil. First, we present a brief examination of asset and liability valuation using the accounting theory as a framework. Following, we conduct a review of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB standards regarding fair value measurements. Empirical studies addressing fair value are also reviewed. Finally, a discussion about its implementation is presented, aiming to take into account the specificities of the Brazilian Market. This paper intends to contribute to the construction of academic knowledge in accounting by debating an issue which is a real problem for organizations, and yet incipient in the national literature.

  4. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  5. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  6. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  7. Amplifying Real Estate Value through Energy & Water Management: From ESCO to "Energy Services Partner"

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) business model could become significantly more effective by integrating the energy-efficiency purveyor and their capital into the underlying building ownership and operation partnership, rather than the current model in which the ESCO remains an outsider with higher transaction costs and limited interest and participation in the value created by the cost savings. Resource conservation advocates rarely use the language of real estate to articulate the cos...

  8. Development and validation of a measure of food choice values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Reeve, Charlie L

    2015-06-01

    Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  10. Reference value sensitivity of measures of unfair health inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Most politicians and ethical observers are not interested in pure health inequalities, as they want to distinguish between different causes of health differences. Measures of “unfair” inequality - direct unfairness and the fairness gap, but also the popular standardized concentration index - therefore neutralize the effects of what are considered to be “legitimate” causes of inequality. This neutralization is performed by putting a subset of the explanatory variables at reference values, e.g. their means. We analyze how the inequality ranking of different policies depends on the specific choice of reference values. We show with mortality data from the Netherlands that the problem is empirically relevant and we suggest a statistical method for fixing the reference values. PMID:24954998

  11. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC's fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  12. Measure-valued solutions to the complete Euler system revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, J.; Feireisl, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2018), č. článku 57. ISSN 0044-2275 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler system * measure-valued solution * vanishing dissipation limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00033-018-0951-8

  13. Positive Operator Valued Measures: A General Setting for Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Bill; Howard, Stephen; Cochran, Doug

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of close parallels that exist between the theory of positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) associated with a separable Hilbert space and the theory of frames on that space, including its most important generalizations. The concept of a framed POVM is introduced, and classical frames, fusion frames, generalized frames, and other variants of frames are all shown to to arise as framed POVMs. This observation allows drawing on a rich existing theory of POVMs to ...

  14. Measuring Nursing Value from the Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    We report the findings of a big data nursing value expert group made up of 14 members of the nursing informatics, leadership, academic and research communities within the United States tasked with 1. Defining nursing value, 2. Developing a common data model and metrics for nursing care value, and 3. Developing nursing business intelligence tools using the nursing value data set. This work is a component of the Big Data and Nursing Knowledge Development conference series sponsored by the University Of Minnesota School Of Nursing. The panel met by conference calls for fourteen 1.5 hour sessions for a total of 21 total hours of interaction from August 2014 through May 2015. Primary deliverables from the bit data expert group were: development and publication of definitions and metrics for nursing value; construction of a common data model to extract key data from electronic health records; and measures of nursing costs and finance to provide a basis for developing nursing business intelligence and analysis systems.

  15. Comparison of the values of measured hydratation of sporting youths with normative values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKROUND: When measuring body composition, we monitor the fractionalization of body weight and the share of the individual elements in its aggregate value. The total body water (TBW is a very important element in addition to the share of body fat (BF, muscle mass and bone minerals. Water is the largest element of the body weight and its sufficient amount (organism hydration is a condition for maintaining the physiological functions of the person and thus has an immediate effect on the health of the individual. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to check the standard values of the percentage share of the representation of the total body water in the total body weight in different age groups of sporting youths using the tetrapolar bio-impedance Tanita 418 MA scale. METHODS: The research group included a total of 532 individuals (332 men and 200 women at the age from 12 to 17 years. They were individuals with regular physical activity and without any health problems. The measurement was carried out using the tetrapolar bio-impedance TANITA 418 MA scale. The confidence interval at the reliability level of .99 was used to define the range of the standard values of the percentage share of the total body water representation. The normalization index Ni was used to compare the mean values of the total body water representation with the reference file. RESULTS: The mean values of the TBW representation in boys ranged from 61.75 to 64.34% and in girls from 55.51 to 58.69%, always in relation to the age. The value of the upper bound of (95% the confidence interval of the Tanita 418 MA device software did not exceed the lower bound of the standard (65% in any of the monitored files. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed significant gender differences in the total body water representation that, however, the standard of the used device does not respect. The standard values are set high which was also confirmed by the comparison of our results with other studies

  16. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  17. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  18. CREAM for high energy composition measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, E S; Allison, P S; Beatty, J J; Choi, M J; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Min, K W; Mognet, S I; Nutter, S; Park, H; Schindhelm, E; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based indirect measurements have shown that the cosmic-ray allparticle spectrum extends many orders of magnitude beyond the energy thought possible for supernova acceleration. Our balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is capable of extending direct measurements of cosmic-rays to the supernova energy scale of 1015 eV in a series of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. Identification of Z = 1 - 26 particles will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector. Energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector and a tungsten/scintillating fiber calorimeter. The instrument has been tested with various particles in accelerated beams at the CERN SPS. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004.

  19. Reference Values for Assessment of Unilateral Limb Lymphedema with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Hendel, Helle W; Klausen, Tobias W

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical assessment of unilateral limb lymphedema is commonly based on measurements of interlimb volume differences. Reference values for interlimb percentage differences of the volume, fat mass, and lean mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan are, however...... is calculated as follows: ("Limb-of-interest"-contralateral)/contralateral × 100. The interlimb percentage differences for the limb-of-interest were stratified to upper (according to handedness) and lower limbs and categorized as none/mild, moderate, or severe, respectively, based on whether the value is below...

  20. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  1. Evaluation of measurement precision errors at different bone density values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.; Wong, J.; Bartlett, M.; Lee, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The precision error commonly used in serial monitoring of BMD values using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptometry (DEXA) is 0.01-0.015g/cm - for both the L2 L4 lumbar spine and total femur. However, this limit is based on normal individuals with bone densities similar to the population mean. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate precision errors over the range of bone density values encountered in clinical practice. In 96 patients a BMD scan of the spine and femur was immediately repeated by the same technologist with the patient taken off the bed and repositioned between scans. Nine technologists participated. Values were obtained for the total femur and spine. Each value was classified as low range (0.75-1.05 g/cm ) and medium range (1.05- 1.35g/cm ) for the spine, low range (0.55 0. 85 g/cm ) and medium range (0.85-1.15 g/cm ) for the total femur. Results show that the precision error was significantly lower in the medium range for total femur results with the medium range value at 0.015 g/cm - and the low range at 0.025 g/cm - (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for the spine results. We also analysed precision errors between three technologists and found a significant difference (p=0.05) occurred between only two technologists and this was seen in the spine data only. We conclude that there is some evidence that the precision error increases at the outer limits of the normal bone density range. Also, the results show that having multiple trained operators does not greatly increase the BMD precision error. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes ion measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 30 keV observed during the campaigns 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine'. For a clear survey of the physical processes during extraordinary events, sometimes ion measurements of higher energies are also taken into account. Generally, the pitch angle distributions were isotropic during all flights except some remarkable events. In general the ion and electron flux intensities correlated, but sometimes revealed a spectral anti-correlation. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field could be identified accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand deceleration of the ions was observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations pointed to energy dispersion and to the location of the source region at 9 Rsub(E). Furthermore, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons were measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. The integral down-going number and energy flux of the ions contributed to the total particle or energy influx between 65% and less than 7% and did not clearly characterize the geophysical launch conditions or auroral activities. (author)

  3. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance...... of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning and mechanical ventilation in the tropical countries contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish...... the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  4. Measuring Value in Internal Medicine Residency Training Hospitals Using Publicly Reported Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickedanz, Adam; Gupta, Reshma; Arora, Vineet M; Braddock, Clarence H

    2018-03-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) lacks measures of resident preparation for high-quality, cost-conscious practice. The authors used publicly reported teaching hospital value measures to compare internal medicine residency programs on high-value care training and to validate these measures against program director perceptions of value. Program-level value training scores were constructed using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program hospital quality and cost-efficiency data. Correlations with Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Annual Survey high-value care training measures were examined using logistic regression. For every point increase in program-level VBP score, residency directors were more likely to agree that GME programs have a responsibility to contain health care costs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, P = .04), their faculty model high-value care (aOR 1.07, P = .03), and residents are prepared to make high-value medical decisions (aOR 1.07, P = .09). Publicly reported clinical data offer valid measures of GME value training.

  5. Valuing carbon assets for high-tech with application to the wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Liyan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Gubo

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional methods for high-tech evaluation, we introduce a new, more active idea for considering the carbon asset effect, in addition to the economic and technological considerations for strategic significance. The method proposed in this paper considers a reduced amount of carbon emissions, less than that of the current industry baseline, to be an asset that is beneficial to a firm that adopts a new technology. The measured carbon asset values vary across different technologies, in different industries and over time. The new method is applied to the valuing of wind energy technology and uses the Weibull distribution to estimate the wind energy capacity and a concrete sensitivity analysis. These applications support the validity of the new method and show that the impact of the fluctuations of carbon sinks on the values of carbon assets is significantly greater than that of volatility in the production output. The paper also presents some policy recommendations based on the results. - Highlights: • Carbon asset dimension for high-tech evaluation. • Valuing wind energy technology by Weibull distribution. • Greater impact of the carbon sink price on the carbon asset value than that of production output. • The environmental risk could be measured based on the carbon asset assessment.

  6. Enermet in the forefront of energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, R.; Suonperae, J.; Alatalo-Korpi, H. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The deregulation of energy markets presents increasing challenges to the traditional measurement business and at the same time puts special demands on system solutions. Power companies are placing emphasis on the remote accessibility of measurement data at customer sites and on a greater variety of rates. Enermet, a member of the IVO Group, is a frontrunner in this business area, investing 8 % of its turnover in product development

  7. New measurements of W-values for protons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, U.; Beck, J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of ion beams in cancer therapy and the lack of experimental data for W-values for protons and heavy ions in air require new measurements. A new experimental set-up was developed at PTB and consistent measurements of W-values in argon, nitrogen and air for protons and alpha particles with energies from 0.7 to 3.5 MeV u -1 at PTB, and for carbon ions between 3.6 and 7.0 MeV u -1 at GSI were carried out. This publication concentrates on the measurements with protons and alpha particles at PTB. The experimental methods and the determination of corrections for recombination effects, beam-induced background radiation and additional effects are presented. W-values in argon, nitrogen and air were measured for protons with energies of 1-3 MeV and for alpha particles with energies of 2.7-14 MeV. The energies of the primary particle beam were corrected for energy losses in the gold and Mylar foils, as well as for the kinematic energy loss due to scattering by 45 deg.. Beam-induced radiation backgrounds as well as recombination effects were determined and corrected for. The present results are summarised in Figure 2 for all three gases. The solid lines through the data points for each gas indicate an average W-value for that gas. The higher values for 2.7-MeV alpha particles agree with the trend in previous data towards lower energies. They are excluded from the averages. The relative standard uncertainties of the individual data points range from 1.3 to 3 %. The weighted averages over all energies are W(Ar) = 25.7 eV, W(N 2 ) = 35.6 eV and W(Air) = 34.2 eV. The averages serve as a first comparison and the lines on the plot are to guide the eye and are not meant to imply constant W-values for all energies and particles. The W-values for protons and alpha particles in argon and nitrogen have smaller uncertainties and are lower than the suggested values, but they are still in agreement within the uncertainties. For alpha particles with energies of 12

  8. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  9. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  10. Measure-valued differentiation for finite products of measures : theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leahu, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation we perform a comprehensive analysis of measure-valued differentiation, in which weak differentiation of parameter-dependent probability measures plays a central role. We develop a theory of weak differentiation of measures and show that classical concepts such as differential

  11. Three measures of longevity: time trends and record values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  12. A study on value assessment of nuclear energy and quantification model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eun Ju

    2009-02-01

    Studies quantifying the contributions of nuclear energy to the countries that operate them are scant. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively these benefits, which have proven to be significant. We present estimates of the value of nuclear energy in terms of economics, the environment, security, and social issues, specifically for nuclear energy used in Korea. This study also suggests an approach to quantitatively measure and compare the value of energy ultimately for the generation of electricity from different energy sources Input-Output analysis was used to find out the economic contribution of energy sources. Nuclear energy contributes a similar amount of electricity that coal power plants do but, surprisingly, its value added GDP contribution is almost twice that of coal. Coal, oil, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and nuclear contribute 0.47%, 0.05%, 0.23%, and 0.92% to the value added GDP, respectively. While this may seem small, the four major industries in Korea - primary iron and steel products, semiconductors and related devices, motor vehicles, and petroleum refinery products - contributed 1.3%, 2.1%, 2.2%, and 2.9% to GDP in that same year, respectively. To measure the environmental effect, a carbon-tax scenario was used. Considering both health effects and the carbon-tax scenario, nuclear had the lowest environmental cost at 0.29 won/kWh. Coal had the highest at 24.47 won/kWh, followed by oil at 19.52 won/kWh, and LNG at 12.98 won/kWh. Therefore, if the carbon-tax (or some constraint) is imposed for future and current environmental concerns, nuclear energy's competitiveness will only increase. In spite of the importance of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Korea, the public's attitude towards nuclear energy is not favorable. This negative social perception was defined as the social cost of nuclear energy. To estimate it, a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was utilized. This method estimates the

  13. Measuring Intermolecular Binding Energies by Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmuss, Richard; Maity, Surajit; Féraud, Géraldine; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2017-02-22

    The ground-state dissociation energy, D0(S0), of isolated intermolecular complexes in the gas phase is a fundamental measure of the interaction strength between the molecules. We have developed a three-laser, triply resonant pump-dump-probe technique to measure dissociation energies of jet-cooled M•S complexes, where M is an aromatic chromophore and S is a closed-shell 'solvent' molecule. Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) via the S0→S1 electronic transition is used to precisely 'warm' the complex by populating high vibrational levels v" of the S0 state. If the deposited energy E(v") is less than D0(S0), the complex remains intact, and is then mass- and isomer-selectively detected by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) with a third (probe) laser. If the pumped level is above D0(S0), the hot complex dissociates and the probe signal disappears. Combining the fluorescence or SEP spectrum of the cold complex with the SEP breakoff of the hot complex brackets D0(S0). The UV chromophores 1-naphthol and carbazole were employed; these bind either dispersively via the aromatic rings, or form a hydrogen bond via the -OH or -NH group. Dissociation energies have been measured for dispersively bound complexes with noble gases (Ne, Kr, Ar, Xe), diatomics (N2, CO), alkanes (methane to n-butane), cycloalkanes (cyclopropane to cycloheptane), and unsaturated compounds (ethene, benzene). Hydrogen-bond dissociation energies have been measured for H2O, D2O, methanol, ethanol, ethers (oxirane, oxetane), NH3 and ND3.

  14. Measurements of the energy spectrum of backscattered fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.

    1976-03-01

    Experimental measurements have been made of the energy spectra of neutrons transmitted through slabs of iron, lead and perspex for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 MeV. The neutron energy measurements were made using a He-3 spectrometer. The dependence of the neutrons energy spectrum as a function of scattering thickness was determined. The neutrons source used was a 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a tritium target using the H 3 (p,n) He 3 reaction. The results obtained by the investigator on energy dependence of transmitted neutrons as a function of thickness of scattering material were compared, where possible, with the results obtained by other workers. The comparisons indicated good agreement. The experiment's results are compared with MORSE Monte Carlo calculated values. It is worthwhile to note that direct comparison between measured cross section values and the recommended ones are very far from satisfactory. In almost all cases the calculated spectrum is harder than the experimental one, a situation common to the penetrating and the back-scattered flux

  15. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed. (paper)

  16. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  17. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  18. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  19. Remote state preparation using positive operator-valued measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Siendong, E-mail: sdhuang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-04

    We consider the process of remote state preparation using a pure state |ψ〉 with the maximal Schmidt number n. For any given state σ, pure or mixed, a construction of a positive operator-valued measure {M_j}{sub j=0}{sup n} is provided. The classical outcome j=0 indicates the failure of a remote preparation of σ. All other classical outcomes j>0 correspond to unitary transformations of the receiver system such that σ can be prepared. The total probability of successful remote preparation depends on the state σ. Our protocol is a variation of conclusive teleportation and the classical bits required for this protocol are given by log{sub 2}(n+1), which is nearly half that of conclusive teleportation.

  20. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  1. Protocol for fermionic positive-operator-valued measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson-Shukur, D. R. M.; Lepage, H. V.; Owen, E. T.; Ferrus, T.; Barnes, C. H. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a protocol for the implementation of a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) on massive fermionic qubits. We present methods for implementing nondispersive qubit transport, spin rotations, and spin polarizing beam-splitter operations. Our scheme attains linear opticslike control of the spatial extent of the qubits by considering ground-state electrons trapped in the minima of surface acoustic waves in semiconductor heterostructures. Furthermore, we numerically simulate a high-fidelity POVM that carries out Procrustean entanglement distillation in the framework of our scheme, using experimentally realistic potentials. Our protocol can be applied not only to pure ensembles with particle pairs of known identical entanglement, but also to realistic ensembles of particle pairs with a distribution of entanglement entropies. This paper provides an experimentally realizable design for future quantum technologies.

  2. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  3. The Meaning of Green: Values and Energy Policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2003-01-01

    Values, and the way they are represented, have strong implications for environmental policy. Mapping of how values, perceptions, scientific facts and professional judgments interact and function in the process will contribute to understanding the policy process. However, although a systematic, reasoned and critical examination of values underpinning policy choices and expressions is an essential part of policy analysis, values are rarely scrutinised (Dunn 1994). As a result, their role in environmental policy making is not well understood. This paper addresses this gap by asking: How are values represented in the policy arena and the processes within it? What changes do values undergo over time and as they go through the policy-making process? Value concepts are discussed as a basis to understand and describe the values at play in a process. The paper also draws on theories of the policy process to support the analysis of the empirical material. The analysis is then delimited to a selected set of value issues. The empirical material includes public debate documents such as bills, hearings, motions, presentation, statements and their commentaries. Semi-structured interviews, designed as in-depth interviews with open-ended probing, were held to complernent the material. Respondents were identified in the policy committees, career professionals and representatives of important interest groups

  4. Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The proximate composition, carbohydrate fraction, minerals and residual ... energy-rich fruits like bread fruit (Artocarpus altilis) that ... samples were dried in an oven at 60°C for 72 h, bulked and milled ... Composition of the reference and test diets used in the apparent metabolizable energy assay (100%).

  5. Energy value of meat in selected species of feathered game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vitula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare gross energy (GE in breast and thigh muscles in the following six species of feathered game reared in Europe: guineafowl (Numida meleagris, common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, chukar (Alectoris chucar, grey partridge (Perdix perdix and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. Calorimetric analysis revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05 and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences between individual species in the content of energy in breast and thigh muscles. The highest content of energy (recalculated to dry matter was found in breast muscles from wild turkey (24.75 MJ·kg-1 and Japanese quail (24.57 MJ·kg-1 whereas the highest content of energy (recalculated to dry matter in thigh muscles was found in Japanese quail and grey partridge. Highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences in the energy content were also found between breast and thigh muscles in all studied game species except for wild turkey. Differences in the content of energy in muscles between individual species occur mainly due to different contents of fat in muscles. This is also confirmed by high correlation coefficients between the content of energy and the content of fat in breast (r = 0.912 and thigh muscles (r = 0.878. Our study provides more specific data on the amount of energy in muscles of major species of feathered game reared in Europe and significantly extends current knowledge in this field.

  6. Measuring the economic value of wildlife: a caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Stevens

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife values appear to be very sensitive to whether species are evaluated separately or together, and value estimates often seem inconsistent with neoclassical economic theory. Wildlife value estimates must therefore be used with caution. Additional research about the nature of individual value structures for wildlife is needed.

  7. Energy-loss measurements with heavy ions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.; Gaimard, J.J.; Geissel, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stelzer, H.; Suemmerer; Clerc, H.G.; Hanelt, E.; Steiner, M.; Voss, B.

    1990-03-01

    Using the magnetic spectrometer SPES I at SATURNE, energy-loss measurements have been performed for projectiles of 40 Ar (401 MeV/u), 36 P (362 MeV/u), 15 N (149 MeV/u), 11 Li (131 MeV/u) and 8 Li, 9 Li (130 MeV/u) in carbon, aluminum and lead targets. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on a modified relativistic Bethe formula and to a semi-empirical formula using a Z 2 scaling law for the stopping power and an effective charge parametrization for the heavy ions. (orig.)

  8. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement and estimation of dew point for SNG. [Comparison of calculated and measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Y.

    1974-08-01

    Toho Gas measured and estimated SNG dew points in high-pressure deliveries by calculating the theoretical values by the high-pressure gas-liquid equilibrium theory using the pressure-extrapolation method to reach K = 1, and the BWR method to estimate fugacity, then verifying these values experimentally. The experimental values were measured at 161.7 to 367.5 psi using the conventional static and circulation methods, in addition to a newly developed method consisting of circulating a known composition of gas mixtures, partially freezing them, and monitoring the dew point by observing the droplets on a mirror cooled by blowing liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the experimental values.

  10. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm 2 of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4√nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 2 2 /c 2 . We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter Λ/sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references

  11. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  12. Simulation of value stream mapping and discrete optimization of energy consumption in modular construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Mukul

    With the increased practice of modularization and prefabrication, the construction industry gained the benefits of quality management, improved completion time, reduced site disruption and vehicular traffic, and improved overall safety and security. Whereas industrialized construction methods, such as modular and manufactured buildings, have evolved over decades, core techniques used in prefabrication plants vary only slightly from those employed in traditional site-built construction. With a focus on energy and cost efficient modular construction, this research presents the development of a simulation, measurement and optimization system for energy consumption in the manufacturing process of modular construction. The system is based on Lean Six Sigma principles and loosely coupled system operation to identify the non-value adding tasks and possible causes of low energy efficiency. The proposed system will also include visualization functions for demonstration of energy consumption in modular construction. The benefits of implementing this system include a reduction in the energy consumption in production cost, decrease of energy cost in the production of lean-modular construction, and increase profit. In addition, the visualization functions will provide detailed information about energy efficiency and operation flexibility in modular construction. A case study is presented to validate the reliability of the system.

  13. Uncertainty Estimation Improves Energy Measurement and Verification Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Travis; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation measures in buildings can reduce energy costs and environmental impacts, but such measures cost money to implement so intelligent investment strategies require the ability to quantify the energy savings by comparing actual energy used to how much energy would have been used in absence of the conservation measures (known as the baseline energy use). Methods exist for predicting baseline energy use, but a limitation of most statistical methods reported in the li...

  14. Valuing of research project in energy field with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blasio, N.; Marzo, G.; Turatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an application of real options theory for valuing a research project in the field of stranded gas valorisation. After a presentation of the theory, the analysis addresses the use of real options evaluation for generating alternative pathways in order to add new value to the R D projects. It also shows how real option approach may be important for selecting among competitive projects, but also for providing a system for valorisation of decision-maker flexibility [it

  15. The Study and Measurement of Values and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.

    The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…

  16. Measurement of the G-value for 1. 5 keV X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, J.P.; Schillaci, M.E.; Raju, M.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Using a ferrous sulfate solution modified by the addition of benzoic acid, the authors measured relative G-values for Al{sub k} characteristic X-rays (1.5keV), {sup 238}Pu {alpha}-particles (3.7MeV), {sup 60}Co (1.17 MeV) and {sup 137}Cs (0.66 MeV){gamma}-rays. Relative ferrous-to-ferric conversions as a function of dose were similar for the two {gamma}-ray energies, yielding G-values of 1.62 and 1.59 {mu}mol J{sup -1} for the {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs radiations. The {alpha}-particle G-value was 0.52 {mu}mol J{sup -1}, or 31% of that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The Al{sub k} X-rays had a G-value of 0.92 {mu}mol J{sup -1} or 57% of that of the {sup 60}Co radiation. This G-value for 1.5 keV X-rays is within 20% of values predicted by current theories, and theoretical values are within the error range of the authors' measurements. (author).

  17. A quantitative assessment of the determinants of the net energy value of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Gauroy, Christine; Treguer, David

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the net energy balance of biofuel products (in terms of savings on fossil fuels) and assessed the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from substituting biofuels for fossil fuel. These studies provide very different results, with net balance ranging from highly positive to negative. Our study analyses a large sample of these studies by retrieving the main parameters used and converting them into units of measurement that are comparable. This information is used to unravel the main determinants of the differences in net energy value across studies. Our approach relies on descriptive statistics and econometric estimates based on a meta-analysis methodology. Our results suggest that the large variability across studies can be explained by the degree to which particular inputs (i.e. nitrogen, farm labor) are controlled for, and the way fossil energy consumption is allocated to the various co-products.

  18. Estimating the true energy value of a wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the true energy yield of a wind farm taking into account real-world effects such as control losses in individual turbines, losses in the distribution network and wake and topographic effects, this report from the Energy Technology Support Unit, has developed a more appropriate methodology for making economic assessments of wind farm projects. Simulations of wind turbines are used to enable control losses to be quantified, and long term performance data from wind turbines in operational United Kingdom wind farms adds to the accuracy of assessment. A model has also been used to estimate performance of a power distribution system for a wind farm, to enable losses associated with wind turbine, wind speed and various distribution layouts to be predicted. Data on wake effects are drawn from a separate study. All these are drawn into an economic simulation model which predicts a wind farm's likely achievement of its target energy yield, thus demonstrating the risk factors involved. (UK)

  19. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  20. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  1. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  2. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  3. What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.

    2006-05-01

    We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of ∝ 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of ∝ 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)

  4. Attitudes to nuclear energy: beliefs, values and false consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; van der Linden, J.; Ester, P.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed 600 persons (mean age 42.6 yrs) in 4 communities in The Netherlands within 30 miles of a nuclear power plant regarding the use of nuclear energy (NE). Results show a strong relationship between Ss' attitudes toward NE and their perceptions of its possible consequences. Ss for and against NE

  5. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A method for valuing architecture-based business transformation and measuring the value of solutions architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise and Solution Architecture are key in today’s business environment. It is surprising that the foundation and business case for these activities are nonexistent; the financial value for the business of these activities is largely undetermined. To determine business value of enterprise and

  7. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, David

    2013-01-01

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  8. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reportable Creation: value, performance and risk measurement in financial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G. de Jager

    2006-01-01

    textabstractReporting on value or reporting value-relevant information unavoidably implies that estimates of future cash flows should be made. Consequently, uncertainty becomes an important factor in (external) financial reporting. For a long time, uncertainty was dealt with by substituting relevant

  10. Measuring Strategic Value-Drivers for Managing Intellectual Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    In an evolving business environment characterised by globalisation and a challenging competitive paradigm, it is imperative for strategic management processes to focus on the financial perspectives of value and risk in intellectual capital to create sustainability in long-term value. This paper presents the key issues pertaining to the strategic…

  11. Measuring the added value of IT in construction firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Albertus; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Kolkman, S.; Greenwood, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The added value of information technology (IT) varies widely along firms. The objective of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors that enlarge or reduce the added value of information systems and IT-applications in construction firms. By applying the process-oriented approach of Tallon et

  12. Evaluating the Value of Flexibility in Energy Regulation Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we perform an econometric analysis on the benefits of introducing flexibility in the Danish/Nordic regulating power market. The paper investigates the relationships between market power prices and regulation volumes, in order to quantify the effects of flexibility on regulating power...... prices. Further, we analyze the benefit for various types of flexibility and market objectives, to detect the type of energy flexibility that maximizes the benefits. Results show that if 3.87% of total demand is flexible, market can reduce the regulation cost by 49% and the regulation volume by 29.4%....

  13. Energy renovation of multi-storey buildings with heritage value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria

    rain exposure on the façade, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the results. However, if the façade is exposed to low amounts of driven rain and the façade is orientated towards west, the solution with a gap above and below the floor/ceiling could be moisture safe. But further research is needed...... energy from district heating based on renewable energy resources and waste incineration. This research took a new approach combining heat savings in buildings with heat supply from district heating and seeing them as two segments that reinforce each other, instead of seeing them as two separate...... significantly and result in more competitive heat prices. Recently, there has been a lot of focus on 4th generation district heating, i.e. low-temperature district heating with a supply temperature of 55°C. This research looked at the possibility of supplying low-temperature district heating to old existing...

  14. Energy Approach to Measure the Region’s Assimilative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Stepanovna Belik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of the environmental economics is the development of methodology for quantifying the assimilative capacity (AC of a territory. The article analyzes the existing approaches to determining and assessing the AC of a territory. We justify the advantages of using the energy approach. The authors’ method consists in using the maximum permissible energy load (MPEL for quantitative assessment of the AC of a territory. MPEL is a value that the ecological and economic system can withstand for a long time without changing its properties. We determine MPEL on the basis of data on the ability of various categories of land to absorb greenhouse gases (GHG, as well as the specific GHG emissions per ton of conventional fuel. Further, we compare the calculated value of MPEL in fuel equivalents with the actual consumption of fuel resources for the needs of the national economy. These values ratio can serve as a standard for measuring and balancing the environmental and economic system. The authors have validated the described method on the example of the Sverdlovsk region, which is characterized by a high level of man’s impact. Calculations show that the actual consumption of fossil fuels in the region exceeds MPEL. That indicates an imbalance in the ecological and economic system and may lead to further deterioration of the environmental quality in the region. The proposed methodological approach and calculations can be used when developing strategic planning documents for a territory, including its energy strategy

  15. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  16. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  17. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  18. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlen Klas-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life.

  19. Time-resolved beam energy measurements at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgings, D.W.; Clark, D.A.; Bryant, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    A narrow atomic photodetachment resonance is used to measure the LAMPF beam energy. Energy and time resolution are adequate to permit the use of this method in studying transient changes in accelerated beam energy

  20. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions, including the latest one

  1. Maximising the commercial value of wind energy through forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this project, initiated by the DTI, was to advise the electricity industry on the possibility of using weather forecasting to improve the commercial position of both inland and off-shore wind farms under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and to develop appropriate strategies for the use of forecasting. The work has clearly shown that, by using forecasting, wind generators can make money on the Short-Term Power Exchange, increasing their revenue over and above that achieved in the cash-out market. For inland sites, the average annual increased earnings are estimated around 5.8%, rising to 7.5% off-shore. The forecast value methodology developed by the Meteorological Office during the project has proven to be a valuable tool for analysing wind farm trading under NETA. The methodology has the potential to be used by wind farm operators and suppliers wishing to actively trade wind on the Short-Term Power Exchange. It is recommended that further verification of the methodology and development for active use is required. Specifically, a lack of 'true' off-shore wind data has been identified. It appears that off-shore wind farms stand to gain most from forecasting and the report calls for off-shore wind observation data to be made available to allow better verification of the off-shore forecasting models to be undertaken. (author)

  2. Investment, firm value, and risk for a system operator balancing energy grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Kucsera, Dénes; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe

    2013-01-01

    With the liberalization of energy markets integrated energy companies have separated into entities that specialize in production and/or transmission of energy. Transmission of energy requires balancing the grid to guarantee system security, which is performed by the (independent) system operator (SO). When the SO faces stochastic demand, grid balancing has sizeable consequences on current and future profits, and hence, on firm value and firm risk. We explore these value and risk consequences with and without an investment option to expand transmission capacity. We show that firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity in place plus the value of a short put and a short call option that are the result of the SO's balancing actions. Firm risk without investment option is non-linear and determined by the short option positions. It is decreasing with increasing energy demand. The existence of an option to expand transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk. - Highlights: ► Grid balancing under stochastic demand affect current and future revenues, and firm value and firm risk. ► Balancing firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity plus the value of a short strangle. ► Firm risk without investment option is determined by the short strangle and decreasing with increasing energy demand. ► The existence of an expansion option implies that transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk

  3. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  4. SOLUTIONS FOR MEASURING THE FAIR VALUE OF THE WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Adela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For the past decades International Accounting Standards and other Anglo-Saxon standards, for example the American ones, had promoted fair value as a valuation basis for the elements of the financial statements. Thus, the quality of the financial informati

  5. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MONGAY HURTADO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  6. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  7. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  8. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  9. Measurement of the nucleon structure function using high energy muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the inclusive deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons in iron using beams of 93 and 215 GeV muons. To perform this measurement, we have built and operated the Multimuon Spectrometer (MMS) in the muon beam at Fermilab. The MMS is a magnetized iron target/spectrometer/calorimeter which provides 5.61 kg/cm/sup 2/ of target, 9% momentum resolution on scattered muons, and a direct measure of total hadronic energy with resolution sigma/sub nu/ = 1.4..sqrt..nu(GeV). In the distributed target, the average beam energies at the interaction are 88.0 and 209 GeV. Using the known form of the radiatively-corrected electromagnetic cross section, we extract the structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/) with a typical precision of 2% over the range 5 < Q/sup 2/ < 200 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. We compare our measurements to the predictions of lowest order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and find a best fit value of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda../sub LO/ = 230 +- 40/sup stat/ +- 80/sup syst/ MeV/c, assuming R = 0 and without applying Fermi motion corrections. Comparing the cross sections at the two beam energies, we measure R = -0.06 +- 0.06/sup stat/ +- 0.11/sup syst/. Our measurements show qualitative agreement with QCD, but quantitative comparison is hampered by phenomenological uncertainties. The experimental situation is quite good, with substantial agreement between our measurements and those of others. 86 references.

  10. Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author)

  11. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  12. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  13. Term value/band-gap energy correlations for solid rare gas excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Term value/ionization energy correlation algorithms have proven to be of considerable utility in the assignment of atomic and molecular Rydberg states. Many examples of empirical term value/ionization energy correlations are known for diverse classes of atoms and molecules. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that similar correlations are also obtained for excitons in rare gas solids

  14. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  15. Measurement of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and the alpha value for {sup 235}U resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor` ev, Yu V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Georgiev, G P; Stanchik, Kh [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    Gamma spectra from 1 to 12 multiplicity were measured on th 500 m flight path of the IBR-30 reactor using a 16-section 32 L NaI(Tl) crystal scintillation detector able to hold 2 metallic samples of 90% {sup 235}U and 10% {sup 238}U 0.00137 atoms/b and 0.00411 atoms/b thick. Multiplicity spectra were obtained for resolved resonances in the E = 1-150 eV energy region. They were used to determine the value of {alpha} = {sigma}{sub {gamma}}/{sigma}{sub f} for 165 resonances of {sup 235}U. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Beyond cost-of-energy, the value-of-energy metric and value-centric approaches to design, operations, and maintenance of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kevin

    This thesis is oriented toward developers, owners, operators and investors of renewable energy projects. With increasing demand of renewables, our energy dependence comes down to reducing costs associated with this sector so as to compete with the existing sources. One way of valuing investment potential is to determine and then compare the overall value derived by investing in a particular project. Several engineering and financial levers, one of which is operation and maintenance, affect this value. This thesis provides a useful visual aid to owners and operators by which they can operate and maintain their wind farm so as to achieve maximum value throughout its lifetime. All the necessary components that go into developing a business model of a wind farm project will be discussed. Finally, this tool is valid within the assumptions that are explicitly stated. Real world data and trends are used to provide a practical approach to the optimization.

  17. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  18. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  19. Predissociation measurements of bond dissociation energies: VC, VN, and VS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Davis, Quincy C.; Morse, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The abrupt onset of predissociation in the congested electronic spectra of jet-cooled VC, VN, and VS has been observed using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. It is argued that because of the high density of electronic states in these molecules, the predissociation threshold occurs at the thermochemical threshold for the production of separated atoms in their ground electronic states. As a result, the measured threshold represents the bond dissociation energy. Using this method, bond dissociation energies of D{sub 0}(V C) = 4.1086(25) eV, D{sub 0}(V N) = 4.9968(20) eV, and D{sub 0}(V S) = 4.5353(25) eV are obtained. From these values, enthalpies of formation are derived as Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V C(g)) = 827.0 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V N(g)) = 500.9 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}, and Δ{sub f,0K}H°(V S(g)) = 349.3 ± 8 kJ mol{sup −1}. Using a thermochemical cycle and the well-known ionization energies of V, VC, and VN, our results also provide D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–C) = 3.7242(25) eV and D{sub 0}(V{sup +}–N) = 4.6871(20) eV. These values are compared to previous measurements and to computational results. The precision of these bond dissociation energies makes them good candidates for testing computational chemistry methods, particularly those that employ density functional theory.

  20. Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Kelly

    Full Text Available In 2008 the National Center for Health Statistics released a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA whole body dataset from the NHANES population-based sample acquired with modern fan beam scanners in 15 counties across the United States from 1999 through 2004. The NHANES dataset was partitioned by gender and ethnicity and DXA whole body measures of %fat, fat mass/height(2, lean mass/height(2, appendicular lean mass/height(2, %fat trunk/%fat legs ratio, trunk/limb fat mass ratio of fat, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD were analyzed to provide reference values for subjects 8 to 85 years old. DXA reference values for adults were normalized to age; reference values for children included total and sub-total whole body results and were normalized to age, height, or lean mass. We developed an obesity classification scheme by using estabbody mass index (BMI classification thresholds and prevalences in young adults to generate matching classification thresholds for Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass/height(2. These reference values should be helpful in the evaluation of a variety of adult and childhood abnormalities involving fat, lean, and bone, for establishing entry criteria into clinical trials, and for other medical, research, and epidemiological uses.

  1. The Shapley value for a fuzzy poverty measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia ASNAOUI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationship between poverty, inequality and growth. In classical political economic model, we introduce a residual term to maintain the identity of the model. It does not permit us to find the exact contribution of each factor. To derive the results of the decomposition, the Shapley value augmented by the fuzzy approach is used. In order to take its full advantage, it is of interest to calculate the marginal contribution of each factor in the variation of poverty. An application based on individual wellbeing data from Tunisian households is presented to illustrate use of the proposed concepts.

  2. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  3. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables

  4. Measuring Virtual Simulations Value in Training Exercises - USMC Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    performance capability, (2) training realism capability, (3) affective reaction level , and (4) training efficiencies. The first three elements combined...included 18 unclassified events and 11 classified events from air combat element (ACE), ground combat element ( GCE ), and logistics combat element...affective reaction data sheets (measurement for affective reaction level element). Discrepancies in data sheet collection totals resulted from fluid

  5. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole number...

  6. Option's value - Greek measures fluctuations and their consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pruchnicka-Grabias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Options are financial instruments that can be applied in many situations. Options buyers sell risk which is bought by their sellers who are obliged to reduce it as much as possible. It can be done by using hedging strategies based on Greek letters and options values analysis. The author proves that Greek letters are not constant during the time of option’s life. The paper shows to what extent they are influenced by such factors as risk free interest rate, volatility, underlying asset price and time to maturity. The conclusion is that options sellers must play an active role, i.e. follow fluctuations of all these parameters and modify their hedging portfolios regularly.

  7. [Caloric value and energy allocation of Chloris virgata in northeast grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Wang, R; Wang, W

    2001-06-01

    The rules of seasonal changes in caloric values of individual plant, stem, and leaves of Chloris virgata were similar, which had two peak values from early July to early August, and then decreased gradually. Those of inflorescence assumed U shape, and had two peak values in early August and middle September, respectively. The seasonal changes in caloric values of dead standing were irregular, and the maximum value was appeared in early August. The seasonal changes in existent energy value of the aboveground parts in Chloris virgata population presented double peak curve. The two peak values were appeared in early August and early September respectively, and the maximum value was 7381.27 kJ.m-2 in early September. The energy allocation in different seasons was leaf > stem in early July, stem > leaf > dead standing in middle July, stem > leaf > inflorescence > dead standing in August, stem > inflorescence > leaf > dead standing in early September, and stem > inflorescence > dead standing > leaf in middle September. The vertical structure of energy in the aboveground parts was that the energy value gradually increased from the earth's surface to 20 cm high, and then decreased. The maximum value, which accounted for 25.75% of energy in the aboveground parts, was appeared in the layer of 10-20 cm high. In the underground parts, the energy value progressively decreased with the increase of depth, and the maximum value, which accounted for 74.21% of energy in the underground parts, was appeared in the layer of 0-10 cm depth.

  8. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  9. Measuring the Value of Mortality Risk Reductions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-01-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  10. Measuring the Value of Mortality Risk Reductions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Tekeşin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The willingness to pay (WTP for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD. Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD. Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality.

  11. Mean values and measures in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.

    1980-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, for a system at a fixed time, the theory of operators associates to every physical quantity X a probability law. But it is not possible to associate a probability law to a pair (X, Y) of operators, when they do not commute. Therefore it is not possible to represent the physical quantities by the usual methods of probability theory. The aim of this paper is to show that, if X, Y are represented by non random functions which are oscillating in such a way that they generate temporal averages their exist pairs of functions X, Y which have properties similar to pairs of operators. To X and to Y it is possible to associate two measures analogous to probability measures, but that is not possible for the pair (X, Y). The functions satisfying to such conditions are the pseudo-random function, a class of stationary functions which is complementary of the class of almost-periodic functions. The construction of these functions makes use of uniformly distributed sequences of real numbers, which constitute a simulation of random variables uniformly distributed over [0, 1]. Their properties are consequences of the ergodic theorems of H. Weyl (1916) and are related to the properties of irrational numbers [fr

  12. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  13. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  14. Measurement of use value and non-use value of environmental quality consistent with general equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...

  15. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  16. Enhancing shareholder value: Making a more compelling energy efficiency case to industry by quantifying non-energy benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pye, M.; McKane, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a more compelling case for industry to promote the non-energy benefits of energy efficiency investments. They do this in two ways to actively appeal to chief executive officers' (CEOs') and chief financial officers' (CFOs') primary responsibility: to enhance shareholder value. First, they describe the use of a project-by-project corporate financial analysis approach to quantify a broader range of productivity benefits that stem from investments in energy-efficient technologies, including waste reduction and pollution prevention. Second, and perhaps just as important, they present such information in corporate financial terms. These standard, widely accepted analysis procedures are more credible to industry than the economic modeling done in the past because they are structured in the same way corporate financial analysts perform discounted cashflow investment analyses on individual projects. Case studies including such financial analyses, which quantify both energy and non-energy benefits from investments in energy-efficient technologies, are presented. Experience shows that energy efficiency projects' non-energy benefits often exceed the value of energy savings, so energy savings should be viewed more correctly as part of the total benefits, rather than the focus of the results. Quantifying the total benefits of energy efficiency projects helps companies understand the financial opportunities of investments in energy-efficient technologies. Making a case for investing in energy-efficient technologies based on energy savings alone has not always proven successful. Evidence suggests, however, that industrial decision makers will understand energy efficiency investments as part of a broader set of parameters that affect company productivity and profitability

  17. Diagnostic value of structural and diffusion imaging measures in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Lee

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many studies have attempted to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls by machine learning using structural or functional MRI. We included both structural and diffusion MRI (dMRI and performed random forest (RF and support vector machine (SVM in this study. Methods: We evaluated the performance of classifying schizophrenia using RF method and SVM with 504 features (volume and/or fractional anisotropy and trace from 184 brain regions. We enrolled 47 patients and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and resampled our data into a balanced dataset using a Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique method. We randomly permuted the classification of all participants as a patient or healthy control 100 times and ran the RF and SVM with leave one out cross validation for each permutation. We then compared the sensitivity and specificity of the original dataset and the permuted dataset. Results: Classification using RF with 504 features showed a significantly higher rate of performance compared to classification by chance: sensitivity (87.6% vs. 47.0% and specificity (95.9 vs. 48.4% performed by RF, sensitivity (89.5% vs. 48.0% and specificity (94.5% vs. 47.1% performed by SVM. Conclusions: Machine learning using RF and SVM with both volume and diffusion measures can discriminate patients with schizophrenia with a high degree of performance. Further replications are required. Keywords: Classification, Diffusion MRI, Random forest, Support vector machine, Schizophrenia

  18. Electron energy measurements in pulsating auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, D.J.; Yee, E.; Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electron spectra were obtained during two rocket flights into pulsating aurora from Southend, Saskatchewan. The first rocket launched at 1143:24 UT on February 15, 1980 flew into an aurora of background intensity 275 R of N 2 + 4278 A and showing regular pulsations with about a 17 s period. Electron spectra of Maxwellian energy distributions were observed with an average E 0 = 1.5 keV, rising to 1.8 keV during the pulsations. There was one-to-one correspondence between the electron energy modulation and the observed optical pulsations. The second rocket, launched at 1009:10 UT on February 23, flew into a diffuse auroral surface of intensity 800 R of N 2 + 4278 A and with somewhat irregular pulsations. The electron spectra were again of Maxwellian energy distribution with an average E 0 = 1.8 keV increasing to 2.1 keV during the pulsations. The results from these flights suggest that pulsating auroras occurring in the morning sector may be quite commonly excited by low energy electrons. The optical pulsations are due to periodic increases in the energy of the electrons with the source of modulation in the vicintiy of the geomagnetic equatorial plane. (auth)

  19. Greenhouse crop residues: Energy potential and models for the prediction of their higher heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A.J.; Lopez-Martinez, J.A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Velazquez-Marti, B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural y Agroalimentaria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Almeria, in southeastern Spain, generates some 1,086,261 t year{sup -1} (fresh weight) of greenhouse crop (Cucurbita pepo L., Cucumis sativus L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Phaseoulus vulgaris L., Capsicum annuum L., Citrillus vulgaris Schrad. and Cucumis melo L.) residues. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of the present work was to accurately quantify this variable, differentiating between crop species while taking into consideration the area they each occupy. This, however, required the direct analysis of the higher heating value (HHV) of these residues, involving very expensive and therefore not commonly available equipment. Thus, a further aim was to develop models for predicting the HHV of these residues, taking into account variables measured by elemental and/or proximate analysis, thus providing an economically attractive alternative to direct analysis. All the analyses in this work involved the use of worldwide-recognised standards and methods. The total energy potential for these plant residues, as determined by direct analysis, was 1,003,497.49 MW h year{sup -1}. Twenty univariate and multivariate equations were developed to predict the HHV. The R{sup 2} and adjusted R{sup 2} values obtained for the univariate and multivariate models were 0.909 and 0.946 or above respectively. In all cases, the mean absolute percentage error varied between 0.344 and 2.533. These results show that any of these 20 equations could be used to accurately predict the HHV of crop residues. The residues produced by the Almeria greenhouse industry would appear to be an interesting source of renewable energy. (author)

  20. From Q-value measurements to mass and structure of proton-rich nuclei in the tin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, I.S.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Koslowsky, V.T.; Rathke, G.E.; Roeckl, E.; Rykaczewski, K.; Schardt, D.; Larsson, P.O.; Nyman, G.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.; Zganjar, E.F.; Spanier, L.; Nolte, E.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the electron capture decay energies for the isotopes sup(108,) sup(106,) 104 Sn, 96 Pd, and 111 Te. From these values the mass defects were derived. For 105 Sn an improved half-live of 28 + 35 was obtained. (HSI)

  1. Generating Community, Generating Justice? The production and circulation of value in community energy initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Chase Dotson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potentialities and interconnections between existing and hypothetical community energy systems and the concept of generative justice. New York State’s more recent official energy plan, for instance, includes provisions for community-scale microgrids, and several European nations offer significant financial support to citizens interested in building micro and intermediate-scale renewable energy systems. Such efforts and technologies appear to promise some degree of generative justice, returning much of the value generated by distributed renewable energy back to the community producing it. However, most currently conceived and implemented community energy systems recirculate value in very narrow and limited ways. Building upon an analysis of New York energy policy and on-the-ground cases, we explore community energy’s potential. What kinds of value are being generated by community energy systems and for whom? How could such efforts be more generative of justice across a broad range of values, not just electrons and dollars? Through the attempt to broaden thinking not only about community energy systems but also the concept of generative justice, we connect technological and organizational configurations of community energy systems and the forms of value they have the potential to generate: including, the production of grassroots energy and organizational expertise, the capacity for local and personal autonomy in energy planning and decision-making, and the enhancement of an affective sense and embodied experience of community. Finally, we examine some of the barriers to realizing more generatively just community energy systems. 

  2. Preliminary measurements of k{sub 0} values for W-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Lívia F.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    There are various methods of neutron activation analysis, one of these is the k{sub 0} Method for quantitative reactor Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The k{sub 0}-NAA procedure is nowadays widely used in numerous laboratories performing NAA all over the world. Among these reactions, {sup 186}W(n, γ){sup 187}W can be considered important because it can be used for a W concentration measurements. The irradiations were performed at position 24A, near the core of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming-pool nuclear research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP - Nuclear and Energy Research Institute), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two irradiations were carried out in sequence, using two sets of samples: the first with a cadmium cover around the samples and the second without, in a total of three data sets with and without Cd cover performed in 2014 and 2015. The activity measurements were carried out in an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Standard sources of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs supplied by the IAEA were used in order to obtain the HPGe gamma-ray peak efficiency as a function of the energy. The covariance matrix methodology was applied to all uncertainties involved. The preliminary values of k{sub 0} for {sup 186}W(n, γ){sup 187}W reaction for the gamma transition energy of 479.53 keV was 3.17 x 10{sup -2}(5), for 618.77 keV was 9.08 x 10{sup -3}(15) and for 685.77 keV was 3.88x10{sup -2}(6). These preliminary values for k{sub 0} have been compared with the literature. (author)

  3. The Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance: (Measured using Accounting and Value-Added based Measures): Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz, Khairul Annuar

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to test empirically which measure, an accounting based financial performance measure such as Return on Equity, Price to Earnings Ratio, Earnings Per Share and Return on Capital Employed; or value-added based financial performance measures such as Economic Value Added and Market Value Added; is more closely related with Corporate Governance Compliance. This paper also aims to study the level of Corporate Governance Compliance of the Smaller Companies listed on the KLSE, the mea...

  4. Measuring Children's Environmental Attitudes and Values in Northwest Mexico: Validating a Modified Version of Measures to Test the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, A. J.; Johnson, B.; Bogner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process of measuring children's attitudes and values toward the environment within a Mexican sample. We applied the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV), which has been shown to be valid and reliable in 20 countries, including one Spanish speaking culture. Items were initially modified to fit the regional dialect,…

  5. Dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Precision of the mineral density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Bochu, M.

    1989-01-01

    The improvement that could be obtained in quantitative bone mineral measurements by dual energy computed tomography was tested in vitro. From the results of 15 mineral density measurements (in mg Ca/cm 3 , done on a precise lumbar spine phantom (Hologic) and referred to the values obtained on the same slices on a Siemens Osteo-CT phantom, the precision found was 0.8%, six times better than the precision calculated from the uncorrected measured values [fr

  6. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  7. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  8. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: silvio@abacc.org.b, E-mail: grenha@abacc.org.b [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  9. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  10. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  11. How to measure customer value and its relationship with shareholder value in a business-to-business market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bermejo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Intangible assets are difficult to measure, but nowadays the value of the shares of firms in the stock exchange market contains a high percentage of intangible capital and customers are one of the main intangible assets which should be evaluated. This paper presents and discusses some tools to measure the value of customers. But first, it is mandatory to define and clarify the relationships among the concepts of Customer Equity (CE, Life Time Value (LTV and Customer Relationship Management (CRM. LTV is the best financial outcome to measure customer value, so the paper reviews the literature on some mathematical models to calculate LTV. We propose an equation for LTV in order to apply it in a business-to-business market, and an analysis of the influence factors involved in it is made, focusing especially in the link between LTV and shareholder value. Finally, we propose as future lines of research, the relational equity approach as the perfect complement to the customer equity analysis and a way to estimate LTV for actual cases of publicly traded firms using published information.

  12. Vector-valued measure and the necessary conditions for the optimal control problems of linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunjing, L.

    1981-12-01

    The vector-valued measure defined by the well-posed linear boundary value problems is discussed. The maximum principle of the optimal control problem with non-convex constraint is proved by using the vector-valued measure. Especially, the necessary conditions of the optimal control of elliptic systems is derived without the convexity of the control domain and the cost function. (author)

  13. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  14. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  15. Measuring the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography activity: an opportunity to stratify endoscopists on the basis of their value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vikrant; Moran, Carthage; Maheshwari, Pardeep; Cheriyan, Danny; O'Toole, Aoibhlinn; Murray, Frank; Patchett, Stephen E; Harewood, Gavin C

    2018-07-01

    As finite healthcare resources come under pressure, the value of physician activity is assuming increasing importance. The value in healthcare can be defined as patient health outcomes achieved per monetary unit spent. Even though some attempts have been made to quantify the value of clinician activity, there is little in the medical literature describing the importance of endoscopists' activity. This study aimed to characterize the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performance of five gastroenterologists. We carried out a retrospective-prospective cohort study using the databases of patients undergoing ERCP between September 2014 and March 2017. We collected data from 1070 patients who underwent ERCP comparing value among the ERCPists at index ERCP. Procedure value was calculated using the formula Q/(T/C), where Q is the quality of procedure, T is the duration of procedure and C is the adjusted for complexity level. Quality and complexity were derived on a 1-4 Likert scale on the basis of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria; time was recorded (in min) from intubation to extubation. Endoscopist time calculated from procedure time was considered a surrogate marker of cost as individual components of procedure cost were not itemized. In total, 590 procedures were analysed: 465 retrospectively over 24 months and 125 prospectively over 6 months. There was a 32% variation in the value of endoscopist activity in a more substantial retrospective cohort, with an even more considerable 73% variation in a smaller prospective arm. In an analysis of greater than 1000 ERCPs by a small cohort of experienced ERCPists, there was a wide variation in the value of endoscopist activity. Although the precision of estimating procedural costs needs further refinement, these findings show the ability to stratify ERCPists on the basis of the value their activity. As healthcare costs are scrutinized more closely, such value measurements are

  16. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  17. Triple Value System Dynamics Modeling to Help Stakeholders Engage with Food-Energy-Water Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triple Value (3V) Community scoping projects and Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models help decision makers and stakeholders apply systems-analysis methodology to complex problems related to food production, water quality, and energy use. 3VS models are decision support tools that...

  18. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  19. Multi-energy spectral CT: adding value in emergency body imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Gopal V

    2018-04-01

    Most vendors offer scanners capable of dual- or multi-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. Advantages of multi-energy CT scanning include superior tissue characterization, detection of subtle iodine uptake differences, and opportunities to reduce contrast dose. However, utilization of this technology in the emergency department (ED) remains low. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the value of multi-energy CT scanning in emergency body imaging.

  20. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  1. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  2. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  3. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  5. Precise measurements of energy loss straggling for swift heavy ions in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Bindu; Neetu; Sharma, Kalpana; Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-11-01

    The energy loss straggling measurements for heavy ions with Z = 3-22 (∼0.2-2.5 MeV/u) in PEN (C7H5O2) and PET (C10H8O4) polymers have been carried out utilizing the swift heavy ion beam facility from 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The recorded spectra are analyzed in such a way that the Straggling associated with energy loss process could be measured in a systematic manner at any selected value of energy, in terms of per unit thickness of the absorber, at any desired energy intervals. The measured values have been compared with the calculated values obtained from the most commonly used Bethe-Livingston formulations applicable for collisional straggling. The results are tried to be understood in terms of the effective charge on the impinging ion within the absorber. Some interesting trends are observed.

  6. The value of domestic building energy efficiency — evidence from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, Marie; Lyons, Ronan C.; Lyons, Seán

    2013-01-01

    Following the transposition of the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive into Irish law, all properties offered for sale or to let in Ireland are obliged to have an energy efficiency rating. This paper analyses the effect of energy efficiency ratings on the sale and rental prices of properties in the Republic of Ireland. Using the Heckman selection technique we model the decision to advertise the energy efficiency rating of a property and the effect of energy efficiency ratings on property values. Our results show that energy efficiency has a positive effect on both the sales and rental prices of properties, and that the effect is significantly stronger in the sales segment of the property market. We also analyse the effect of energy efficiency across different market conditions and we find that the effect of the energy rating is generally stronger where market conditions are worse. - Highlights: • We estimate the effect of energy efficiency on property sale and rental prices. • We examine how this effect varies according to market conditions. • Energy efficiency has a significant, positive effect on property values. • The premium is greater for property sales compared to rentals. • The premium for energy efficiency is greater when market conditions are worse

  7. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  8. Energy Value Housing Award Guide: How to Build and Profit with Energy Efficiency in New Home Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    As concern over the environment grows, builders have the potential to fulfill a market niche by building homes that use fewer resources and have lower environmental impact than conventional construction. Builders can increase their marketability and customer satisfaction and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of their homes. However, it takes dedication to build environmentally sound homes along with a solid marketing approach to ensure that customers recognize the added value of energy and resource efficiency. This guide is intended for builders seeking suggestions on how to improve energy and resource efficiency in their new homes. It is a compilation of ideas and concepts for designing, building, and marketing energy- and resource-efficient homes based on the experience of recipients of the national Energy Value Housing Award (EVHA).

  9. Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Yang, Kun; Wei, Yu; Lei, Likun

    2018-01-01

    Volatilities of crude oil price have important impacts on the steady and sustainable development of world real economy. Thus it is of great academic and practical significance to model and measure the volatility and risk of crude oil markets accurately. This paper aims to measure the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of a portfolio consists of four crude oil assets by using GARCH-type models, extreme value theory (EVT) and vine copulas. The backtesting results show that the combination of GARCH-type-EVT models and vine copula methods can produce accurate risk measures of the oil portfolio. Mixed R-vine copula is more flexible and superior to other vine copulas. Different GARCH-type models, which can depict the long-memory and/or leverage effect of oil price volatilities, however offer similar marginal distributions of the oil returns.

  10. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  11. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  12. MODEL OF INTEGRATED VALUE OF PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна БОРИСОВА

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy sources requires the implementation of complex problems, the solution of which is necessary to apply the project approach. The uniqueness of alternative energy projects (AEP necessitates individual approach to evaluating the effectiveness of each. The paper contains the results of the project management features's analysis in the field of alternative energy, determining the values and developing of the value management integrated conceptual model of AEP. In assessing the effectiveness of AEP considered the socio-economic and commercial aspects. Value management integrated conceptual model of AEP was obtained by combining the classical model of the project management goals with the project values model "Five "E" and two "A". The classical model of the project management goals have been complemented with risk parameters.

  13. Measuring structure functions at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.; Owens, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include measuring Λ, tests of QCD using hard scattering processes, and measuring parton distributions. In each case, any opportunities and advantages afforded by the unique features of the SSC are emphasized. The working group on structure functions was charged with investigating two specific questions: (1) How well are the various parton distributions known in the kinematic region relevant to calculations for the SSC. (2) What new information can be learned about parton distributions at the SSC. Especially for this working group, the advantages of having a fixed-target facility at the SSC for the measurement of the parton distributions with multi-TeV leptons, were to be examined. 15 references

  14. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  15. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  16. Fock-state view of weak-value measurements and implementation with photons and atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Christoph; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2011-01-01

    Weak measurements in combination with postselection can give rise to a striking amplification effect (related to a large ''weak value''). We show that this effect can be understood by viewing the initial state of the pointer as the ground state of a fictional harmonic oscillator. This perspective clarifies the relationship between the weak-value regime and other measurement techniques and inspires a proposal to implement fully quantum weak-value measurements combining photons and atomic ensembles.

  17. Consistency between Self-Reported and Recorded Values for Clinical Measures

    OpenAIRE

    III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical me...

  18. Pulse radiolysis study of supercritical water-G-value measurement up to 450 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the understanding of water radiolysis at elevated temperatures is inevitably important in the field of water chemistry in light water reactors because water radiolysis is closely related to many subjects such as hydrogen water chemistry (H 2 injection), SCC (stress corrosion cracking), dose accumulation and so on. This situation would also be applied to the future reactor using supercritical water (>374 C, 22.1MPa) as a coolant, so called supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). Therefore, it is important to investigate water radiolysis of supercritical water. In 1989 Prof. Oka, University of Tokyo, proposed the SCWR as a future reactor and done much design study. This reactor has many advantages such as high energy efficiency, applicability of experience accumulated in light water reactors and supercritical fissile plant, and compact structure. In 2002 the Department of Energy in USA has selected the SCWR as one of the six Generation IV reactors and fundamental research has started in different countries as a national or an international project. In the present research G-values of water radiolysis have been measured by using a pulse radiolysis method up to 450 degree C to obtain the fundamental data relevant to the development of the SCWR. In supercritical water, the pressure controls the density of water easily and it was found that the G-values are strongly dependent not only on temperature but also on density in supercritical water. After presentation of experimental method and its difficulties, temperature and density dependent G-values of water decomposition products in supercritical water would be summarized. (authors)

  19. Complex Fuzzy Set-Valued Complex Fuzzy Measures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail. PMID:25093202

  20. Simultaneous integral measurement of electron energy and charge albedoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

    Results of a series of experiments in which backscattered energy has been determined from precise energy deposition measurements using an improved technique are presented. The fraction of the energy backscattered for electrons incident on Be, Ti, Mo, and Ta is determined as a function of energy and angle of incidence. The improved technique for the absolute measurement of energy deposition using calorimeters involves square-wave (on-off) modulation of the beam. Uncertainties in the measured backscattered energy are 1 to 6 percent, except for Be at normal incidence where they must agree by definition. Experiment and theory agree quite well for Mo and Be at 60 0 . The measured data for Ta and Ti are clearly higher than the calculated results, which is not completely understood. (U.S.)

  1. The impact of Energy Performance Certificates on the rental and capital values of commercial property assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, Franz, E-mail: ff274@cam.ac.uk [Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EP (United Kingdom); McAllister, Patrick [Real Estate and Planning, Henley Business School, University of Reading, RG6 5UD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper focuses on the effect of energy performance ratings on appraised capital values, rental values and equivalent yields of UK commercial property assets. The study is based on a cross-section of 708 commercial property assets. Incorporating a range of potential confounding factors such as unexpired lease term, vacancy rate and tenant credit risk, we use hedonic regression procedures to estimate the effect of EPC rating on rental and capital values. The study finds no evidence of a significant relationship between environmental and/or energy performance and rental and capital values. A small subset of 24 BREEAM-rated assets is also tested for significant price effects but a statistically significant effect is only confirmed for equivalent yields. Similarly, there was no evidence that the EPC rating had any effect on Market Rent or Market Value with only minor effects of EPC ratings on equivalent yields. The preliminary conclusion is that energy labelling is not yet having the effects on Market Values and Market Rents that would be expected if high EPC ratings were associated with substantial cost savings that are fully reflected in capital values and/or were readily available and taken into account by prospective tenants and buyers. - Highlights: > Finds no significant effect of EPC ratings on commercial real estate values. > Expected relationships with other price determinants, e.g. age, location confirmed. > Analysis provides some support for effect of EPC and BREEAM rating on yields.

  2. The impact of Energy Performance Certificates on the rental and capital values of commercial property assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; McAllister, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of energy performance ratings on appraised capital values, rental values and equivalent yields of UK commercial property assets. The study is based on a cross-section of 708 commercial property assets. Incorporating a range of potential confounding factors such as unexpired lease term, vacancy rate and tenant credit risk, we use hedonic regression procedures to estimate the effect of EPC rating on rental and capital values. The study finds no evidence of a significant relationship between environmental and/or energy performance and rental and capital values. A small subset of 24 BREEAM-rated assets is also tested for significant price effects but a statistically significant effect is only confirmed for equivalent yields. Similarly, there was no evidence that the EPC rating had any effect on Market Rent or Market Value with only minor effects of EPC ratings on equivalent yields. The preliminary conclusion is that energy labelling is not yet having the effects on Market Values and Market Rents that would be expected if high EPC ratings were associated with substantial cost savings that are fully reflected in capital values and/or were readily available and taken into account by prospective tenants and buyers. - Highlights: → Finds no significant effect of EPC ratings on commercial real estate values. → Expected relationships with other price determinants, e.g. age, location confirmed. → Analysis provides some support for effect of EPC and BREEAM rating on yields.

  3. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-kΩ thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl

  4. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  5. Energy crops cultivated on the slag from incineration of the sewage sludge energy value assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Anna; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Bering, Sławomira; Mazur, Jacek; Kiper, Justyna; Wołoszyk, Czesław

    2017-11-01

    In 2011-2013, research on the fertilizer value of slag from the incineration of municipal sewage sludge as an alternative source of phosphorus was carried out. The research scheme included 5 variants (in 4 repetitions) fertilization cultivated for grain with mineral fertilizers and ash. (P1, P2 and P3 - consecutive doses of phosphorus from ash) from municipal sewage sludge combustion: NK, NPK, NK+P1, NK+P2 and NK+P3. The obtained results indicate that the average of the three years of research, the value for the straw spring rape heat of combustion was 15.99 MJ/kg d.m., corn straw 16.20 MJ/kg d.m., triticale straw 17.06 MJ/kg d.m. and Miscanthus 17.34 MJ/kg d.m. The highest value of combustion heat for spring rape straw and miscanthus performed for objects fertilized with NK + P3 - 16.08 MJ/kg d.m. (Spring rape) and 17.57 MJ/kg d.m. (Miscanthus); For corn straw objects fertilized with nitrogen and potassium - 16.35 MJ/kg d.m. and triticale straw objects fertilized with NPK and NK + P2 - 17.10 MJ/kg d.m. Straw calorific value of tested plants was lower than the combustion heat by an average of 6.97% (triticale) to 7.38% (spring rape).

  6. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  7. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  8. Jet energy measurements with the ZEUS prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium scintillator calorimeter of the ZEUS detector is designed to achieve an excellent energy calibration and the best possible energy resolution for jets. Therefore the response of the prototype calorimeter to jets has been measured using an interaction trigger. The mean response and energy resolution was measured for jets of 50 GeV - 100 GeV and compared to the one for pions. Within the ZEUS detector dead material is placed in front of the calorimeter. The influence of 4 cm and 10 cm thick aluminium absorbers in front of the calorimeter was measured. The charged multiplicity was measured in front and behind the aluminium absorber. With these multiplicities the energy loss in the absorber is corrected. The correction has been done so that the mean response with absorber is equal to the mean response without absorber. The improvement of the energy resolution is investigated. The measured results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy- and value added services in the electric power market in Sweden; Energi- och mervaerdestjaenster paa elmarknaden i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsson, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report tries to give a comprehensive picture of the offerings of energy- and value added services on the deregulated Swedish electric power market. A compilation of the service offerings from some 50 electric utilities is given. Market movements within deregulated sectors are treated with special emphasis on the electric power business.

  10. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  11. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  12. Radiation monitoring and measuring instrument developed by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuekarslan, N.; Gueven, A.

    2001-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Nuclear Electronics Department is working on research, development and production of radiation monitoring and measuring instruments in the aims of TAEA to serve our Country. Advanced micro controller technology is used to cover problems of radiation measurement. Control by micro controller enables reliable, stable measurement and display of low level dose rate fields. It makes possible the simultaneous measurement of both dose and dose rate values

  13. A New Measure of Traditional Values Across Cultures: China and Russia Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Taormina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new measure of adherence to traditional values was created with the objective of facilitating research within and across cultures and nations. The measure was tested in China (N = 321 and Russia (N = 314 and factor analysis of the data revealed two subscales named Personal Traditional Values (10 items and Public Traditional Values (6 items. Empirical psychometric testing of the overall 16-item measure and the two subscales strongly supported the validity and reliability of all three measures. Means comparisons conducted to assess how well the measures could be used for cross-cultural comparisons revealed the Russians somewhat more than the Chinese living by traditional values overall, both nations about equal on living according to traditional values in their personal lives, and the Russians significantly more inclined to abide by traditional values in public. Also tested were several social and psychological variables as theoretical predictors of living by traditional values, and Life Satisfaction was tested as a possible correlate of living according to traditional values. Regression analyses on the combined data confirmed that Family Emotional Support, Conscientiousness, Collectivism, and Age were all significant positive predictors of living by traditional values. Additional regressions also found some unique predictors for each nation. These findings and the results of the parametric tests support the use of the new scales for measuring traditional values both within and across cultures.

  14. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant (P<0.05) increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues

  15. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100, 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs. The results indicate that , there were significant increase in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. compared with the control, the increase in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, the increase was only 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased by 1165, 1621, 1540, and 1130 MJ/kg dry matter, for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (author)

  16. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (authors)

  17. Value of sensitive in-situ environmental assets in energy resource extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampapillai, Dodo J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of energy resources and the preservation of sensitive in-situ environmental assets are invariably mutually exclusive alternatives. The opportunity cost value of preserving the environmental assets can be assessed by recourse to resource rent taxes, and threshold values. The case study analysis carried out in this paper suggests that the preservation of these assets could be justifiable on the grounds of “acceptable sacrifice”. - Highlights: ► Resource rents owed to the state from energy resource extraction can be significant. ► Benefits if mining energy resources are over-stated when the role of sensitive environmental assets is ignored. ► Threshold values could help to resolve conflicts between environmental preservation and resource extraction.

  18. A step-by-step plan to manage and measure adding value by FM/CREM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard; Bergsma, Feike; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker

    Purpose: To present a new Value Adding Management model in order to support decision makers in identifying appropriate interventions to add value to the organisation, to manage its implementation, and to measure the output and outcomes. Theory: The paper builds on value adding management theories

  19. Evaluation of Isotopic Measurements and Burn-up Value of Sample GU3 of ARIANE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore, C.; Rodriguez Rivada, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimation of the burn-up value of irradiated fuel and its isotopic composition are important for criticality analysis, spent fuel management and source term estimation. The practical way to estimate the irradiated fuel composition and burn.up value is calculation with validated code and nuclear data. Such validation of the neutronic codes and nuclear data requires the benchmarking with measured values. (Author)

  20. Measuring the Value of Placements to Employers: A Cost-Benefit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wond, Tracey; Rambukwella, Shan

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the concept and measurement of placement value, underexplored in theory and practice to date. The article makes a theoretical contribution to the placement value discourse by examining and articulating the placement value concept. It also offers a practical contribution by exploring a piloted tool to evaluate employer…

  1. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  2. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  3. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  4. The Impact of Political Context on the Measurement of Postmaterial Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Tranter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights the influence of political context upon the measurement of postmaterial value orientations. Drawing upon a variety of international survey data, Inglehart claims that since World War II a shift has occurred in advanced industrialized nations from material toward postmaterial values. However, cross-sectional data from Australian Election Study surveys collected over more than two decades indicate that atypically for an advanced democracy, Australian value orientations tend toward the materialist pole. Australian Election Study values estimates are also at odds with those from other national social surveys that portray Australia as a far more postmaterialist nation. Regression analysis demonstrates that after controlling for election issues, attitudes toward political leaders, political party identification, and social background, predicted values estimates are substantially more postmaterial than the raw estimates. The findings have international implications as they suggest that measuring values during or soon after election campaigns may affect the measurement of postmaterial value orientations.

  5. Creating prospective value chains for renewable road transport energy sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessberg, Nina; Leinonen, Anna; Tuominen, Anu

    2013-01-01

    If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires...... cooperation between public and private actors. This paper discusses the paradigm change towards 2050 Nordic road transport system based on renewable energy. More precisely, it proposes an approach for creation and analysis of prospective value networks up to the year 2050. The value networks arise from three...... application with a set of practical tools to support development of implementation strategies and policy programmes in the fields of energy and transport....

  6. Equivalent half-value thickness and mean energies of filtered X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelentag, W.W.; Panzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray beam qualities are often conveniently described by half-value thicknesses (in connection with tube voltage and filtration). Aluminium and copper are commonly used as half-value thickness materials, and either material may be used in a large intermediate energy range. Data comparisons frequently require conversions from values in Al to values in Cu. Equivalent half-value thicknesses for polychromatic radiations depend on the shapes of the spectra, but spectrometry is too expensive for routine application. Half-value thicknesses in both Al and Cu have been determined for some 250 spectra (tube potentials 10 to 300 kV). The results are tabulated, and these results together with a nomogram enable conversion with an accuracy of better than +- 5% in most cases. (UK)

  7. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lessions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , which also precludes a clinically significant cut-off value. The same applies to SUVpeak and SUVmean while TLG measures may be more indicative. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values proved inadequate for differentiating colorectal malignancies from benign findings...

  8. Measurements of distributions of energy loss for 51, 102 and 153 keV protons in nine hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The mean energies, second central moments (a measure of the width of the energy-loss distributions) and the third central moments (a measure of asymmetry) were calculated from energy-loss distributions measured for 51, 102 and 153 keV protons traversing methane, ethyne, ethene, ethane, propyne, propadiene, propene, cyclopropane and propane. For the second central moments, the best, but hardly satisfactory, agreement between measurement and theory was obtained when the classical scattering probability was used for the calculations; measured values exceeding calculated values by as much as 40%. Use of the first Born approximation gave values 20-50% below measured values. Measured third central moments exceeded theoretical values by 10-250%. (Auth.)

  9. The value of producing food, energy, and ecosystem services within an agro-ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John Roy; Constanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem Services within an Agro- Ecosystem Agricultural ecosystems produce food, fiber, and nonmarketed ecosystem services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via fieldscale ecological monitoring...... and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared...... with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds current European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union...

  10. Frequency of consumption of products with varying energy value by patients of a sanatorium in Ciechocinek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka, Danuta; Szczepaniak, Barbara; Flaczyk, Ewa; Kordubski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected groups of foodstuffs with varying energy value by patients of the "Dom Zdrojowy" sanatorium in Ciechocinek (Poland). The survey included 100 persons, out of which 80% were obese individuals (OB), while the others were patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Products with lowered energy value, especially cottage cheese, milk, "light" yogurt, as well as tea and coffee without sugar were on average consumed rather frequently. Obese patients, from among women constituted 80%, paid attention to fat content in their daily diet.

  11. Digestibility, Determination of Metabolizable Energy and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed with Nutritionally Valued Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Litz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using exoenzyme phytase in broiler's diets on digestibility of nutrients, feed energy and tibia bone mineralization. A completely randomized design was used, with the following treatments: sorghum with dicalcium phosphate (SDP, corn with dicalcium phosphate (CDP, sorghum with meat and bone meal (SMBM, sorghum with valued phytase (SVP and sorghum with phytase without valued (SPWV. For digestibility analysis, eighty 15 day old broilers were used, a total of 1400 male Hubbard Flex chickens, which were submitted to total excreta collection to obtain the percentages of food digestibility, crude protein, ether extract, apparent metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus while for tibias mineralization. Six birds per treatment were used, where determination of mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were performed. Metabolizable energy (ME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn of the feed were also calculated. Data were subjected to variation analysis and the average compared by 5% Tukey test. There was no difference between treatments for the digestibility at 15-20 day old as well as for the feed energy values, but the diets with phytase had higher phosphorous percentage values for tibia bone mineralization, demonstrating that exogenous phytase enzyme is able to hydrolyze phytate origininated from plant and release the phosphorus for assimilation by animals, acting as a substitute for phosphorus plant sources.

  12. Estimating the Value of Price Risk Reduction in Energy Efficiency Investments in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuominen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calculating the value of price risk reduction to a consumer that can be achieved with investments in energy efficiency. The value of price risk reduction is discussed to some length in general terms in the literature reviewed but, so far, no methodology for calculating the value has been presented. Here we suggest such a method. The problem of valuating price risk reduction is approached using a variation of the Black–Scholes model by considering a hypothetical financial instrument that a consumer would purchase to insure herself against unexpected price hikes. This hypothetical instrument is then compared with an actual energy efficiency investment that reaches the same level of price risk reduction. To demonstrate the usability of the method, case examples are calculated for typical single-family houses in Finland. The results show that the price risk entailed in household energy consumption can be reduced by a meaningful amount with energy efficiency investments, and that the monetary value of this reduction can be calculated. It is argued that this often-overlooked benefit of energy efficiency investments merits more consideration in future studies.

  13. Virtual non-contrast in second-generation, dual-energy computed tomography: Reliability of attenuation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepker, Michael; Moritz, Thomas; Krauss, Bernhard; Weber, Michael; Euller, Gordon; Mang, Thomas; Wolf, Florian; Herold, Christian J.; Ringl, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of attenuation values in virtual non-contrast images (VNC) reconstructed from contrast-enhanced, dual-energy scans performed on a second-generation dual-energy CT scanner, compared to single-energy, non-contrast images (TNC). Materials and methods: Sixteen phantoms containing a mixture of contrast agent and water at different attenuations (0–1400 HU) were investigated on a Definition Flash-CT scanner using a single-energy scan at 120 kV and a DE-CT protocol (100 kV/SN140 kV). For clinical assessment, 86 patients who received a dual-phase CT, containing an unenhanced single-energy scan at 120 kV and a contrast enhanced (110 ml Iomeron 400 mg/ml; 4 ml/s) DE-CT (100 kV/SN140 kV) in an arterial (n = 43) or a venous phase, were retrospectively analyzed. Mean attenuation was measured within regions of interest of the phantoms and in different tissue types of the patients within the corresponding VNC and TNC images. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: For all phantoms, mean attenuation in VNC was 5.3 ± 18.4 HU, with respect to water. In 86 patients overall, 2637 regions were measured in TNC and VNC images, with a mean difference between TNC and VNC of −3.6 ± 8.3 HU. In 91.5% (n = 2412) of all cases, absolute differences between TNC and VNC were under 15 HU, and, in 75.3% (n = 1986), differences were under 10 HU. Conclusions: Second-generation dual-energy CT based VNC images provide attenuation values close to those of TNC. To avoid possible outliers multiple measurements are recommended especially for measurements in the spleen, the mesenteric fat, and the aorta.

  14. Virtual non-contrast in second-generation, dual-energy computed tomography: reliability of attenuation values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Michael; Moritz, Thomas; Krauss, Bernhard; Weber, Michael; Euller, Gordon; Mang, Thomas; Wolf, Florian; Herold, Christian J; Ringl, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the reliability of attenuation values in virtual non-contrast images (VNC) reconstructed from contrast-enhanced, dual-energy scans performed on a second-generation dual-energy CT scanner, compared to single-energy, non-contrast images (TNC). Sixteen phantoms containing a mixture of contrast agent and water at different attenuations (0-1400 HU) were investigated on a Definition Flash-CT scanner using a single-energy scan at 120 kV and a DE-CT protocol (100 kV/SN140 kV). For clinical assessment, 86 patients who received a dual-phase CT, containing an unenhanced single-energy scan at 120 kV and a contrast enhanced (110 ml Iomeron 400 mg/ml; 4 ml/s) DE-CT (100 kV/SN140 kV) in an arterial (n=43) or a venous phase, were retrospectively analyzed. Mean attenuation was measured within regions of interest of the phantoms and in different tissue types of the patients within the corresponding VNC and TNC images. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. For all phantoms, mean attenuation in VNC was 5.3±18.4 HU, with respect to water. In 86 patients overall, 2637 regions were measured in TNC and VNC images, with a mean difference between TNC and VNC of -3.6±8.3 HU. In 91.5% (n=2412) of all cases, absolute differences between TNC and VNC were under 15HU, and, in 75.3% (n=1986), differences were under 10 HU. Second-generation dual-energy CT based VNC images provide attenuation values close to those of TNC. To avoid possible outliers multiple measurements are recommended especially for measurements in the spleen, the mesenteric fat, and the aorta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  16. Changes in the measurement of fair value : implications for accounting earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Fargher, N.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    With the FASB's issue of staff position papers in 2009 and the relaxation of how fair value standards are applied, there has been a change in the practice of how fair value is measured. Since the FASB staff position papers in 2009, fair value measurement by financial institutions has increasingly relied on managerial assumptions. This study examines the impact of this change on the quality of earnings. Consistent with attribute substitution theory that emphasises reliability over relevance, w...

  17. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Yiannis; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Chletsis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  18. Several Similarity Measures of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Their Application in Pattern Recognition Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval valued neutrosophic soft set introduced by Irfan Deli in 2014[8] is a generalization of neutrosophic set introduced by F. Smarandache in 1995[19], which can be used in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper the Hamming and Euclidean distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (IVNS sets are defined and similarity measures based on distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets are proposed. Similarity measure based on set theoretic approach is also proposed. Some basic properties of similarity measures between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets is also studied. A decision making method is established for interval valued neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measures between IVNS sets. Finally an example is given to demonstrate the possible application of similarity measures in pattern recognition problems.

  19. Valuing Residential Energy Efficiency in Two Alaska Real Estate Markets: A Hedonic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Dominique J.

    Alaska households have high home energy consumption and expenditures. Improving the energy efficiency of the housing stock can reduce home energy consumption, thereby reducing home energy expenditures and CO2 emissions. Improving the energy efficiency of a home may also increase its transaction price if the energy efficiency improvements are capitalized into the value of the home. The relationship between energy efficiency and transaction prices in the Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska residential real estate markets is examined. Using a hedonic pricing framework and difference-in-differences analysis, the impact of the Alaska Home Energy Rebate program on the transaction prices of single-family homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage housing markets from 2008 through 2015 is examined. The results indicate that compared to homes that did not complete the program, homes that completed the program sell for a statistically significant price premium between 15.1% and 15.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 5% and 11% in the Anchorage market. A hedonic pricing framework is used to relate energy efficiency ratings and transaction prices of homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage residential real estate markets from 2008 through 2015. The results indicate that homes with above-average energy efficiency ratings sell for a statistically significant price premium between 6.9% and 17.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 1.8% and 6.0% in the Anchorage market.

  20. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; ARAÚJO, Alexandre de; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost....

  1. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  2. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  3. Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to the Charcoal Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry K. Hoffmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, natural resources are increasingly under pressure, especially due to population growth, economic growth and transformation as well as climate change. As a result, the water, energy, and food (WEF nexus approach has emerged to understand interdependencies and commonly manage resources within a multi-scale and multi-level framework. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the high and growing consumption of traditional biomass for cooking purposes - notably fuelwood and charcoal—is both a key source of energy and contributor for food security as well as a pressure on natural resources. Improving the bioenergy value chains is essential for limiting environmental degradation and for securing the livelihoods of millions of people. Although the WEF nexus approach entails large potential to address the complex problems arising along the bioenergy value chains, these are currently not considered. Based on the WEF nexus approach, we analyze the different steps within the charcoal value chain in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the respective interdependencies and the potential for improving overall socio-economic and environmental sustainability. We emphasize the water, energy and food related implications of vicious and virtuous production cycles, separated by value chain segments. We discuss the potential and major challenges for implementing more sustainable value chains. Furthermore, we underline the necessity of applying WEF nexus approaches to these value chains in order to optimize environmental and social outcomes.

  4. Measurement of the energy stored in alkalihalogenids by radiation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrey, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy stored in alkali-halogen crystals after X-ray irradiation is studied at 11 K. Using a heat flux calorimeter designed especially for this experiment, single crystals are irradiated and the energy release is recorded as the temperature is increased proportional to time from 10 K to 50 K. The energy release spectra are compared with relevant optical measurements and thus a relation between energy release and tempering of point defects is established. The energy release peaks can be assigned definitly to tempering stages of the Frenkel pairs. For explanation a simple model is proposed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  5. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  6. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  7. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  8. STUDY ON THE ENERGY NUTRITION VALUES OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  9. RF Phase Scan for Beam Energy Measurement of KOMAC DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Seonggu; Lee, Seokgeun; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The energy gain through the drift tube linac is a function of the synchronous phase, therefore, the output beam energy from DTL can be affected by the RF phase setting in low-level RF (LLRF) system. The DTL at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) consists of 11 tanks and the RF phase setting in each tank should be matched for synchronous acceleration in successive tanks. That means a proper setting of RF phase in each DTL tank is critical for efficient and loss-free operation. The matching RF phase can be determined based on the output energy measurement from the DTL tank. The beam energy can be measured by several methods. For example, we can use a bending magnet to determine the beam energy because the higher momentum of beam means the less deflection angle in the fixed magnetic field. By measuring the range of proton beam through a material with known stopping power also can be utilized to determine the beam energy. We used a well-known time-of-flight method to determine the output beam energy from the DTL tank by measuring beam phase with a beam position monitor (BPM). Based on the energy measurement results, proper RF operating point could be obtained. We performed a RF phase scan to determine the output beam energy from KOMAC DTL by using a time-of-flight method and to set RF operating point precisely. The measured beam energy was compared with a beam dynamics simulation and showed a good agreement. RF phase setting is critical issue for the efficient operation of the proton accelerator, we have a plan to implement and integrate the RF phase measurement system into an accelerator control system for future need.

  10. Research on the energy-saving and revenue sharing strategy of ESCOs under the uncertainty of the value of Energy Performance Contracting Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Dong; Guo, Ju’e

    2014-01-01

    Under the uncertainty of the value of Energy Performance Contracting Projects (EPCPs), this paper develops a revenue-sharing bargaining model between an Energy Service Company (ESCO) and an Energy-Using Organization (EU). Based on the model the paper analyzes the impacts of energy prices, risk-adjusted discount rates and accidents on the ESCO’s bargaining strategies. The research shows that the greater the probability of adverse circumstances is, the higher is the revenue share (of the EU), and the more disadvantageous is the ESCO’s position in the game. Furthermore, we design a forecast–commitment contract between an ESCO and an EU and analyze the optimal product’s energy savings commitment strategy of the ESCO to cope with uncertain energy savings and contract risk. The research illustrates that by introducing penalties and commitments, the contract can eliminate the impact of the uncertain energy savings on the contract execution to a certain extent; when the EU takes a greater commitment risk, the ESCO is willing to provide a higher commitment, thus enhancing the strategy value of the bilateral relationship and reducing the contract risk. Finally, the policy recommendations about improving shared savings contract standard, third-party energy savings measurement and verification mechanism and arbitration mechanism of EPCs are provided. - Highlights: • We provide a method for determining the revenue-sharing bargaining strategy space in a finite bargaining game of the ESCO. • The increase of the probability of adverse circumstances will increase the revenue share (of the EU). • We design a forecast–commitment contract between an ESCO and an EU. • The forecast–commitment contract can eliminate the impact of the uncertain energy savings on the contract execution to a certain extent. • When the EU takes a greater commitment risk, the ESCO is willing to provide a higher commitment

  11. A step-by-step plan to manage and measure adding value by FM/CREM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a new Value Adding Management model in order to support decision makers in identifying appropriate interventions to add value to the organisation, to manage its implementation, and to measure the output and outcomes. Theory The paper builds on value adding management theories...... different European countries present a state of the art of theory and research on 12 value parameters, how to manage and measure each value, and to discuss the costs and benefits of typical FM and CREM interventions to enhance satisfaction, image, culture, health and safety, productivity, adaptability...... and models including the triplet input-throughput-output, a distinction between output, outcome and added value, the Plan-Do-Act-Check cycle, change management and performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach Literature review and a cross-chapter analysis of a forthcoming book, where authors from...

  12. Direct quantum process tomography via measuring sequential weak values of incompatible observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yosep; Kim, Yong-Su; Lee, Sang-Yun; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Cho, Young-Wook

    2018-01-15

    The weak value concept has enabled fundamental studies of quantum measurement and, recently, found potential applications in quantum and classical metrology. However, most weak value experiments reported to date do not require quantum mechanical descriptions, as they only exploit the classical wave nature of the physical systems. In this work, we demonstrate measurement of the sequential weak value of two incompatible observables by making use of two-photon quantum interference so that the results can only be explained quantum physically. We then demonstrate that the sequential weak value measurement can be used to perform direct quantum process tomography of a qubit channel. Our work not only demonstrates the quantum nature of weak values but also presents potential new applications of weak values in analyzing quantum channels and operations.

  13. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  14. Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in Scientific Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Antes, Alison L; Baldwin, Kari A; DuBois, James M

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work (VSW). This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work (e.g., truth and integrity) and more classic work values (e.g., security and prestige) in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career stage and research focus. We administered the VSW and a measure of global values to 203 NIH-funded investigators. Exploratory factor analyses suggest the delineation of eight VSW, including autonomy, research ethics, social impact, income, collaboration, innovation and growth, conserving relationships, and job security. These VSW showed predictable and distinct associations with global values. Implications of these findings for work on research integrity and scientific misconduct are discussed.

  15. Target values for nuclear material safeguards measurements - motivation or burden to operators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    The analytical determination of material streams and inventories plays an important part in those nuclear facilities called bulk-handling facilities in safeguards terminology. Reprocessing plants and mixed-oxide fabrication facilities are typical examples. With respect to their safeguards, the relevant regulations attach fundamental importance to material accountancy. The balance itself is examined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors and within the boundaries of the European Communities by Euratom inspectors as well, with regard to formal correctness. The analytical methods of accountancy in, for example, reprocessing plants, make high demands on the qualifications of the analyst. A conscientious analyst will, of course, try to fulfill his task as well and effectively as possible. These target values will become a burden, however, when they have been drawn up for purely scientific interest and the operator has been urged to achieve them on the pretext of improving safeguards. There are basically two reasons for which the authors have misgivings in this respect. First, the measurement system, which the material balance is based on, has to conform to the latest international regulations. This could easily lead to a permanent obligation of updating for the plants concerned. Second, the goal quantities set by the IAEA will induce an attempt to adjust measurement techniques and chemical analysis to goals totally unsuitable for large-scale plants

  16. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P

    1999-01-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials...

  17. Energy- and value added services in the electric power market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsson, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report tries to give a comprehensive picture of the offerings of energy- and value added services on the deregulated Swedish electric power market. A compilation of the service offerings from some 50 electric utilities is given. Market movements within deregulated sectors are treated with special emphasis on the electric power business

  18. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  19. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Wang, Mei; Lu, Li; Chen, Bo; Jin, Lixin; Wang, Jiandong; Larson, Andrew C.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  1. Could dark energy be measured in the lab?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The experimentally measured spectral density of current noise in Josephson junctions provides direct evidence for the existence of zero-point fluctuations. Assuming that the total vacuum energy associated with these fluctuations cannot exceed the presently measured dark energy of the universe, we predict an upper cutoff frequency of ν c =(1.69+/-0.05)x10 12 Hz for the measured frequency spectrum of zero-point fluctuations in the Josephson junction. The largest frequencies that have been reached in the experiments are of the same order of magnitude as ν c and provide a lower bound on the dark energy density of the universe. It is shown that suppressed zero-point fluctuations above a given cutoff frequency can lead to 1/f noise. We propose an experiment which may help to measure some of the properties of dark energy in the lab

  2. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  3. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  4. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  5. Measurements of energy losses, distributions of energy loss and additivity of energy losses for 50 to 150 keV protons in hydrogen and nine hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    Measurements of energy-loss distributions were made for 51, 102, and 153 keV protons traversing hydrogen, methane, ethyne (acetylene), ethene (ethylene), ethane, propyne (methyl acetylene), propadiene (allene), propene (propylene), cyclopropane and propane. The objectives were to test the theories of energy-loss distribution in this energy range and to see if the type of carbon bonding in a hydrocarbon molecule affects the shape of the distribution. Stopping powers and stopping cross sections were also measured at these energies and at 76.5 and 127.5 keV to determine effects of chemical binding. All of the measurements were made at the gas density required to give a 4 percent energy loss. The mean energy, second central moment (a measure of the width of the distribution), and the third central moment (a measure of the skew) were calculated from the measured energy-loss distributions. Stopping power values, calculated using the mean energy, compared reasonably well with those calculated from the Bethe stopping power theory. For the second and third central moments, the best agreement between measurement and theory was when the classical scattering probability was used for the calculations, but even these did not agree well. In all cases, variations were found in the data that could be correlated to the type of carbon binding in the molecule. The differences were statistically significant at a 99 percent confidence interval for the stopping powers and second central moments measured with 51 keV protons. Similar trends were noted at other energies and for the third central moment, but the differences were not statistically significant at the 99 percent confidence interval

  6. Measured performance of 12 demonstation projects - IEA Task 13 "advanced solar low energy buildings"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Poel, Bart

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from measurements and experiences gained from interviews on 12 advanced solar low energy houses designed and built as part of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme – Task 13. Three years after the IEA Task 13 formally ended, the results were collected...... climate conditions are compared and differences explained. Special innovative installations and systems are de-scribed and evaluated. In general the measured energy consumption was higher than the expected values due to user influence and unforeseen technical problems but still an energy saving of 60...

  7. Value, Impact, and the Transcendent Library: Progress and Pressures in Performance Measurement and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Libraries are under pressure to prove their worth and may not have achieved this fully successfully. There is a resultant growing requirement for value and impact measurement in academic and research libraries. This essay reviews the natural history of library performance measurement and suggests that proof of worth will be measured by the…

  8. On the interplay between distortion, mean value and Haezendonck-Goovaerts risk measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Linders, D.; van Weert, K.; Tank, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the actuarial research, distortion, mean value and Haezendonck-Goovaerts risk measures are concepts that are usually treated separately. In this paper we indicate and characterize the relation between these different risk measures, as well as their relation to convex risk measures. While it is

  9. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  10. Reporting on Long-Term Value Creation—The Example of Public Canadian Energy and Mining Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra F. A. Dilling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzes reporting on long-term value creation for Canadian public mining and energy companies. It represents an important first step in determining the quality of reporting and its determinants for large public companies. In this exploratory empirical study, a reporting quality scoring index was developed to measure disclosure quality of long-term value creation reporting. Content analysis was used to examine financial and sustainability reports for a sample of twenty Canadian public mining and energy companies. Corporate disclosure quality scores were then calculated by assessing the quality of reporting in four main categories. The findings suggest that overall disclosure quality on long-term value creation is still low. Companies disclosing higher quality information on long-term value creation are of bigger size, operate in the basic materials sector, have an independent board, are listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, experience higher stock volatility and use more words related to long-term value creation in their annual financial and non-financial reports. In order to increase and restore stakeholder trust and credibility as well as a tool to maintain stability, it is strongly recommended to introduce adequate mandatory standardization resulting in a set of internationally recognized reporting standards as well as a requirement for external assurance of reports.

  11. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  12. Patients’ perceived value of pharmacy quality measures: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a

  13. 7 key measures for France to enter energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Vandaele, Diane; Richard, Marion; Fink, Meike; Quirion, Philippe; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berthier, Julien; Mossalgue, Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Lenoir, Didier; Vormus, Joel; Charru, Madeleine; Claustre, Raphael; Mathis, Paul; Gauthier, Raphaelle; Couturier, Christian; Mijeon, Charlotte; Gavand, Karine; Majnoni d'Intignano, Sophia; Delcroix, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this report propose, describe and discuss seven measures to be taken to promote and support energy transition in France: to introduce a climate-energy contribution, to adopt a law for a progressive and complete nuclear phasing out, to set local communities at the heart of energy transition, to introduce a mandatory thermal renewal of existing buildings, to develop a less greenhouse gas emitter agricultural model, to enter into a low-carbon and energy efficient transport infrastructure scheme, and to plan the struggle against urban sprawl at the scale of the living area

  14. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  15. The role of energy advisors on adoption of energy efficiency measures in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. Currently, all municipalities offer energy advisers' service. The success of such service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in 2008 summer. We found that majority of owners' of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had actually contacted energy advisers. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy adviser service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  16. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  17. Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat

    1996-12-01

    In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)

  18. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  19. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  20. Fair Value Measurement under IFRS 13: A Faithful Representation of Real-World Economic Phenomena?

    OpenAIRE

    Palea Vera; Maino Renato

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss IFRS 13 with regard to private equity valuation We raise issues on the fair value definition as an exit price and question the reliability of valuation techniques which are categorized into Level 2 fair value hierarchy. Our paper questions whether fair value as defined by IFRS 13 is an appropriate measure for private equities and can contribute to enhancing transparency and comparability in financial statements, which is one of the purposes of the IASB and the Europe...

  1. Why do we buy luxury experiences?: Measuring value perceptions of luxury hospitality services

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Anna S.; Yang, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The luxury segment of the hospitality industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decade. Unfortunately, the notion of perceived luxury values has received scant attention, and there is a lack of a valid framework to capture consumers' value perceptions in the context of luxury hospitality services. Using luxury restaurant as an example of luxury hospitality services, this paper aims to establish the structure of luxury hospitality values and their measures and to inve...

  2. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  3. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, IM; Bots, ML; Hofman, A; del Sol, AI; van der Kuip, DAM; Witteman, JCM

    2004-01-01

    Background - Several noninvasive methods are available to investigate the severity of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease. No population- based study has yet examined whether differences exist between these measures with regard to their predictive value for myocardial infarction (MI) or whether a

  4. Compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs. The properties included in this...

  5. Prognostic Value of Serial ST2 Measurements in Patients With Acute Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vark, Laura C.; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Baart, Sara J.; Postmus, Douwe; Pinto, Yigal M.; Orsel, Joke G.; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Brunner-la Rocca, Hans P.; van Miltenburg, Addy J. M.; Boersma, Eric; Hillege, Hans L.; Akkerhuis, K. Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Several clinical studies have evaluated the association between ST2 and outcome in patients with heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the predictive value of frequently measured ST2 levels in patients with acute HF. This study sought to describe the prognostic value of baseline and

  6. Stability of Teacher Value-Added Rankings across Measurement Model and Scaling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Bovaird, James A.; Wu, ChaoRong

    2017-01-01

    Value-added assessment methods have been criticized by researchers and policy makers for a number of reasons. One issue includes the sensitivity of model results across different outcome measures. This study examined the utility of incorporating multivariate latent variable approaches within a traditional value-added framework. We evaluated the…

  7. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  8. Measurement and analysis of leakage neutron energy spectra around the Kinki University Reactor, UTR-KINKI

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Y; Sagawa, H; Tsujimoto, T

    2002-01-01

    The highly sensitive cylindrical multi-moderator type neutron spectrometer was constructed for measurement of low level environmental neutrons. This neutron spectrometer was applied for the determination of leakage neutron energy spectra around the Kinki University Reactor. The analysis of the leakage neutron energy spectra was performed by MCNP Monte Carlo code. From the obtained results, the agreement between the MCNP predictions and the experimentally determined values is fairly good, which indicates the MCNP model is correctly simulating the UTR-KINKI.

  9. Determination of extra-push energies for fusion from differential fission cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Kapoor, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between values of extra-push energies for fusion of two heavy nuclei derived through measurements of fusion evaporation residue cross sections and of differential fission cross sections have been reported by Keller et al. We show here that with the inclusion of the recently proposed preequilibrium fission decay channel in the analysis, there is no inconsistency between the two sets of data in terms of the deduced extra-push energies

  10. A new inductive method for measuring the RRR-value of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Boudigou, Y.; Heuveline, S.; Jacques, E.; Jaidane, S.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    A new method for measuring the RRR-value of niobium is presented. The principle of the measurement uses low frequency induction in a niobium sheet placed close to a pair of coils. In contrast with the usual resistive method, the present one gives information on the local value of the RRR, with a spatial resolution of the order of 1 cm. In addition, it is non destructive, thus opening the way to mapping RRR measurements on cavities. This tool will permit the measure of RRR inhomogeneities in cavities due to sheet forming or heat treatments, and the systematic check of the quality of weld seams. (author)

  11. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  12. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  13. Finite element approximation for time-dependent diffusion with measure-valued source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidman, T.; Gobbert, M.; Trott, D.; Kružík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-723 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : measure-valued source * diffusion equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-finite element approximation for time - dependent diffusion with measure-valued source.pdf

  14. Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaj, A.S.; James, P.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Social housing offers an alternative for low-to-medium income families and keyworkers (teachers, nurses, and police). In the United Kingdom (UK), this fairly priced, rental accommodation is normally owned by housing associations. This paper explores urban energy generation (micro-generation) focussing on photovoltaics (PV) and how its generated electricity can be used to provide added value in terms of demand reduction and contribute to a reduction in fuel poverty. It presents the results associated from in-depth monitoring of nine low-energy social housing units equipped with PV systems commissioned in 2004 in the South of England, UK. We report on energy load profiles and relate these to occupier behaviour and any changes in consumption that occur. The results highlight the impact of micro-generation showing a close correlation between occupant behaviour and energy consumption. Increased energy awareness can lead to changes in the way energy is used, reducing overall consumption but 'education' must be sustained to ensure long-term energy reductions. The financial benefit of operating high demand electrical appliances at the peak of the solar day as opposed to in the evening when overall demand on the central grid is higher is highlighted. The paper also draws conclusions allied to the challenges that PV micro-generation technology presents in the social housing context. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro /MWh up to over 100 Euro /MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro /MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro /MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved

  17. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  18. Measuring energy poverty in Japan, 2004–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okushima, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan from 2004 to 2013, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs various poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also employs a new decomposition technique and identifies the explanatory factors associated with the increase in energy poverty. These results suggest there were major changes in the forces driving the increase in energy poverty before and after the GEJE. After 2011, income alleviates energy poverty in Japan, with energy prices becoming the main driving factor. - Highlights: • This study is the first evaluation of energy poverty in Japan by unique microdata. • Focus on the period of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima accident. • Shows the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households. • Identifies factors accounting for the changes in energy poverty by decomposition. • Major changes in the explanatory factors before and after the Fukushima accident.

  19. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  20. Wind energy development and perceived real estate values in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Walker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on public concerns about real estate value loss in communities in the vicinity of wind turbines. There are some conflicting results in recent academic and non-academic literatures on the issue of property values in general—yet little has been studied about how residents near turbines view the value of their own properties. Using both face-to-face interviews (n = 26 and community survey results (n = 152 from two adjacent communities, this exploratory mixed-method study contextualizes perceived property value loss. Interview results suggest a potential connection between perceived property value loss and actual property value loss, whereby assumed property degradation from turbines seem to lower both asking and selling prices. This idea is reinforced by regression results which suggest that felt property value loss is predicted by health concerns, visual annoyances and community-based variables. Overall, the findings point to the need for greater attention to micro-level local, and interconnected impacts of wind energy development.

  1. On the Dielectric Constant for Acetanilide: Experimental Measurements and Effect on Energy Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careri, G.; Compatangelo, E.; Christiansen, P. L.; Halding, J.; Skovgaard, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the dielectric constant for crystalline acetanilide powder for temperatures ranging from - 140°C to 20°C and for different hydration levels are presented. A Davydov-soliton computer model predicts dramatic changes in the energy transport and storage for typically increased values of the dielectric constant.

  2. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  3. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  4. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  5. Measurement invariance of the Portrait Values Questionnaire across 25 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Measurement characteristics are compared across representative consumer samples from 25 European countries (total N = 37,592) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest....... Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi......-circumplex hypothesised by the theory of basic human values....

  6. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A.; Rose, Mark; Simon, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to ±15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F DN ), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 × 3 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F DN was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F DN was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  7. Linking Quality and Spending to Measure Value for People with Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Phillip E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Healthcare payment is rapidly evolving to reward value by measuring and paying for quality and spending performance. Rewarding value for the care of seriously ill patients presents unique challenges. Objective: To evaluate the state of current efforts to measure and reward value for the care of seriously ill patients. Design: We performed a PubMed search of articles related to (1) measures of spending for people with serious illness and (2) linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness. We limited our search to U.S.-based studies published in English between January 1, 1960, and March 31, 2017. We supplemented this search by identifying public programs and other known initiatives that linked quality and spending for the seriously ill and extracted key program elements. Results: Our search related to linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness yielded 277 articles. We identified three current public programs that currently link measures of quality and spending—or are likely to within the next few years—the Oncology Care Model; the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Model; and Home Health Value-Based Purchasing. Models that link quality and spending consist of four core components: (1) measuring quality, (2) measuring spending, (3) the payment adjustment model, and (4) the linking/incentive model. We found that current efforts to reward value for seriously ill patients are targeted for specific patient populations, do not broadly encourage the use of palliative care, and have not closely aligned quality and spending measures related to palliative care. Conclusions: We develop recommendations for policymakers and stakeholders about how measures of spending and quality can be balanced in value-based payment programs. PMID:29091529

  8. Analysis of PV system's values beyond energy - by country and stakeholder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme and PV-Up-Scale analyses, identifies, evaluates and quantifies the major values and benefits of urban scale photovoltaics (PV) based on country and stakeholder specifics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The values evaluated and quantified in this report are categorised under the following groups: Avoiding fossil fuels, environmental benefits, benefits for electric utilities, industry development and employment benefits and the customer's individual benefits. The relevance of PV to meeting peak demand is discussed, as are the benefits for architects and building developers.

  9. Freezing and extreme-value statistics in a random energy model with logarithmically correlated potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We investigate some implications of the freezing scenario proposed by Carpentier and Le Doussal (CLD) for a random energy model (REM) with logarithmically correlated random potential. We introduce a particular (circular) variant of the model, and show that the integer moments of the partition function in the high-temperature phase are given by the well-known Dyson Coulomb gas integrals. The CLD freezing scenario allows one to use those moments for extracting the distribution of the free energy in both high- and low-temperature phases. In particular, it yields the full distribution of the minimal value in the potential sequence. This provides an explicit new class of extreme-value statistics for strongly correlated variables, manifestly different from the standard Gumbel class. (fast track communication)

  10. Freezing and extreme-value statistics in a random energy model with logarithmically correlated potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyodorov, Yan V [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG72RD (United Kingdom); Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe [Science and Finance, Capital Fund Management 6-8 Bd Haussmann, 75009 Paris (France)

    2008-09-19

    We investigate some implications of the freezing scenario proposed by Carpentier and Le Doussal (CLD) for a random energy model (REM) with logarithmically correlated random potential. We introduce a particular (circular) variant of the model, and show that the integer moments of the partition function in the high-temperature phase are given by the well-known Dyson Coulomb gas integrals. The CLD freezing scenario allows one to use those moments for extracting the distribution of the free energy in both high- and low-temperature phases. In particular, it yields the full distribution of the minimal value in the potential sequence. This provides an explicit new class of extreme-value statistics for strongly correlated variables, manifestly different from the standard Gumbel class. (fast track communication)

  11. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  12. Effect of measurement conditions on three-dimensional roughness values, and development of measurement standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, A; Brenier, B; Raynaud, S

    2011-01-01

    Friction or corrosion behaviour, fatigue lifetime for mechanical components are influenced by their boundary and subsurface properties. The surface integrity is studied on mechanical component in order to improve the service behaviour of them. Roughness is one of the main geometrical properties, which is to be qualified and quantified. Components can be obtained using a complex process: forming, machining and treatment can be combined to realize parts with complex shape. Then, three-dimensional roughness is needed to characterize these parts with complex shape and textured surface. With contact or non-contact measurements (contact stylus, confocal microprobe, interferometer), three-dimensional roughness is quantified using the calculation of pertinent parameters defined by the international standard PR EN ISO 25178-2:2008. An analysis will identify the influence of measurement conditions on three-dimensional parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the variation of roughness results using contact stylus or optical apparatus. The second aim of this work is to develop a measurement standard well adapted to qualify the contact and non-contact apparatus.

  13. Hepatic stiffness measurement by using MR elastography: prognostic values after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Bun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate prognostic value of hepatic stiffness (HS) measurement using MR elastography (MRE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by hepatic resection (HR). We enrolled 144 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCCs initially treated by HR who underwent preoperative liver MRE between January 2010 and June 2013. HS values were measured using MRE. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine significant predictive factors for posthepatecomy liver failure (PHLF). Overall survival (OS) was analyzed by evaluating prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model. After HR, 43 patients (29.9 %) experienced PHLF. HS values were significant predictive factors for PHLF. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve of HS was 0.740 (P = 0.001) for PHLF. Thirty-one patients had HS values ≥ 4.02 kPa; the estimated 1, 3, 5-year survival were 90.0 %, 74.7 % and 65.4 %, respectively, versus 98.1 %, 96.5 % and 96.5 % in 113 patients with HS values < 4.02 kPa (P = 0.015). An HS value ≥ 4.02 kPa was the only significant affecting factor for OS. HS values measured by MRE could predict PHLF development post-HR. Furthermore, an HS value ≥4.02 kPa was a significant predicting factor for poor OS post-HR. (orig.)

  14. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  15. Measuring the Value of New Drugs: Validity and Reliability of 4 Value Assessment Frameworks in the Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tanya G K; Cohen, Joshua T; Elkin, Elena B; Huynh, Julie; Mukherjea, Arnab; Neville, Thanh H; Mei, Matthew; Copher, Ronda; Knoth, Russell; Popescu, Ioana; Lee, Jackie; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Broder, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Several organizations have developed frameworks to systematically assess the value of new drugs. To evaluate the convergent validity and interrater reliability of 4 value frameworks to understand the extent to which these tools can facilitate value-based treatment decisions in oncology. Eight panelists used the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) frameworks to conduct value assessments of 15 drugs for advanced lung and breast cancers and castration-refractory prostate cancer. Panelists received instructions and published clinical data required to complete the assessments, assigning each drug a numeric or letter score. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance for Ranks (Kendall's W) was used to measure convergent validity by cancer type among the 4 frameworks. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to measure interrater reliability for each framework across cancers. Panelists were surveyed on their experiences. Kendall's W across all 4 frameworks for breast, lung, and prostate cancer drugs was 0.560 (P= 0.010), 0.562 (P = 0.010), and 0.920 (P fair to excellent, increasing with clinical benefit subdomain concordance and simplicity of drug trial data. Interrater reliability, highest for ASCO and ESMO, improved with clarity of instructions and specificity of score definitions. Continued use, analyses, and refinements of these frameworks will bring us closer to the ultimate goal of using value-based treatment decisions to improve patient care and outcomes. This work was funded by Eisai Inc. Copher and Knoth are employees of Eisai Inc. Bentley, Lee, Zambrano, and Broder are employees of Partnership for Health Analytic Research, a health services research company paid by Eisai Inc. to conduct this research. For this study, Cohen, Huynh, and Neville report fees from Partnership for Health Analytic Research

  16. Transcutaneous oximetry measurements of the leg: comparing different measuring equipment and establishing values in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Tobias P; Blake, Denise F; Young, Derelle A; Thistlethwaite, Ken; Vangaveti, Venkat N

    2017-06-01

    Transcutaneous oximetry measurement (TCOM) is a non-invasive method of determining oxygen tension at the skin level using heated electrodes. To compare TCOM values generated by different machines and to establish lower limb TCOM values in a cohort of healthy individuals younger than 40 years of age. Sixteen healthy, non-smoking volunteers aged 18 to 39 years were recruited. TCOM was obtained at six locations on the lower leg and foot using three different Radiometer machines. Measurements were taken with subjects lying supine, breathing air. Except for one sensor site, there were no statistical differences in measurements obtained by the different TCOM machines. There was no statistical difference in measurements comparing left and right legs. Room air TCOM values for the different lower leg sites were (mean (SD) in mmHg): lateral leg 61.5 (9.2); lateral ankle 61.1 (9.7); medial ankle 59.1 (10.8); foot, first and second toe 63.4 (10.6); foot, fifth toe 59.9 (13.2) and plantar foot 74.1 (8.8). The overall mean TCOM value for the lower limb was 61 (10.8; 95% confidence intervals 60.05-62.0) mmHg. Lower-leg TCOM measurements using different Radiometer TCOM machines were comparable. Hypoxia has been defined as lower-leg TCOM values of less than 40 mmHg in non-diabetic patients and this is supported by our measurements. The majority (96.9%) of the lower leg TCOM values in healthy young adults are above the hypoxic threshold.

  17. The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K.; Babusci, D.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements

  18. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  19. The value of co-locating energy storage with wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the value of wind energy storage systems. The systems can be used to downsize transmission requirements and to minimize reliability and forecast uncertainty. Revenue factors in relation to wind power energy storage are determined by the amount of wind power produced each hour with the wind farm capacity and hourly electricity price. Case studies of a wind farm in Ontario over a period of 20 years were used to determine capacity and revenue factors as well as gross revenues. The maximum revenue factor was determined by multiplying the greatest wind energy output by the highest electricity prices. A hybrid wind farm energy storage system was designed to determine energy storage discharges and charges to and from the grid at pool prices. The method allowed for time-shifts in wind generation resources and downsized transmission requirements for remote resources. The mixed integer linear program model co-optimized revenues from the wind farm and the energy storage facility. Combined output was constrained to the transmission capacity. Transmission losses were neglected, and capital costs were considered. Future studies are needed to determine levelized electricity costs under different load growth scenarios. tabs., figs.

  20. The value of energy storage in South Korea’s electricity market: A Hotelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia; Kleit, Andrew; Cho, Joohyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate lifetime economic potential for energy arbitrage in South Korea. • We simulate lifetime energy flows and profits for small price-taking NaS and Li-ion batteries. • We devise optimal battery operating strategy using Hotelling’s depletion rule. • Cumulative profits depend on intraday price differences and social discount rate. • At current electricity prices, neither battery generates enough arbitrage revenue to offset capital costs. - Abstract: In this study we evaluate the economic potential for energy arbitrage by simulating operation and resulting profits of a small price-taking storage device in South Korea’s electricity market. As demand for electricity continues to grow, maintaining a balanced power system at all times has become more challenging in Korea and other developed nations. Along with demand response programs and increased renewable energy utilization, energy storage devices may provide a viable way to contribute to diurnal peak demand shaving. In some parts of the U.S. storage arbitrage has proven to be profitable. Treating a battery’s ability to charge and discharge as a scarce resource, we apply the Hotelling (1931) rule to determine a strategy for maximizing the value of the battery. Results show that present market conditions in South Korea do not provide sufficient economic incentives for energy arbitrage using sodium–sulfur (NaS) or lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, with the capital cost of the storage devices exceeding potential revenues

  1. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  2. Measuring the added value of workplace change. Comparison between Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Worldwide organisations have introduced more flexibility in place, time and ways of working. In order to be able to define the added value of workplace change, a clear performance measurement system is needed to measure organisational performance in connection to real estate before and

  3. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources.

  4. Free energy and plaquette expectation value for gluons on the lattice, in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, H.; Skouroupathis, A.; Tsapalis, A.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the perturbative value of the free energy in lattice QCD in three dimensions, up to three loops. Our calculation is performed using the Wilson formulation for gluons in SU(N) gauge theories. The free energy is directly related to the average plaquette. To carry out the calculation, we compute the coefficients involved in the perturbative expansion of the Free Energy up to three loops, using an automated set of procedures developed by us in Mathematica. The dependence on N is shown explicitly in our results. For purposes of comparison, we also present the individual contributions from every diagram. These have been obtained by means of two independent calculations, in order to cross check our results

  5. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources

  6. Pion minus energy measurement by a multilayer semiconductor spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Lapushkin, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for determining π - meson energy by a laminated semiconductor spectrometer is described. Results of experimental test of the technique carried out using beams of meson track of the JINR synchrocyclotron and three Si(Li) detectors are given. A specific feature of the technique is that chi 2 criterium with a functional written through exact thicknesses of semiconductor detectors was used for separating events with disturbance of ionization dependence and determining particle energy. It is shown that the absolute resolution can be not worse than 0.5 MeV in a wide energy range. It is concluded that the technique suggested is suitable for measuring energy of any charged particles with indefinite energy release during stoppage [ru

  7. Alpha-particle energy spectra measured at forward angles in heavy-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcea, C.; Cierlic, E.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    1980-01-01

    Energy spectra have been measured for α-particles emitted in the bombardment of 159 Tb, 181 Ta, 197 Au, and 232 Th nuclei by 20 Ne, 22 Ne, and 40 Ar projectiles. The reaction products emitted in the angular range (0+-2)deg relative to the beam direction were analyzed using a magnetic spectrometer and detected by means of a semiconductor ΔE-E telescope. It was found that in all cases the experimentally measured maximum α-particle energy almost amounts to the maximum possible value calculated from the reaction energy balance for a two-body exit channel. A correlation was found between the measured absolute cross section in different target-projectile combinations and the α-particle binding energy in the target nuclei. On the basis of the obtained results a conclusion has been drawn that the α-particles are emitted in the early stage of the reaction

  8. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France - Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory. ADEME presents you a synthesis of this survey in this document

  9. Calculating p-values and their significances with the Energy Test for large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, W.; Burr, C.; Parkes, C.

    2018-04-01

    The energy test method is a multi-dimensional test of whether two samples are consistent with arising from the same underlying population, through the calculation of a single test statistic (called the T-value). The method has recently been used in particle physics to search for samples that differ due to CP violation. The generalised extreme value function has previously been used to describe the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis that the two samples are drawn from the same underlying population. We show that, in a simple test case, the distribution is not sufficiently well described by the generalised extreme value function. We present a new method, where the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis when comparing two large samples can be found by scaling the distribution found when comparing small samples drawn from the same population. This method can then be used to quickly calculate the p-values associated with the results of the test.

  10. A scheme of quantum state discrimination over specified states via weak-value measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Dai, Hong-Yi; Liu, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The commonly adopted projective measurements are invalid in the specified task of quantum state discrimination when the discriminated states are superposition of planar-position basis states whose complex-number probability amplitudes have the same magnitude but different phases. Therefore we propose a corresponding scheme via weak-value measurement and examine the feasibility of this scheme. Furthermore, the role of the weak-value measurement in quantum state discrimination is analyzed and compared with one in quantum state tomography in this Letter.

  11. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  12. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  13. Purchasing-power-parity (PPP) approach to energy-efficiency measurement: implications for energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Fatih; Okogu, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The weaknesses of the traditional measure of national output are well known and, in recent years, efforts to find more appropriate alternatives have intensified. One such methodology is the PPP approach which may capture the real value of the GDP. In general, this approach raises the incomes of developing countries by a substantial amount, and this has serious implications for energy indicators on which policies are usually based. A further problem is that non-commercial energy is usually left out of energy-intensity calculations. We analyze the issue of energy-efficiency and carry out calculations based on three approaches: the traditional approach, the PPP-based income approach and an approach which includes non-commercial energy. The results confirm the limitations of using the PPP approach, as its results in a spuriously high energy-efficiency level suggesting high technological sophistication for developing countries. The inclusion of non-commercial energy gives more complete picture. The main conclusion is that applying the PPP method in energy-intensity calculations may be misleading. (Author)

  14. Applicability of International and DOE Target Values to ALD Destructive Measurement Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    International Target values and target value applicability are a function of the nuclear material processing campaign or application for which the accountability measurement method is being applied. Safeguarding significant quantities of nuclear-grade materials requires that accountability measurements be as accurate, precise, and representative as practically possible. In general, the ITV provides a benchmark for determining generic acceptability of the performance of the various accountability measurement methods, since it represents a performance level that is accepted as highly reliable. There are cases where it is acceptable to select alternative accountability methods not specifically referenced by the ITV, or to use the recognized measurement method, even though the uncertainties are greater than the target values

  15. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate

  16. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  17. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  19. On set-valued functionals: Multivariate risk measures and Aumann integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ararat, Cagin

    In this dissertation, multivariate risk measures for random vectors and Aumann integrals of set-valued functions are studied. Both are set-valued functionals with values in a complete lattice of subsets of Rm. Multivariate risk measures are considered in a general d-asset financial market with trading opportunities in discrete time. Specifically, the following features of the market are incorporated in the evaluation of multivariate risk: convex transaction costs modeled by solvency regions, intermediate trading constraints modeled by convex random sets, and the requirement of liquidation into the first m ≤ d of the assets. It is assumed that the investor has a "pure" multivariate risk measure R on the space of m-dimensional random vectors which represents her risk attitude towards the assets but does not take into account the frictions of the market. Then, the investor with a d-dimensional position minimizes the set-valued functional R over all m-dimensional positions that she can reach by trading in the market subject to the frictions described above. The resulting functional Rmar on the space of d-dimensional random vectors is another multivariate risk measure, called the market-extension of R. A dual representation for R mar that decomposes the effects of R and the frictions of the market is proved. Next, multivariate risk measures are studied in a utility-based framework. It is assumed that the investor has a complete risk preference towards each individual asset, which can be represented by a von Neumann-Morgenstern utility function. Then, an incomplete preference is considered for multivariate positions which is represented by the vector of the individual utility functions. Under this structure, multivariate shortfall and divergence risk measures are defined as the optimal values of set minimization problems. The dual relationship between the two classes of multivariate risk measures is constructed via a recent Lagrange duality for set optimization. In

  20. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  1. Measuring energy rebound effect in the Chinese economy: An economic accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the magnitude of China's economy-wide rebound effect has attracted much attention in recent years. Most existing studies measure the rebound effect through the additional energy consumption from technological progress. However, in general technological progress is not equivalent to energy efficiency improvement. Consequently, their estimation may be misleading. To overcome the limitation, this paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. Based on the proposed approach, China's economy-wide energy rebound effect is revisited. The empirical result shows that during the period 1981–2011 the rebound effects in China are between 30% and 40%, with an average value of 34.3%. - Highlights: • This paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. • The proposed approach is based on the multilevel–hierarchical (M–H) IDA model. • The energy rebound effects in China are estimated between 30% and 40%

  2. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given

  3. Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)

  4. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-12-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  5. Investigation of value and costs of wind energy in the electric system. Report - Final meeting, Paris, 30 January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document contains five Power Point presentations which respectively address: the values and costs of wind energy in the electric system (economic assessment of wind energy in the French electric system), the analysis principles and methods (economic assessment and comparison of two scenarios defined by six different parameters: consumption, energy price, wind energy deployment, evolution of the nuclear fleet, nuclear load factor, potential of demand side management), the analysis of the energy substitution value, the value analysis of the peak management, and the impact on infrastructures and system services

  6. Precision cosmological measurements: Independent evidence for dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, Greg; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Murray, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Using recent precision measurements of cosmological parameters, we re-examine whether these observations alone, independent of type Ia supernova surveys, are sufficient to imply the existence of dark energy. We find that best measurements of the age of the Universe t 0 , the Hubble parameter H 0 and the matter fraction Ω m strongly favor an equation of state defined by (w<-1/3). This result is consistent with the existence of a repulsive, acceleration-causing component of energy if the Universe is nearly flat

  7. Direct measurements of the Gibbs free energy of OH using a CW tunable laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, D. K.; Wang, C. C.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes an absorption measurement for determining the Gibbs free energy of OH generated in a mixture of water and oxygen vapor. These measurements afford a direct verification of the accuracy of thermochemical data of H2O at high temperatures and pressures. The results indicate that values for the heat capacity of H2O obtained through numerical computations are correct within an experimental uncertainty of 0.15 cal/mole K.

  8. Measurement of the antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross-section at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai-Khozani, H.; Bianconi, A.; Corradini, M.; Hayano, R.; Hori, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Murakami, Y.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Venturelli, L.; Yamada, H.

    2018-02-01

    Systematic measurements of the annihilation cross sections of low energy antinucleons were performed at CERN in the 80's and 90's. However the antiproton data on medium-heavy and heavy nuclear targets are scarce. The ASACUSA Collaboration at CERN has measured the antiproton annihilation cross section on carbon at 5.3 MeV: the value is (1.73 ± 0.25) barn. The result is compared with the antineutron experimental data and with the theoretical previsions.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... the final energy consumption value to a whole number as follows: (i) A fractional number at or above...

  10. Precision measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines and determination of neutron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braumandl, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper first discusses the energy accuracy of the BILL conversion electron spectrometer at the Grenoble high flux reactor. With an improved temperature stabilisation of the magnets, an energy accuracy of ΔE/E -5 can be reached. After this, highly exact measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines of the 200 Hg, 114 Cd, 165 Dy, 168 Er, 239 U nuclei and the 13 C, 28 Al 3 H and 92 Zr photoelectron lines were carried out. Energy calibration of the spectrometer was carried out in the 1.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV range with intensive high-energy transitions of the 200 Hg nucleus. Systematic calibration errors could be investigated by means of combinations between the calibration lines. A calibration for absolute energies was obtained by comparing low-energy gamma transitions of 200 Hg with the 411.8 keV gold standard. (orig.) [de

  11. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  12. The market value of energy efficiency: What have we learned? What do we still need to learn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Nevin, R.; Farhar, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) at the National Energy Renewable Laboratory (NREL) are investigating the market value of energy efficiency in residential homes. The demonstrated market value for energy efficiency is crucial to the success of EPA's ENERGY STAR Homes Program, providing market information to builders who are deciding whether to construct ENERGY STAR Homes, to lenders who may want to understand the performance of mortgages for energy-efficient homes, and to home owners seeking returns on additional investments in energy-efficient homes. The paper discusses the current dilemma facing the ENERGY STAR Homes Program and the need to demonstrate the value of energy efficiency. The paper presents a brief literature review of past studies on the market value of energy efficiency, as well as a recent analysis on the American Housing Survey. this study suggests that property values increase by $20 to $24 for every $1 reduction in annual fuel bill. Finally, the paper concludes with a summary of a joint research project between EPA and NREL on the market value of ENERGY STAR Homes, and the potential implications of this research

  13. Effective diffusion coefficients and porosity values for argillaceous rocks and bentonite: measured and estimated values for the provisional safety analyses for SGT-E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.R.

    2014-11-01

    In Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, safety analyses have to be performed. Geochemical parameters describing the transport and retardation of radionuclides in the argillaceous rocks considered and in compacted bentonite are required. In the present report, diffusion parameters for all clay host rocks, confining units and compacted bentonite are derived. Diffusion of tritiated water (HTO), "3"6Cl"- and "2"2Na"+ was studied. The measurements gave values for effective diffusion coefficients (D_e) and diffusion accessible porosities. The general observed trend "N"aD_e > "H"T"OD_e > "C"lD_e is in agreement with the expected behaviour of the three species in clay materials: ion exchanging cations show an enhanced mobility due to surface diffusion effects and anions are slowed down due to anion exclusion. Due to the negatively charged clay surfaces, anionic species are repelled from these surfaces resulting in an accessible porosity that is smaller than the total porosity as measured with HTO. The effect of porewater composition on the diffusion of HTO, "3"6Cl"- and "2"2Na"+ in Opalinus Clay was investigated. For ionic strength (IS) values between 0.17 M and 1.07 M, no significant effect on D_e could be observed. In the case of "3"6Cl"-, no effect on the accessible porosity was observed. The anion diffusion accessible porosity equals 50-60 % of the total porosity, independent on the ionic strength of the porewater. The diffusion parameters were measured on sedimentary rocks such as chalk, clay and limestone rocks. All data could be described by one single modified version of Archie's relation (extended Archie's relation). For values of porosity greater than about 0.1, the classical Archie's relation was valid. For values smaller than 0.1, the data deviated from the classical Archie's relation; this can be explained by additional changes of tortuosity with porosity values. At high porosity values (low density rocks), the microfabric of the clay

  14. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  15. A National Trial on Differences in Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Values by Measurement Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly M; Bader, Mary Kay; Livesay, Sarah; Yeager, Susan; Moran, Cristina; Barnes, Arianna; Harrison, Kimberly R; Olson, DaiWai M

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a key parameter in management of brain injury with suspected impaired cerebral autoregulation. CPP is calculated by subtracting intracranial pressure (ICP) from mean arterial pressure (MAP). Despite consensus on importance of CPP monitoring, substantial variations exist on anatomical reference points used to measure arterial MAP when calculating CPP. This study aimed to identify differences in CPP values based on measurement location when using phlebostatic axis (PA) or tragus (Tg) as anatomical reference points. The secondary study aim was to determine impact of differences on patient outcomes at discharge. This was a prospective, repeated measures, multi-site national trial. Adult ICU patients with neurological injury necessitating ICP and CPP monitoring were consecutively enrolled from seven sites. Daily MAP/ICP/CPP values were gathered with the arterial transducer at the PA, followed by the Tg as anatomical reference points. A total of 136 subjects were enrolled, resulting in 324 paired observations. There were significant differences for CPP when comparing values obtained at PA and Tg reference points (p Differences remained significant in repeated measures model when controlling for clinical factors (mean CPP-PA = 80.77, mean CPP-Tg = 70.61, p identified as adequate with PA values, yet inadequate with CPP values measured at the Tg. Findings identify numerical differences for CPP based on anatomical reference location and highlight importance of a standard reference point for both clinical practice and future trials to limit practice variations and heterogeneity of findings.

  16. Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries - Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    Various scholars argue that egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations are important for understanding environmental beliefs and behavior. However, little empirical evidence has been provided for the distinction between altruistic and biospheric values. This study examines whether this

  17. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  18. Value of spatial planning for large mining and energy complexes. [Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matko, Z; Spasic, N

    1982-01-01

    In the example of the Kosovo complex (Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslovia) an examination is made of the value of developing a spatial plan for the territory of large mining-energy complexes. The goals and expected results of spatial planning are discussed. The open method of working lignite, fuel shale and other fossil energy raw material fields at the modern level of development of technology, in addition to large-volume physical interferences in space, causes considerable structural changes of functional-economic, socioeconomic and psychological-sociological nature in the direct zone of influence of the mining-energy complex. Improvement in technology of working a lignite field does not guarantee in the near future any solutions in developing the mining-energy complexes, and therefore it is necessary to count on considerable volume of degradation of space which is governed by the existing technology. Under these conditions detailed planning and regulation of space is especially important, if one views them as a component part of long term policy for development of the mining energy complex and the zones of its influence.

  19. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p normal allele (p

  20. Measurement of high-energy electrons by means of a Cherenkov detector in ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: lech.Jjakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The paper concerns detectors of the Cherenkov radiation which can be used to measure high-energy electrons escaping from short-living plasma. Such detectors have high temporal (about 1 ns) and spatial (about 1 mm) resolution. The paper describes a Cherenkov-type detector which was designed, manufactured and installed in the ISTTOK tokamak in order to measure fast runaway electrons. The radiator of that detector was made of an aluminium nitride (AlN) tablet with a light-tight filter on its front surface. Cherenkov signals from the radiator were transmitted through an optical cable to a fast photomultiplier. It made possible to perform direct measurements of the runaway electrons of energy above 80 keV. The measured energy values and spatial characteristics of the recorded electrons appeared to be consistent with results of numerical modelling of the runaway electron generation process in the ISTTOK tokamak.